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					BERGEN - 01/04/2008
Ref. No.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
Rev.: 00




DRAFT REPORT


The Michelsen Centre CRI
Annual report 2007




Client                          Authors

The Research Council            Kjell-Eivind Frøysa, Per Lunde
of Norway
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 2 of 29




Document Info
Authors                                                                Classification

Kjell-Eivind Frøysa                                                    Open (A)
Per Lunde




Title

The Michelsen Centre CRI. Annual report 2007



Extract

Annual report for the Michelsen Centre (CRI).




Project Info
Client                                                                 Clients ref.

Research Council of Norway                                             Project no. 174846



CMR Project No.                                                        CMR Project Name

11000                                                                  Michelsen Centre




Revision
Rev.      Date            Author                 Checked by              Approved by            Reason for revision
00        01.04.2008      Kjell-Eivind Frøysa,   Per Lunde               Kjell-Eivind Frøysa    First version (draft)
                          Per Lunde




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                    The Michelsen Centre CRI                                                Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                                Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                        Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                                Page 3 of 29




Table of Contents
1        Summary ..................................................................................................................................4
2        Vision/goal ...............................................................................................................................5
3        Research Plan / Strategy.........................................................................................................6
4        Organization.............................................................................................................................7
4.1      Organization structure ...............................................................................................................7
4.2      Senior personnel .......................................................................................................................7
4.3      Partners .....................................................................................................................................9
4.4      Cooperation between the partners in the centre ........................................................................9
5        Scientific activities and results ............................................................................................10
5.1      Fiscal Flow Measurement ........................................................................................................10
5.2      Epsilon multiphase flow metering ............................................................................................15
5.3      Downhole ultrasonic camera....................................................................................................16
5.4      Seismic sensor coupling ..........................................................................................................16
5.5      Marine EM resistivity mapping .................................................................................................17
5.6      Fisheries program....................................................................................................................18
5.7      CO2 sensor ..............................................................................................................................19
6        International cooperation......................................................................................................21
7        Recruitment............................................................................................................................23
7.1      Scientific staff recruitment........................................................................................................23
7.2      PhD candidate recruitment ......................................................................................................23
8        Financial accounts ................................................................................................................25
9        Publications ...........................................................................................................................27
10       References .............................................................................................................................29




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 4 of 29




1               Summary
This report summarizes the first year of The Michelsen Centre CRI.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 5 of 29




2               Vision/goal
The Michelsen Centre for industrial measurement science and technology [1,2] represents an
interdisciplinary resource centre for petroleum, fisheries and the environment. It intends to be a key
player in the expansion of the industrial partners' technologies, and will participate in the development
of innovative solutions.

The Michelsen Centre will actively exploit technological synergies between petroleum, fisheries and
the environment that will lead to better economic performance and better use of natural resources as
well as mutual understanding in environmentally sensitive areas.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 6 of 29




3               Research Plan / Strategy
The Michelsen Centre will enable the already strong scientific and industrial groups in the Bergen
region to work together within advanced measurement science and technology in the development of
innovative solutions within the petroleum, fisheries and environmental sectors.

The Centre will focus on innovations for the following main application areas [1,2]:

     •    Oil and gas
              o Fiscal flow measurement
              o Multiphase flow measurement
              o Process monitoring and fluid analysis
              o Reservoir monitoring

     •    Fisheries and aquaculture
              o Measurement of fish catches, products and quality and marine instrumentation for
                  environmentally friendly and efficient fishing and fish farming

     •    Environmental monitoring
             o Oceanographic and meteorological instrumentation, including online monitoring in
                 polar and deep sea areas and monitoring of water and air quality
             o Environmental pollution management

A rough indication of distribution among the three industrial sectors may be 3/5 oil and gas, 1/5
fisheries and aquaculture and 1/5 environmental monitoring [1,2]. This may however change
depending on how the Centre develops and further expands in the three directions over the years.

Substantial benefits for all parties will arise due to the exploitation of the many synergies between
these fields.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 7 of 29




4               Organization

4.1             Organization structure
The Michelsen Centre CRI is a joint venture between Christian Michelsen Research AS (CMR), the
University of Bergen (UoB) and a number of other partners of the Centre, as specified in Section 4.3.
In 2007, a total of ten partners have participated in the Centre.

CMR is the host institution and administratively responsible institution for the Centre. CMR and UoB
have considerable overlap in their roles in the Centre. UoB is however the main responsibility for long-
term research and education/ training, whereas CMR's main responsibility is industrial research and
development.

Cato Bjelland, CMR, was manager of the Michelsen Centre in 2007. When he left his position at CMR
at the end of 2007, Kjell-Eivind Frøysa took his position as centre manager. Per Lunde (CMR, and
prof. II at UoB) is the assistant manager of the Michelsen Centre, and represents the University of
Bergen.

The board of the Michelsen Centre was in 2007 as follows:

     •    Arvid Nøttvedt, CMR (chairman of the board)
     •    Geir Anton Johansen, UoB (co-chairman)
     •    Eivind Dykesteen, Roxar
     •    Helge Minken, Aanderaa Data Instruments (AADI)
     •    Skule Smørgrav, FMC Technologies

In the CRI meeting of December 12, 2007, Arne Ulrik Bindingsbø, StatoilHydro, was elected as board
member in addition to the then existing members. Thus, the board for 2008 is as follows:

     •    Arvid Nøttvedt, CMR (chairman of the board)
     •    Geir Anton Johansen, UoB (co-chairman)
     •    Eivind Dykesteen, Roxar
     •    Helge Minken, AADI
     •    Skule Smørgrav, FMC Technologies
     •    Arne Ulrik Bindingsbø, StatoilHydro

The contract between the Research Council of Norway and CMR [3], and agreements between CMR
and each of the other partners of the centre [4], regulate the work under the Centre.

The contract between the Research Council of Norway and CMR [3] is presently under revision, to
account for StatoilHydro as a new partner in the Centre (joined in October 2007).




4.2             Senior personnel
The following senior personnel have been involved in the Michelsen Center in 2007:

CMR Instrumentation:
  • Cato Bjelland
  • Per Lunde
  • Kjell-Eivind Frøysa


The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 8 of 29




     •    Marie Bueie Holstad
     •    David Peddie
     •    Jon Oddvar Hellevang
     •    Jan Kocbach
     •    Andrew Baker

The University of Bergen:
   • Geir Anton Johansen
   • Halvor Hobæk
   • Magne Vestrheim
   • Bjørn Tore Hjertaker
   • Per Lunde
   • Ole Brix
   • Truls Johannessen
   • Tanja Bartth
   • Petter Haugan

Bergen University College:
   • Lars E. Berg

FMC Technologies:
  • Skule Smørgrav
  • Ed Otto
  • Atle Abrahamsen

Roxar:
   • Morten Brandt
   • Eivind Dykesteen
   • Christian Skre

Aanderaa Data Instruments:
   • Helge Minken

MMC Tendos:
  • Leif Gjelseth

Seadrill/SeaWell:
   • Dag Terje Svendsen
   • Ronny Johnsen

CGG Veritas:
  • Cristophe Massacand
  • Michel Manin

StatoilHydro:
    • Arne Ulrik Bindingsbø
    • Stein Olav Drange
    • Gudmund Per Olsen




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 9 of 29




4.3             Partners
In 2007, the partners in the centre have been:

     •    Christian Michelsen Research AS (CMR)

     •    The University of Bergen (UoB)
             o Department of Physics and Technology (IFT)
             o Geophysical Institute (GEO)
             o Department of Biology (BIO)
             o Department of Chemistry (KI)

     •    Bergen University College (BUC)

     •    Aanderaa Data Instruments (AADI)

     •    CGGVeritas

     •    FMC Technologies

     •    MMC Tendos

     •    Roxar

     •    Seadrill (now named Seawell)

     •    StatoilHydro (from October 2007)

     •    The Research Council of Norway (NFR)




4.4             Cooperation between the partners in the centre
The projects under the Centre started up with a single industrial partner involved in each of the
projects, in an understanding with the Research Council of Norway. One reason for this arrangement
has been IPR related issues. When StatoilHydro joined the Centre in October 2007, their
contributions for 2007 were invested in the ongoing projects.

Synergies in the basic technologies between the various projects are definitely present, and of interest
for the partners. In the CRI meeting on December 12, 2007, with representatives from all the Centre
partners, the various projects were presented and discussed. A more close cooperation between the
partners, with exploitation of technology synergies, was discussed initially in that meeting, and will be
a further issue in 2008.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 10 of 29




5               Scientific activities and results
The scientific activity in the centre was in 2007 organized in 7 projects, cf. Table 5.1.

Each of the 7 projects was financed by a NFR grant sum (cash), a StatoilHydro grant sum (cash), a
CMR in-kind contribution sum, a UoB in-kind contribution sum, and the industry partner in-kind
contribution sum (financing own work). Cf. Chapter 8 (Tables 8.1 – 8.3) for details.

The scientific activities and results of the 7 projects are described in the following.

Table 5.1. Organization of the Michelsen Centre in R&D areas, programs and projects for 2007, with the partners involved.
Area                  Program                                   Projects (2007)                                    Partners

Petroleum             Fiscal flow measurement                   Fiscal flow measurement                            CMR
                                                                                                                   UoB-IFT
                                                                                                                   FMC
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro
                      Multiphase measurement oil                Epsilon multiphase flow metering                   CMR
                      and gas                                                                                      UoB-KI
                                                                                                                   UoB-IFT
                                                                                                                   Roxar
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro
                      Process monitoring and fluid              Downhole ultrasonic camera                         CMR
                      analysis                                                                                     Seawell
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro
                      Reservoir monitoring                      Seismic sensor coupling                            CMR
                                                                Marine EM resistivity mapping                      CGG Veritas
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro
Fisheries and         Fisheries and                             Fisheries program                                  CMR
aquaculture           aquaculture                                                                                  UoB-BIO
                                                                                                                   MMC Tendos
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro
Environmental         Environmental                             CO2 sensor                                         CMR
Monitoring            Monitoring                                                                                   UoB-GEO
                                                                                                                   UoB-BIO
                                                                                                                   AADI
                                                                                                                   StatoilHydro




5.1             Fiscal Flow Measurement
The Fiscal Flow Measurement program [5] is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI
partners, cf. Table 5.1:

• CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
• The Acoustic group at the University of Bergen, Dept. of physics and technology (for convenience
  referred to as UoB-IFT here).
• FMC Technologies, represented by FMC Kongsberg Metering (Norway) and FMC Smith Meter
  (USA) (for convenience referred to as FMC here).
• StatoilHydro.

In 2004 the total export of petroleum from the NCS was 264 million Sm3 oil equivalents. For the
Norwegian state, taxes, charges and direct ownership related to this export represented a net cash



The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 11 of 29




flow of 208.3 billion NOK, or 28 % of the state's total incomes. Fiscal (sales) metering of these large
volumes of oil and gas requires highly accurate instruments. A small measurement error can easily
translate into a large sum of money for the state and petroleum industry.
Norway is today among the international leaders within fiscal flow measurement. It is strategically
important for Norway to remain in that position, to possess the necessary technology competence,
and to participate in the international discussions and formulation of standards, regulations and
procedures. Otherwise, others will dominate the formulation of standards, etc., without real possibilities
for Norway to influence on the decisions in this economically vital area for the nation.

Measurement of the amount of oil and gas exported from one country to another, or allocated between
partners in a license, is made in fiscal metering stations. In 2004 the total export of petroleum from
the Norwegian continental shelf was 264 million Sm3 oil equivalents. For the Norwegian state, taxes,
charges and direct ownership related to this export represented a net cash flow of 208.3 billion NOK,
or 28 % of the state's total incomes. Fiscal (sales) metering of these large volumes of oil and gas
requires highly accurate instruments. A small measurement error can easily translate into a large sum
of money for the state and the petroleum industry. In gas
metering stations the required uncertainty is typically ±(0.7-
1.4) % of the measured value (at 95 % conf. lev.), being
regulated and supervised by national authorities (in Norway
by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, NPD).

Multipath ultrasonic transit time flow meters (USMs) are
today extensively used in industry for volumetric flow
metering of natural gas, for fiscal measurement (e.g. sales
and allocation metering), check metering, etc. As an
example, Fig. 5.1 indicates USM based fiscal metering
stations for measurement of the Ormen Lange gas, one at
Nyhamna in Norway (used for allocation of economic values
between the partners), and one in Easington, UK (gas
import measurement). In this application, a systematic
measurement error of 0.3 % would represent a value of
about 150 million NOK per year.

Norway is today among the international leaders within
fiscal flow measurement. It is strategically important for
Norway to remain in that position, to possess the necessary
technology competence, and to participate in the
international discussions and formulation of standards,
regulations and procedures. Otherwise, others will dominate
the formulation of standards, etc., without real possibilities
for Norway to influence on the decisions in this economically
vital area for the nation. The Fiscal Flow Measurement                             Fig. 5.1. Schematic illustration of the Ormen Lange /
                                                                                   Langeled gas transportation system, with ultrasonic
program intends to contribute to strengthen Norway in this                         fiscal metering stations at Nyhamna (Norway) and
picture.                                                                           Easington (UK).

In 2007, work under the Fiscal flow measurement program has been carried in relation to the following
tasks:

•    Precision sound velocity (VOS) cell for fiscal energy measurement of HPHT natural gas.
•    Ultrasonic fiscal flow metering of oil and gas at HPHT conditions.
•    Acoustic signal / fluid flow / elastic structure interaction in ultrasonic fiscal flow metering of oil and
     gas: 3D modelling and measurements.

A description of the work under these tasks are given in the following. As the emphasis under the
Michelsen Centre in 2007 has been on the first of these, priority is given to this one in the present
report, with more brief descriptions of the second and third tasks given here.


The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 12 of 29




(a) Precision sound velocity (VOS) cell for fiscal energy measurement of HPHT natural gas

As natural gas is typically sold on basis of mass or energy, the density and/or gross calorific value
(GCV) of the gas needs to be measured in addition to the volumetric flow rate, pressure and
temperature, by separate instruments, such as gas chromatographs (GC). Alternative methods to
measure the density and calorific value in gas metering stations are of interest, for several reasons.

As ultrasonic flow meters (USMs) also give a measurement of the sound velocity (VOS) in the gas, in
addition to the volumetric flow rate, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the potentials of USMs
for direct mass and energy measurement, using their volumetric flow rate measurement in
combination with their measured VOS. By CMR, a prototype Gas Analyzer unit has been developed
for calculation of the density and GCV on basis of the VOS measured by the USM, cf. Fig. 5.2.

As purchase and use of GCs is
work demanding and costly,
USMs in combination with the
Gas Analyzer offer a potential to
further reduce the cost of mass
and energy flow measurement.
This may be of particular interest
for instance by replacing one of
two GCs in a metering station,
for monitoring and regulation
purposes in connection with gas
commingling for export, for
allocation metering, and as an
independent backup to GC
analysis.

In sales metering applications,
traceable    documentation      is
needed for the uncertainty of the
VOS measurement given by the
USM.        Provided traceable
measurements can be done, this         Fig. 5.2. Schematic illustration of a possible concept for traceable fiscal
may be achieved by using a self-       measurement of gas energy and mass flow rates, based on the "VOS method".
standing high-precision VOS cell,      A "Gas Analyzer" is used to calculate the gas density and calorific value on basis
working    under     the   same        of the measured VOS and other available gas information. A precision VOS cell
                                       is used for "VOS calibration" of the USM.
conditions as the USM, and in
the same frequency range, e.g. 100 - 200 kHz (to account for dispersion effects of the gas).

Tentative technical cell specifications could then be: natural gas at pressures 0 - 250 barg,
temperatures 0 - 60 oC, and sound velocity measurement uncertainty in the range ± (0.05 - 0.1) m/s,
i.e. about ± (100 - 200) ppm (at 95 % confidence level).

As of today, no VOS cell with sufficient accuracy operating in this frequency range has been identified
in the international community. Cells with outstanding accuracy are available in the audio frequency
range, but scaling of such existing cells to the desired frequency band and still meeting the
specifications has not been found feasible.

In work by CMR and UoB-IFT, alternative and novel measurement methods have been considered
and evaluated experimentally in a preliminary low-pressure VOS cell which has been constructed and
tested for this purpose, cf. Fig. 5.3. The VOS cell can be used with two methods: the socalled 3PM
(developed in the present group) and the 2PEM (patented by another group). Highly promising results



The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 13 of 29




on air and argon at atmospheric and room temperature conditions have been obtained using a
thermostat bath. Deviations less than about 240 ppm have been achieved in air and argon, relative to
VOS models. Establishment of the measurement uncertainty is an important issue e.g. to establish
the traceability of the VOS cell. Moreover, improved control with several factors is necessary to
establish the measurement uncertainty, such as the accuracy of the diffraction correction
approximations used, etc. In the further work, measurement under high pressure and improved control
with the measurement uncertainty are key elements to achieve traceability of the VOS cell
measurements. A PhD study over the period mid 2008 – mid 2011 is planned under this project, see
Section 7.2.




Fig. 5.3.    Prototype low-pressure VOS cell used with the 3PM and the 2PEM for sound velocity measurements in air and
             argon at atmospheric and room temperature conditions. Left: drawing. Mid and right: Photographs (inner cell and
             outer view, respectively).

The objective of the work under the Michelsen Centre is to establish the scientific basis for an
operative VOS cell aimed to meet the technical specifications given above with a documented and
traceable uncertainty budget. The work is based on the VOS cell technology and candidate
measurement methods already developed and tested preliminary in a cooperation between CMR and
UoB. Development and building of an operative VOS cell for natural gas meeting the technical
specifications given above, with a documented and traceable uncertainty budget, will be a commercial
undertaking made outside of the CRI, in parallel to the CRI.


(b) Ultrasonic fiscal flow metering of oil and gas at HPHT conditions

There is an increasing demand today for fiscal flow measurement of oil and gas at high pressure and
high temperature (HPHT) conditions. Actual examples from the North Sea include fiscal metering
                                                              o
stations of different fields such as Ormen Lange (230 barg, 40 C), Njård, Heimdal and others.

Ultrasonic meters (USMs) are used in most of such applications today. Practically all the new fiscal
metering stations in the North Sea are based on use of USMs. As every flow meter type, USMs are
also influenced by pressure and temperature.

For USMs, one important group of influencing effects is the pressure and temperature
expansion/contraction effects on the meter body, the measurement geometry, the ultrasonic
transducers, and the transducer ports, as well as the changed Reynolds number. For example, gas
USMs for HPHT applications are typically flow calibrated at about 50-60 barg and 10 oC, and when put
into duty e.g. at 150-250 barg and 30-50 oC, significant measurement errors may be experienced


The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 14 of 29




(several tenths of a percent), amounting to significant economic values, unless correction for the P
and T effects is made. Candidate correction factors have been developed on basis of theoretical and
numerical studies, both simple and more sophisticated studies, but there is no consensus today in the
literature, industry, standards, etc. with respect to which correction factors to use.

Some of these issues are addressed to some extent in current draft standards for such meters, such
as the AGA-9 (1998) report, and the ISO/CD 17089 Part 1 (2007). Other of these effects have not
been described or treated in the literature.

A candidate correction model has been presented by CMR for the Ormen Lange metering station, on
basis of a rather sophisticated theoretical / numerical study. However, no experimental verification of
the various candidate correction factors has been available so far. On background of the economic
significance of establishing reliable correction factors, the need for experimental support or possible
verification of these is high time.

Another group of influencing effect is the pressure and temperature effects on the functionality of the
ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers themselves, i.e. the devices transmitting and receiving the
ultrasound. Traditionally, piezoelectric transducers for use in USMs have employed matching layers,
usually made of some type of polymer material (e.g. epoxy). Such matching layers may be used
exterior to a metal transducer housing, or directly in front of a piezoelectric element. Matching layers
are used among others to increase the signal level and improve the signal to noise ratio. High signal
level is especially important in noisy environment (e.g. in the vicinity of pressure reduction valves), at
high flow velocities, etc. With use of a polymer matching layer, there is the danger that the matching
layer may be subject to poor bonding over time, especially with changing pressure and temperature
conditions, etc., or even fall off. In all cases, deteriorated transducer properties will be the result,
which may influence on the transit time detection and the functionality and accuracy of the USM. In the
market, thus, USM manufacturers using metal encapsulated transducers with no matching layer would
have an advantage over those who do not.              However, there are challenges related to such
approaches, such as to preserve the transducer properties (such as a high signal level, directivity,
bandwidth, etc.) without use of polymer matching layer.

More compact transducer technology is also an issue, e.g. for use with USMs in the smaller end of the
product line, such as 4"-6" meters.

Under the Michelsen Centre, the objective is to establish a scientific basis for reliable and accurate
operation of USMs at HPHT conditions. This includes further validation of PT correction models, as
well as more reliable, improved and compact transducer technology.

This work is and will be at a pre-competitive level, building on the significant technology already
available on this field in the CMR-UoB-FMC partner group. Product development will be made as
spin-off activities outside of the CRI, in parallel to the CRI.


(c) Acoustic signal / fluid flow / elastic structure interaction in ultrasonic fiscal flow metering
of oil and gas: 3D modelling and measurements

Ultrasonic technology for fiscal metering of oil and natural gas (USM) is today at a level of 0.5 %
uncertainty for gas (flow laboratory calibrated) and 0.15-0.25 % for oil (in-situ prover calibated).
However, the technology is still at a relatively early stage of development, and un-exploited potentials
exist both for further development and for extended applications. Important factors are e.g. reduction
of systematic errors, operational costs, improved reliability and traceability, with large economic
consequences. Current USM theory is built on simplified ray-theoretical models, limiting the accuracy
of the meter description.

For example, there is a need to describe, evaluate and enable correction for systematic effects not
sufficiently explained and accounted for in USMs today, related to parameters such as



The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 15 of 29




• “dry calibration” parameters (electronics-transducer time delay, diffraction time delay, possible Δt-
  correction (in case of insufficient reciprocity), for both the transient start and the stationary part of
  the signal),
• finite-beam / 3D flow profile effects on the transit times,
• finite-beam / 3D flow profile effects on the integration method, and
• interference from geometrical reflections (transducer port cavities, etc.).

These parameters should be investigated with respect to a number of conditions, such as real
transducer performance, pressure and temperature effects, flow velocity, path length, gas
composition, time detection method, and 3D flow profiles (symmetric and disturbed axial flow,
transversal flow (swirl and cross-flow)).

Especially important is the change of such parameters from flow calibration to field operation. Analysis
of these changes is a real challenge as they are difficult and expensive to measure, and today no
sufficient simulation tool is available for their evaluation. An improved theoretical description of USM
principles is needed to enable improved control over these contributions, and their changes relative to
flow calibration conditions.

In a cooperation between CMR and UoB-IFT, the simulation model FEMP is being further developed
with objective to describe some of these effects. FEMP is a finite element code for description of
ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers and propagation from such transducers, originally developed in
1995-2000 in a cooperation between UoB-IFT and CMR. The FEMP model is being extensively used
in design and construction of ultrasonic transducers and instruments and analysis of measurement
results, by students as well as in contract R&D projects.




5.2             Epsilon multiphase flow metering
The Epsilon multiphase flow metering program [7] is carried out in a cooperation between the following
CRI partners, cf. Table 5.1:

• CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
• University of Bergen, Dept. of physics and technology, and Dept. of Chemistry.
• Roxar.

Multiphase meters provide an accurate and continuous on-line monitoring of the flow rates of oil, water
and gas in the oil well stream. By using multiphase meters, the following elements may individually or
in combinations contribute to improve the overall petroleum field recovery and economics.

This project will focus on collecting electrical and physical fluid data and analysing the correlation
between them in order to establish fluid property models that can result in more reliable and accurate
fluid inputs to the multiphase meters, thereby increasing their accuracy and reliability under a broader
span of flow conditions.

In the project on multiphase metering, a significant amount of work has been carried out at CMR, the
University of Bergen (UoB) and Roxar in 2007.

Roxar arranged to get 16 samples of oil, condensate and other hydrocarbon fluids for testing at CMR,
UoB and Roxar. Roxar also carried out emulsion tests in the CMR flow loop in order to investigate if a
water/oil emulsion gives different readings than a non-emulsified flow of water and diesel when
measuring the permittivity of the fluid. These measurements showed that the flow meter readings are
not significantly influenced by emulsions.

At CMR software for a measurement set-up for dielectric spectroscopy was developed and
measurements were carried out on the 16 hydrocarbon fluid samples Roxar had collected. The


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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 16 of 29




measurement results from these tests will be compared with the results from permittivity
measurements carried out at Roxar in 2008.

Further, CMR has started working on velocity of sound measurements. A measurement cell earlier
developed at CMR (PhD work of Erlend Bjørndal, 2003 - 06) is used, and the velocity of sound in the
samples is measured at various temperatures in order to find the temperature variations.

At the University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry carried out chemical analysis on the samples.

In 2008, more samples will be analysed and the work with comparing the results and relating various
parameters to each other will be started. A PhD study is planned under this project, see Section 7.2.




5.3             Downhole ultrasonic camera
The Downhole ultrasonic camera project is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI
partners, cf. Table 5.1:

• CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
• SeaWell

Downhole inspection tools are traditionally based on optical techniques (e.g. video or photo). Due to
the downhole conditions, optical solutions can not always be used. Ultrasonic inspection tools are
considered to be a realistic alternative.

In order to realise a downhole ultrasonic camera for identification and mapping of unwanted objects, a
series of fundamental challenges are addressed. These include

               •    New transducer technology for improved imaging and logging
               •    Improved downhole processing
               •    New downhole transmission link for ultrasonic data
               •    User interface for enhanced functionality: signal processing for recognition of
                    downhole objects

The work carried out in the project is based on an already established cooperation between CMR
Instrumentation and SeaWell. A first prototype of the downhole ultrasonic camera was available for the
project at start-up in 2007. This prototype was tested at downhole conditions in order to identify the
most important research areas for realization of an industrial version of the tool. Based on these initial
tests, these research areas have been identified. In particular, focus in 2007 has been on the
characterization and further development of the ultrasonic downhole transducer including the
mechanical coupling.




5.4             Seismic sensor coupling
The Seismic sensor coupling project is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI
partners, cf. Table 5.1:

• CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
• CGG Veritas.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 17 of 29




When using seabed seismic receivers, the most important problem is the coupling between the
seismic receivers and the sea bed. As of today, there is little research gone into the physics of this
topic. In order to understand the coupling problems, this project will focus on

     •    Development of a test facility for seismic coupling
     •    Simulation of coupling scenarios, including identification of candidate methods for robust
          seismic coupling
     •    Testing of seismic sea bed receivers
     •    Identification and characterization of various sea bed types

In 2007, a first version of a facility for testing the seismic coupling between sensor and seabed has
been designed. This activity includes:

     •    Formulation of project objectives
     •    Setting up criteria for the test facilities
     •    Design of test facilities
     •    Identification and ordering of hardware components

The facility will consist of:
   • tank containing the “seabed” and water
   • the sensor to be tested
   • reference measurement system
   • DAQ system including software
   • “shaker” for introducing waves into the system
   • arrangement for decoupling the system from the surrounding environment

According to the plans, it will be ready for testing in 2008. In addition, coupling scenarios and testing of
seismic receivers will be addressed.




5.5             Marine EM resistivity mapping
The Marine EM resistivity mapping project is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI
partners, cf. Table 5.1:

• CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
• CGG Veritas.

The marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding method has developed into a
promising tool for mapping resistive, subseabed geological structures – particularly hydrocarbon
reservoirs. There are, however, still several significant challenges involved in the development of
equipment for CSEM. The main challenges are sensitivity, calibration and stability of the CSEM
equipment – in particular the CSEM receivers - which must be improved in order to address the
requirement for improved resolution in the resistivity maps, and to be able to generate resistivity maps
for reservoirs deeper below the sea ground. Another important challenge for CSEM receivers, is to
reduce the size of the equipment for easier handling on board a ship - without lowering the sensitivity
of the receivers.

System knowledge and identification of limitations and dependencies considering accuracy have been
addressed in this stage of the project work. An important part of this investigation has been to use
Finite Element simulations in order to determine the importance of some of these dependencies. So
far, the following elements have been investigated:

     •    Sensor dependencies on variation in seawater conductivity



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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 18 of 29




     •    Local distortion of electric field caused by mismatched sensor impedance
     •    Influence from sensor geometry

The simulations have given the following results,

     •    Variation in seawater conductivity contributes to only small variations in measurements
     •    Electrode size has an influence on the measurement variation. A larger electrode area causes
          larger dependencies to effects such as variation in seawater conductivity.
     •    Impedance mismatch contributes to the measurement error and will cause a local distortion of
          the electric field

In the following, the focus will be put on stability and calibration issues.




                                                                                                                                   st
Fig. 1.   Simulated distortion of electric field due to impedance mismatch between sensor and seawater (1
          sensor impedance ≈ ∞, 2nd sensor impedance ≈ 0).




5.6             Fisheries program
The Fisheries program is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI partners, cf. Table
5.1:

     •    CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
     •    University of Bergen, Dept. of Biology and Dept. of Physics and Technology.
     •    MMC Tendos.

Project description

The projects aim is to monitor and improve welfare and handling of pelagic fish as well as farmed fish.
This achieved by performing a series of experiments both in laboratory but also in field tests. The
welfare of the fish is important for the quality and economic value of the end product. The project plans
to include two PhD research fellows through out the CRI period of eight years.


Status

MMC Tendos has worked on how to improve fish welfare in fish transport. Investigations of how to
improve fish welfare on well boats have been carried out. MMC Tendos also provided the well boat
M/S Aspøy for field testing. Two tanks on this boat were filled with two different biomass densities and
people from the Department of Biology at the University of Bergen (UoB) tested the stress level and
other parameters during the transport.



The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 19 of 29




The University of Bergen (UoB) has carried out a field study together with MMC Tendos, investigating
how the amount of fish transported in the well boat influences the stress level in the fish. Sample fish
were collected at several stages of the collection, transport and delivery and various parameters were
measured. Two different biomass densities were used in the transport tanks. The results show that in
this case the welfare parameters for the fish in the two tanks were similar, but the fish in the tank with
the highest density had the lowest oxygen consumption which may indicate lower behavior stress
when the density is increased. This was confirmed by continuously monitoring to two transport tanks
with video cameras. The results will be published in a MSc thesis in May 2008.

CMR has organised the project, helped prepare field testing etc. The design of a prototype "fish probe"
which will be tested for quick and easy determination of fish quality has been finalized. CMR has also,
through personnel working at both UoB and CMR participated in the field tests carried out by the UoB.


Further work

UoB will through 2008 carry out more data analysis and more investigations on fish welfare related to
transport of fish. The focus will be on optimizing conditions both for closed and open transports with
respect to water quality and water flow (swimming speed) with special reference to oxygen, carbon
dioxide and temperature. Another field test is planned where the effects of a new pump system for
pumping of fish into well boats will be tested. A Master student will finish his work using the fish probe
made at CMR for measurements on fish. In addition to this a PhD project will be started, see Section
7.2.

CMR will finalise the probe for measurement on fish quality and as far as the budget allows it make
some adjustments on the CMR fish flow meter so that it can be used with MMC Tendos' new pump
system.

MMC Tendos will continue their work on improving the transportation and handling systems for fish in
order to further improve fish welfare.




5.7             CO2 sensor
The CO2 sensor project is carried out in a cooperation between the following CRI partners, cf. Table
5.1:

     •    CMR Instrumentation, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen.
     •    University of Bergen, Dept. of Biology and Geophysical Institute.
     •    Aanderaa Data Instruments.

Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are a cause for concern among scientists, policy makers and the
public at large. The atmospheric rise causes increases the ocean CO2 level due to exchange between
the atmosphere and the ocean. Measuring CO2 in the water column and especially close within the
surface mixed layer is important in studies of the global physical and biological exchange of CO2
between the atmosphere and the ocean. Continuous CO2 measurements will be valuable to estimate
changes in uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. Due to global warming and chemical changes
like reduction in surface water pH will change the future buffer capacity of the ocean. In addition
acidification might also affect ecosystems structure in the ocean and then particularly functional
groups producing carbonate shells. For this reason it will be important to develop autonomous
measuring systems of the carbonate system variables like pH, fCO2, Ct and At and more accurate
climatic models. CO2 measurement in the ocean/water is also of interest in all phases of fish farming
and related to validation of geological storage of CO2.




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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 20 of 29




This project has investigated the technology status and possible concepts related to CO2 sensor
technology for direct measurement of CO2 in water. Various challenges related to the different
techniques have been evaluated and critical factors such as measurement accuracy, reliability,
repeatability, stability, drift, power consumption, complexity and cost has been addressed.

The work conducted so far in this project has been performed as a pre-study identifying promising
approach for reliable in-situ measurement of dissolved CO2 in water. This has currently not been
achieved reliable and to the desired accuracy level.

In the pre-project conducted in 2007 the following has been obtained:
     - Application and possible synergies between these
     - Requirement and sensor specification for the applications identified
     - Evaluation of various technologies
     - Gap analysis based on existing requirement and existing solutions
     - Identifying promising approaches for further work

Base on the identified specification and existing solutions, a gap analysis and recommendation on the
way forward has been given. The project has identified three different measurement principal that will
be evaluate further in the next step of the project. The project group is currently planning comparison
testing of these three technologies in a controlled environment. This work will hopefully help optimizing
the further activities in the project. A PhD study is planned under this project, see Section 7.2.




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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 21 of 29




6               International cooperation
All the Centre partners operate on an international basis and have an extensive international network.
CMR and UiB scientists operate internationally both in project collaborations and active participation at
conferences and meetings, and many of them also have several years of research and industrial
experience abroad. Most of the R&D areas addressed in the Michelsen centre are all strongly
internationally related.

Oil and gas flow metering issues are in practice addressed in international meeting places and
discussions, such as at the annual International North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop and other
meetings, in which also CMR and UiB participate actively. CMR participates in international
discussions also through the Norwegian Society for Oil and Gas Measurement (NFOGM).

In relation to R&D contracts e.g. for the oil and gas industry, one always competes on an international
industrial arena. Through various R&D projects, a valuable network has over years been built to
international university groups, industrial companies and end users.

More specificly, the Michelsen Centre has in 2007 been involved in international cooperation on
several levels. Such international activities include:

(a) International partner participation in the Michelsen Centre

The partners FMC Technologies and CGG Veritas are both international companies with headquarters
abroad (USA and France, respectively), for which international cooperation is a natural part of the
work. Several other Centre partners have international departments and offices. Through CGG
Veritas, the company Ohm Ltd in Aberdeen, Scotland has been involved in the project work.

(b) International standardization work

Michelsen Centre personnel at CMR and UoB-IFT have been part of the extensive discussions in
2007 on the development of an ISO standard for ultrasonic flow meters for natural gas (ISO 17089
Part 1).

Development of an ISO standard on ultrasonic flow meters for petroleum liquids (oil etc.) is also being
initiated, and initiatives from the industry to involve the Michelsen Centre as an active partner in this
respect has been taken.

(c) Arrangement of international conferences and symposia

The 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography was held in Bergen, Norway in September
2007, with the Michelsen Centre represented in the arrangement committee.

The Michelsen Centre is represented in the board of the Norwegian Society for Oil and Gas
Measurement (NFOGM), which every second year is responsible for arranging the International North
                                             th
Sea Flow Measurement Workshop. In 2007 the 25 in the series of these conferences was arranged
in Oslo, with about 350 participates.

(d) Contributions at international conferences and symposia

Contributions at international conferences and symposia in 2007 include:

     •    2007 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, New York, October 28-31, 2007 (1 paper)
     •    5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography", Bergen, Norway (4 papers)
            th
     •    25 International North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop, Oslo Norway (2 papers)




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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 22 of 29




     •    Scandinavian Symposium on Physical Acoustics, Geilo, Norway, January 28-31, 2007 (1
          papers and 1 presentation)

(e) Cooperation with universities abroad

     •    University of Rome, Lasapienza (Climate and Fisheries)
     •    Catholical University of Rome (Fisheries)
     •    Technical University of Gothenburg (AADI) (Climate and Fisheries)

(f) Cooperation with other R&D institutions abroad

An initiative was taken in the fall of 2007 from TÜV-NEL, Scotland, to establish a more close contact
with CMR and UoB-IFT, on issues related to oil and gas flow measurement (fiscal and multiphase
measurement). TÜV-NEL is an international leading contract research institution within these fields,
and un-formal relations between CMR, UoB-IFT and TÜV-NEL has existed for years. Discussions
have now been initiated to develop possible project cooperation.




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be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 23 of 29




7               Recruitment

7.1             Scientific staff recruitment
2 new scientific positions at the University of Bergen (UoB) have been initiated and announced in
2007, financed by UoB, as part of UoBs "own financing" of the Michelsen Centre, and in addition to the
existing UoB staff. The two positions are:

•    a professorship in the Acoustic group, at the Dept. of Physics and Technology (IFT), UoB.
•    a professorship in the Group of electronics and measurement science, at the Dept. of Physics and
     Technology (IFT), UoB.

The two positions are possessed by

•    Per Lunde (formerly senior scientist and department manager at Christian Michelsen Research),
     starting 01.03.2008,
•    Lars Egil Helseth (formerly assoc. prof. in physics at Nanyang Technological University, China),
     starting 01.03.2008.




7.2             PhD candidate recruitment
PhD candidates engaged under the Michelsen Centre will be employed by the University of Bergen.
The number of PhD candidates to be financed directly by the Michelsen centre is determined by UoB's
CRI budget, as outlined in the following:

In a "normal CRI year", after the initial phase, the cash budget of the CRI is typically 12 MNOK. Of
this cash budget, kNOK 4000 is allocated to UoB. To each PhD candidate, a cash budget sum of
kNOK 900 is allocated (consisting of kNOK 640 (NFR sum) plus project costs).

Under the Michelsen Centre, there is thus economic capacity to employ 4 PhD candidates in parallel,
amounting to an annual budget of kNOK 3600. The first "PhD period" is planned to 2008-2010, the
second period to 2011-13. Over the complete CRI period, thus, 8 PhD positions are planned to be
financed by the Michelsen Centre directly, within the frames of the current budget.

On basis of the weighting of the 3 main areas of the Michelsen Centre, petroleum (3/5), fisheries (1/3)
and environment (1/3), 2 of these 4 PhD positions are allocated to the petroleum area, 1 PhD to the
fisheries and aquaculture area, and 1 PhD to the environment monitoring area.

In addition, financing of PhD candidates by additional financing and other sources are sought.

Announcement of the following 4 PhD positions under the Michelsen Centre has been prepared in
2007:

•    Work title:               "High-precision VOS cell technology for gas characterization"
     CRI program:              Petroleum: Fiscal flow measurement of oil and gas
     UoB institute:            Dept. of Physics and Technology (IFT)
     Partners:                 UoB-IFT, CMR, FMC Technologies
     Supervisor(s):            Prof. Per Lunde (UoB/CMR, main supervisor), senior scientist and dept.
                               manager Kjell-Eivind Frøysa (CMR, external supervisor), assoc. prof. Magne
                               Vestrheim (UoB-IFT, member of supervising group).



The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 24 of 29




•    Work title:               "Frequency dependent models for calculation of complex permittivity in fluid
                               mixtures occurring in the petroleum industry"
     CRI program:              Petroleum: Multiphase measurement of oil and gas
     UoB institute:            Dept. of Chemistry (KI), in collaboration with Dept. of Physics and Technology
                               (IFT)
     Partners:                 UoB-KI, UoB-IFT, CMR, Roxar
     Supervisor(s):            Prof. Tanja Barth (UoB-KI), prof. Lars Egil Helseth (UoB-IFT), dept. manager
                               Marie Bueie Holstad (CMR).

•    Work title:               "Welfare of Farmed Fish during Transport and Storage prior to Slaughter"
     CRI program:              Fisheries and aquaculture
     UoB institute:            Dept. of Biology (BIO)
     Partners:                 UoB-BIO, CMR, MMC Tendos
     Supervisor(s):            Prof. Ole Brix (UoB-BIO), NN (CMR)

•    Work title:               "Methodology and development of chemical sensors measuring the CO2
                               system variables in the ocean"
     CRI program:              Environmental monitoring
     UoB institute:            Geophysical Institute (GEO), in collaboration with Dept. of Biology (BIO)
     Partners:                 UoB-GEO, UoB-BIO, CMR, Aanderaa Data Instruments
     Supervisor(s):            Prof. Truls Johannessen (UoB-GEO, main supervisor), prof. Ole Brix
                               (UoB-BIO, co-supervisor)

The 4 PhD positions have been announced in 2008.




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                                    The Michelsen Centre CRI                                                                                                                                                                                              Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                                        Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                                                                                                                                                                              Page 25 of 29




8                      Financial accounts
2007 account figures for the Michelsen Centre are given in the NFR account report [6].

The Michelsen Centre had in 2007 a total turnover of 10.895 MNOK, distributed as follows:

•     Cash contribution from the Research Council of Norway:                                                                                                                                                  4.075 MNOK
•     Cash contribution from StatoilHydro:                                                                                                                                                                    2.000 MNOK
•     In-kind contribution from CMR:                                                                                                                                                                          1.587 MNOK
•     In-kind contribution from UoB:                                                                                                                                                                          1.001 MNOK
•     In-kind contribution from the other 6 industrial partners:                                                                                                                                              2.232 MNOK

Further details of the funding, cost and the cash parts of the 2007 account are given in Tables 8.1, 8.2
and 8.3.


Table 8.1. CRI annual result 2007 – Funding distribution.
CRI Annual Result 2007 - Funding (All figures in 1000 NOK)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      State aid/total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Total funding
                                                                                                                                  Other Private




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CGG Veritas


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MMC Tendos




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 StatoilHydro
                                                                                                                                                          Skatte-FUNN
                                                                                                                   Other Public
                                                                   Category***


                                                                                         RCN Grant




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Total state
                                       Research*




                                                                                                     (Host*****)
                                                     Incentive
                                                     effect****




                                                                                                                                                                                                               Seadrill




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      funding
                                       Type of




                                                                   Bonus




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roxar




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AADI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         FMC
                                                                                                     CMR




                                                                                                                                                                                       UiB




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HiB




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                aid
Item
Type of partner**                                                                           R                                                                           R                    L            L               L                    L                              L                 L           R             L
Fiscal Flow Measurement            I               1111           65                    191 342                                                                                 165                                                     347                                                                                   333                191              1378                  0.14
Epsilon multiphase flow metering   I               1111           65                    351 316                                                                                 259              448                                                                                                                          333                351              1707                  0.21
Downhole ultrasonic camera         I               1111           65                    567 257                                                                                   0                           365                                                                                                             333                567              1522                  0.37
Seismic sensor coupling            I               1111           65                    518 199                                                                                   0                                                                      175                                                                  167                518              1059                  0.49
Marine EM resistivity mapping      I               1111           65                    332   15                                                                                  0                                                                      175                                                                  168                332               690                  0.48
Fisheries program                  I               1111           65                    561 235                                                                                 271                                                                                               357                                         333                561              1757                  0.32
CO2 sensor                         I               1111           65                    338 223                                                                                 306                                                                                                                 365                       333                338              1565                  0.22
Adm.                                                                                   1217    0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1217              1217                  1.00
TOTAL BUDGET:                                                                          4075 1587                        0              0                      0              1001                448          365                       347              350                      357               365              0        2000              4075             10895                  0.37




Table 8.2. CRI annual result 2007 – Cost distribution (total costs)
CRI Annual Result 2007 - Cost (All figures in 1000 NOK) (Total cost)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MMC Tendos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CGG Veritas
                                                                          CMR (Host)




                                                                                                                                                                            Seadrill




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TOTAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hydro
                                                                                                                                                  Roxar




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AADI
                                                                                                                                                                                                  FMC
                                                                                                       UiB




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HiB




Item
Fiscal Flow Measurement                                             790                              241                                                                                         347                                                                                                                                               1 378
Epsilon multiphase flow metering                                    891                              368                                   448                                                                                                                                                                                                     1 707
Downhole ultrasonic camera                                        1 157                                0                                                                365                                                                                                                                                                        1 522
Seismic sensor coupling                                             884                                0                                                                                                         175                                                                                                                               1 059
Marine EM resistivity mapping                                       515                                0                                                                                                         175                                                                                                                                 690
Fisheries program                                                   735                              665                                                                                                                                       357                                                                                                 1 757
CO2 sensor                                                          648                              552                                                                                                                                                                          365                                                              1 565
Project XX (not started in 2007)
Equipment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0
Adm.                                                              1 217                       0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 217
TOTAL BUDGET:                                                     6 837                   1 826                                             448                         365                      347              350                          357                                365                           0                0              10 895




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                                         Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                                      Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                                         Page 26 of 29




Table 8.3. CRI annual result 2007 – Cost distribution (cash part of total costs)

CRI Annual Result 2007 - Cost (All figures in 1000 NOK) (Cash part of total budget)




                                                                                                         MMC Tendos
                                                                                           CGG Veritas
                                           CMR (Host)




                                                                          Seadrill




                                                                                                                                         Hydro
                                                                  Roxar




                                                                                                                                                   CASH
                                                                                                                         AADI
                                                                                     FMC
                                                         UiB




                                                                                                                                 HiB
Item
Fiscal Flow Measurement                   448            76                           0                                                            524
Epsilon multiphase flow metering          575           109         0                                                                              684
Downhole ultrasonic camera                900             0                  0                                                                     900
Seismic sensor coupling                   685             0                                    0                                                   685
Marine EM resistivity mapping             500             0                                    0                                                   500
Fisheries program                         500           394                                                  0                                     894
CO2 sensor                                425           246                                                               0                        671
Project XX (not started in 2007)                                                                                                                     0
Not allocated per August 2007                                                                                                     0                  0
Equipment                                                                                                                                            0
Adm.                                    1 217             0                                                                                      1 217
CASH:                                   5 250           825         0         0       0         0            0            0       0        0     6 075




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 27 of 29




9               Publications
Publications having been prepared in 2007 are listed in the following. Some of these publications
have been financed in whole or in part by the Michelsen Centre, - others may have been financed
essentially by other sources (related projects).

However, only publications with results of high scientific and technical relevance for the "scope of
work" of the Michelsen Centre have been included here. One of the main objectives of the Michelsen
Centre is the development of innovative technology for the scientific and industrial society. The
inclusion of such results of high significance for the Centre's main objective is thus considered to be
relevant for inclusion in the present CRI annual report, - even though some of them may have been
financed partly of in whole by other sources than the Michelsen Centre.


       Lunde, P., Norli, P., Vestrheim, M. and Kippersund, R.: "Precision sound velocity cell as
       reference for gas quality measurement in ultrasonic flow meters. Preliminary results using two
       candidate methods with argon at low pressure", Proc. of 30th Scandinavian Symposium on
       Physical Acoustics, Geilo, Norway, January 28-31, 2007.

       Kippersund, R. and Lunde, P., "INDSURF project. Dual frequency gas transducer. Preliminary
       FEMP simulations", CMR Note CMR-07-F10053-NO-1, Christian Michelsen Research AS,
       Bergen, February 17, 2007. (Confidential.)

       Kocbach, J., Lunde, P., Vestrheim, M. and Kippersund, R., "INDSURF project. Comparison
       of finite element (FE) and plane wave (Mason) types of simulations for a dual frequency band
       piezocomposite transducer", CMR Note CMR-07-F10053-NO-2, Christian Michelsen Research
       AS, Bergen, March 6, 2007 (Confidential).

       Lunde, P. and Frøysa, K.-E., "Trykk- og temperatur-effekter for Ormen Lange ultralyd
       gassmålere", Proc. of NFOGMs Temadag, Grand Hotel, Oslo, Norway, March 16, 2007,
       Norwegian Society for Oil and Gas Measurement (NFOGM) (Collection of viewgraphs).

       Frøysa, K.-E., Hallanger, A. and Lunde, P., "Fiskalmåling av olje med høy vannfraksjon.
       Sensitivitetsstudie for en turbinmeter-basert målestasjon", Proc. of NFOGMs Temadag, Grand
       Hotel, Oslo, Norway, March 16, 2007, Norwegian Society for Oil and Gas Measurement
       (NFOGM) (Collection of viewgraphs).

       Lunde, P. and Frøysa, K.-E.: "Ormen Lange ultrasonic gas flow meters. A study for
       establishment of corrections for pressure and temperature effects", CMR report no. CMR-06-
       A10048-RA-01, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen, Norway (March 2007).

       Lunde, P. and Vestrheim, M.: "Final report for the 2005-06 UoB-CMR "såkorn" project "3D
       finite element modelling (FEM) of precision non-wetted ultrasonic fiscal flow meters for oil and
       gas", CMR Note CMR-07-A10046-NO-01 Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen (March 23,
       2007).

       Hallanger, A., Frøysa, K.-E. and Lunde, P.: "Fiscal measurement of oil with high water
       fraction. Phase 1: Sensitivity study for a turbine meter based fiscal metering station", CMR
       Report no. CMR-07-F10050-RA-01, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen, Norway
       (September 2007). Free download available at the website www.nfogm.no (Norwegian Society
       of Oil and Gas Measurement, NFOGM).

       Baker, A.C., Bjelland, C., Spilde, J., Frøysa, K.-E., Holstad, M.B., Johansen, G.A.,
       Hjertaker, B.-T., Berntsen, B. and Stavland, S.H., “A novel subsea on-line multiphase fluid
       sampling and analysis system”, Proc. of      5th World Congress on Industrial Process
       Tomography, 3.-6. September 2007, Bergen, Norway.


The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 28 of 29




       Baker, A.C., Spilde, J., Brix, O., Almås, O. A. and Frøysa, K.-E.: “Ultrasonic Measurement in
       Fish-water Pipe Flows”, Proc. of 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 3.-6.
       September 2007, Bergen, Norway.

       Frøysa, K.-E., Bjørndal, E. and Klepsvik, I: “Challenges for an Ultrasonic Interface Detection
       System for Offshore Separators”, Proc. of 5th World Congress on Industrial Process
       Tomography, 3.-6. September 2007, Bergen, Norway.

       Hjertaker, B. T., Maad, R., Almås, O. A. and Johansen G. A.: "USB-based data acquisition
       and control system for high speed gamma-ray tomography", Proc. of 5th World Congress on
       Industrial Process Tomography, 3.-6. September 2007, Bergen, Norway.

       Lunde, P., Vestrheim, M. and Bø, R., Smørgrav, S. and Abrahamsen, A. K.: "Reciprocal
       operation of ultrasonic flow meters: Criteria and applications". Proc. of 2007 IEEE International
       Ultrasonics Symposium, New York, October 28-31, 2007.

       Smørgrav, S., Abrahamsen, A. K., Lunde, P., Vestrheim, M. and Bø, R.: "Developments in
       transducer technology and reciprocity in ultrasonic flow meters". Proc. of Rio Pipeline
       Conference and Exposition 2007, October 2-4, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

       Lunde, P., Frøysa, K.-E. and Folkestad, T., "Pressure and temperature effects for Ormen
       Lange ultrasonic gas flow meters", Proc. of 25th International North Sea Flow Measurement
       Workshop, Oslo, Norway, 16-19 October 2007.

       Frøysa, K.-E., Vågenes, A. L. H., Sørli, B. and Jørgenvik, H.: "Uncertainty analysis of
                                                                      th
       emmissions from the Statoil Mongstad oil refinery", Proc. of 25 International North Sea Flow
       Measurement Workshop, Oslo, Norway, 16-19 October 2007.

       Johansen, G.A. and Tjugum, S.-A., "Fluid composition analysis by multiple gamma-ray beam
       and modality measurements", Proc. of 25th International North Sea Flow Measurement
       Workshop, Oslo, Norway, 16-19 October 2007.

       Kocbach, J., Lunde, P., Kippersund, R. and Vestrheim, M., "INDSURF project. 3D finite
       element simulations for a dual frequency band piezocomposite transducer using FEMP", CMR
       Note CMR-07-F10053-NO-3, Christian Michelsen Research AS, Bergen, November 11, 2007
       (Confidential).

       H. Hobæk and T. Lexau Nesse, “Modal scattering of sound from short metallic cylinders”, in
       Proceedings of the30h Scandinavian Symposium on Physical Acoustics, Geilo, 28-31 January
       2007, R.J. Korneliussen (ed.), The Norwegian Physical Society, ISBN 978-82-8123-002-6 (CD-
       rom).

       H. Hobæk and T. Lexau Nesse, “Sound scattering from short metallic cylinders and its relation
       to modal vibrations”, in Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Underwater acoustic
       measurements:Technologies & results”, J.S. Papadakis and L. Bjørnø (eds.), FORTH,
       Heraklion, Greece, 25 - 29 June 2007, p. 787 - 792, ISBN: 978-960-88702-5-3

       B. Askeland, H. Hobæk and R. Mjelde, “Marine seismics with a pulsed combustion source and
       Pseudo Noise codes.” Marine Geophysical Researches, 2007;28(2):109-117




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)
The Michelsen Centre                 The Michelsen Centre CRI                                      Ref. no.: CMR-08-A11000-RA-01
                                                                                                   Rev.: 00 Date: 01.04.2008
                                     Annual report 2007 DRAFT                                      Page 29 of 29




10              References
[1]       "The Michelsen Centre for industrial measurement science and technology. A centre for
          research-based innovation within petroleum, fisheries and environment", CRI application, The
          Michelsen Centre, December 2005.

[2]       "The Michelsen Centre for industrial measurement science and technology. A centre for
          research-based innovation within petroleum, fisheries and environment", CRI project
          description, Revision 1, April 2007.

[3]       "Agreement for Centre for Research-based Innovation", contract between the Research
          Council of Norway and CMR, dated 13.04.2007.

[4]       CRI consortium agreement: "Consortium agreement for the Michelsen Centre for research
          based innovation", version 1.2, dated March 6, 2007, with attachments:
          (a) Agreement for centre for research-based innovation (CRI), dated 21.12.2006,
          (b) Appendix 4 - plan for finance and costs,
          (c) The Norwegian centres for research-based innovation – requirements and guidelines,
              dated 08.06.2005.

[5]       Lunde, P., Vestrheim, M., Smørgrav, S. and Frøysa, K.-E., "Fiscal flow measurement. Work
          plan 2007-2011, CMR note no. CMR-07-F11100-NO-01, Bergen (May 7, 2007).

[6]       NFR prosjektregnskapsrapport 2007 for The Michelsen Centre for industrial measurement
          science and technology (project no. 174186), dated 20.01.2008.

[7]       Holstad, M. B. and Frøysa, K.-E.: “Multiphase Flow Metering. Suggested Work Plan 2007-
          2011.” CMR note no. CMR-07-F11150-NO-01-Rev00, Bergen (May 15, 2007).




The information contained in this report is to be used by the recipient solely for the purpose of which it was supplied. It shall not
be disclosed in whole or in part, to or by any other party without the written permission of CMR AS. (www.cmr.no)

				
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