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					 Transport Canada   Transports Canada
 Quebec Region      Région du Québec
 Civil Aviation     Aviation civile




Low Level Flying
                                        Brigitte Ouellet
                                        System Safety
                  Content
   Recency training requirements
   Altitudes and minimum distances
   Birdstrikes
   Illusions and disorientation
   VFR flights in adverse weather
    conditions
               Recency
             Requirements
   safety seminar given by Transport
    Canada Aviation
   questionnaire published in Aviation
    Safety Newsletter
   obtaining a rating, a permit or a license
Altitudes and
Minimum Distances
  Where Am I ?
Over a Built-Up Area
     2 000' or less



         500' or less
500’              2 000’


       1 000'

What            to do ?
less than
500’ AGL
            Did you know...
   Only known objects extending 300 feet
    or more will be depicted on VFR chart.
   Alert TC if there are such objects not
    depicted on VFR chart.
   Make sure you will not enter an
    MF or ATF Zone.
Birdstrikes
         E = MV2
E=M    V2



E= M   V 2
        To minimize the risks
   NOTAM et ATIS
   Strobe lights and landing lights
   Windshield heating
   Avoid low level flying
   Report bird activity and birdstrikes
                                      1-888-282-2473 or
                 http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/wildlife.htm
Illusions and
disorientation
  Vestibular apparatus and
  loss of visual references
Runway length and width
      Runway and terrain
         on a slope
Illusion   Result
Too low    approach
           too high

                                   Perceived height
             Actual height above   above the runway
             the runway




                Down slope
       Runway and terrain
          on a slope
Illusion   Result
Too high   approach
           too low

                                   Perceived height
             Actual height above   above the runway
             the runway




     Up slope
                    What else ?
   Black Hole “effect”
       When :        At night
       Illusion :    Too high
       Result :      Approach too low
       How to fight illusions
   Planning and pre-landing checks
   Verify runway length, width and slope
   Know the field elevation
   Do not “cut corners” on the approach
   Prop pitch and power settings
            Disorientation
   Contributory Factors
    – Stress
    – Health condition
    – Alcoholic drink
    – Drugs
    – Sky obscured by fog or clouds
        Vestibular Apparatus

                             Anterior Canal
     Lateral Canal
Posterior Canal




   Opposite turn illusion
   Coriolis illusion
 Semi-circular canals

                Cupula



Endolymph
                 Filaments of
fluid
                 hair cells
What happens ?

    No turns
 What happens ?
         Accelerating
            turn



Liquid
What happens ?
   Prolonged
  constant turn
What happens ?
   Decelerating
      turn



                  Liquid
    Opposite Turning Illusion
   When will it happen ?
    – Coming out of a turn or a spin
    – Loss of visual reference points
    – Brain is sending/receiving erroneous
      information
           Coriolis Illusion
   When will it happen ?
    – Coming out of a turn or a spin
    – Loss of visual reference points
    – When leaning or raising your head
    – Brain is sending/receiving erroneous
      messages
         To reduce the risks
   Fly healthy
   Learn to recognize the situations leading to
    disorientation
   Recognize when you are a victim of
    disorientation
   Learn to control disorientation
   Trust your flight instruments
VFR flight in adverse
weather conditions
   TSB Recommendation
The Department of Transport
evaluate the adequacy of the margin
of safety afforded by current VFR
and SVFR regulations.

TSB A96-10
                 CFIT

What is Controlled Flight into Terrain?
   When the aircraft collide with an
   obstacle before the pilot can react
   and avoid it.
         Safety of VFR Flight
   Human factors assessment related to flying

   Aircraft performance *    obstacle avoidance
    manoeuvres

   Understanding the process leading to CFIT
    – identify unsafe act(s) and conditions
    – determine error type (slip, lapse, mistake)
         VFR flight into IMC
   49 accidents (largest group)
   Inexperienced pilots
   Weather worst than forecast
   Happened while a/c was turning around
   Failed to delay or land
                Violations
   22 accidents - 36 lives
   knowingly flew into below minima
    weather
   for most of the pilots, was common
    practice
                 Analysis
   Almost no one crashed « legally »
   Relatively few « willful violations »
   Perceptual issue :
       What does 2 miles look like ?
   Decision difficulty - selection of action
   Use available resources
        Human Performance
   Navigation
        get lost
   Control of the aircraft
        Loss of control
   Obstacle avoidance
        CFIT
                 Navigation
   How does it work
    – mental model * map or knowledge

   Decrease in visibility !!!....
    – do not recognize landmark
       LOST
    – misidentify landmark
       do NOT KNOW that we are LOST
       Control of the aircraft
   How does it work ?
    – attitude, altitude and heading * horizon
      or landmarks

   Decrease in visibility !!!....
    – disorientation
   At night
            To Prevent CFIT
     Detect the obstacle * identify hazard
      Select and implement evasive action

   TIME (critical element)
     – identify the obstacle as a hazard
     – select the appropriate action
     – make control inputs
     – aircraft response time
   Decrease in visibility !!!...
    – decrease in capability to evaluate distance
    – need more time for decision making
          Countermeasures
   Acquire bad weather flying techniques
   Learn to turn back / alternate plans
   Overcome normal human decision making
    tendencies « traps »
   Better weather interpretation and weather
    related decision making skills
   Make PIREPS
   Use available liveware
        Aircraft Performances
   How much airspeed will you lose if you slam your
    aircraft into a 45o bank turn ?
                                                o
   How much space will you need to do a 180 turn ?

   How much more space will you need with a 20 knot
    wind behind you half way round the turn ?

   If you have to pull up quickly straight ahead, what
    airspeed will you have after 300 feet of climb ?
       Put the odds on your side
   Have a current VFR map of the area
    you plan to fly over.
   Do not rely only on your GPS.
   Beware of power lines.
   Get a complete weather briefing prior to the
    flight.
                                                            Sherbrooke (20nm N)
                                                            1100Z SCT007 OVC012
                                                            6SM -DZFG
St-Hubert
1200Z VFR

Portland                    1 000 ASL
1251Z OVC005 3SM FG


                      1 300 ASL
                                                1 400 ASL



                                                                  300 AGL


                                                        Radar Plots
                                                        Flew around the
                          Portland (forecast)
                                                        thunderstorm cells
                          OVC020 2SM FG ...
                          SCT 020 OVC100 5SM
               REVIEW
   Respect your limits and capabilities
   Make room for change of plan
   Weather does not cause accidents,
    WE DO
    Regulations may well have protected
    these people, had they been observed

				
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