teenage food healthy teenage eating by wuyunyi


									teenage food healthy teenage eating
Te e n a g e Fo o d

Being the proud father of a large family, I take my hat off to a    So what has all this got to do with the eating habits of
very special group of people — mothers!                             teenagers? Well, parents have the biggest impact not only on
I have no doubt that the mother is the most important person in     how their children behave but what they eat too. If we shop, cook
the home. She is often responsible not only for the general         and eat together with our kids, we can help establish eating
running of the household, but institutes and oversees the various   patterns which promise to maximise the future health of all
habits and values which will govern the life of her children.       Western Australians.
Not that this is an entirely fair system — as men I think we need   Glenn Cardwell, Accredited Practising Dietician, has done a superb
to review how much we contribute to the family unit and the         job in putting together a booklet with oodles of advice and
examples we set our offspring. I am thinking particularly of the    common sense to help reassure some, inspire others, and help us
recent HBF research which shows that women oversee 75% of           all cope with the demands of modern family life.
the shopping, preparing food and cooking in the home, and that      My suggestion is to leave this book on the kitchen table and let
stays the same even if both parents work.                           everyone have a browse through the pages — as the old adage
                                                                    goes, ‘the proof of the pudding is in the eating’.

                                                                    HBF Family Doctor
                                                                    Duncan Jefferson
Te e n a g e n u t r i t i o n — a guide for parents
Nutrition in the life of a teenager has a different meaning to those of children
or adults. Their food choices are more likely to be based on convenience, peer
pressure, self image, trends and access to money. In many ways their
food choices are making a statement of independence. Parents will have less
control, while the teenager will be taking more control over what they eat.
This change and need for independence has to be respected, although there are
many opportunities for parents to encourage good eating habits.

The most important thing
Parents want their teenagers to eat well and be healthy. That’s what we want
too. First, you need to know that you are the biggest and most important influence
to get your teenager eating well. If you are a good role model, your teenager is
much more likely to eat well. Not every mealtime, admittedly, but over a
week or more they will eat pretty well. Don’t expect to influence your children’s
eating habits if you tell them to eat their vegetables while you hardly eat them
yourself. Don’t expect them to eat fruit if they never see you eating fruit.
If sweet biscuits, crisps and soft drinks are always in the house, you are saying
they are always fine to eat and drink. Teenagers will learn more from your
actions than they will from any lectures on nutrition.
Dietary guidelines

Based on the scientific information on the nutritional                1. Encourage and support breastfeeding.
requirements for children and teenagers, following are the            2. Children and adolescents need sufficient nutritious
guidelines for Australian children and adolescents. They are not         foods to grow and develop normally.
in order of importance. They are designed to provide a balance        3. Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods.
of good nutrition. The guidelines should not be used to judge
                                                                      4. Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruit.
single foods because they apply to the total diet. All, except the
                                                                      5. Eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and
first one, are important for teenage nutrition.
                                                                         noodles), preferably wholegrain.

                                                                      6. Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives.

                                                                      7. Include milks, yoghurts, cheeses and/or alternatives.

                                                                      8. Choose water as a drink.

                                                                      9. Limit saturated fat and moderate total fat intake.

                                                                     10. Choose foods low in salt.

                                                                     11. Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods
                                                                         containing added sugars.

                                                                     12. Care for your child’s food; prepare and store it safely.

                                                                     A copy of the Australian Government’s official Dietary Guidelines for Children and
                                                                     Adolescents can be downloaded from nhmrc.gov.au/publications
Fo o d a n d h e a l t h
Let’s take a look at what is good eating for the teenager.
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is in the form of a ‘food
plate’ to show the balance of nutrition needed for health.
This is shown in the illustration to the right.
The amount of food a child or teenager needs to get the essential
nutrients for growth and development are found on the

                                                                    Reprinted, with permission, from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
following page. Some very active teenagers will need more than
this to get enough energy (kilojoules) each day. Adolescents
need extra nutrients to support their growth spurt, which begins
in girls at around 9–11 years, peaks at age 11–12, and is
generally completed around 15 years. Girls tend to only grow
taller after their first menstrual period. For boys, it begins
at around 10 –12 years, peaks at 12 –14 years and ends by about
age 19. Some boys can continue growing into their early twenties,
particularly if they are late developers.
                                            SuggESTED SERvES FRoM EaCH FooD gRoup

                           BREaD,               vEgETaBlES,                             Milk,      MEaT, FiSH,   ExTRa
   Age                                                                       FRuiT
                         CEREalS ETC              lEguMES                            yogHuRT ETC    EggS ETC     FooDS

                                3–4                      4                     2          3          0.5 – 1     1–2
   4 –7 yrs

                                4–6                    4–5                   1–2          3          1 – 1.5     1–2
   8 –11 yrs

                                4–7                    5 –9                  3–4        3–5           1–2        1–3
   12 –18 yrs

Source: Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Commonwealth of Australia 1998
W h a t i s a s e r ve s i z e ?

On the previous page is the minimum        vegetable group                         Meat and meat alternatives
number of serves from each food group      (serve a variety of colours)            (trim off any excess fat)

needed for good health. The serve sizes    ½ cup cooked vegetables                 65-100g cooked meat, chicken

for children and teenagers are given for   ½ cup cooked legumes, eg. baked beans   80-120g cooked fish

comparison because you may have a          1 cup salad                             2 small eggs

child in a different age bracket.          1 small potato                          ½ cup cooked legumes, eg. baked beans

As there is often confusion over what is   Fruit                                   ¹⁄³ cup nuts
                                           (fresh fruit has the most fibre)        1½ tablespoons peanut butter
a serve size, here are some examples of
                                           1 medium fruit, eg. banana, orange      Extra foods
one serve:
                                           2 small fruit, eg. apricots, plums      (enjoyable, but not essential)
Bread and cereal group
(best choices are wholemeal and            1 cup canned fruit                      1½ scoops of ice cream
wholegrain)                                125mL fruit juice                       4 plain sweet biscuits
2 slices of bread or 1 bread roll          1½ tablespoons sultanas                 40g cake
1 cup cooked rice, pasta or noodles        Milk and milk alternatives              25g chocolate
1 cup cooked porridge                      (try the reduced fat varieties)         30g potato crisps
1 ¹⁄³ cups breakfast cereal (40g)          1 cup milk                              12 hot chips
2 wheat breakfast biscuits                 1 cup soy drink (calcium fortified)     50g jelly beans, jelly snakes
                                           ½ cup evaporated milk
                                           40g cheese (2 slices)
                                           200g yoghurt (1 small tub)
                                           1 cup custard
a d a y ’s t e e n a g e e a t i n g

So, to put this together as a day’s eating,   Evening meal
a teenager might eat:                         150g beef (1½ meat serve)
Breakfast                                     2 potatoes (2 vegetable serves)
80g breakfast cereal (2 bread serves)         1½ cups vegetables (3 vegetable serves)
240mL milk (1 milk serve)                     1 slice bread and margarine
125mL fruit juice (1 fruit serve)             (1 bread serve)
Morning snack                                 1 cup canned fruit (1 fruit serve)
1 banana (1 fruit serve)                      1½ scoops of ice cream (1 extra serve)
1 glass water                                 The eating plan above totals 5 bread
lunch                                         serves, 5½ vegetable serves, 4 fruit
1 sandwich comprising 2 slices bread          serves, 3 milk serves, 1½ meat serves,
(2 bread serves), 40g cheese                  and 2 extra serves.
(1 milk serve), tomato, lettuce, cucumber
(about ½ vegetable serve)                     We are certain they will often eat a lot

1 apple (1 fruit serve)                       more than this during the peak growing

1 glass water                                 years, but it does give an idea of the

afternoon snack                               amount needed for good health. Large

25g chocolate (1 extra serve)                 appetites are normal for teenagers going

300mL carton flavoured milk                   through their growth spurts. If their

(1 milk serve)                                shoe size is increasing then you can expect
                                              a bigger appetite!
T h e i m p o r t a n t m i n e ra l s       i ro n
Adequate iron and calcium are particularly   Iron is an important mineral during
important as the adolescent undergoes        growth, especially for young women.
the growth spurt. By eating a balanced       Iron needs of children are 6–8 mg per day,
diet, your teenager should be getting        while for adolescents it rises to 10–13mg
enough of both these important minerals.     daily. Not getting enough iron will
Many food companies have also produced       contribute to fatigue, pale skin and
both iron and calcium fortified foods to     anaemia, and reduce their ability to
help teenagers get their daily needs, for    concentrate and fight infections.
example breakfast cereals, milk and bread.   You can see from the list opposite that
                                             many foods provide iron.
                                             Meats and seafood provide easy-to-absorb
                                             iron, while iron from plant foods (for
                                             example bread and rice) is less easy to
                                             absorb. Foods high in vitamin C greatly
                                             improve the absorption of iron from plant
                                             foods, hence you will often hear the
                                             advice to eat fruit with vegetarian meals,
                                             slice a banana on breakfast cereal or
                                             have a glass of juice with meals.
Meats, seafood, egg             iron (mg)   Breakfast cereals            iron (mg)   vegetables, fruits           iron (mg)
Liver, 100g                       10.0      Good Start, 2 biscuits          3.0      Peas, ½ cup                     1.3
Lean beef, 100g                    3.8      Sportsplus, FibrePlus, 45g      3.0      Dried apricots, 5 pieces        1.3
Lean lamb, 100g                    3.5      Cornflakes, 30g                 3.0      Potato, 1 medium                0.8
Paté, 1 tablespoon                 2.0      Just Right, Sustain, 30g        3.0      Raisins, 2 tablespoon           0.6
Lean pork, 100g                    1.0      Weetbix, 2 biscuits             2.5      Vegetables, average serve       0.5
Chicken leg, no skin, 100g         1.0      Breakfast bars, 1 average       2.5      Fresh fruit, 1 serve            0.5
Tuna, salmon, 100g                 1.0      Sultana Bran, 30g               2.0      Confectionery, muesli bars
Shellfish, average serve           1.0      Muesli, ½ cup                   1.5      Muesli bars, 1 average          2.0
Egg, 1 whole egg                   0.7      Vitabrits, 2 biscuits           1.0      Dark chocolate, 50g             1.5
Chicken breast, no skin, 100g      0.6      Porridge, ¾ cup                 1.0      Milk chocolate, 50g             0.7
Fish, grilled, average, 100g       0.6      Wheatgerm, 1 tablespoon         0.6
legumes, nuts                               Breads, rice and pasta
Baked beans, lentils,                       Wholemeal bread, 1 slice        0.6
kidney beans ½ cup                 2.0      Fruit loaf, 1 slice             0.6
Cashews, 30g                       1.5      White bread, 1 slice            0.4
Almonds, 30g                       1.0      Pasta, ½ cup                    0.4
Peanuts, 30g                       0.5      Rice, ½ cup                     0.3
Peanut butter, 1 tablespoon        0.5
C a lc i u m
Teenagers need a lot of calcium for their   Milk per 250mL           Calcium (mg)   Soy foods                   Calcium (mg)
bones and teeth. Stronger bones built       Calcium Plus                 600        Calcium –fortified soy drink,
during adolescence can help reduce the      Skim/Tone milk               400        250mL                           300

risk of fractures today and brittle bones   Light Start                  350        Tofu, firm
                                                                                    (calcium coagulant), 100g       160
(osteoporosis) in later years. Calcium      HiLo milk                    310
                                                                                    Tofu, soft
needs of children are 800 mg a day,         Flavoured milks              300        (calcium coagulant), 100g        80
while this need rises in teenagers to       Whole milk                   275        Desserts per serve
1000 –1200 mg daily.                        yoghurt per 200g                        Custard, ½ cup                  160
Dairy foods such as milk, cheese, yoghurt   Low fat, natural             360        Icecream, 1½ scoops             100
and ice cream are the most common           Low fat, fruit flavour       320        other foods per serve
source of calcium. Calcium is also found    Plain, natural               290        Sardines + bones, 50g           175
in calcium-fortified soy drinks, tinned     Whole, fruit flavour         260        Salmon + bones, 50g             150
fish with edible bones and green, leafy     Cheese per 30g                          Prawns, 100g                    150
vegetables. The list opposite shows you     Cheddar                      240        Spinach, ½ cup cooked           140
the best sources of calcium.                Processed                    200        Milk chocolate, 50g             125
                                            Ricotta                      100        Tahini (sesame seed paste),
                                            Cottage cheese                30        1 tablespoon                     90
                                                                                    Baked beans, 1 cup               90
                                                                                    Soy beans, ½ cup                 80
                                                                                    Almonds, 30g                     70
Kidney beans, chick peas
½ cup                             60
Brazil nuts, 30g                  55
Sesame seeds, 3 tablespoon, 30g   40
Egg                               35
Broccoli, 1 cup cooked            30
Dark chocolate, 50g               25
Bread, 1 slice                    20
Peanuts, 30g                      20
Meat, chicken, 100g               20
Peanut butter, 1 tablespoon       10
Pasta, 1 cup cooked               10
Rice, 1 cup cooked                 5
The usual eating habits of a teenager
Teenagers generally choose food for taste and gratification.        Teenagers may seem to ignore your good advice on nutrition,
It is mainly adults (and older teenagers) who realise that eating   but don’t judge your teenager’s eating habits as either ‘good’ or
habits can make a big difference to long-term health. The best      ‘bad’ as they can take it personally. The main message is that
you can do is offer good, wholesome food at home and be a good      it is the amount and the frequency of consumption that really
role model for them.                                                determines whether a food or meal is good or bad. Having fish
Teenagers will usually eat three meals a day, because skipping      and chips once a month is not likely to harm anyone’s health.
meals will leave them hungry and tired. However, those three        Eating fatty takeaways four times a week, on the other hand,
meals probably won’t provide enough nutrition for normal growth,    could contribute to overweight and unhealthy blood cholesterol.
hence they will eat 2–4 snacks a day in addition to the meals,      Of course, there are some healthy takeaways to choose from.
especially if they are involved in sport. Now you know why you
run out of food so rapidly!
Sometimes teenagers do skip a meal because they have run out
of time or have social commitments. They will be happy if you
make them a quick sandwich or give them a banana, a muesli
or nut bar as they race out of the house.
Choosing a good takeaway                                              Snacks
Takeaway foods can make life much easier when you are on              When teenagers want to eat, they want to eat now. Snacks are a
holidays, stretched for time, or haven’t been able to do the          very important source of nutrients and kilojoules to fuel the
grocery shopping. Sure, some takeaways are high in fat and salt,      growth, development and exercise in teenagers.
but there are a good many with wholesome offerings.                   The trick for parents is to make healthy snacks easy snacks.
Go to the website of a franchised takeaway and there is a good        Last night’s leftovers can be heated up with some baked beans
chance that they provide the nutritional breakdown of every           for a quick mini-meal. Have some fresh fruit salad in the fridge,
food and drink they sell. From there you can choose the ones          so it can be served up with some yoghurt in a flash, or have a
with the lowest fat content. As a rough guide, a low fat meal         bowl of dried fruit and nuts on the bench. Muffins with grilled
is one that provides 15g or less of fat for the entire meal. Good     tomato and cheese can be made in an instant. Even a quick
examples are meals made on bread rolls or salads. Some pie            snack of sardines on toast or breakfast cereal and milk is ideal
and hamburger outlets now provide low fat choices. Food halls         to help meet the teenager’s nutrition needs.
can offer a variety of healthy choices, such as stir-fries, salads,   There are some other great tasting snacks that provide good
noodles and sushi.                                                    nutrition.
When choosing takeaways, use it as an opportunity to educate          •   Fruit (fresh and canned)          •   Sandwiches   •   Toast and peanut butter
your teenagers as to why you have made a healthy choice.              •   Cheese on toast     •   Cheese and cracker biscuits
                                                                      •   Home-made popcorn            •   Pita bread and dip     •   Flavoured milk
                                                                      •   Flavoured yoghurt        •   Cereal and milk   •   Chocolate     •   Nut bars
                                                                      •   Muesli bars   •   Food bars
ve g e t a r i a n i s m                                            E a t i n g fo r b ra i n p o w e r
Some teenagers, often girls, will decide to become vegetarian.      High school is the time teenagers will experience tests,
This may be due to friends becoming vegetarian or because of        homework, projects and final year exams. Teenagers need to eat
religious, cultural, animal welfare or health beliefs. A wisely     well to keep their brain in peak condition as poor eating habits
chosen vegetarian diet can be very healthy and can provide all      can make the brain work less efficiently.
the nutrients for growth and development. The protein needs of
                                                                    Habits that can reduce brain efficiency and concentration include:
vegetarian children can be met by milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs,
                                                                    •   Missing meals, especially breakfast. It is now well established
nuts, peanut butter, soy drinks and legumes (eg. baked beans,
                                                                        that being hungry makes it more difficult to memorise class
lentils and kidney beans). It is always good to have a variety of
                                                                        work and think through problems. Make sure breakfast is eaten,
these foods as they offer a range of nutrients. Dairy foods and
                                                                        even if it is only a drink of milk, fruit or some yoghurt.
calcium-fortified soy foods provide calcium, while legumes, nuts
                                                                    •   Eating poorly. Balanced nutrition will mean better sleeping
and eggs will provide other minerals like iron.
                                                                        habits, less colds and flus.
Problems can arise on very strict vegetarian diets such as a
                                                                    •   Being dehydrated will affect thinking. Make sure plenty of fluids
vegan diet where no animal-derived foods at all are eaten.
                                                                        are consumed after sport and exercise.
This can lead to delayed growth and possible deficiencies in
                                                                    •   Energy drinks containing caffeine should not be consumed late
vitamin B12, calcium, zinc, iron and protein. We recommend
                                                                        at night as they can cause sleeplessness.
that you seek the advice of an Accredited Practising Dietician
                                                                    •   Alcohol. Older teenagers may consume alcohol. Encourage
in this situation.
                                                                        sensible drinking habits. Excess alcohol will not help anyone’s
                                                                        study performance.
Fo o d a n d yo u r s k i n
Many parents think that one way to control eating habits among
their children is to tell them that confectionery or chips will
give them pimples. At the moment there is universal agreement
among dermatologists that diet is unrelated to acne. Pimples
are the bugbear of the teenage years and appear mainly due to
normal hormonal changes during puberty and not due to dirty
skin or poor diet. If you have concerns about your teenager’s
skin then see your GP for advice. There are medications
available to reduce the severity of acne.
C o n t ro l l i n g w e i g h t
We live in an environment that makes it less likely that teenagers      in the long run and do not educate the teenager about healthy
walk or ride their bikes. It is probably the lack of activity that      eating. If you would like your teenager to receive specific dietary
makes it easy for teenagers to gain excess weight. This is why          advice then take them to an Accredited Practising Dietician.
being involved in daily play, sport or exercise can be so important     Strict dieting can result in constipation, a lack of energy for sport
for teenagers to stay a healthy weight.                                 and not enough essential nutrients like calcium and iron. It can
Body weight is a balance of kilojoules in and kilojoules out.           also stop growth and development and prevent girls from having
Exercise is the kilojoules out; food and drink are the kilojoules in.   their periods. All this can lead to brittle bones and fatigue.
Despite all that you have heard, the best way to control body           For weight control, the best dietary advice is to provide
weight is to be active each day and to eat a good wholesome diet        nutritious meals at home and reduce the number of ‘extra’ foods
as described earlier.                                                   and sugary drinks. Teenagers like to rebel and choosing high
                                                                        kilojoule snack foods can be part of that. Peer pressure and the
We i g h t lo s s d i e t s                                             desire to look good will hopefully get them to change to positive
                                                                        eating habits.
It is quite normal for teenagers to grow in both height and weight.
                                                                        Parents should also realise that some teenagers, usually girls,
If your teenager gets a little tubby, weight loss is not recommended
                                                                        can feel they are overweight when they are actually a good weight
because it can interfere with their growth and development.
                                                                        for their height. Even some underweight teenagers attempt to
In this case the aim is to keep their weight stable and allow them
                                                                        lose further weight. This is not always easy to discourage, as they
to ‘grow into’ their weight.
                                                                        may have an eating disorder.
Never place a teenager on a fad diet (eg. low carbohydrate diets)
or a crash diet (eg. only apples all day) as they are unsuccessful
E a t i n g d i s o rd e rs
We have all seen pictures of models and actors with eating        Bulimia has different characteristics although there is still an
disorders. It is easy to recognise when it has gone too far.      obsession with food and eating. Secret binge eating, consuming
As parents, you want to stop the situation ever getting to this   food for its emotional comfort, rather than nutrition, is common.
stage. The two main types of eating disorders are anorexia        Laxatives may be used to hasten weight loss. This is very
nervosa and bulimia nervosa, often shortened to anorexia and      dangerous as it can cause dehydration and interfere with the heart
bulimia. Both boys and girls can develop anorexia and bulimia,    rhythm. They often feel out of control when they eat and tend
but the conditions are more common among teenage girls.           to purge their body of food eaten by vomiting, abusing laxatives
Teenagers with anorexia do not see themselves as underweight      or exercising at length to ‘burn off’ the kilojoules eaten.
and have an intense fear of gaining weight. In females, periods   They will usually look to be normal weight unless they also suffer
will cease when body weight drops below a critical level. In      from anorexia. Sometimes their dentist will comment that the
younger girls, the onset of menstruation is delayed. Sufferers    enamel on their front teeth is eroding and their teeth may tingle
of eating disorders may often acquire a very detailed knowledge   when eating hot or cold food (this is due to stomach acid eroding
of nutrition, especially an awareness of the kilojoule content    tooth enamel during frequent vomiting).
of foods. Due to very low levels of body fat, extra clothing is   Eating disorders are an illness and require specialist medical
worn to keep the body warm. Some become very good cooks, but      attention. Speak to your GP for more information.
often eat very little of what they cook, while others become      There are support groups that can help teenagers and parents
vegetarian, only as an excuse to gradually eat less food.         deal with the illness.
To deliberately lose weight, young people with anorexia may       Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders Inc
exercise for more than two hours a day.                           anred.com
                                                                  WA Eating Disorders Alliance
Don’t despair                                                         1 0 fo o d t i p s fo r p a re n t s
Despite your wise words and providing nutritious meals and            •   Keep the fruit bowl ‘topped up’ or have fruit salad in the fridge.
keeping the fruit bowl filled, your teenager may seem to disregard        Teenagers are more likely to eat fruit when it is readily available.
all that you do to promote healthy eating habits. Don’t despair       •   Make sure teenagers start the day with breakfast. This will help
if they have unconventional eating styles. The good food habits you       their thinking and memory at school.
have portrayed over a lifetime will rub off. Once into early          •   Water is the ideal thirst quencher. Keep water bottles handy.
adulthood, it is common for them to realise that they have to take    •   Boost your teenager’s interest in good nutrition. Encourage them
responsibility for their health and then begin to incorporate a           to cook.
lot of the healthy habits you demonstrated during their growing       •   For good health, vitality and improved immunity. Serve fruit, salad
years. That makes it all worthwhile.                                      and vegetables each day.
                                                                      •   Buy treat foods occasionally, not daily. This sends the strong
                                                                          message that some foods are occasional foods, while other foods,
                                                                          like fruit, are everyday foods.
                                                                      •   Keep foods like bread, peanut butter, cheese, yoghurt and tinned
                                                                          fruit handy. These are excellent for a quick snack.
                                                                      •   Don’t encourage fad or crash diets. They are unhealthy and
                                                                          potentially dangerous.
                                                                      •   Teenagers who grow up in families that regularly eat together
                                                                          have better nutrition. Aim to have a meal as a family at least
                                                                          once a day.
                                                                      •   Above all, be a good role model. When parents eat lots of fruit and
                                                                          vegetables, their children tend to follow suit.
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This brochure is provided for general informational purposes only, and is current only at the date of first publication. The information is not tailored to any particular individual’s circumstances. It does not take into
account your child’s medical history and any medication your child may be taking, and cannot replace the advice of your health care professional. For these reasons, to the maximum extent permitted by law, HBF
and Dr Duncan Jefferson will not be liable for any loss or damage resulting from any reliance upon this information or views. HBF Health Funds Inc. incorporated in Western Australia ARBN 126 884 786 is a Private
Health Insurer under the Private Health Insurance Act 2007. The liability of its constitutional members is limited.                                                                                           HI-546 31/03/08

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