Can We Control Cervical Cancer by anamaulida


									Cervical cancer is voraciously eating women of reproductive age. The
third most common kind of cancer claims almost half a million women
worldwide. This disease is more prevalent in developing countries and
accounts for 80% of global mortality across the world.Out of a group of
human papilloma viruses (HPV), a few varieties have been categorized
under high risk- human papilloma viruses (HPV). These varieties have been
proved to be the causative agents of cervical cancer. This malignant
neoplasm (tumor) starts at the cervix and opens at the top of the
vagina.Common symptoms associated with this disease are abnormal bleeding
from the vagina, pelvic pain and back pain. Precancerous stage or the
early stage of this disease is usually asymptomatic. This disease takes
time to intensify into cancerous condition.Risk FactorsA number of risk
factors have been associated with this disease out of which few factors
can be controlled by us. A list of such factors is as follows-
Smoking- It has been proved that both active and passive smoking increase
the risk of cervical cancer. The carcinogenic byproducts of tobacco have
been found in the cervical mucus of the actively smoking women. These
substances can damage the DNA of the cervical cells. Keeping the ill
effects of smoking in view it is suggested to stop it.
Oral contraceptives- Use of oral contraceptives for more than five years
is related with increase in the risk of cervical cancer. The mechanism of
action of contraceptives is not clear but it is hypothesized that
hormone-related mechanisms promotes the integration of HPV DNA into the
host genome. This in turn promotes the transition from premalignant to
malignant state. As an alternative to contraceptives it is advisable to
use condoms.
High Parity- Sex at a very early age and a higher rate of full term
pregnancies is closely associated with this disease. A higher rate of
pregnancy maintains the transformation zone on the exocervix for many
years. This in turn facilitates the direct exposure to HPV and other
cofactors. Sex education to adolescent girls will be helpful to eradicate
this problem.
Weakened Immune System- Food rich in vital nutrients boosts up our immune
system. Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and
antioxidants which help us to fight against many diseases including
cervical cancer.
Safe Sex- A women having multiple sexual partners or whose sexual partner
participates in high risk sexual activities can easily succumb to this
disease. Sex education can be a solution to this problem also.
Detection / Preventive MeasuresUse of vaccination and Pap smears
(Papanicolaou test)
Vaccinations - Scientists across the world are struggling hard to
synthesize a vaccine which can fight this deadly disease. They have
achieved success to some extent as the vaccines are capable of fighting
against only few strains of HPV. Moreover the identification of target
group for administration of vaccine involves some ethical issues. Very
young pre-pubertal girls who had no previous sexual exposure are the
right target for vaccination. Hence vaccination does not assure a
complete eradication of cervical cancer.
Pap smears- Cells scrapped from the tip of the cervix are observed under
microscope to detect the cancerous or precancerous condition of the
cervix. It is advisable to have this test done after the age of 21 at
every 2 years of intervals. This test detects the disease in very initial
stage making its cure easier. Awareness about this test and making it
available at a cheaper price is a favorable step towards control of
cervical cancer in developing countries.
Apart from these preventive measures steps to control risk factors and
general maintenance of health and hygiene is also recommended to control
this disease.
Vaccines are being promoted by the doctors and pharmaceutical companies.
But many facts are not being communicated to the common man. Vaccine
alone is like a half equipped, single man army fighting against a deadly
disease like cervical cancer. Awareness about all the angles of this
disease is very essential as getting Pap smears done and leading a
healthy sexual life are also equally essential.

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