Docstoc

instruct uwo ca psychology Freu

Document Sample
instruct uwo ca psychology Freu Powered By Docstoc
					                 Term Test 4
                             •   mean = 73.6
                             •   SD = 12.6
                             •   range = 39-100
                             •   one Q discarded
                             •   optional exam viewing
                                 to follow once
Final exam                       everyone has written
• Thurs April 15, 2 pm           test
• Winter semester only
• 30% of course grade, mult choice, up to 100 Qs
• 60% last third, 20% middle third, 20% first third
• optional review session, last day of classes
               Three Minute Review
SOCIAL INFLUENCE: OBEDIENCE
•   Why do people obey to an extreme degree?
     –   Cult followers
         •   Jonestown, Waco
     –   bureaucrats in genocides
         •   Nazi Holocaust, Cambodia, Rwanda, etc.
•   Milgram’s Obedience Experiments
     –   The majority of people will follow orders to an extreme degree
     –   Results surprised many people, esp. psychologists
     –   Affected by proximity to victim, proximity to authority, and
         reactions of others in same situation
     –   Not affected by personality traits
•   Stanford Prison Experiment
     –   Ordinary people get caught up in roles
•   Banality of evil (Hannah Arendt)
    – Perhaps Adolf Eichmann was no different than the rest
         of us
•   Psychology of genocide
    1.   difficult living conditions, fierce competition for resources
    2.   strong in- vs. out-groups
    3.   violence, blaming the victim
    4.   violence justifies itself
         •   can’t stop because of cognitive dissonance
           Take a Personality Test
•   Take the test
•   Put your ID but NOT your name
•   Check the web site for results
•   Read instructions on the web carefully
        It’s a Small World After All
• Stanley Milgram also did other cool, more optimistic
  experiments
• Milgram (1967) -- If you pick any two people at
  random, how many intermediate acquaintances
  does it take to establish a link between them?




 Joe Smith                                Timothy Kuhn
Omaha, Neb.                               Boston, Mass.
        Six Degrees of Separation
Stanley Milgram (1967)
  – sent 300 letters to randomly-selected people in Omaha
    Nebraska
  – asked them to have the letters relayed to a specific
    person in Boston whose name, age, location (but not
    their specific address) and occupation was specified
  – the original person was asked to send the letter to
    someone they thought would be closer to the target and
    then to get that someone to follow the same instructions
     • “If you do not know the target-person on a first-name basis, then
       pass the document folder on to one friend that you feel is most
       likely to know the target. That friend must be someone you know
       on a first-name basis."
        Six Degrees of Separation
Milgram followed the sequence of transmissions
  – On average, it took 5.5 (rounded up to 6) intermediate
    people
  – Conclusion: Any two people are connected by “six
    degrees of separation”
         Six Degrees of Separation
• But…
  – Milgram recruited only “particularly sociable” people
  – only 30% of the letters arrived
  – success rate was much lower for low income participants
  – sociologists suggest than, on average, most people know
    about 300 people on a first-name basis, but there is likely
    wide variability in this number
  – some argue that Milgram’s number was too large
    because there were probably other shorter routes
    unknown to the participants
Links
Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon
                  In Hollywood,
                  there are ~3
                  degrees
Hubs
Hubs
       10 most connected
       actors in Hollywood
Internet nodes in 1998: 800 million   Hubs
Average degrees of separation: 19
Sex Degrees of Copulation
Matthew Perry




                HIV/AIDS hub
                • “Patient Zero”: Gaetan Dugas
                • Canadian flight attendant
                • 250 partners/year
                • 40 of 248 people diagnosed
                with AIDS in 1982 had had sex
                with him or someone who had
9-11 Terrorist Links
  Brain Connections




• amygdala appears to be a hub
Looking back at Freud: Genius or BS?




     Sigmund Freud
      1896 - 1939
Freud and Pop Culture
        • Freud is the name most
          associated with Psychology
        • Freud has had the greatest
          impact on literature and
          pop culture of any
          psychologist
             •   psychoanalysis
             •   anal retentive
             •   id, ego, superego
             •   penis envy
             •   Freudian slip
Three Revolutions in Human Thought
          (… according to Freud himself)

      Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
      • the earth is not the centre of the universe


      Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
      • humans are not special, they are just a species
        like any other animals



      Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
      • humans are not motivated only by their
        conscious thoughts but largely by unconscious
        (and often unpleasant) motives
        The Essence of Freud
“Every man has reminiscences which he would
not tell to everyone but only to his friends. He
has other matters in his mind which he would
not reveal even to his friends, but only to
himself, and that in secret. But there are other
things, which a man is afraid to yell even to
himself, and every decent man has a number of
such things stored away in his mind.”

                            Fyodor Dostoevsky
                   Notes from the Underground
              Freud’s Insights
•   Much of human thought is unconscious
•   Humans can have conflicting motivations
•   Bridging of thoughts and urges
•   Early developmental events can have a large
    effect on adult behavior
Historical Context
          • Victorian era
            – 19th century
          • Freud spent most
            of his life in
            Vienna, Austria
          • trained as a
            physiologist and
            neurologist
          • interesting to see
            how ideas are
            framed by
            historical context
                        Hysteria
• psychogenic: due to an unknown
  psychological cause rather than a
  physiological cause
• originally thought to be only
  females (hystera = womb)
• symptoms
   – paralysis of some body part or loss
     of one of the senses with no
     apparent physiological cause
• could be treated with hypnosis           glove anesthesia
   – suggests psychological cause
• Freud and Josef Breuer studied
  hysteria and wrote Studies of
  Hysteria together
• now known as conversion
  disorder
             Hysteria Treatment
• they thought it came from repressed memories
  (usually of sexual abuse)
   – repression: unacceptable thoughts are pushed out of
     memory
• and that it could be cured through catharsis
   – catharsis: explosive release of dammed up emotions
• hypnosis
• free association
• psychoanalysis
   – “talking cure”
           Case Study: Anna O.
 (In case you’re ever a contestant on Jeopardy… her
         real name was Bertha Pappenheim)
• many symptoms
  –   loss of speech
  –   disturbances in vision
  –   headaches
  –   paralysis and loss of feeling in right arm
• she said symptoms started when she was
  unable to express a strong emotion
• under hypnosis, she experienced emotions
  and gained relief from hysterical symptoms
  (catharsis)
• supposedly cured
        Desires not Memories
the idea that hysteria was caused by repressed
  sexual memories was very unpopular!
Freud also realized that many of his patients’
  seduction experiences had never occurred
…so Freud changed his theory

The Interpretation of Dreams
• remember manifest content and latent
  content?
• hysteria caused not by repressed memories
  but by repressed sexual desires
       Structures of the Mind




• conscious
• preconscious
• unconscious
                            Id
• source of psychic energy
• fully unconscious
• contains the libido
   – libido: sexual drive
• pleasure principle: obtain immediate gratification of
  desires
• ignores reality

• “the dark, inaccessible part of our personality… We
  approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a
  cauldron full of seething excitations…. It is filled with
  energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no
  organization, produces no collective will, but only a
  striving to bring about the satisfaction of the
  instinctual needs subject to the observance of the
  pleasure principle”
                                  -- Sigmund Freud, 1933
                   Superego


• conscience
  – internalization of rules and restrictions of society
  – makes us feel guilty for doing or thinking the
    wrong things
• ego-ideal
  – internalization of what a person would like to be
  – makes us feel good for doing or thinking the right
    things
                     Ego
• gets energy from the id
• thinking, planning, protective self
• reality principle: tendency to satisfy the id’s
  demands realistically by compromising
  between the demands of the id and superego
• these compromises can have psychological
  effects
Could there be a brain-based interpretation?




• hierarchical functions
             Defense Mechanisms 1
• mental systems that become active when id and superego
  conflict
• denial
   – unacceptable thoughts are ignored
   – e.g., alcoholics ignore their problems
• repression
   – unacceptable thoughts are kept away from consciousness
   – e.g., forgetting an upsetting childhood event such as a death
• reaction formation
   – behaving in the opposite way to how you really feel because the true
     feelings produce anxiety
   – e.g., pretending you like somebody that you can’t stand
• projection
   – denying your faults but finding them in others
   – e.g., an unemployed father yells at his son for being lazy
             Defense Mechanisms 2
• displacement
   – redirection of an impulse away from the person who caused it and
     towards another
   – e.g., a boy who is angry with his father beats on his little brother
• sublimation
   – channeling psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an
     acceptable outlet
   – e.g., directing one’s sex drive into creative efforts
• rationalization
   – creating an acceptable justification for an unacceptable behavior
   – e.g., a gambler says he lost a lot of money because he was trying to
     win some for his family
• conversion
   – manifestation of a psychic conflict as a physical symptom
   – e.g., hysteria, Anna O.
     Windows to the Unconscious
•   The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901)
•   Freudian slips
•   suppressed intentions
•   dreams
    – manifest and latent content
    – release of suppressed wishes


• BUT “sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”
Psychosexual Stages of Development
 •   psycho: the mind
 •   sexual: physical pleasure more generally

 •   five stages of development
       1.   oral stage
       2.   anal stage
       3.   phallic stage
       4.   latent stage
       5.   genital stage
 •   people may become fixated at a particular
     stage of development
                     Oral Stage
•   first two years
•   baby must get food by suckling
•   toddlers learn to chew and bite
•   oral fixation
    – can occur with improper weaning
    – can lead to excessive mouth behaviors
       • e.g., chewing on pens, smoking, overeating
                             Anal Stage
• ages 2-4
• anal expressive stage
   – child enjoys expelling feces
   – fixation
       • messy, wasteful
• anal retentive stage
   – child enjoys retaining feces
   – fixation
       • obsessively clean and organized, stingy

      You might be anal retentive if…
          • you eat the M&Ms in color order.
          • you fold your dirty clothes before putting them in the hamper.
          • all your books, CDs, and movies have to be alphabetical order.
          • you alphabetize your spices.
          • you organize your closet by color, season, and fabric.
          • you remove the tires to wash inside the wheel-wells of your vehicle.
          • you wonder if “anal retentive has a hyphen”
Phallic Stage: Males
      • ages 4-6
      • Oedipus complex
        – Greek myth of Oedipus
        – little boy’s attachment to his
          mother
        – usually repressed around
          age 5 but can affect
          personality throughout life
        – unconscious wish to take
          father’s place
        – worry of punishment by
          father (castration anxiety)
        – fixation  preoccupation
          with manhood, acting macho
           Phallic Stage: Females
• Electra complex
  –   Greek myth of Electra
  –   little girl’s attachment to her father
  –   fewer conflicts than boys have
  –   penis envy
       • girls realize boys have something they don’t
       • girls see this as a weakness
       • girls gravitate toward their fathers
       • fixation  feelings of inferiority to men, flirting, seeking
         father figures to overpower
       • if you can’t have a penis, have a baby
     Latent and Genital Stages
• latent stage
  – middle childhood
  – sexual instincts are submerged
• genital stage
  – adolescence through adulthood
  – adult sexual attachments
              Carl Jung
              • one of several neo-Freudians
              • Swiss psychiatrist
              • initially Freud called Jung his
                adopted eldest son, his crown
                prince and successor
              • Jung challenged Freud’s ideas
              • Freud got peeved and they
                never talked again after 1913
 Carl Jung    • collective unconscious:
(1875-1961)
                memories and ideas inherited
                from our ancestors
              • archetypes: universal thought
                forms and patterns that reside
                in the collective unconscious
                 – e.g., archetype of “the hero”
Psychoanalytic (Over-)Interpretations
        Criticisms of Freudian theory
• experimenters cannot be objective
   – confirmation bias
   – Freud only took notes after the interview
   – no verification of accuracy of patients’ reports
• case studies may not be representative
   – anxious, wealthy Austrians
• psychoanalytic theory is not a theory
   – concepts are too vague
   – does not allow prediction
       • What will happen to a boy with a harsh, rejecting mother and a weak,
         alcoholic father?
• developmental theories were based on studying adults not
  children
• experiments do not support theories
   – no evidence for developmental fixations
       • no correlation between toilet training and personality
   – dream theory doesn’t hold up well
       • thirsty people don’t dream of drinking
       • some say Freud was male-centred or even misogynistic