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Inclusive Urbanization C Social Protection for the Slum and


   Urbanization -
Social Protection for
   the Slum and
Pavement Dwellers in
        Darshini Mahadevia
         (CEPT University)
            Pooja Shah
         (CEPT University)
        A CEPT-MHT SEWA Project

A presentation at SPA Annual Research Workshop
                June 3-4, 2009
• Social protection – conceptual framework
• Urban Social Policies – Case of India
• Social Policies in Gujarat
• Why tenure is important – macro evidences from urban India
• Forms of urban land tenure – policy implications
• Tenure and social protection linkages
• Introduction of Case Study cities
• Tenure in slums in two case study cities
• Community mobilization for basic services – Case in
• Formation of an informal settlement - Surat
Research plan for Year 2
Conceptual Framework

• Promotional aspects vs protectional aspects (Drèze and
  Sen 1991)

• Promotional aspects are more ambitious as it takes care
  of wanting to eradicate the problems that have survived
  through centuries

• Success with the promotional aspects makes protection
  Urban Situation in India
• 30% population living in urban areas amounting to 320
  million population
• 25.7% population (or 80 million) are below the official
  poverty line
• 24.7 million is the housing shortage (for about 40% of urban
• About 70% of the urban employed are in the informal sector
• 42.6 million or 15% of urban population live in slums
• Metropolitan cities, a quarter of urban population live in
• In Mumbai, 60% population live in slums – a reflection on the
  land policies and dynamics
Urban Situation in India (Continued)

• Inspite of low level of urbanization, rural-urban migration
  has slowed down since 1980s
• Low rate of urbanization attributed to capital intensive
  nature of industrialization & increasing hostility to the low
  income migrants in cities through various economic and
  non-economic means
Urban Policies

• Urban policies restricted to traditional areas of city
  planning and city infrastructure such as water supply,
  sanitation, land & housing, and roads and public

• Urban policies and policy makers are not comfortable
  with the question of migrants

• Urban policies across the developing world have
  discourage rural-urban migration (UNFPA 2007)
Urban Policies Before Reforms

• Pre-1991, Master Plan/ Development Plan excluded
  majority – 60% of Mumbai’s population live in slums that
  occupy 8% of lands & urban planning is for the rest 92%
  of lands for 40% of the population

• Urban land reforms legislation, Urban Land Ceiling and
  Regulation Act, 1976, brought lands declared as surplus
  into informal market

• Increase in informal housing and development

• Gradual expansion of basic services
Urban exclusions during reforms period
• Urban exclusions linked to urban visions of World Class
• Urban visions are that of the real estate visions
• Isher Ahluwalia HPC (High powered committee) looking
  into the question of use of land as a resource for raising
  urban finances
• Lands transfers for SEZs, Townships and enclaves
• Expulsions from urban space through evictions and
• Low income housing pushed out of the city, a process
  that begun in 1980s

  These policies have impacts on lands available for
  the housing of the poor
               First Year Study
• Secondary data on urban deprivations in India and
  Gujarat – Data at lower level not available
• Institutional structure for social protection in urban
• Understanding the process of informal settlement
• Understanding the question of land tenure and
  tenure mobility in Ahmedabad and Surat
• Documenting the intervention of NGOs for a slum
  upgradation programme in Ahmedabad – SNP
• Focused group discussions in slums in
  Ahmedabad and Surat on tenure and access to
  various social programmes
Social policies in urban areas
• The responsibilities of the urban governments
  restricted to urban infrastructure mentioned earlier.
• In general, the state governments respond to
• In some disasters the urban governments step in
• Approach is relief and compensation by the state
  government, rarely rehabilitation package
  (exception Gujarat 2002 communal violence)
• Education, health, employment and social security
  by the state governments
• Education and health expenditures left to the
  households – 85% of health care expenditures are
  by the households themselves in Gujarat
• While rural areas has norms for public service
  provisions, urban areas do not have any
Urban institutional structure

• Urban local government – water supply &
  sanitation (preventive health), roads,
  public transport, land development &
  housing. Rarely education and health care
• Parastatals - some of the functions of the
  urban local governments
• State government - Education and health,
  plethora of small schemes on social
  Institutional structure for SP
             Individual    Group         Market-      State         Non-state
             &             based         based        provided      public
             household                                              provision

Risk Coping Various        To some       Sale of      Limited       Relief &
            mechanisms,    extent        assets       relief &      rehabilitatio
            including                                 compen-       n in some
            migration                                 sation        cases
            back to home
Risk         Limited       Limited       Limited to   Limited and   Limited
mitigation                 (wherever     wherever     inadequate
                           ROSCAs)       MFIs         coverage
Risk         Migration     Collective    None         Inadequate Mobilization
reduction                  actions for                addressal of ,
                           housing &                  deprivations empowerme
                           basic                                   nt & watch
                           services                                dog role
• Urban Poor & new migrants left to their own devices to
  access housing, basic services, employment, health and

• Believed that the urban population have higher incomes
  and would be able to cope with risks and shocks better
  than the rural population

• Leaves question of access and reducing vulnerabilities
  to the notion of urban citizenship

• Inadequate resources for fulfilling the current functional

• Very large contributions of the poor households to
  financing shelter, basic services, education, health, etc.

• Poor households contributing as coping mechanisms
  than as a choice
 Urban land tenure
• Continuum of levels of security, from insecure to
  secure tenure

• Land tenure broad typologies
  - Secure tenure (legal)
  - De facto secure tenure (intermediate tenure)
  - Insecure tenure
 Urban land tenure defined by
• Tenure defined by possession of (in case study cities)
  - Legal land ownership or renting document
  - Certificate of legal development on the land (conferring to
  the Master / Development Plan and Development Control
  - Property tax bill
  - Possession of voting card
  - Electricity bill or receipt of the payment of the bill

The first two documents gives legal tenure, the rest
Stages of Tenure – how low income
migrants consolidate

                                                                                           Upgraded                 slums
                                                                   Slums with
                                                                   de facto
                                              Temporar y
                                              dwellings /

Darshini Mahadevia and Pooja Shah (2009): Tenure security and Urban Poverty, Publication for Social Protection in Asia – a research advocacy
Tenure regularization leads to
• Urban land reforms – land redistribution
• An address & identity – defining citizenship
• An increase in access – basic services, PDS, education,
  health and social security
• An increase in employment for those working at home
• Improvement in QOL
Tenure decides

• Whether one is in or out of the city’s
  development processes

• It decides where in city one is going to be
  geographically located

• How long one would live in the city
Vicious Cycle of Land Tenure

                        Source : Darshini Mahadevia and Pooja Shah
                        (2009): Tenure security and Urban Poverty,
                        Publication for Social Protection in Asia – a
                        research advocacy program.
Virtuous Cycle of Land Tenure

                             This policy was
                             suggested for the
                             first time in 1976
                             first Habitat
                             Conference in

                        Source : Darshini Mahadevia and Pooja Shah
                        (2009): Tenure security and Urban Poverty,
                        Publication for Social Protection in Asia – a
                        research advocacy program.
Tenure and shocks
• After 2004-05 Mumbai demolitions, a section of population
  returned back to the villages they came from and some did not

• After 2002 communal violence in Ahmedabad, part of migrants
  (without shelter security) returned back to their villages, some
  were given a secure shelter); some with tenure security went
  back with the assistance of NGOs

• Current economic crises, those having to incur high expenditure
  on housing through rent or protection money, returning back to
  their villages (e.g. diamond workers)

• After late 1980s crises in the cotton textile mills in Ahmedabad,
  those living in rent control housing (housing security), survived
  Positive loop of Basic Services to Urban
    Provision of basic services like water, sanitation, education, health, electricity
          and above all employment and access to credit to the urban poor

      Improved Health                             Saving of time and energy spent on
                                                       accessing these facilities

 Reduction in Expenditure and                         Time for income generation
  higher labour productivity                                    activities

    Higher participation in                                   Women work
       labour market                                          participation

                              Increased income and savings
Illustrated through case of Slum Upgrading under Slum Networking
Programme (SNP) in a settlement, Pravinnagar Guptanagar, Ahmedabad
Housing type by tenure

               Pucca         Semi-         Katcha
            (permanent)      pucca      (temporary)
Notified            64.5         29.5           6.0
Non-                30.3         39.7          30.0

Notified = Notified for regularization. After
notification, the urban local government steps in
to provide basic services
Water supply by tenure

           Tap     Tube     Well     Others
Notified    83.9      9.8      2.4       3.9
Non-        71.3     21.7      2.4       4.6
Access to sanitation by tenure

           No latrines Septic tank/    Others
                       flush latrine
Notified          16.6         65.9        17.5
Non-              50.6         34.6        14.8
Sewerage & Drainage by tenure

           Underground Underground     Open     No drainage
            sewerage     / closed    drainage
Notified        30.0         25.4        59.6         15.0
Non-            14.7         12.6        43.4         44.0
Roads Quality by tenure

           Pucca roads     Water logging
           within slum    during monsoon
Notified           71.0             26.0
Non-               37.1             49.3
 Access to electricity by tenure

           Houses & Houses        Street     None
            streets  only          only
Notified        84.3       10.6        4.1           0.9
Non-            53.4       25.1        5.7          15.8

National level data indicate significant
improvement in physical quality of life with
notification, that is granting of de facto tenure

• Located in Gujarat state

• Gujarat the second most industrialized state, fourth in
  per capita income, 6th in HDI, 9th in health

• Poverty alleviation through trickle down of growth and
  philanthropy than public policy

• Major industry, that is textile industry declined in late
  1980s and since then fragmentation of urban polity, rise
  in communal violence and city segmentation along
  communal lines
AMC Population           3.5
                     million   Ahmedabad
AUDA Population          4.5
Sex Ratio              886
Literacy Rate       79.89%
Male Literacy       87.81%
Female Literacy     71.12%
Population in       439,843
No of slums/          1668
No of settlements        45
with SNP
H /H with SNP         8348
Population with      39,045
  Source: AMC
Ahmedabad - Slums

                    No. of slums – 832
                    No. of chawls – 836
  Surat            Surat : Introduction of the city

 Surat is situated in western India, in the state of Gujarat.
  Surat is one of the oldest mercantile centres of the south
Gujarat region.
     Surat – Area and Demography
            Particulars           Surat Municipal Area Surat District     Gujarat        India
Area (sq km)                                       326           7657           196022   2995470
Population (in million)                            2.8              4.9             50      1028
Sex Ratio (female per 1000 males)                  764             835             920        933
Density (per                               8812             652             258        324
Literacy (%)                                        82               75             69         65
Decadal Population Growth Rate(%)                   59            40.6            23.9       23.9
              Surat is India's twelfth and Gujarat’s second most populous

            low sex ratio, indicates that the City is being dominated by
           male migrant labours.
                                                                     Surat has experienced
                                                                  very rapid population
                                                                  growth during the last 20
                                                                  years. This rapid growth in
                                                                  a very short time span is
                                                                  actually the hallmark of
                                                                  Surat’s demographic
                                                                  trends. Source: Census
Surat City
Slums in Surat City

    Slum locations
   Slums in Surat City
  17.2% city’s population live in slums
  Slums concentrated in south, south-east and south-west and
west zones
  Owing to rapid industrialization in and around the city, a large
influx of migrants has been observed, which has resulted in the
formation of slums.
   Population in slums is highest in Southern Surat which has
industrial area
   64% of public land has been encroached upon by slums in the
   Encroachments on private land have been cleared off in
certain areas, bringing down its share 37% in 1992 to 26% in
   Of the 312 slums in the city, 124 are within and around the
city wall and another 85 are along transport corridors. plan (2006-2012)
                                      Source: Surat city development
Slums in Surat City

 About 80% of the slum households in Surat are migrants.
 A survey in 1997 indicated that 86% of the dwelling units in
the slums of Surat are one room units and 58% of them are
less than 100 to 200 sq.ft in area.
Migrant labour often share a single kutcha room on a shift
basis. In a slum pocket called Nikhalas Nagar 15 people
share 1 single semi kutcha room. 8 of them go for night shift
in power looms and 7 people go in the day time.
35% households have individual latrines
72% households have individual water taps
45% households have individual electricity connections
80% slums have drainage
Land tenure security and level of
    services - Ahmedabad
Settlement Pravinnagar-                                                      Yogeshwarn
                        Jadibanagar             Om nagar       Sorainagar               Mangal Talav
  name     Guptanagar                                                           agar
  No of
                   1317             90             650             710             900            650
                  Private         Private        Private         Private         Private       Municipal
          Stamp paper, Stamp paper,
Documents Property tax Property tax Stamp paper, Stamp paper,
                                                                                Stamp paper Electricity Bill
 with H/H bill, Electricity bill, Electricity Electricity bill Electricity bill
                 Bill              Bill
  Tenure        Strong De    Strong De     Weak de              Weak de         Insecure        Insecure
  Status       Facto tenure Facto tenure facto tenure         facto tenure       Tenure          Tenure
 Age of the
                    40              35              45              35             40              55
slum (years)
 Housing                          Semi           Semi            Semi            Semi
                permanent                                                                     Temporary
 condition                      permanent      permanent       permanent       permanent

    SNP             Yes            Yes              No             No              No              No

                    Yes            Yes             Yes             Yes             No             Yes
 water tap
                    Yes            Yes             Yes             Yes             Yes         50% H/H
  provided        SAATH            MHT                            AMC             AMC
                                                                                             World Vision
 Settlement Pravinnagar-                                       Yogeshwarn
                         Jadibanagar   Om nagar   Sorainagar              Mangal Talav
   name     Guptanagar                                            agar

                Yes         Yes          Yes         No            No          No
Bath space

 Sewer line     Yes         Yes          Yes         Yes           No         Yes

 Rain water
                Yes          No          No          No            No          No

                Yes          No          Yes         No            No          No

Paved Roads     Yes         Yes          Yes         No            No         Yes

Street lights   Yes         Yes          Yes         Yes           No          No

Anganwadi       Yes          No          No          Yes           No          No

                Yes          No          No          No            No          No
 inside the

 Electricity    Yes         Yes          Yes         Yes          Yes         Yes
Building type - Pravinnagar -
   Strong de facto tenure
Sorainagar – weak defacto



             Source: MHT
Land tenure security and level of
        services - Surat
Settlement            Jaijawan -        Dalit                              Nikhalasnaga
           Apexanagar                             Tadkeshwar Rasulabad
  name                 Jaikisan        Vasahat                                   r

  No of
Household        970        1984         337         382         350
  Land                                            Municipal &
               Private     Private    Municipal               Municipal     Municipal
Ownership                                           partly
            Stamp        Stamp
            paper,       paper,                 Property tax Property
Documents Property tax Property tax Electricity     bill,     tax bill,       No
 with H/H     bill,        bill,       Bill      Electricity Electricity   Documents
           Electricity Electricity                  Bill        Bill
              Bill         Bill
                                                               Weak de
  Tenure      Strong De Strong De      Insecure    Insecure                  Insecure
  Status     Facto tenure Facto tenure Tenure       Tenure                    Tenure

 Housing                 Semi                Semi      Semi
             Permenant             Temporary                     Temporary
 condition               permanent           permanent permanent
Settlement            Jaijawan -    Dalit                           Nikhalasnag
           Apexanagar                        Tadkeshwar Rasulabad
  name                 Jaikisan    Vasahat                               ar
                Yes       Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes          No
  water tap
                Yes       Yes        No          No        Yes          No
                Yes       Yes        No          No        No           No
 Bath space
 Sewer line     Yes       Yes        No          No        No           No

 Rain water
                Yes       Yes        No          No        No           No
                No        No         No          No        No           No

Paved Roads     Yes       Yes        No          No        No       On footpath

Street lights   Yes       Yes        No          No        No          Yes

 Anganwadi      Yes       Yes        No         Yes        Yes          No
Centre inside
                No        No         No          No        No           No
 Electricity    Yes       Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes          No
Difficulties in legalizing land tenure
Records required for legalizing tenure
• Latest 7\12 records - land ownership document
  (which generally has multiple land owners due to
  inheritance rights)
• 6A records – land use document
• Old documents regarding possession of Land
• Town planning clearances
• Revenue tax receipt (if original agricultural land)
• Non-agricultural permission
• Municipal tax bill – property tax bill and receipt of
• Electric bill and receipt
Property tax
   Land Ownership

 Original Owner -
 Multiple land owners

Clause mentioning that, if
construction takes place
without the permission of the
Government and depositing
50% of the market value of
land with the Government,
then the ownership will
revert to the Government.
Formation of informal
  settlement - Surat
Formation of Informal Settlement – Apexanagar

   The land was originally put under housing reservation by SUDA.
   The SUDA Development Plan had marked the area as reserved
   for ‘EWS housing’ the land lied locked in because of reservation.
   The farmers could not sell it to private developers because the
   land was NA.
   The farmers sold the land to the dealers who was engaged in
   informal housing through power of attorney and the dealers sub
   plotted the land and sold it to the individuals. In fact it is not a
   sale in a legal sense but a sale on a stamp paper of Rs 500/-.
    The ownership is still in the hand of farmers as far as land
   registration is concerned and the land is not yet declared NA.
    The area now has a Town Planning Scheme and all the houses
   are numbered for property tax. The are paying taxes since last
   15 years.
   Almost all the plots are 12’ X 35’ of size and the plot costs
   30,000 Rs now.
  Rent for a kutcha house is Rs. 600 while for pucca house the
  range is 1000 Rs to 1500 Rs per month which is excluding
  electricity bill.
  Water supply, drainage, Street lights have been given by the
  SMC under section 63/2 of BPMC Act.
  After SMC brought the water supply and drainage line in the
  colony, MHT was involved in getting individual connections to 40
  households. All the rest of the houses had to pay the cost for
  individual connections from the network.
   Almost all the houses have individual toilet and a bath space.
  The roads are wide and tarred. There are small shops in the
  houses. Most of the houses were only ground floor but some
  were ground plus one.
  There are anganwadis and schools in the settlements.
  Primary health centre is also nearby.
                                   Source: Personal interviews with slum dwellers
Mobilization for basic services -
Pravinnagar – Guptanagar (NGO intervention)

                        Parameters               Statistics
                        Total slum population      7750
                        No. of households          1314

                        Water supply             Individual
                        Sewerage network            Main
                        Storm water drainage       roads
                        Solid waste management      Main
                        Toilets/Latrines           roads

                        Education                 1.5 to 2
                        Health                      km
                        Community facilities        Nil
                        Playground/Open spaces      Nil
                        Anganwadi                  3 nos
Pravinnagar - Guptanagar
  The land of PG and surrounding settlements earlier was a
  grazing land of Vasna village which was basically a Inamdar
  This settlement was formed after the flooding in the River
  Sabarmati in 1973 and the slum dwellers on the river bank
  lost their houses and then they shifted to PG.
  That time only Bhil (Tribal Community) of about 250 to 300
  households were staying here.
  The settlement started expanding because of influx of the
  relatives of the residents of PG and of surrounding
  Unlike in the other areas of Ahmedabad, different
  communities settled here. There are different chawls (Vas) for
  different communities, so in one slum people stay in their
  respective community chawl.
         Community Layout of Pravinnagar & Guptanagar

Kathiyavadi         Vaghri     Vanjhara     Marwadi
Rabari              Harijan    Bhil         Mixed Community
Pravinnagar - Guptanagar
  This site developed as a slum because of its proximity to
  central Ahmedabad through nearby bus stand and affordable
  availability of land.
  A person called Hirabhai Govindbhai Patel was selling the the
  land plots on the 10Rs/- stamp paper.
  There were no basic services.
  For water there were two common taps outside the settlement
  for 1314 households
  Totally open defecation
  No schools
  No Health facilities
Pravinnagar - Guptanagar
  In 1992, SAATH intervened and facilitated the settlement to
  bring out all the basic amenities with full support of the
  settlement under Slum Networking Programme in 1996.

  SNP contained the package of,
  Individual Water supply
  House level underground drainage
  Strom water drainage
  Solid waste management
  Roads and paving
  Street Lights
  Tree plantation and landscaping
  The four main stakeholders in Ahmadabad’s pilot
  projects were:
  Arvind Mills – Responsible for project execution
  Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation – As facilitator
  SAATH – Community Mobilization and development
Pravinnagar - Guptanagar
  Initially people were hesitant to pay Rs 2100 (Rs 2000 as
  capital cost + Rs 100 maintenance cost - Around 42 $)
  AMC granted de facto land tenure to the residents to facilitate
  their participation.
  In 1996 AMC granted de facto tenure for 5 years and after 5
  years in 2001, this security was renewed for 10 more years.
Impacts of water supply and Sanitation
   SNP has ensured that almost all households have regular
   water supply, drainage connections and a toilet.
                 Changes from 1997 to 2000                    % Change

 Increase in households having regular water supply              700.00
 Increase in households having regular drainage                  833.30
 Decrease in use of hand pumps, soak pits, private drainage      100.00
 Increase in Households having wash places                        38.46
 Increase in household having bathrooms                           33.33
  Regular supply of water has had a substantial effect on all
 residents, especially women.
 On an average women have begun to save two hours per day
 because of regular water supply and so they are occupying
 themselves in income generating activities.
Occupation pattern and Income
 The income generation programme also started in June 1998.
 It concentrate on the service sector of the economy which
 makes the growth of PG faster and not the traditional home
 manufacturing of agarbattis, bidis, papads and pickles.
 Income generation programme activities are tailoring, market
 research support, vegetable sorting and preparing household
 servants which is called Home managers which has covered
 more than 100 ladies.
               Change from 1997 to 2000                  % Change

Decrease in the number workers engaged in casual and          44.83
unskilled occupations
Increase in number of people having Government jobs           27.27
Increase in the workers engaged in skilled occupations        15.09
Increase in the number of female workers                      30.30
• Similar exercise Has been done for another ward called
  Amraiwadi in Ahmedabad and slum selected for
  documenting MHT intervention.
Research year 2

• Quantifying impacts of different types on
  tenure on well being
• Case studies of coping during different
  shocks – economic crises, 2002
  communal violence
Ratanben Ramji bhai
Rathod : “I Feel like Indira
Gandhi. Everybody listens
to me in the house; after
all I am the one who gave
money for the house and
the shop”

                               Thank You

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