United States History Question of the Day A New York City tenement from How the Other Half Lives by Jaob Riis (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) What type of multiple-family dwelling became prevalent in New York City in the last third of the 19th century (A) the dumbbell tenement (B) the skyscraper (C) condominums (D) 5th Avenue mansions (E) bed-and-breakfast hotels Answer A: Explanation: Originally designed for one family, the dumbbell tenements were divided (often multiple times) to accommodate more families, mainly on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The Tenement Act of 1879 required each room to have a window, necessitating the construction of air shafts. This led to a dumbbell shape, wider at the street and back, narrower in the middle to accommodate the airshaft. The overcrowding, lack of adequate sanitation, and insufficient fresh air supply eventually led to their being banned in New York City. The New Law of 1901 required each tenement to have a large courtyard. Which of the following were contributions of the Protestant Reformation to the founding of America? (A) the creation of a number of denominations that suffered persecution and sought religious freedom in the New World (B) the concept of the priesthood of all believers, which promoted individualism and aided the development of democracy (C) an emphasis on literacy, as the Bible was translated into the language of the people and not limited to only those who could read Latin Martin Luther posting his "95 (D) a challenge to religious authority Theses" on the Wittenberg church door, which led logically for some to a challenge 1517 to political authority (Source: Wikimedia Commons- (E) all of the above were contributions -public domain) Answer: (E) all of the above were contributions Explanation: The Protestant Reformation, which began in Germany but soon spread to the rest of Europe and then the New World, led to the formation of many religious groups, as the challenge to religious authority gave many individuals and groups the confidence to form their own sects. Central to the Reformation is the concept of the priesthood of all believers, essentially stating that each Christian has direct access to God and needs no intermediary. This religious independence view easily translated to a similar attitude towards political authorities. Luther, besides breaking with the Roman Catholic Church, translated the Bible into German, thus giving access to it for those not able to read or understand Latin. Henry Clay, America's leading Whig, delivering his farewell speech to the Senate, 1842 (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Whig Party? (A) many of its members eventually became Republicans (B) it opposed President Jackson’s policies (C) it was united in its support for the expansion of slavery into the western territories (D) it was particularly popular among evangelical Protestants (E) It supported internal improvements paid for by the federal government • Answer:(C) it was united in its support for the expansion of slavery into the western territories • Explanation: The Whig Party became deeply divided on the issue of slavery. Many of its members, including Abraham Lincoln, quit the party and joined the newly formed Republican Party which was formed in 1854. The Whigs generally opposed Jackson, supported Clay's American System which included internal improvements, and gained support from evangelical Protestant voters. Muckraking writers of the Progressive Era exposed (A) unsafe meat packaging (B) corruption in city government (C) unhealthy mining conditions (D) the anti-competition tactics of trusts (E) all of the above Ida Tarbell, a muckraking journalist of the Progressive Era (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) Answer: (E) all of the above • Explanation: Muckraker was the nickname given to a journalist or other writer who exposed corruption. Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil trusts), Lincoln Steffens (city machine politics), and Upton Sinclair (meat-packing practices) were some of the more famous of these early investigative reporters. Which of the following statements about the World War II Potsdam Conference is not accurate (A) Prime Minister Winston Churchill left the meeting following his party's defeat in an election in Great Britain (B) the Allied leaders decided to defeat Germany first, then focus on Japan (C) it was decided that Nazi leaders would be tried as war criminals (D) Pres. Truman officially informed Soviet Premier Stalin of Churchill, Truman, and the existence of the atomic bomb Stalin at Potsdam, July (E) all of the statements are 1945 accurate Answer: (B) the Allied leaders decided to defeat Germany first, then focus on Japan • Explanation: Germany had already surrendered by the time of the Potsdam Conference. Churchill was recalled to London and replaced by Clement Attlee. The planning for the Nuremberg Tribunals began at Potsdam. Stalin was informed about the atomic bomb, though Soviet spies on the Manhattan Project had probably already provided him that information. America's most persuasive pamphlet, Common Sense by Thomas Paine (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) In Common Sense by Thomas Paine (A) Parliament is seen as the enemy of freedom, but King George III is viewed with respect (B) colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great Britain (C) colonists are encouraged to find areas of compromise with Parliament and King George III (D) colonists are encouraged to ignore political issues and focus on economic advancement (E) an argument is made that the colonists are represented virtually in Parliament because they are still British subjects Answer: (B) colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great Britain • Explanation: Written in January 1776, following Lexington and Concord but prior to the Declaration of Independence, Common Sense directly challenged those who asserted that the American colonies should remain within the British Empire. Paine urged colonists to sever their ties with the mother country, contending that Great Britain had abused the colonies. He concluded that "'tis time to part." The 1773 Boston Tea Party was an immediate cause of the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) In which pair is the first event an immediate cause of the second? A) Assassination of James Garfield in 1881-the Pendleton Civil Service Act B) Election of John Adams in 1796-Twelfth Amendment's adoption C) Sinking of the Lusitana in 1915-U.S. entry into World War I D) Assassination of Alexander Hamilton in 1804- end of the Federalist Party E) Germany's invasion of Poland of 1939-U.S. entry into World War II Answer: (A) Assassination of James Garfield-the Pendleton Civil Service Act • Explanation: President James Garfield was assassinated by a disappointed office-seeker in 1881. Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883, creating a set of civil service exams for federal positions to reduce the spoils system in which the president had the authority to appoint many employees. Henry Ford did which of the following in mass-producing automobiles in the 1920s? (A) he hired more Jews in management positions (B) he utilized a style of management that delegated corporate decisions to professionals in specialized divisions (C) he paid his workers higher wages than they could receive with comparable jobs (D) he paid his workers lower wages than they could receive with comparable jobs (E) he instituted worker- management teams to share decision-making about production Answer: (C) he paid his workers higher wages than they could receive with comparable jobs • Explanation: Ford began paying his workers $5 per an eight-hour work day in 1914, almost double the rate for comparable work with longer hours. His action reduced employee turnover and increased worker efficiency. Ford also used assembly lines for the mass production of inexpensive automobiles. The area impacted by the Northwest Ordinance (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (A) finally removed the British presence from the Ohio River Valley (B) reduced the authority of the federal government in the western territories (C) provided a procedure for admitting new states to the Union (D) resulted in Shays' Rebellion (E) divided land into sections that were then sold to investors Answer: (C) provided a procedure for admitting new states to the Union • Explanation: The Northwest Ordinance, in addition to prohibiting slavery in the Northwest Territories, provided that residents could apply for statehood when the population reached 60,000 inhabitants. New states came in on the same level as the original 13 states. In 1803 Ohio became the first state admitted under the provisions. Vice-president George H.W. Bush succeeded Ronald Reagan as president following the 1988 election. Before him, the last incumbent vice- president who was directly elected president rather than succeeding a president who died in office was (A) Martin Van Buren (B) Lyndon Johnson (C) Calvin Coolidge (D) Theodore Roosevelt Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, 1981 (E) Harry Truman Answer: (A) Martin Van Buren • Explanation: . George H.W. Bush followed Reagan's two terms as president and built a solid reputation for decisive action with the Operation Desert Storm success against Iraq. Economic stagnation at home and Bush's decision to break his "Read My Lips. No New Taxes" pledge caused his popularity to fall and he was defeated by Bill Clinton in 1992. Andrew Jackson's second vice-president, Martin Van Buren, was elected president in 1836. Johnson, Coolidge, Roosevelt and Truman all succeeded presidents who died in office. In the 1735 case of New York newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger, (A) his lawyer focused on the illegality of a law rather than his Zenger's innocence (B) Zenger was acquitted of seditious libel for printing articles critical of the royal governor (C) Zenger's lawyer argued that the articles were not libelous because they were based on facts (D) an important principle of freedom of the press was established (E) all of the above are true Answer: (E) all of the above are true • Zenger, publisher of the New-York Weekly Journal, printed an article critical of New York Governor William Cosby. Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, admitted that Zenger had published the articles, but was within his rights, since libel was not proven. Essentially, the articles could be critical of the governor as long as they were true. The jury was convinced and acquitted Zenger. Hamilton argued "The jury have a right to determine both the law and the fact, and they ought to do so. The question before you is not the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone; it is the cause of liberty, the liberty of opposing arbitrary power by speaking and writing truth." Zenger's case proved an important precedent both during the American Revolution and as freedom of press rights were established in the Bill of Rights. It was also one of the first times in American history a lawyer challenged the legality of a law as the basis for acquittal. The biggest surrender in American military history, involving almost 12,000 U.S. soldiers, occurred where during World War 2? (A) at Kasserine Pass in North Africa (B) on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine Islands (C) at the Battle of the Bulge in northern Europe (D) on Guadacanal Island in the South Pacific (E) at Anzio Beach in Italy Answer: (B) on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine Islands • Explanation: Along with the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Japanese forces invaded the Philippine Islands. After resistance proved futile, American General Ned King surrendered his troops to the Japanese. The captured American and Filipinos were then forced to participate in a brutal 75-mile march to prison camps which resulted in thousands dying of thirst, beatings, and executions. The Japanese commanding general, Masaharu Homma, was tried and executed for war crimes following Japan's surrender in 1945. Harpers Ferry, Virginia as seen in 1865 Name the individual who was described in the following ways by these observers for his actions in 1859: Henry David Thoreau--"an angel of light" Frederick Douglass--"His zeal in the cause of freedom was infinitely superior to mine. Mine was as the taper light; his was as the burning sun." (A) Abraham Lincoln B) John Brown C) Stephen Douglas (D) Robert E. Lee E) William Lloyd Garrison (B) John Brown • Explanation: Fanatical abolitionist John Brown led a raid on an arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 in an attempt to start a slave uprising. The raid failed and Brown was captured and hanged. While many Southerners viewed him as an example of the irrational hatred of abolitionists, in the North he was seen by many as a martyr. Douglass wrote of Brown: "John Brown began the war that ended American slavery and made this a free Republic." During World War I, anti- German attitudes led to (A) some German cities and street names being renamed (B) libraries burning their German-language books in public bonfires (C) German being dropped from high school curricular offerings Anti-German Liberty Bond (D) mob violence poster (E) all of the above (E) all of the above • Explanation: Suspicion of the loyalty of German-Americans (and Dutch, Swiss, and other European- Americans confused with Germans) was widespread in the U.S. and resulted in a number of anti-German actions, including banning of German language instruction in schools, renaming sauerkraut "liberty cabbage," book- burnings, and mob violence, including a lynching of a German-American in Illinois who was accused of making disloyal remarks. The Committee of Public Information, led by George Creel, published inflammatory anti-German posters to sell Liberty Bonds and encourage army recruitment. Which member of the Nixon administration was accused of extortion, tax fraud, conspiracy, and bribery? (A) Attorney General John Mitchell (B) Commerce Secretary Maurice Stans (C) Vice-President Spiro Agnew (D) White House Counsel John Dean (E) Press Secretary Ron Ziegler (C) Vice-President Spiro Agnew • Explanation: Spiro "Ted" Agnew, governor of Maryland, was selected by Richard Nixon to be his running-mate in the 1968 election. Agnew was an important piece in Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and became a popular figure for his attacks on Democrats. Though there was some talk of replacing him in the 1972 election, Nixon chose Agnew again as his running-mate. After an investigation turned up a number of criminal charges, Agnew pleaded no contest, resigned from office, and was given a $10,000 fine. He later paid over $260,000 to the state of Maryland. Agnew was replaced by Gerald Ford as vice- president. Agnew was the second vice-president in history to resign, the first being Andrew Jackson's first vice-president, John C. Calhoun. North Dakota children assembling in front of their one-room schoolhouse, 1890 Which of the following 19th century social reformers advocated a secular curriculum for public schools, more and better-equipped schoolhouses, higher pay for teachers, and universal compulsory education? (A) Dorothea Dix B) Elijah P. Lovejoy C) Angelina Grimke D) Horace Mann E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton (D) Horace Mann • Explanation: Known as the "father of American public education," Mann used his position as secretary of the Massachusetts board of education to effect change in schools first in Massachusetts and then throughout the U.S. He advocated better training for teachers, sought to remove religious influence from the curriculum, and urged increased public spending on education. Which president is incorrectly matched with the quote? (A) Franklin Roosevelt--"the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" (B) Abraham Lincoln--"with malice towards none, with charity for all" (C) Gerald Ford--"my fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works; our great Republic is a government of laws and not of men" (D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion" (E) Andrew Jackson--"nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down" Answer: D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion" Explanation: In Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 inaugural address, he stated "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." In his second inaugural address in 1865, Lincoln pledged "with malice towards none, with charity toward all." On pardoning Richard Nixon in 1974, Ford declared "our long national nightmare is over." In his address to Congress in April 1917, Woodrow Wilson stated "the world must be made safe for democracy." Jackson, facing the South Carolina nullification crisis in 1832, stated "nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down." The founders of the California missions in San Diego de Alcala Mission, as seen in 1848 California (A) were Jesuits (B) were universally praised for their compassionate policies towards Indians (C) established a series of missions roughly one-day's walk apart along California's coast (D) helped control the spread of disease (E) helped Spain establish a dynamic and lucrative economic system throughout California in the 1700s Answer: (C) established a series of missions roughly one-day's walk apart along California's coast Explanation: Franciscan fathers established the California missions along El Camino Real (the King's Highway) in locations approximately one-day's walk apart. Mission administrators were criticized both in Mexico and Spain for cruel and exploitative practices involving Indians living near the missions. Concentrating populations near the missions resulted in the rapid spread of disease. Alta ("upper") California never proved to be a profit center for Spain, which relinquished its control with Mexico's independence in 1821. Which of the following statements about the French & Indian War are accurate? I. The British national debt greatly increased as a result of fighting the war (A) I, II, and IV II. The French gained a great deal of only territory at the 1763 Peace of Paris (B) I, III, and IV negotiations only III. Indian tribes were divided in their (C) I and III loyalties, with some assisting the only French and others the British (D) I and IV IV. Following the war, the British only implemented several new colonial (E) all of the policies, including restricting the statements westward settlements of American are true colonists Answer: (B) I, III, and IV only Explanation: The French & Indian War, known as the Seven Years' War in Europe, pitted British and French forces against one another in battles along the Ohio River Valley, New England, and in Canada. Some Indian tribes, such as the Huron, allied themselves with the French while others, including the Mohawks, assisted the British. France gave up almost all of its North American possessions at the conclusion of the war and while the British gained considerable territory, they also acquired a huge debt and a growing sense that the American colonies should pay for their own defense. The Eisenhower administration opposed the military actions of Great Britain and France in which location in 1956? (A) French Indochina President (B) Berlin Eisenhower (C) Taiwan and Secretary of (D) Egypt State John Foster (E) Cuba Dulles, 1956 Answer: (D) Egypt Explanation: After Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel coordinated attacks on Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula and at several locations in Egypt. The U.S. opposed the actions. After the invasion, which was largely successful, the U.S. pushed for a cease-fire and U.N. peacekeepers were put in place. Slavery's growth in the 19th century paralleled the expansion of cotton as a cash crop Who was the abolitionist leader and publisher of The Liberator who referred to the U.S. Constitution as "the most bloody and heaven-daring arrangement ever made by men for the continuance and protection of a system of the most atrocious villany ever exhibited on earth?" (A) Theodore Weld (B) William Lloyd Garrison (C) Lewis Tappan (D) Elijah P. Lovejoy (E) John Quincy Adams Answer: (B) William Lloyd Garrison Explanation: Garrison was a member of the American Colonization Society which supported sending ex-slaves back to Africa, but broke with them in 1830 and began publishing The Liberator in 1831. He advocated for the immediate and complete abolition of slavery and rejected any attempts at compromise on the issue. He wrote: "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD." Methodist Which of the following is not camp meeting of an example of religious the revivalism in American Second Great history? Awakenin g, 1839 (A) the mass rallies of Billy Graham (B) the preaching of George Whitefield during the Great Awakening (C) the Cane Ridge, Kentucky camp meetings (D) Billy Sunday's tent meetings (E) the radio broadcasts of Father Charles Coughlin Answer: (E) the radio broadcasts of Father Charles Coughlin • Explanation: Revivalism, usually appealing to listeners' emotions, has a long tradition in American history. Charles Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest who developed a following of radio listeners during the 1930s by politically attacking the New Deal programs of Franklin Roosevelt and preaching a message of anti-Semitism while offering apologies for Italy's Mussolini and Germany's Hitler. Billy Graham and Billy Sunday held huge revival meetings to spread their message of the need for religious conversion. George Whitefield was an inspiring and highly effective preacher of the Great Awakening in the 1730s, while the Kentucky Cane Ridge meetings beginning in 1800 led to revivals through the frontier regions of the U.S. As a response to Booker T. Washington's call for accommodation and gradualism in the Atlanta Compromise, W.E.B. DuBois encouraged African- Americans to (A) pursue vocational training (B) focus exclusively on economic gains and not become involved in politics or social reform issues (C) engage in activism and pursue higher education (D) adopt a passive and submissive attitude in their W.E.B. DuBois, leader of dealings with whites in authority the Niagara Movement (E) all of the above Answer: (C) engage in activism and pursue higher education Explanation: Washington and DuBois provided two very different sets of recommendations for the advancement of African-Americans. Washington encouraged a gradual approach of economic and political progress and a reliance on developing skills through vocational education. DuBois urged an activist role and a liberal arts education for African-Americans. Which of the following was not part of George Washington's administration? (A) Benjamin Franklin-- Postmaster General (B) Thomas Jefferson-- Secretary of State (C) John Marshall--Supreme Court Chief Justice (D) John Adams--Vice- President (E) Alexander Hamilton-- George Washington by James Peale, 1790 Secretary of the Treasury (C) John Marshall--Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801. John Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice. “You shall not press down upon the Cross of Gold cartoon brow of labor this crown of thorns; by Grant Hamilton you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” This quote is representative of A) the bimetallism position of the 1890s B) a supporter of Andrew Jackson in the war over the re- charter of the Bank of the U.S. C) a Democrat-Republican's response to Federalist policies D) a supporter of Reaganomics E) an opponent of the Kansas- Nebraska Act Answer: (A) the bimetallism position of the 1890s Explanation: William Jennings Bryan, the Democrat and Populist candidate for president in 1896, delivered the "Cross of Gold" speech as he campaigned across the country in support of adding silver as an official currency in a fixed ratio in relation to gold. Bryan lost the election and bimetallism faded as a national issue. "Van Cortland Park" by Frederick Bluemner, 1936 commissioned by the New Deal's Federal Art Project Which of the following New Deal programs funded artists, actors, and writers? (A) Works Progress Administration (B) Civilian Conservation Corps (C) Civil Works Administration (D) National Recovery Administration (E) National Youth Administration (A) Works Progress Administration Explanation: The WPA funded theatrical productions, dance recitals, state histories, and art projects large and small in an attempt to assist out-of-work artists. The Federal Art, Theatre, and Writers' Projects were criticized by many for being a form of socialism. Which of the following was not an accomplishment of John C. Frémont? (A) he invaded California during the Mexican-American War (B) he was the first Republican candidate for president (C) he led several significant explorations of the American West (D) he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for his actions in Missouri during the Civil War Woodcut depicting John (E) he was a senator from C. Frémont, 1856 California (D) he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for his actions in Missouri during the Civil War Explanation: Frémont, nicknamed "The Pathfinder," led several important expeditions through the West before his military and political careers. He served in both the Mexican-American and Civil Wars and was selected to represent California in the U.S. Senate when it became a state in 1850. The newly formed Republican Party chose him as their candidate in 1856. Frémont was relieved of command in Missouri by Lincoln during the Civil War, however, when he emancipated slaves and confiscated the property of secessionists in 1861. Lincoln hoped to keep the border states from seceding and Frémont's actions, if allowed to stand, might antagonize those states. Which of these was not a position formerly held by President Thomas Jefferson? Thomas Jefferson A) governor of Virginia (B) secretary of state (C) vice-president of the United States (D) president of the 1787 Constitutional Convention (E) member of Virginia's House of Burgesses (D) President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention George Washington served as president of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Jefferson was Minister to France at that time. Jefferson did however serve in Virginia's House of Burgesses, as governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, as the first Secretary of State, and as vice-president to political enemy John Adams. Jefferson's greatest skills were probably not as a politican or diplomat, however, but as a political philosopher and visionary. He penned the Declaration of Independence and following his terms as president, planned the curriculum and designed the buildings of the University of Virginia. At a dinner of Nobel Prize winners in the White House in 1962, President John Kennedy ad libbed "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House – with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.” Which of the following statements about railroad expansion in the second half of the 19th century is Union Pacific Railroad map, 1891 not true? A) obstacles required the development of new techniques of railroad construction (B) new towns and cities emerged near the railroad lines (C) construction was privately financed with no governmental assistance (D) new business organizational models were created (E) the West developed more quickly due to rapid railroad expansion (C) construction was privately financed with no governmental assistance Explanation: The railroad system created in the second half of the 19th century was an engineering success that helped create new cities, developed the West, and led to new corporate models. Financial assistance from the federal government was significant. For each mile of track, railroad companies received land in alternating sections on either side of the route. In total, the railroads received more than 175 million acres of federally-owned land, roughly equivalent to the size of Texas. Spaniard Cortes being greeted by Aztec emperor Montezuma One of the factors that proved critical to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was (A) the overwhelming number of Spanish soldiers (B) the total lack of organization of the Aztec political and military system (C) the support of Portuguese soldiers (D) the pacifist nature of the Aztecs (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by contact with the Spanish soldiers (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by contact with the Spanish soldiers Explanation: Smallpox devastated the native populations of the New World. The Aztec population, estimated at 30 million when the Spanish arrived in Mexico, was down to 3 million by 1568 and 1.6 million in 1620. Despite having an army of perhaps only 600 Spaniards, Hernan Cortes was able to eventually defeat the Aztec forces and claim Mexico City for Spain in 1521 John Marshall shaped the U.S. Supreme Court from 1801-1835 Which of the following decisions of the Marshall Court is improperly matched with its description? (A) Marbury v. Madison--established the principle of judicial review by overturning an act of Congress, the Judiciary Act of 1789 (B) McCullough v. Maryland--ruled that a state could not tax a federal agency, in this case the Bank of the U.S. (C) Gibbons v. Ogden--gave the federal government undisputed control over interstate commerce (D) Fletcher v. Peck--established the principle that state laws conflicting with the U.S. Constitution were invalid (E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no longer sovereign since they had signed the Constitution E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no longer sovereign since they had signed the Constitution Explanation: In the Dartmouth College decision, the Supreme Court upheld a charter that predated New Hampshire's statehood, thus establishing the principle that charters are binding contracts and cannot be broken by a state legislature. In Cohens v. Virginia, the Court ruled that ratifying the Constitution meant that states were no longer sovereign entities. State courts were required to submit to federal authority. The Fugitive Slave Act was a provision of which of the following (A) the Missouri Compromise (B) the Wilmot Proviso (C) the Compromise of 1850 (D) the Kansas-Nebraska Act (E) the Ostend Manifesto (C) the Compromise of 1850. Explanation: Although the Constitution supported the return of runaway slaves (Article IV, Section II) and fugitive slave bills had been passed prior to 1850, the inclusion of the Fugitive Slave Law in the Compromise of 1850 proved to be the most controversial. Southerners demanded it in exchange for concessions to the North, such as California's admission as a free state. Abolitionists hated it and saw its federal enforcement as an example of Southern "slave power." Mayflower in Plymouth Which of the following Harbor," William statements about the settlers Halsall, 1882 that arrived at Plymouth in 1620 is not true? (A) their original goal was a landfall farther south, at the northern edge of Virginia Company territory (B) while English, they had lived for a time in the Netherlands (C) they had experienced persecution in England for their religious beliefs and sought to separate from the Church of England (D) they probably would have starved to death without the assistance of local Indians (E) they became the dominant political and religious force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s Answer: (E) they became the dominant political and religious force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s Explanation: Often referred to as Pilgrims or Separatists, the 102 passengers on the Mayflower sought religious freedom first in the Netherlands and then in the New World. While originally intending to land farther south near the Hudson River, the ship was buffeted by storms and landed first on Cape Cod and then Plymouth in what is now Massachusetts. Despite early hostile encounters, local Indians assisted the 53 who had survived the first winter. Another group of settlers, mainly composed of Puritans, established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became the dominant force in New England. The Erie Canal, linking Albany and Buffalo (and by extension, the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes), (A) was financed completely by wealthy investors (B) was an economic disaster (C) greatly increased American agricultural exports to England (D) is not used today for either recreational or commercial purposes (E) was the last major canal built in the U.S. Erie Canal, 1839 (C) greatly increased American agricultural exports to England. Explanation: The completion of the Erie Canal significantly increased the export of food, particularly midwestern wheat, to England. The Canal, financed mainly by state- backed bonds, proved to be immensely successful, reducing transportation costs by over 90%, and inspired the construction of other canals throughout the U.S. It is still used today, though mainly for recreation. The Port Huron statement, which begins "We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit..." was published by what Student sit-in protest, Berkeley, 1964 1960s-era organization? (A) Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (B) Students for a Democratic Society (C) Weather Underground (D) Black Panther Party (E) Vietnam Veterans Against the War (B) Students for a Democratic Society Explanation: The SDS published the Port Huron Statement in 1962 as its manifesto for change. Written largely by Tom Hayden, a student at the University of Michigan, the statement summarized feelings of discontent, alienation, and fear of some 1960s-era college students. Student protest for civil rights and against the Vietnam War was a strong voice in American society in the 1960s. The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act required that funds acquired from the sale of public lands be used to support (A) the education of freed slaves (B) state colleges offering agricultural education programs (C) the purchase of guns, ammunition, and uniforms for Union soldiers (D) the education of Indian tribes (E) the construction of railroads Justin Morrill, author of the Morrill Act linking the east and west coasts (B) state colleges offering agricultural education programs Explanation: The Morrill Act, passed by Congress during the Civil War, proved to be a major contributor to the development of state colleges throughout the U.S. Each state received 30,000 acres of federal lands to be sold, with the proceeds going to colleges intending "to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." Abraham Lincoln composing Slavery was outlawed in the the Emancipation border state of Kentucky Proclamation (A) when Ulysses S. Grant expelled Confederate troops from the state (B) with the implementation of the Emancipation Proclamation (C) with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution (D) with the Supreme Court's decision in the Slaughterhouse Cases (E) with Lincoln's re-election in 1864 (C) with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution Explanation: As a border state, Kentucky was excluded from the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the end of slavery for those living in states in rebellion against the United States effective January 1, 1863. This was an important consideration for Lincoln, as he needed to keep the border states from joining the Confederacy while still convincing European nations to stay out of the war. The 13th Amendment, ratified in December 1865, officially ended slavery throughout the U.S. Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island The 1924 National Origins Act (A) temporarily halted all African immigration (B) was designed to restrict immigration from northern and western Europe (C) created a quota system for immigration to the U.S. (D) was opposed by Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor (E) focused exclusively on immigration from Latin America (C) created a quota system for immigration to the U.S. • Explanation: The National Origins Act, which was part of the Immigration Act of 1924, established the first national quotas on immigrants. Quotas were set at two percent of the number of foreign-born residents of a given country already living in the U.S. Germany, Great Britain, and Ireland had the largest quotas. Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor, supported immigration restrictions. The U.S. committed to giving the Philippine Islands their independence (A) following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after the Spanish-American War (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act (C) with the Platt Amendment (D) in the 1898 Treaty of Paris (E) with the Teller Amendment Filipino President Emilio Aguinaldo and his aides, ca. 1900 (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act • Explanation: The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S., although many in America opposed the continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their freedom, though no date was specified. Their independence was achieved with the surrender of the Japanese in 1945. In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court conclude that state governments could regulate railroad and grain "Gift for the Grangers," 1873 elevator companies? (A) Baker v. Carr (B) Munn v. Illinois (C) Commonwealth v. Hunt (D) Plessy v. Ferguson (E) Muller v. Oregon Answer: (B) Munn v. Illinois Explanation: In the 1876 Munn case the Supreme Court supported the position of the Grange which held that business interests used for public good could be regulated by state governments. The case proved important to the growth of government regulation of businesses, including railroads This declaration was made by which famous American historian? A) Carl Degler B) Charles A. Beard C) Frederick Jackson Turner D) Steven Ambrose E) Henry Adams “The wilderness masters the colonist. It finds him a European in dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought. . . It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in a hunting shirt and moccasin. . . .Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but the outcome is not the old Europe. . . .The fact is, that here "Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the is a new product that is American. Cumberland Gap" by George Caleb Bingham, 1851 . . .” Answer: (C) Frederick Jackson Turner Explanation: Turner delivered a paper entitled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" to the 1893 American Historical Association. Using the statement from the 1890 Census that the American frontier was officially closed, Turner developed an explanation of the impact of the "westering" character of the American people on institutions, economics, and attitudes. The nullification crisis during the Jackson administration arose over which issue? (A) the re-charter of the U.S. Bank (B) protective tariffs (C) the Maysville Road (D) the Peggy Eaton affair (E) removal of the Cherokee Andrew Jackson Indians Answer: (B) protective tariffs Explanation: The concept of nullification, that states need not obey federal laws they felt unconstitutional, emerged first during the Federalist Era in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Tariffs, which are taxes on imports, were seen by many Southerners as benefiting the North while placing a financial burden on Southern citizens, who lacked a significant manufacturing basis and thus had to import more products. South Carolina's legislators, angered by the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, were still unhappy even though the Tariff of 1832 passed by Congress and signed by Jackson, reduced tariff duties. A state convention voted 136-36 that the tariffs were unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina. This controversy, which Jackson saw as a challenge to his authority as president, provided states' rights arguments later used in the secession of the South before the Civil War. Gleason's Pictorial, one of the hundreds of periodicals produced in the second quarter of the 19th century The dramatic increase in numbers of printed periodicals (newspapers and magazines) in the period between 1828 and 1860 was partly a result of A) improvements in education making literacy almost universal B) changes in the printing process which allowed photographs to be included in periodicals C) the rapid increase in population as economic conditions drastically improved D) the transportation revolution which led to more rapid movement of information E) the impact of the Second Great Awakening Answer: (D) the transportation revolution which led to more rapid movement of information Explanation: Publications--local, regional, and even national--exploded in numbers in the 19th century. By 1828, New York City alone produced 161 newspapers. The speed by which information could be disseminated increased as improvements in transportation developed. In addition, political parties and candidates could broaden their appeal by gaining exposure beyond a limited geographic area. The Three Mile Island incident of Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania 1979 (A) resulted in a loss of power to most of the state of Pennsylvania (B) demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear power plant meltdown (C) made clear that foreign oil was not sufficient to supply American energy needs (D) led to an increase in terrorist attacks on power- generating facilities (E) caused the U.S. to cease all nuclear power plant usage Answer: (B) demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear power plant meltdown Explanation: The release of radioactive gas and a near meltdown of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted in the evacuation of over 100,000 residents of the nearby area. One of the truly national forms of architecture that developed in all regions of the country in the early 19th century, this style often featured porticos, pilasters American parlor from 1835 recreated at the (shallow rectangular Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City columns projecting from a (A) Georgian wall), and friezes and (B) Prairie School reflected a growing pride in (C) Baroque democracy. (D) Egyptian Revival (E) Greek Revival Answer: (E) Greek Revival Explanation: The Greek Revival style was used extensively in both public buildings and homes throughout the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century. Strongly encouraged by Thomas Jefferson, who chose Benjamin Latrobe to design the U.S. Capitol, it often featured exterior columns like those in Greek temples. It often mixed American motifs with the classical Greek elements. Latrobe, for example, used tobacco leaves and corn cobs in his Capitol details. (A) the Anti-Saloon League (B) several Protestant denominations, including Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians (C) the Women's Christian Temperance Union (D) German and Irish immigrants (E) prominent female reformers such as Susan B. Anthony and Frances Willard During the Progressive Era, the Prohibition movement was supported Carrie Nation, famous by all but which of the Prohibitionist following? with her beer keg-crushing axe Answer: (D) German and Irish immigrants Explanation: Prohibitionists, who sought to limit the sale and consumption of alcohol, gained their widest political support during the Progressive Era and in 1919 persuaded enough states to approve the 18th Amendment, the only amendment that was later repealed. The Anti-Saloon League, many mainline Protestant denominations, the WCTU, and women reformers, including leading suffragists, supported Prohibition. German and Irish immigrants, mostly Roman Catholic, generally opposed Prohibition. The U.S. map following the Missouri Compromise The chief reason for legislators from northern states favoring the passage of the Missouri Compromise was that it (A) prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude, with the exception of Missouri (B) quieted residents of Maine who had been clamoring for statehood (C) added Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state (D) finally settled the slavery question in the U.S. (E) ended slavery in the border states of Maryland, Delaware and Kentucky Answer: (A) prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude Explanation: The Missouri Compromise prevented slavery's expansion into the territories north of the 36° 30' line, but allowed Missouri, north of the line, to enter as a slave state. To maintain the balance in the Senate between slave and free states, Maine was separated from Massachusetts and became its own state. Far from settling the controversy, the Missouri Compromise postponed legislative solutions to the 1850s. Jefferson, in referring to the Missouri discussion, described it as being "a fire bell in the night, [it] awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union." An 1844 Whig Party platform included support of protective tariffs Which of the following was not true of protective tariffs in the first half of the 19th century? (A) they resulted in revenue for the federal government, often funding internal improvements (B) they were generally favored by New England (C) they were generally opposed in the South (D) they resulted in lower prices for consumers (E) they were resented by European product manufacturers Answer: (D) they resulted in lower prices for consumers Explanation: Protective tariffs increased the prices of European imports, thus making home-grown manufactured goods more competitive. This supported the expansion of manufacturing interests, particularly in the New England states, but increased prices for consumers. (A) President Truman's removal of Douglas MacArthur (B) the entrance of China into the war (C) the withdrawal of most of the American troops (D) promises from the Soviet Union of nuclear weapons (E) the withdrawal of Japanese troops U.S. Marines escape encirclement Nearing defeat in the Korean at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 1950 War, North Korea launched a successful counterattack on the United Nations forces in 1950 following Answer: (B) the entrance of China into the war Explanation: United Nations forces had successfully pushed North Korean troops north of the 38th parallel in 1950 when China added 200,000 ground troops in support of North Korea. A force of 30,000 U.N. troops was surrounded at Chosin Reservoir but managed to escape. The combined Chinese and North Korean forces quickly recovered North Korean territory, though the war continued until the signing of the armistice in 1953. Which of the following provisions is not an example of the Constitution modifying the Articles of Confederation? (A) Congress has the power to control interstate commerce (B) amending the Constitution requires 2/3 vote of Congress and 3/4 approval of states (C) passage of legislation requires a majority vote in both houses of Congress plus the president's signature (D) two houses of Congress, one based on population /one giving equal votes to each state, hold legislative power (E) only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to declare war Answer: (E) only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to declare war Explanation: The Constitution sought to create "a more perfect Union" and many of its provisions drastically modified the Articles of Confederation, adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Under the Articles, Congress had no effective control of interstate commerce, amending the Articles required a unanimous vote of the states, legislation required nine of the 13 states approving, and there was one house of Congress with each state equally represented. The Articles did reserve the right to declare war for Congress, which is also one of its powers under the Constitution, but did provide that " no State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies." What is not true of the presidential Kennedy and Nixon faced off in election of 1960? four televised debates (A) John F. Kennedy won the national popular vote by less than 1/10 of one percent (B) Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved controversial (C) televised debates provided an important advantage for Kennedy (D) when Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested during the campaign, Kennedy attempted to get him released, while Nixon refused to become involved (E) Kennedy chose a vice-presidential running-mate from the South, while Nixon chose a running-mate from New England Answer: (B) Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved controversial • Explanation: While Kennedy had to explain to Protestant voters that his Roman Catholic faith would not impact his presidency, Nixon's religious background was not an issue. The 1960 election's popular vote margin (118,000) was the smallest in the 20th century (Al Gore won over 500,000 more votes in the 2000 election but George Bush was awarded Florida's electoral votes and the presidency by a Supreme Court decision). The series of televised presidential debates were seen as significant pluses for Kennedy, as was his support for King after his arrest. Lyndon Johnson of Texas and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. of Massachusetts were the Democratic and Republican vice-presidential candidates. Alfred T. Mahan's influential 1890 book asserted that Alfred Thayer Mahan, American strategist and creator of the term "Middle East" (A) the great empires of history had great navies (B) infantry was more important in wartime than ships (C) establishing naval bases around the world was unimportant (D) the U.S. should not establish a colonial empire (E) war with Spain in the Caribbean was unwise Answer:(A) the great empires of history had great navies • Explanation: Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 in 1890. In it, he reviewed military history and concluded that great navies were essential for success. His writings had tremendous impact on the U.S., which developed a battleship fleet partly because of his ideas, as well as other nations, particularly Japan. One purpose of the World War I poster pictured above was to (A) cut into the profits being made by American farmers trying to take advantage of the increased demand for food (B) give ordinary citizens the opportunity to participate in the war effort (C) sell Liberty Bonds (D) allow American agricultural goods to compete against German James Montgomery Flagg's goods on the world market World War I poster encouraging Victory (E) discourage American families Gardens from eating foreign-grown vegetables Answer: (B) give ordinary citizens the opportunity to participate in the war effort • Explanation: The Victory Gardens encouraged by the Committee of Public Information in this poster provided Americans with a chance to feel part of the war effort, in addition to reducing domestic demand for agricultural products. Victory Gardens were also encouraged during World War II “The reason that the present school cannot organize itself as a natural social unit is because…common and productive activity is absent…When the school introduces and trains each child of society into membership with such a little community, saturating him with the spirit of service, and providing him with the instruments of effective self direction, we…shall have the deepest and best guarantee of a larger society which is worthy, lovely, and harmonious.” This quote is from which American educator? (A) James Conant (B) Horace Mann (C) John Dewey (D) Charles Eliot (E) Theodore Sizer Early 20th Century classroom Answer: (C) John Dewey • Explanation: John Dewey, American educator and philosopher, emphasized the importance of relevant education for students. He opposed rote memorization and encouraged teachers to place students at the center of the curriculum. Dewey viewed education as a critical element in democracy and established what became known as the progressive education movement. He wrote "Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself.” Which of the "The right of the people following is not part peaceably to assemble" is an important element of the Bill of Rights? of the Bill of Rights (A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it..." (B) "excessive bail shall not be required...nor cruel and unusal punishments inflicted..." (C) "no soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner..." (D) "Congress shall make no law...abridging the freedom of speech..." (E) "no person...shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself..." Answer:(A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it..." • Explanation: Habeas corpus, literally "you shall have the body," is protected in Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution. It requires an authority such as a jailer to allow an individual to have a formal hearing to be informed of an alleged crime and not be unlawfully detained. B is part of the 8th, C the 3rd, D the 1st, and E the 5th Amendments, all part of the Bill of Rights. Which of the following statements are true about Indians living in North America before Spanish explorers reached the continent? I. Tribes in the Southwest developed elaborate canal systems to sustain agriculture II. Several written languages were developed III. Mississippi River Valley residents built huge temple mounds and a city near present-day St. Louis that may have had 40,000 residents IV. Horses enabled hunters to range far from their tribe in search of food V. The buffalo was a major source of food and clothing for Plains Indians (A) I, II, and V (B) I, III, and V (C) III, IV, and V (D) I, III, and IV (E) All of the statements are A massive ten-story pre-Columbian Indian mound near Collinsville, Illinois true All of the following were goals of Progressivism except The 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire killed 146 workers and led to Progressive Era reforms (A) the end of corruption in municipal governments (B) making government more responsible to voters (C) end of child labor (D) a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of socialism (E) protecting the interests of consumers Answer:(D) a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of socialism • Explanation: While some Progressives were sympathetic with aspects of socialism, most rejected it as being too extreme. Progressives sought to use government and social action to reform society. Political corruption, political bosses, child labor, poor working conditions, and unsafe foods and drugs were all targets of Progressive reformers. Reconstruction policies between 1867 and 1876 followed most closely the wishes of Richmond, Virginia in 1865: how should the South be restored to the Union? A) President Abraham Lincoln B) President Andrew Johnson C) Southern plantation owners D) Northern Democrats in Congress E) Northern Republicans in Congress Answer:(E) Northern Republicans in Congress • Explanation: Northern Republicans, particularly the group labeled the Radical Republicans, exerted the most influence on Reconstruction policies following the end of the Civil War. Lincoln's assassination in April 1865 was probably the worst possible scenario for the post-war South, as he had proposed a much more lenient set of policies than the Radicals, who wished to not only see the Republican Party succeed in southern states (as did Lincoln), but to punish the former Confederates for slavery and the Civil War. A fundamentalist in the 1920s would believe all but which of the following? Grave of R.A. Torrey, a leading American fundamentalist (A) the words of the Bible were inspired by God (B) Jesus was the son of Virgin Mary (C) the world was created in six days in 4004 B.C. (D) the first five books of the Bible were written over many years by many different authors (E) Jesus rose from the dead following his crucifixion Answer:(D) the first five books of the Bible were written over many years by many different authors • Explanation: Fundamentalism became a powerful force in American Protestantism in the first two decades of the 20th Century. Fundamentalists believed in the deity of Jesus, the virgin birth, the Atonement at the Crucifixion, the resurrection of Jesus, and the inerrancy of the Bible, among other tenets of Christianity. Other Christians rejected this approach as narrow and anti-science and interpreted the Bible, particularly Genesis in a figurative way. The most famous forum for fundamentalism came at the 1925 Scopes Trial in which William Jennings Bryan was cross-examined by Clarence Darrow on his literal interpretation of the Bible. Fundamentalists of the 1920s believed (as modern fundamentalists still do) that the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, were all written by Moses. The Confederacy's $100 bill featured a drawing of slaves hoeing cotton Who is the author of the following quote: "But I take higher ground. I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color, and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding States between the two, is, instead of an evil, a good - a positive good. " (A) Thomas Jefferson (B) William Lloyd Garrison (C) Robert E. Lee (D) Jefferson Davis (E) John C. Calhoun Answer: (E) John C. Calhoun • Explanation: Calhoun, who served as Andrew Jackson's first vice-president, was a staunch defender of slavery. Rather than apologizing for it, he asserted in an 1837 speech to the U.S. Senate, that without slavery, white supremacy would be at risk. Southern slavery, he added "exempts us from the disorder and dangers resulting from this conflict of whites and free blacks." President Bill President Clinton Bill Clinton (A) was successful in his campaign to end discrimination against homosexuals in the military (B) was openly criticized by his vice-president, Al Gore, who condemned his interaction with Monica Lewinsky as not just inappropriate, but immoral (C) strongly supported the passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement (D) became the only president in American history to be impeached and convicted (E) admitted to having extramarital affairs with Gennifer Flowers, Paula Jones, and Monica Lewinsky Answer: (C) strongly supported the passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement • Explanation: Clinton's early efforts to end anti-gay discrimination in the armed forces failed. Al Gore did not comment on Clinton's behavior which led to impeachment, only the second for a president in American history. While impeached by the House of Representatives, he was not convicted by the Senate. Clinton never admitted directly to having affairs with a series of women. He did push for passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement in 1993. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the North had all of the following advantages except: (A) more railroad mileage (B) more industry (C) unity of opinion concerning war aims (D) an established government (E) superior naval resources Union soldiers prior to the Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia, 1864 Answer:(C) unity of opinion concerning war aims • Explanation: The North had overwhelming advantages at the start of the Civil War, including a larger free population, more railroads, greater industrial capacity, a government that was recognized by foreign nations, and a navy. The South, at the same time, had much greater unity among its white population in support of its war aims which helped it to endure across five Aprils (1861-1865). According to British economist Great Depression food line John Maynard Keynes, who has had a major impact on U.S. economic policies since the 1930s, which of the following is true? (A) an increase in tariff rates is useful in overcoming a depression (B) a balanced budget is the key to economic stability and prosperity (C) the best way to cure for a depression is a reduction in the national debt (D) the primary problem of the Great Depression was excessive government spending (E) budget deficits can lead to an expanding economy Answer:(E) budget deficits can lead to an expanding economy • Explanation: British economic theorist John Maynard Keynes was an advocate of government spending as a source of economic growth. He advocated governmental deficit financing (spending more in a budget year than collected revenue). While not publicly embracing Keynsian ideas, Franklin Roosevelt created a number of new federal jobs, particularly in the Second New Deal. Despite frequent calls for fiscal responsibility and a balanced budget from politicians in both the Republican and Democratic parties, in practice virtually all administrations have used deficit financing. In 1965 economist Milton Friedman was quoted as saying "We are all Keynsian now" and in 1971 Republican President Richard Nixon remarked "I am now a Keynesian in economics" as he took the U.S. off the gold standard. British surrender at Yorktown, an France signed an alliance with the American-French victory in the American Revolution United States and participated openly in the American Revolutionary War following (A) a demonstration of American strength in winning a major battle (B) the issuance of the Declaration of Independence (C) the diplomatic mission of Thomas Jefferson (D) Spain's concluding a treaty with the United States (E) growing opposition to the war in Great Britain by Whigs Answer: (A) a demonstration of American strength in winning a major battle • Explanation: The American victory at Saratoga in 1778 resulted in the surrender of 5800 British troops under the command of Gen. Burgoyne. This was the largest surrender in British history and convinced the French who had previously resisted Benjamin Franklin's requests to provide money, soldiers, and naval support to the American cause which proved crucial to the eventual victory at Yorktown in 1781. Which famous Depression-era American novel depicted the journey of the Joad family from Migrant worker children in California Oklahoma to the Central photographed by Dorothea Lange, 1935 Valley of California? (A) Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald (B) Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis (C) A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway (D) Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser (E) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Answer:(E) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Explanation: Steinbeck's novel was met with severe criticism when it was published in 1939 for its sympathetic portrayal of Tom Joad, a young father who supports farm workers in opposition to the agricultural owners of California. It later won both the Nobel and the Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a feature film starring Henry Fonda. The decision to locate the U.S. capital in the District of Columbia between Maryland L'Enfant's plan for Washington, D.C., 1792 and Virginia (A) was made during the meetings of the First Continental Congress (B) was a major compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia (C) was part of a 1790 compromise between northern and southern interests that included the federal government assuming state debts (D) was intended to honor James Madison, a Virginian and the "father of the Constitution" (E) was included in the Bill of Rights Answer:(C) was part of a 1790 compromise between northern and southern interests that included the federal government assuming state debts Explanation: Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison helped arrange the Compromise of 1790 which provided for the District of Columbia to be established between two slave states (Virginia and Maryland) after 10 years in Philadelphia. This was a concession to southern interests. Another part of the Compromise allowed the federal government to assume the debts of the individual states, which was a goal of Hamilton's. Significant domestic anti-war sentiment developed in which of the following American wars? I. War of 1812 II. Mexican-American War III. World War I IV. Korean War V. Vietnam War A) I, II, and III (B) I, II and V (C) II, IV, and V (D) I, III, and V (E) all of the above Anti-war protestors meet military police at the Pentagon in a famous 1967 anti-war protest Answer:(B) I, II and V • Explanation: New England was the center of anti-war agitation during the War of 1812 as the residents felt the brunt of the trade embargo with Great Britain. Some Federalists plotted at the 1814 Hartford Convention to secede from the U.S. and join Canada. During the Mexican-American War, New England again had the largest group opposing the war, as abolitionists and other northerners saw the attack on Mexico as a means of adding slave territory to the U.S. While in its early years, the Vietnam War enjoyed the support of a cross-section of Americans, by 1965 a significant anti-war element emerged, particularly on college campuses. World War II and the Korean War were generally supported by the American public A group of Indians in Idaho, 1877 Which American Indian leader uttered the following words: "I am tired of fighting...The old men are killed. It is the young men who say yes and no. It is cold and have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death...I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.” A) Cochise of the Apaches B) Tecumseh of the Shawnee C) Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce D) Crazy Horse of the Sioux E) Black Kettle of the Cheyenne Answer: (C)Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce • Explanation: Leading his people on a 1700-mile trek across the Northwest while being pursued by the U.S. Army, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce finally surrendered in 1877 American troops in northern Mexico, 1916 President Wilson sent General John Pershing across the Mexican border in pursuit of which Mexican rebel leader? (A) Pancho Villa (B) Francisco Madero (C) Victoriano Huerta (D) Venustiano Carranza (E) Porfirio Diaz Answer: (A) Pancho Villa • Explanation: Villa expected support from the U.S. in his struggle for power with Mexico's president Venustiano Carranza. When Pres. Wilson did not offer help, Villa launched a series of raids across the U.S. border into New Mexico in 1916, killing 18 and burning a town in one attack. Wilson dispatched Pershing to capture Villa, who successfully eluded the U.S. Army. Villa was assassinated in 1923. John F. Kennedy earned a Congressional Medal of Honor for his service in World War II Which of the following American presidents had absolutely no military experience before taking office? (A) Andrew Jackson (B) William Henry Harrison (C) Zachary Taylor (D) Theodore Roosevelt (E) Woodrow Wilson Answer:(E) Woodrow Wilson • Explanation: Jackson, elected in 1828, fought in the Creek War and the War of 1812. Harrison, elected in 1840, was the victorious general at the Battle of Tippecanoe against the Shawnee Confederacy in 1811 and also served in the War of 1812. Taylor, elected in 1848, was a general in the Mexican-American War. Roosevelt, who took office in 1901, led a group of Rough-Riders into battle in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Wilson, a history professor and later president of Princeton University, had no military experience upon his election in 1912, though he served as commander-of-chief of American forces during World War I from 1917-1918. Which Spanish conquistador explored the American Southwest in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola and may have ventured as far Spanish explorers head north from Mexico, 1540 north as Kansas in 1540? Painting by Frederick Remington (A) Hernando de Soto (B) Ponce de Leon (C) Francisco Coronado (D) Hernan Cortes (E) Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca C) Francisco Coronado • Explanation: Coronado and his group of about 300 Spanish soldiers and four Franciscan priests ventured north from Mexico, reached the Grand Canyon, and encountered a number of Indian tribes while searching for the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola in a 1540-1542 expedition. Which of the following (A) the forced was not one of the impressment of issues that caused the American sailors on to War Hawks to British ships recommend war with (B) desire for Great Britain in the years Canadian land leading up to the War of (C) a dispute over the 1812? Oregon border (D) British military support for Indian tribes in the Ohio River Valley Battle of Chippawa, 1814, one of the few American successes in Canada (E) the Chesapeake- during the War of 1812 Leopard incident Answer:(C) a dispute over the Oregon border • Explanation: The War Hawks, mostly Democrat- Republicans from the south and west in the U.S. House of Representatives, urged President Madison to make war with Great Britain for a variety of reasons, including the impressment of American sailors, desire for Canadian lands, military aid to the Shawnee Confederation by the British, and the Chesapeake-Leopard incident, in which the British Leopard fired on the U.S. frigate Chesapeake off the Atlantic coast in 1807. The Oregon boundary dispute arose during the 1840s and was settled by the Oregon Treaty of 1846 Which of the following 1960s Supreme Court decisions affirmed the principle of "one person, one vote" and required states to reapportion districts so that rural districts with small population did not exert more power than urban An example of a districts with larger "gerrymandered" district, population? Illinois, 2005 (A) Tinker v. Des Moines (B) Miranda v. Arizona (C) Baker v. Carr (D) Gideon v. Wainwright (E) Loving v. Virginia Answer:(C) Baker v. Carr • Explanation: The 1962 Baker v. Carr decision ruled that reapportionment was a judicial, not merely a political matter and that courts could intervene to insure a fair distribution of voters within a state. Before this decision, rural (and often more conservative) districts wielded more political influence than more heavily populated urban districts. The decision still permitted the type of gerrymandering present in the map above, in which districts are drawn in such a way to protect incumbents. As long as the number of voters is roughly equal in districts, this practice has not been successfully challenged in federal courts. Cherry blossoms frame one of Washington, D.C.'s memorials Which American wrote: "I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." (A) Elijah P. Lovejoy (B) Thomas Paine (C) John Adams (D) Thomas Jefferson (E) George Washington Answer:(D) Thomas Jefferson • Explanation: This quote of Jefferson's, which circles his statue in the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., is from a letter to Benjamin Rush in 1800. Jefferson explains his belief that the First Amendment separates church and state and forbids the establishment of a state religion, which is the "tyranny over the mind of man" that Jefferson opposes. California Which of the following World War II-era Japanese- (December 1941-August 1945) events did American children not occur in California? photographed (A) the establishment of the Manzanar by Ansel Adams camp for interned Japanese-Americans during World (B) the Zoot Suit riots in which Mexican- War II Americans were beaten by soldiers on leave (C) a Japanese submarine shelling a pier north of Santa Barbara in 1942 (D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead (E) the movie "Casablanca" starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman was produced in Hollywood Answer:(D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead • Explanation: The 1943 race riots occurred in Detroit, Michigan and lasted for three days. Racial tension between blacks and whites led to violence. Early in June 1943, 25,000 Packard plant workers, who produced engines for bombers and PT boats, stopped work in protest of the promotiharassing on of three blacks. Police were accused of and arresting blacks while ignoring the illegal actions of whites. Federal troops finally were called in to quell the rioting. All of the other events took place in California during World War II. Frederic Edwin Church's "The Icebergs" (1861), an example of American Romanticism in art "Call me Ishmael" is the opening line of what famous example of 19th century American Romantic literature? (A) The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving (B) Moby Dick by Herman Melville (C) Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (D) The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe (E) The dying need but little, dear by Emily Dickinson Answer: (B) Moby-Dick by Herman Melville • Explanation: While critically panned by many when published in 1851, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville has been since viewed as one of the greatest novels in world literature. It depicts the search for a great white whale by Captain Ahab. Melville writes: "The White Whale swam before him as the monomaniac incarnation of all those malicious agencies which some deep men feel eating in them, till they are left living on with half a heart and half a lung.” Which of the following New Deal critics developed a very popular Share Our Wealth plan during the Great Depression using the slogan "Every man a king but no one wears a crown?" (A) Dr. Francis Townsend (B) Father Charles Coughlin (C) John L. Lewis (D) Huey Long (E) Norman Thomas A sharecropper's home in the rural South during the Great Depression Answer: (D) Huey Long • Explanation: Huey Long served as both governor and senator from Louisiana and built a following with his populist message of taxing the rich and providing $5000 for every family. Share Our Wealth clubs were set up across the nation and Franklin Roosevelt saw Long as a political threat in the 1936 presidential election. Long was assassinated, however, in September 1935. The incident between Congressman Preston Brooks and Senator Charles Sumner in 1856 "Tragic Prelude" by John Steuart Curry, 1941 showing John Brown in Kansas proved that (A) slavery would result in war if compromises were not enacted between the North and South (B) sectional violence had spread to the Kansas territory (C) sectional violence had spread to the floor of Congress (D) the violence that occurred during Bleeding Kansas would be repeated in other territories (E) the Constitution was not meant to include African-American slaves Answer: (C) sectional violence had spread to the floor of Congress • Explanation: Brooks felt that Sumner had besmirched the honor of his uncle, Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina, in a speech on the Kansas- Nebraska Act. He attacked Sumner with a cane on the floor of the Senate, resulting in Sumner's hospitalization and heightening tensions over slavery. Identify the author of this quote: "No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother." (A) Gloria Steinem (B) Margaret Sanger (C) Alice Paul (D) Jane Addams (E) Susan B. Anthony New York Ciy women's rights protestors, 1921 Answer: (B) Margaret Sanger • Explanation: Margaret Sanger, founded the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of Planned Parenthood in 1921 and advocated tirelessly for women's access to birth control. Which of the following battles is not matched correctly with its Gettysburg, site of the largest battle in the history of the Western Hemisphere war? (A) Trenton--Revolutionary War (B) Chickamauga--Civil War (C) Manila Bay--Spanish-American War (D) San Jacinto--Mexican-American War (E) Lake Erie (Put-In Bay)--War of 1812 Answer: (D) San Jacinto-- Mexican-American War • Explanation: San Jacinto was the final battle in the Texas Independence fight in 1836. Mexican General Santa Anna was captured by Texan forces and signed a surrender. The Mexican-American War began in 1846. Oklahoma City Which of the following statements is bombing, April 26, 1995 true about the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing which resulted in the deaths of 168 people? I. It was planned by Islamic extremists. II. Timothy McVeigh was convicted of the bombing and executed by lethal injection. III. It was organized partly as a response to the government sieges in Waco, Texas and Ruby Ridge, Idaho. IV. Terry Nichols was sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the bombing. (A) I, II, and IV (B) II, III, and IV (C) II and IV only (D) I, III, and IV only (E) all of the statements are true Answer: (B) II, III, and IV only • Explanation: Timothy McVeigh was executed by lethal injection for his involvement in the Oklahoma City bombing. He admitted too planning the bombing with Terry Nichols partly in retaliation for federal government raids at Ruby Ridge and Waco. Which of the following statements are true about the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 I. Japan had not formally declared war on the U.S. before the attack. II. In addition to battleships and planes, a large number of American aircraft carriers U.S. propaganda poster, 1942 were destroyed in the attack. III. On the next day, President Franklin (A) I, II, Roosevelt asked Congress for a and III (B) I, declaration of war against Japan and II, IV and III referred to December 7th as "a day of (C) I, III, IV, infamy" IV. American forces in the Philippine and V (D) II, Islands were attacked the next day by IV, and V Japan. (E) all are V. The attack was the first of a foreign Answer: (C) I, III, IV, and V only • Explanation: No aircraft carriers were sunk by the Japanese on December 7th, though the U.S. lost four battleships, 188 airplanes, and over 2400 men. All three Pacific-based aircraft carriers were elsewhere on December 7th, so while the surprise Pearl Harbor brought the U.S. into the war, it did not cripple the American presence in the Pacific. Japanese Admiral Hara Tadaichi later commented, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the war." For Statement V, "The attack was the first of a foreign nation on U.S. soil since the War of 1812," some might contend that Pancho Villa's incursions into New Mexico in 1916 constituted an enemy attack, though Villa's raids were not part of a Mexican government plan of attack. Which of the following Progressive Era causes led to mass arrests, hunger strikes and the force-feeding of Child labor, a Progressive Era prisoners by the Washington, cause: an eight-year-old news boy, St. Louis, 1910 D.C. police in 1917? (A) the drafting of men into the armed forces (B) the passage of the 18th Amendment (Prohibition) (C) the right of women to vote (D) unsafe mining practices (E) birth control and family planning Answer: (C) the right of women to vote • Explanation: Despite pledging to support women's suffrage in his 1916 presidential campaign, President Woodrow Wilson refused to lend his aid to a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote. Suffragists, led by Alice Paul, staged silent protests outside the White House in 1917. They were arrested and jailed. In a protest of jail conditions, Paul began a hunger strike that caused her to be relocated to the prison’s psychiatric ward where she was force-fed raw eggs through a plastic tube. Other women joined the strike which brought Wilson negative publicity. He finally relented and called for women's suffrage in January 1918. The 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920. Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905: Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for his help in settling the Russo-Japanese War Which set of wars, dates, and treaties is incorrectly matched? I. Revolutionary War--1783--Treaty of Paris II. War of 1812--1814--Treaty of Ghent III. Mexican-American War--1848--Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo IV. Sioux Indian-U.S. Army War--1868--Treaty of Grenville V. World War I--1919--Treaty of Versailles Answer:(D) Sioux Indian-U.S. Army War--1868--Treaty of Grenville • Explanation: Following the Batttle of Fallen Timbers, the Treaty of Greenville (1795) was signed between the U.S. government and representatives of several Indian tribes. In exchange for trade goods worth $20,000, most of the current state of Ohio was granted by the Indians to the U.S. The Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868 ended Red Cloud's War, granting the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Lakota Sioux Indian nation. Monument honoring the heroic Mexican cadets in Chapultapec Park, Mexico City Which of the following statements is not true of the Mexican-American War? I. Before an 1846 Texas-Mexico border dispute, President Polk had sent a delegation to Mexico City in an attempt to purchase California and New Mexico II. Mexican General Santa Anna, who had been disgraced and exiled for his actions in the Texas independence fight, was brought out of exile and resumed his position as President of Mexico III. A group of Irish-American soldiers defected to the Mexican side and formed the San Patricio Battalion IV. General Zachary Taylor's forces outlasted Mexican troops while greatly outnumbered at the battle of Buena Vista (A) I, II, and IV (B) II, III, and IV (C) I and III (D) I, III, and IV (E) all of are true Answer: (E) all of the statements are true • Explanation: Polk sent John Slidell to offer to purchase what is now the American Southwest from Mexico, but offended Mexican officials refused to meet the delegation. Santa Anna was brought out of Cuban exile by Polk in an attempt to end the war, but the effort backfired as Santa Anna led troops against the U.S. The San Patricio Battalion, composed mainly of Roman Catholics, was promised land grants for defecting to the Mexican cause. Many were caught and executed for treason. No land grants were ever confirmed for those who survived. Taylor's men, outnumbered perhaps 20,000 to 5,000, successfully resisted Santa Anna's attacks at Buena Vista. The spirit of the Protestant Reformation and the teachings of United States History Question of the Day Martin Luther proved formative in the founding of America. All of the following ideas were preached by Luther except: A) the freedom of human will to choose or reject salvation B) the popular right to rebel against unjust authority C) the priesthood of all believers D) justification by faith alone E) the evil of the sale of indulgences for the forgiveness of Martin Luther, whose ideas helped spur the settlement of America sin Answer: A) the freedom of human will to accept or reject salvation Explanation: Luther preached and wrote against human freedom of the will, contending that men and women were incapacited by sin and could not choose good over evil on their own. His ideas were a challenge not just to religious, but also to political authority. Many emigrants fled to the English colonies seeking escape from religious persecution set in motion by the Reformation. In addition, Luthers's idea that each person could approach God contributed to the anti-authority and self-governing attitudes of American colonists. Christopher Columbus Within a half century of their visit showing objects from Europe, the Spanish had to Indians on arrival in the opened the New World and West Indies A) virtually exterminated the Indians of the Caribbean B) were being seriously challenged for New World dominance by the English C) had created the richest and most extensive empire in world history D) were being seriously challenged for New World dominance by the French E) rapidly pushed through western North America on their way to Alaska Answer: A) virtually exterminated the Indians of the Caribbean Explanation: The Indians Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers met in the Caribbean quickly succumbed to white man diseases and violence and virtually disappeared from many islands. “I long to hear that you have declared Women's rights an independency. And, by the way, in has a long legacy the new code of laws which I suppose in American history it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could.” A) Martha Washington B) Elizabeth Cady Stanton C) Abigail Adams D) Dolley Madison E) Angelina Grimké Answer: C) Abigail Adams • Explanation: John Adams' wife Abigail provided an excellent sounding-board and support for her husband John in his role as one of America's founding fathers. Alice Roosevelt "No rumor could have exceeded the reality [in Longworth, the White House]; the study was filled with Thedore Roosevelt's cronies, the air heavy with tobacco smoke, trays eldest daughter with bottles containing every imaginable brand of whiskey stood about, cards and poker chips ready at hand--a general atmosphere of waist- coat unbuttoned, feet on the desk, and the spittoon alongside."--Alice Roosevelt Longworth This quote describes the White House of which Republican American president, whose administration was rocked with scandals and who died before completing his first term? (A) William Howard Taft (B) Warren Gamaliel Harding (C) Herbert Hoover (D) Chester A. Arthur (E) George H.W. Bush Answer: (B) Warren Gamaliel Harding Explanation: Harding, who admitted he was not qualified to be president, experienced the worst presidential scandal until Richard Nixon's Watergate gaffes. Harding's Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall was sentenced to prison for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal. Longworth was a Washington institution, unafraid to criticize or offend political leaders. She was banned from the White House during both the Taft and Wilson administrations. Which of the following environmental catastrophes involved nuclear power? (A) Three-Mile Island (B) the Exxon Valdez incident (C) Love Canal (D) the 1971 Santa Barbara spill (E) the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire The fear of nuclear war led to the construction of fallout shelters throughout the U.S. Answer: (A) Three-Mile Island Explanation: Three-Mile Island refers to a Pennsylvania nuclear power plant partial core meltdown in 1979. The Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Alaska in 1989, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Alaska. Love Canal, a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, was built near a toxic waste dump. Serious health problems for residents resulted in the relocation of hundreds of families. An oil spill bespoiled California beaches off Santa Barabara in 1971. Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant's In the 1869 Black Friday or Gould- presidency was marred by scandals Fisk scandal (A) railroad companies were involved in illegally creating monopolies (B) two speculators attempted to use their influence with the Grant administration to control the gold market in the United States (C) Southern scalawags used Reconstruction funds for their own enrichment (D) Indian agents in the Black Hills of South Dakota overcharged for supplies delivered to Sioux Indians (E) the New York Stock Exchange collapsed (B) two speculators attempted to use their influence with the Grant administration to control the gold market in the United States Explanation: Jay Gould and James Fisk almost accomplished their goal of controlling much of the gold in the United States by recruiting Grant's brother-in-law and convincing President Grant not to sell government gold. When Grant became aware of the scam, he sold millions of dollars of gold to lower the price. The result was a financial panic that tarnished the Grant administration. Which of the following were sources of the new imperialist American ideology of the 1890s? 1898 cartoon displaying America's reach from Puerto Rico to the Philippine Islands I. Social Darwinism—if the U.S. wants to survive, it needs to expand II. The belief in the inherent superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race III. A new manifest destiny strain, suggesting that every nation should be English in language, religion, and customs IV. The idea that as the American frontier closed, interests would turn outward to foreign frontiers (A) none of the above (B) II, III, and IV only (C) I and IV only (D) I, III, and IV only (E) all of the above (E) all of the above • Explanation: The 1890s witnessed a new form of manifest destiny, with Latin America and the Pacific as areas of focus. Social Darwinism suggested that as in nature, in society, only the strong survive. The superiority of white-skinned people, particularly Anglo-Saxons, was also a factor, characterized in Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden." Frederick Jackson Turner's thesis that the close of the American frontier would lead to looking for further areas of expansion was also part of the 1890s ideology. Which of the following does not describe the depression beginning in 1929? (A) decline in international trade (B) decline in the purchasing power of the American people (C) inability to produce goods to supply demand (D) decline in agricultural prices (E) rise in unemployment Destitute man, 1935, photographed by Dorothea Lange (C) inability to produce goods to supply demand • Explanation: American industry had significant production capacity in 1929, but the Depression's economic effects significantly reduced the demand for products. As wages fell and unemployment increased, consumers purchased fewer goods, leading to higher inventories, price drops, and even more unemployment Joseph McCarthy displays a All but which of the following proclamation of a suspicious statements about Joseph appointment made McCarthy are true? by President (A) he led a campaign to expose Truman, 1950 communists in the American government (B) his methods of intimidation and ridicule during committee hearings gave him tremendous influence (C) he was the chair of the House Un- American Activities Committee (D) he was formally censured by the Senate following the Army-McCarthy hearings (E) he continually changed the number of communists he claimed to have discovered and refused to identify his sources (C) he was the chair of the House Un- American Activities Committee • Explanation: McCarthy was a member of Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, though his investigations paralleled some of those by the House Un-American Activities Committee. McCarthy's reign of intimidation and fear effectively ended with the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings. He was censured by the Senate in December 1954 In the Scottsboro Boys case of the 1930s Scottsboro Boys marker, Jackson County, Alabama (A) white boys were accused of raping two white women (B) the defendants were found guilty by all-white juries (C) all nine defendants were eventually executed (D) a gang fight occurred between whites and blacks (E) the U.S. Supreme Court intervened to stay the executions of the boys the defendants were found guilty by all-white juries • Explanation: The nine Scottsboro boys were African-Americans accused of raping two white women in Alabama in 1931. They were convicted by all-white juries and sentenced to death, though eventually all were released from prison. Which of the following are true of writs of habeas corpus I. According to the Constitution, they cannot be suspended except in cases of rebellion or invasion II. President Lincoln temporarily suspended them during the Civil War III. They prevent cruel or unusual punishment IV. They require a court to determine if a person is being detained lawfully (A) all of the above Writ of habeas (B) I, II, and III only corpus filed on (C) I, II, and IV only behalf (D) II and IV only of Guantanamo (E) I and II only Bay detainee, 2001 (C) I, II, and IV only • Explanation: A writ of habeas corpus guarantees that an individual may not be unlawfully detained and that an imprisoning authority such as a jailer must deliver a person to a court to determine if this has taken place. The Constitution gives Congress the right to suspend it in time of war and President Lincoln did just that in 1861 because of concern over unrest in Maryland. President Richard Nixon President Richard Nixon with edited White House transcripts, April 1974 A) was impeached by the House of Representatives for obstruction of justice and abuse of power (B) resigned to allow Vice-President Spiro Agnew to take over the reins of power (C) apologized to the American people for his decisions and declared he was wrong to abuse power (D) resigned from office before the House could impeach him, which it was likely to do (E) gained increasing support from the Republican Party and the American public as he released information about his involvement (D) resigned from office before the House could impeach him, which it was likely to do Explanation: After the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1974 U.S. v. Richard M. Nixon decision that the White House tapes needed to be turned over to the Special Prosecutor, members of Nixon's Republican Party convinced him to resign rather than fight impeachment hearings. Nixon became the first president to resign from office.