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					United States History Question of the Day

A New York City tenement from How the Other Half Lives by Jaob Riis
(Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain)

What type of multiple-family dwelling became prevalent in New
York City in the last third of the 19th century

   (A)    the dumbbell tenement
   (B)    the skyscraper
   (C)    condominums
   (D)    5th Avenue mansions
   (E)    bed-and-breakfast hotels
Answer A:
Explanation:
Originally designed for one family, the dumbbell
tenements were divided (often multiple times) to
accommodate more families, mainly on Manhattan's
Lower East Side. The Tenement Act of 1879 required
each room to have a window, necessitating the
construction of air shafts. This led to a dumbbell
shape, wider at the street and back, narrower in the
middle to accommodate the airshaft. The
overcrowding, lack of adequate sanitation, and
insufficient fresh air supply eventually led to their
being banned in New York City. The New Law of
1901 required each tenement to have a large
courtyard.
                              Which of the following were contributions
                              of the Protestant Reformation to the
                              founding of America?

                                  (A) the creation of a number of
                               denominations that suffered persecution
                               and sought religious freedom in the New
                               World
                                  (B) the concept of the priesthood of all
                               believers, which promoted individualism
                               and aided the development of democracy
                                  (C) an emphasis on literacy, as the
                               Bible was translated into the language of
                               the people and not limited to only those
                               who could read Latin
Martin Luther posting his "95
                                  (D) a challenge to religious authority
Theses"
on the Wittenberg church door, which led logically for some to a challenge
1517                           to political authority
(Source: Wikimedia Commons-       (E) all of the above were contributions
-public domain)
Answer:

   (E)   all of the above were contributions
Explanation:

The Protestant Reformation, which began in Germany but
soon spread to the rest of Europe and then the New World, led
to the formation of many religious groups, as the challenge to
religious authority gave many individuals and groups the
confidence to form their own sects. Central to the Reformation
is the concept of the priesthood of all believers, essentially
stating that each Christian has direct access to God and needs
no intermediary. This religious independence view easily
translated to a similar attitude towards political authorities.
Luther, besides breaking with the Roman Catholic Church,
translated the Bible into German, thus giving access to it for
those not able to read or understand Latin.
                                        Henry Clay, America's leading Whig,
                                        delivering his farewell
                                        speech to the Senate, 1842
                                        (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public
                                        domain)
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Whig
Party?
  (A) many of its members eventually became Republicans
  (B) it opposed President Jackson’s policies
  (C) it was united in its support for the expansion of
slavery into the western territories
  (D) it was particularly popular among evangelical
Protestants
  (E) It supported internal improvements paid for by the
federal government
• Answer:(C) it was united in its support for
  the expansion of slavery into the western
  territories

• Explanation: The Whig Party became deeply
  divided on the issue of slavery. Many of its
  members, including Abraham Lincoln, quit the
  party and joined the newly formed Republican
  Party which was formed in 1854. The Whigs
  generally opposed Jackson, supported Clay's
  American System which included internal
  improvements, and gained support from
  evangelical Protestant voters.
Muckraking writers of the Progressive Era exposed
  (A)     unsafe meat packaging
  (B)     corruption in city government
  (C)     unhealthy mining conditions
  (D)     the anti-competition tactics of trusts
  (E)     all of the above


 Ida Tarbell, a muckraking
      journalist of the
      Progressive Era
    (Source: Wikimedia
     Commons--public
          domain)
Answer:
  (E) all of the above
• Explanation: Muckraker was the
  nickname given to a journalist or other
  writer who exposed corruption. Ida
  Tarbell (Standard Oil trusts), Lincoln
  Steffens (city machine politics), and
  Upton Sinclair (meat-packing
  practices) were some of the more
  famous of these early investigative
  reporters.
                          Which of the following statements
                          about the World War II Potsdam
                          Conference is not accurate

                             (A) Prime Minister Winston
                          Churchill left the meeting following
                          his party's defeat in an election in
                          Great Britain
                             (B) the Allied leaders decided to
                          defeat Germany first, then focus on
                          Japan
                             (C) it was decided that Nazi
                          leaders would be tried as war
                          criminals
                             (D) Pres. Truman officially
                          informed Soviet Premier Stalin of
Churchill, Truman, and    the existence of the atomic bomb
Stalin at Potsdam, July      (E) all of the statements are
          1945            accurate
Answer:
  (B) the Allied leaders decided to defeat
Germany first, then focus on Japan
• Explanation: Germany had already
  surrendered by the time of the Potsdam
  Conference. Churchill was recalled to
  London and replaced by Clement Attlee.
  The planning for the Nuremberg Tribunals
  began at Potsdam. Stalin was informed
  about the atomic bomb, though Soviet spies
  on the Manhattan Project had probably
  already provided him that information.
                          America's most persuasive pamphlet,
                          Common Sense by Thomas Paine
                          (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain)

In Common Sense by Thomas Paine

  (A) Parliament is seen as the enemy of freedom, but King
George III is viewed with respect
  (B) colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great
Britain
  (C) colonists are encouraged to find areas of compromise
with Parliament and King George III
  (D) colonists are encouraged to ignore political issues
and focus on economic advancement
  (E) an argument is made that the colonists are
represented virtually in Parliament because they are still
British subjects
 Answer:
    (B) colonists are encouraged to cut their ties
 with Great Britain
• Explanation:

 Written in January 1776, following Lexington
 and Concord but prior to the Declaration of
 Independence, Common Sense directly
 challenged those who asserted that the
 American colonies should remain within the
 British Empire. Paine urged colonists to
 sever their ties with the mother country,
 contending that Great Britain had abused the
 colonies. He concluded that "'tis time to part."
The 1773 Boston Tea
     Party was an
 immediate cause of
     the Coercive
  (Intolerable) Acts
 (Source: Wikimedia
  Commons--public
       domain)


In which pair is the first event an immediate cause of the second?

A) Assassination of James Garfield in 1881-the Pendleton Civil
Service Act
B) Election of John Adams in 1796-Twelfth Amendment's
adoption
C) Sinking of the Lusitana in 1915-U.S. entry into World War I
D) Assassination of Alexander Hamilton in 1804- end of the
Federalist Party
E) Germany's invasion of Poland of 1939-U.S. entry into World
War II
  Answer:
  (A) Assassination of James Garfield-the
  Pendleton Civil Service Act

• Explanation: President James Garfield was
  assassinated by a disappointed office-seeker
  in 1881. Congress passed the Pendleton
  Civil Service Act in 1883, creating a set of
  civil service exams for federal positions to
  reduce the spoils system in which the
  president had the authority to appoint many
  employees.
Henry Ford did which of the following
in mass-producing automobiles in
the 1920s?

   (A) he hired more Jews in
management positions
   (B) he utilized a style of
management that delegated
corporate decisions to professionals
in specialized divisions
   (C) he paid his workers higher
wages than they could receive with
comparable jobs
   (D) he paid his workers lower
wages than they could receive with
comparable jobs
   (E) he instituted worker-
management teams to share
decision-making about production
Answer:
  (C) he paid his workers higher wages than
they could receive with comparable jobs

• Explanation: Ford began paying his workers
  $5 per an eight-hour work day in 1914,
  almost double the rate for comparable work
  with longer hours. His action reduced
  employee turnover and increased worker
  efficiency. Ford also used assembly lines for
  the mass production of inexpensive
  automobiles.
                               The area impacted by the Northwest Ordinance
                               (Source: Wikimedia Commons--public domain)




The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

   (A) finally removed the British presence from the Ohio
River Valley
   (B) reduced the authority of the federal government in the
western territories
   (C) provided a procedure for admitting new states to the
Union
   (D) resulted in Shays' Rebellion
   (E) divided land into sections that were then sold to
investors
Answer:
  (C) provided a procedure for admitting
new states to the Union

• Explanation: The Northwest Ordinance, in
  addition to prohibiting slavery in the
  Northwest Territories, provided that
  residents could apply for statehood when
  the population reached 60,000 inhabitants.
  New states came in on the same level as
  the original 13 states. In 1803 Ohio became
  the first state admitted under the provisions.
                         Vice-president George H.W.
                         Bush succeeded Ronald
                         Reagan as president following
                         the 1988 election. Before him,
                         the last incumbent vice-
                         president who was directly
                         elected president rather than
                         succeeding a president who
                         died in office was

                           (A)   Martin Van Buren
                           (B)   Lyndon Johnson
                           (C)   Calvin Coolidge
                           (D)   Theodore Roosevelt
Ronald Reagan and
George H.W. Bush, 1981
                           (E)    Harry Truman
 Answer:
   (A) Martin Van Buren
• Explanation: . George H.W. Bush followed
  Reagan's two terms as president and built a
  solid reputation for decisive action with the
  Operation Desert Storm success against Iraq.
  Economic stagnation at home and Bush's
  decision to break his "Read My Lips. No New
  Taxes" pledge caused his popularity to fall
  and he was defeated by Bill Clinton in 1992.
  Andrew Jackson's second vice-president,
  Martin Van Buren, was elected president in
  1836. Johnson, Coolidge, Roosevelt and
  Truman all succeeded presidents who died in
  office.
In the 1735 case of New York newspaper publisher John
Peter Zenger,

   (A) his lawyer focused on the illegality of a law rather
than his Zenger's innocence
   (B) Zenger was acquitted of seditious libel for printing
articles critical of the royal governor
   (C) Zenger's lawyer argued that the articles were not
libelous because they were based on facts
   (D) an important principle of freedom of the press was
established
   (E) all of the above are true
Answer:
   (E) all of the above are true
• Zenger, publisher of the New-York Weekly Journal, printed
  an article critical of New York Governor William Cosby.
  Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, admitted that Zenger had
  published the articles, but was within his rights, since libel
  was not proven. Essentially, the articles could be critical of
  the governor as long as they were true. The jury was
  convinced and acquitted Zenger. Hamilton argued "The jury
  have a right to determine both the law and the fact, and they
  ought to do so. The question before you is not the cause of a
  poor printer, nor of New York alone; it is the cause of liberty,
  the liberty of opposing arbitrary power by speaking and
  writing truth." Zenger's case proved an important precedent
  both during the American Revolution and as freedom of
  press rights were established in the Bill of Rights. It was also
  one of the first times in American history a lawyer challenged
  the legality of a law as the basis for acquittal.
The biggest surrender in
American military history,
involving almost 12,000 U.S.
soldiers, occurred where
during World War 2?

   (A) at Kasserine Pass in
North Africa
   (B) on the Bataan Peninsula
in the Philippine Islands
   (C) at the Battle of the
Bulge in northern Europe
   (D) on Guadacanal Island in
the South Pacific
   (E) at Anzio Beach in Italy
Answer:
    (B) on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine
Islands
• Explanation:

 Along with the attack on Pearl Harbor in December
 1941, Japanese forces invaded the Philippine
 Islands. After resistance proved futile, American
 General Ned King surrendered his troops to the
 Japanese. The captured American and Filipinos
 were then forced to participate in a brutal 75-mile
 march to prison camps which resulted in
 thousands dying of thirst, beatings, and
 executions. The Japanese commanding general,
 Masaharu Homma, was tried and executed for war
 crimes following Japan's surrender in 1945.
                     Harpers Ferry, Virginia as seen in 1865




Name the individual who was described in the following ways by these
observers for his actions in 1859:

Henry David Thoreau--"an angel of light"
Frederick Douglass--"His zeal in the cause of freedom was infinitely
superior to mine. Mine was as the taper light; his was as the burning
sun."

(A) Abraham Lincoln B) John Brown C) Stephen Douglas (D) Robert
E. Lee E) William Lloyd Garrison
            (B) John Brown
• Explanation:

 Fanatical abolitionist John Brown led a raid on
 an arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 in
 an attempt to start a slave uprising. The raid
 failed and Brown was captured and hanged.
 While many Southerners viewed him as an
 example of the irrational hatred of abolitionists,
 in the North he was seen by many as a martyr.
 Douglass wrote of Brown: "John Brown began
 the war that ended American slavery and made
 this a free Republic."
               During World War I, anti-
               German attitudes led to

               (A) some German cities and
               street names being renamed
               (B) libraries burning their
               German-language books in
               public bonfires
               (C) German being dropped
               from high school curricular
               offerings
Anti-German
Liberty Bond   (D) mob violence
poster         (E) all of the above
          (E) all of the above
• Explanation:
 Suspicion of the loyalty of German-Americans
 (and Dutch, Swiss, and other European-
 Americans confused with Germans) was
 widespread in the U.S. and resulted in a number
 of anti-German actions, including banning of
 German language instruction in schools,
 renaming sauerkraut "liberty cabbage," book-
 burnings, and mob violence, including a
 lynching of a German-American in Illinois who
 was accused of making disloyal remarks. The
 Committee of Public Information, led by George
 Creel, published inflammatory anti-German
 posters to sell Liberty Bonds and encourage
 army recruitment.
Which member of the Nixon administration was accused
of extortion, tax fraud, conspiracy, and bribery?

(A)   Attorney General John Mitchell
(B)   Commerce Secretary Maurice Stans
(C)   Vice-President Spiro Agnew
(D)   White House Counsel John Dean
(E)   Press Secretary Ron Ziegler
     (C) Vice-President Spiro Agnew
• Explanation:

  Spiro "Ted" Agnew, governor of Maryland, was selected
  by Richard Nixon to be his running-mate in the 1968
  election. Agnew was an important piece in Nixon's
  "Southern Strategy" and became a popular figure for his
  attacks on Democrats. Though there was some talk of
  replacing him in the 1972 election, Nixon chose Agnew
  again as his running-mate. After an investigation turned
  up a number of criminal charges, Agnew pleaded no
  contest, resigned from office, and was given a $10,000
  fine. He later paid over $260,000 to the state of
  Maryland. Agnew was replaced by Gerald Ford as vice-
  president. Agnew was the second vice-president in
  history to resign, the first being Andrew Jackson's first
  vice-president, John C. Calhoun.
                   North Dakota children assembling in
                   front of their one-room schoolhouse, 1890

Which of the following 19th century social reformers
advocated a secular curriculum for public schools,
more and better-equipped schoolhouses, higher pay
for teachers, and universal compulsory education?

(A) Dorothea Dix B) Elijah P. Lovejoy C) Angelina
Grimke D) Horace Mann E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton
            (D) Horace Mann
• Explanation:

 Known as the "father of American public
 education," Mann used his position as
 secretary of the Massachusetts board of
 education to effect change in schools first in
 Massachusetts and then throughout the U.S.
 He advocated better training for teachers,
 sought to remove religious influence from the
 curriculum, and urged increased public
 spending on education.
Which president is incorrectly matched with the quote?
(A) Franklin Roosevelt--"the only thing we have to fear is fear
itself"
(B) Abraham Lincoln--"with malice towards none, with charity for
all"
(C) Gerald Ford--"my fellow Americans, our long national
nightmare is over. Our Constitution works; our great Republic is
a government of laws and not of men"
(D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for
democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested
foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve.
We desire no conquest, no dominion"
(E) Andrew Jackson--"nullification means insurrection and war;
and the other states have a right to put it down"
 Answer: D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be
 made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted
upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have
 no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no
                       dominion"
Explanation:
  In Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 inaugural address, he stated
  "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." In his second
  inaugural address in 1865, Lincoln pledged "with malice
  towards none, with charity toward all." On pardoning
  Richard Nixon in 1974, Ford declared "our long national
  nightmare is over." In his address to Congress in April
  1917, Woodrow Wilson stated "the world must be made
  safe for democracy." Jackson, facing the South Carolina
  nullification crisis in 1832, stated "nullification means
  insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to
  put it down."
                                The founders of the
                               California missions in
San Diego de Alcala Mission,
as seen in 1848                      California
(A) were Jesuits
(B) were universally praised for their
compassionate policies towards Indians
(C) established a series of missions roughly
one-day's walk apart along California's coast
(D) helped control the spread of disease
(E) helped Spain establish a dynamic and
lucrative economic system throughout
California in the 1700s
   Answer: (C) established a series of
  missions roughly one-day's walk apart
         along California's coast
Explanation:
 Franciscan fathers established the California
 missions along El Camino Real (the King's
 Highway) in locations approximately one-day's
 walk apart. Mission administrators were
 criticized both in Mexico and Spain for cruel and
 exploitative practices involving Indians living
 near the missions. Concentrating populations
 near the missions resulted in the rapid spread of
 disease. Alta ("upper") California never proved
 to be a profit center for Spain, which
 relinquished its control with Mexico's
 independence in 1821.
                     Which of the following statements
                     about the French & Indian War are
                     accurate?
                     I. The British national debt greatly
                     increased as a result of fighting the
                     war
(A) I, II, and IV    II. The French gained a great deal of
       only          territory at the 1763 Peace of Paris
(B) I, III, and IV   negotiations
       only          III. Indian tribes were divided in their
  (C) I and III      loyalties, with some assisting the
       only          French and others the British
  (D) I and IV       IV. Following the war, the British
       only          implemented several new colonial
 (E) all of the      policies, including restricting the
  statements         westward settlements of American
    are true         colonists
                       Answer:
                (B) I, III, and IV only
Explanation:

 The French & Indian War, known as the Seven
 Years' War in Europe, pitted British and French
 forces against one another in battles along the Ohio
 River Valley, New England, and in Canada. Some
 Indian tribes, such as the Huron, allied themselves
 with the French while others, including the Mohawks,
 assisted the British. France gave up almost all of its
 North American possessions at the conclusion of the
 war and while the British gained considerable
 territory, they also acquired a huge debt and a
 growing sense that the American colonies should
 pay for their own defense.
               The Eisenhower
               administration
               opposed the military
               actions of Great
               Britain and France in
               which location in
               1956?

               (A) French Indochina
 President
               (B) Berlin
Eisenhower     (C) Taiwan
    and
Secretary of   (D) Egypt
State John
   Foster
               (E) Cuba
Dulles, 1956
            Answer: (D) Egypt
Explanation:

 After Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal in
 1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel
 coordinated attacks on Egypt in the Sinai
 Peninsula and at several locations in Egypt.
 The U.S. opposed the actions. After the
 invasion, which was largely successful, the
 U.S. pushed for a cease-fire and U.N.
 peacekeepers were put in place.
       Slavery's growth in the 19th
       century paralleled the expansion
       of cotton as a cash crop




Who was the abolitionist leader and publisher of The Liberator
who referred to the U.S. Constitution as "the most bloody and
heaven-daring arrangement ever made by men for the
continuance and protection of a system of the most atrocious
villany ever exhibited on earth?"
(A) Theodore Weld
(B) William Lloyd Garrison
(C) Lewis Tappan
(D) Elijah P. Lovejoy
(E) John Quincy Adams
 Answer: (B) William Lloyd Garrison
Explanation:

 Garrison was a member of the American
 Colonization Society which supported sending
 ex-slaves back to Africa, but broke with them in
 1830 and began publishing The Liberator in
 1831. He advocated for the immediate and
 complete abolition of slavery and rejected any
 attempts at compromise on the issue. He wrote:
 "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with
 moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not
 equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat
 a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD."
Methodist    Which of the following is not
camp
meeting of
             an example of religious
the          revivalism in American
Second
Great
             history?
Awakenin
g, 1839
             (A) the mass rallies of Billy
             Graham
             (B) the preaching of George
             Whitefield during the Great
             Awakening
             (C) the Cane Ridge, Kentucky
             camp meetings
             (D) Billy Sunday's tent
             meetings
             (E) the radio broadcasts of
             Father Charles Coughlin
   Answer: (E) the radio broadcasts of
       Father Charles Coughlin
• Explanation:
 Revivalism, usually appealing to listeners' emotions,
 has a long tradition in American history. Charles
 Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest who developed
 a following of radio listeners during the 1930s by
 politically attacking the New Deal programs of Franklin
 Roosevelt and preaching a message of anti-Semitism
 while offering apologies for Italy's Mussolini and
 Germany's Hitler. Billy Graham and Billy Sunday held
 huge revival meetings to spread their message of the
 need for religious conversion. George Whitefield was
 an inspiring and highly effective preacher of the Great
 Awakening in the 1730s, while the Kentucky Cane
 Ridge meetings beginning in 1800 led to revivals
 through the frontier regions of the U.S.
                      As a response to Booker T.
                      Washington's call for
                      accommodation and gradualism in
                      the Atlanta Compromise, W.E.B.
                      DuBois encouraged African-
                      Americans to

                         (A) pursue vocational training
                         (B) focus exclusively on economic
                         gains and not become involved in
                         politics or social reform issues
                         (C) engage in activism and pursue
                         higher education
                         (D) adopt a passive and
                         submissive attitude in their
W.E.B. DuBois, leader of dealings with whites in authority
the Niagara Movement (E) all of the above
                     Answer:
(C) engage in activism and pursue higher education
Explanation:

 Washington and DuBois provided two very
 different sets of recommendations for the
 advancement of African-Americans.
 Washington encouraged a gradual approach of
 economic and political progress and a reliance
 on developing skills through vocational
 education. DuBois urged an activist role and a
 liberal arts education for African-Americans.
                       Which of the following was not
                       part of George Washington's
                       administration?

                       (A) Benjamin Franklin--
                       Postmaster General
                       (B) Thomas Jefferson--
                       Secretary of State
                       (C) John Marshall--Supreme
                       Court Chief Justice
                       (D) John Adams--Vice-
                       President
                       (E) Alexander Hamilton--
George Washington by
James Peale, 1790
                       Secretary of the Treasury
(C) John Marshall--Supreme Court
          Chief Justice
Marshall was appointed Chief
 Justice of the Supreme Court by
 John Adams in 1801. John Jay
 was the nation's first Chief Justice.
“You shall not press down upon the Cross of Gold cartoon
brow of labor this crown of thorns;   by Grant Hamilton
you shall not crucify mankind upon
a cross of gold.” This quote is
representative of

  A) the bimetallism position of
the 1890s
  B) a supporter of Andrew
Jackson in the war over the re-
charter of the Bank of the U.S.
  C) a Democrat-Republican's
response to Federalist policies
  D) a supporter of Reaganomics
  E) an opponent of the Kansas-
Nebraska Act
  Answer: (A)     the bimetallism position
                of the 1890s
Explanation: William Jennings Bryan,
 the Democrat and Populist candidate for
 president in 1896, delivered the "Cross
 of Gold" speech as he campaigned
 across the country in support of adding
 silver as an official currency in a fixed
 ratio in relation to gold. Bryan lost the
 election and bimetallism faded as a
 national issue.
"Van Cortland Park" by Frederick Bluemner, 1936 commissioned by the New Deal's Federal Art Project



Which of the following New Deal programs
funded artists, actors, and writers?

(A) Works Progress Administration
(B) Civilian Conservation Corps
(C) Civil Works Administration
(D) National Recovery Administration
(E) National Youth Administration
(A) Works Progress Administration
Explanation:

 The WPA funded theatrical productions,
 dance recitals, state histories, and art
 projects large and small in an attempt to
 assist out-of-work artists. The Federal Art,
 Theatre, and Writers' Projects were
 criticized by many for being a form of
 socialism.
                         Which of the following was not an
                         accomplishment of John C.
                         Frémont?

                         (A) he invaded California during
                         the Mexican-American War
                         (B) he was the first Republican
                         candidate for president
                         (C) he led several significant
                         explorations of the American
                         West
                         (D) he was promoted by Pres.
                         Lincoln for his actions in
                         Missouri during the Civil War
Woodcut depicting John   (E) he was a senator from
C. Frémont, 1856         California
    (D) he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for
   his actions in Missouri during the Civil War
Explanation:
 Frémont, nicknamed "The Pathfinder," led several
 important expeditions through the West before his
 military and political careers. He served in both the
 Mexican-American and Civil Wars and was selected to
 represent California in the U.S. Senate when it
 became a state in 1850. The newly formed Republican
 Party chose him as their candidate in 1856. Frémont
 was relieved of command in Missouri by Lincoln
 during the Civil War, however, when he emancipated
 slaves and confiscated the property of secessionists in
 1861. Lincoln hoped to keep the border states from
 seceding and Frémont's actions, if allowed to stand,
 might antagonize those states.
Which of these was
  not a position
 formerly held by
President Thomas
    Jefferson?           Thomas Jefferson


A) governor of Virginia
(B) secretary of state
(C) vice-president of the United States
(D) president of the 1787 Constitutional
Convention
(E) member of Virginia's House of Burgesses
       (D) President of the 1787 Constitutional
                     Convention
George Washington served as president of the Constitutional
  Convention in 1787. Jefferson was Minister to France at that
  time. Jefferson did however serve in Virginia's House of
  Burgesses, as governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary
  War, as the first Secretary of State, and as vice-president to
  political enemy John Adams. Jefferson's greatest skills were
  probably not as a politican or diplomat, however, but as a
  political philosopher and visionary. He penned the
  Declaration of Independence and following his terms as
  president, planned the curriculum and designed the buildings
  of the University of Virginia. At a dinner of Nobel Prize
  winners in the White House in 1962, President John
  Kennedy ad libbed "I think this is the most extraordinary
  collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever
  been gathered together at the White House – with the
  possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.”
                                   Which of the following
                                   statements about railroad
                                   expansion in the second
                                   half of the 19th century is
Union Pacific Railroad map, 1891
                                   not true?
A) obstacles required the development of new
techniques of railroad construction
(B) new towns and cities emerged near the railroad
lines
(C) construction was privately financed with no
governmental assistance
(D) new business organizational models were created
(E) the West developed more quickly due to rapid
railroad expansion
    (C) construction was privately financed
      with no governmental assistance
Explanation:
 The railroad system created in the second half
 of the 19th century was an engineering success
 that helped create new cities, developed the
 West, and led to new corporate models.
 Financial assistance from the federal
 government was significant. For each mile of
 track, railroad companies received land in
 alternating sections on either side of the route.
 In total, the railroads received more than 175
 million acres of federally-owned land, roughly
 equivalent to the size of Texas.
   Spaniard Cortes being greeted by Aztec emperor Montezuma
One of the factors that proved critical to the
Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was

  (A) the overwhelming number of Spanish
soldiers
  (B) the total lack of organization of the Aztec
political and military system
  (C) the support of Portuguese soldiers
  (D) the pacifist nature of the Aztecs
  (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by contact
with the Spanish soldiers
  (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by
    contact with the Spanish soldiers
Explanation:
 Smallpox devastated the native populations of
 the New World. The Aztec population,
 estimated at 30 million when the Spanish
 arrived in Mexico, was down to 3 million by
 1568 and 1.6 million in 1620. Despite having
 an army of perhaps only 600 Spaniards,
 Hernan Cortes was able to eventually defeat
 the Aztec forces and claim Mexico City for
 Spain in 1521
               John Marshall shaped the U.S. Supreme Court
               from 1801-1835
               Which of the following decisions of
               the Marshall Court is improperly
               matched with its description?
  (A) Marbury v. Madison--established the principle of
judicial review by overturning an act of Congress, the
Judiciary Act of 1789
   (B) McCullough v. Maryland--ruled that a state could
not tax a federal agency, in this case the Bank of the U.S.
   (C) Gibbons v. Ogden--gave the federal government
undisputed control over interstate commerce
   (D) Fletcher v. Peck--established the principle that
state laws conflicting with the U.S. Constitution were
invalid
   (E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no
longer sovereign since they had signed the Constitution
E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no
    longer sovereign since they had signed the
                   Constitution
Explanation:

 In the Dartmouth College decision, the
 Supreme Court upheld a charter that predated
 New Hampshire's statehood, thus establishing
 the principle that charters are binding contracts
 and cannot be broken by a state legislature. In
 Cohens v. Virginia, the Court ruled that ratifying
 the Constitution meant that states were no
 longer sovereign entities. State courts were
 required to submit to federal authority.
The Fugitive Slave Act was a
provision of which of the
following

  (A)   the Missouri Compromise
  (B)   the Wilmot Proviso
  (C)   the Compromise of 1850
  (D)   the Kansas-Nebraska Act
  (E)   the Ostend Manifesto
    (C)     the Compromise of 1850.
Explanation:

 Although the Constitution supported the return of
 runaway slaves (Article IV, Section II) and fugitive
 slave bills had been passed prior to 1850, the
 inclusion of the Fugitive Slave Law in the
 Compromise of 1850 proved to be the most
 controversial. Southerners demanded it in
 exchange for concessions to the North, such as
 California's admission as a free state. Abolitionists
 hated it and saw its federal enforcement as an
 example of Southern "slave power."
         Mayflower in
         Plymouth
                         Which of the following
         Harbor,"
         William
                         statements about the settlers
         Halsall, 1882
                         that arrived at Plymouth in
                         1620 is not true?
(A) their original goal was a landfall farther south, at the
northern edge of Virginia Company territory
   (B) while English, they had lived for a time in the
Netherlands
   (C) they had experienced persecution in England for
their religious beliefs and sought to separate from the
Church of England
   (D) they probably would have starved to death without
the assistance of local Indians
   (E) they became the dominant political and religious
force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s
                         Answer:
     (E) they became the dominant political and religious
      force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s
Explanation:
  Often referred to as Pilgrims or Separatists, the 102
  passengers on the Mayflower sought religious
  freedom first in the Netherlands and then in the New
  World. While originally intending to land farther south
  near the Hudson River, the ship was buffeted by
  storms and landed first on Cape Cod and then
  Plymouth in what is now Massachusetts. Despite early
  hostile encounters, local Indians assisted the 53 who
  had survived the first winter. Another group of settlers,
  mainly composed of Puritans, established
  Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became the
  dominant force in New England.
The Erie Canal, linking Albany and Buffalo (and by
extension, the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes),
(A) was financed completely by wealthy investors
(B) was an economic disaster
(C) greatly increased American agricultural exports to
England
(D) is not used today for either recreational or
commercial purposes
(E) was the last major canal built in the U.S.
                          Erie Canal, 1839
     (C) greatly increased American
     agricultural exports to England.
Explanation:
 The completion of the Erie Canal
 significantly increased the export of food,
 particularly midwestern wheat, to England.
 The Canal, financed mainly by state-
 backed bonds, proved to be immensely
 successful, reducing transportation costs
 by over 90%, and inspired the construction
 of other canals throughout the U.S. It is still
 used today, though mainly for recreation.
                                    The Port Huron statement, which
                                    begins "We are people of this
                                    generation, bred in at least
                                    modest comfort, housed now in
                                    universities, looking
                                    uncomfortably to the world we
                                    inherit..." was published by what
Student sit-in protest, Berkeley,
              1964                  1960s-era organization?


(A) Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
(B) Students for a Democratic Society
(C) Weather Underground
(D) Black Panther Party
(E) Vietnam Veterans Against the War
      (B) Students for a Democratic
                 Society
Explanation:
 The SDS published the Port Huron Statement
 in 1962 as its manifesto for change. Written
 largely by Tom Hayden, a student at the
 University of Michigan, the statement
 summarized feelings of discontent, alienation,
 and fear of some 1960s-era college students.
 Student protest for civil rights and against the
 Vietnam War was a strong voice in American
 society in the 1960s.
                            The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act
                            required that funds acquired
                            from the sale of public lands be
                            used to support

                            (A) the education of freed slaves
                            (B) state colleges offering
                            agricultural education programs
                            (C) the purchase of guns,
                            ammunition, and uniforms for Union
                            soldiers
                            (D) the education of Indian tribes
                            (E) the construction of railroads
Justin Morrill, author of
the Morrill Act             linking the east and west coasts
       (B) state colleges offering
    agricultural education programs
Explanation:

 The Morrill Act, passed by Congress during the
 Civil War, proved to be a major contributor to
 the development of state colleges throughout
 the U.S. Each state received 30,000 acres of
 federal lands to be sold, with the proceeds
 going to colleges intending "to teach such
 branches of learning as are related to
 agriculture and the mechanic arts."
Abraham Lincoln composing    Slavery was outlawed in the
     the Emancipation         border state of Kentucky
       Proclamation
                            (A) when Ulysses S. Grant
                            expelled Confederate troops
                            from the state
                            (B) with the implementation
                            of the Emancipation
                            Proclamation
                            (C) with the ratification of the
                            13th Amendment to the
                            Constitution
                            (D) with the Supreme Court's
                            decision in the
                            Slaughterhouse Cases
                            (E) with Lincoln's re-election
                            in 1864
  (C) with the ratification of the 13th
   Amendment to the Constitution
Explanation:

 As a border state, Kentucky was excluded from the
 Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the
 end of slavery for those living in states in rebellion
 against the United States effective January 1,
 1863. This was an important consideration for
 Lincoln, as he needed to keep the border states
 from joining the Confederacy while still convincing
 European nations to stay out of the war. The 13th
 Amendment, ratified in December 1865, officially
 ended slavery throughout the U.S.
Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island


                                      The 1924
                                      National
                                      Origins Act


  (A) temporarily halted all African immigration
  (B) was designed to restrict immigration from northern
  and western Europe
  (C) created a quota system for immigration to the U.S.
  (D) was opposed by Samuel Gompers, head of the
  American Federation of Labor
  (E) focused exclusively on immigration from Latin
  America
    (C) created a quota system for
        immigration to the U.S.
• Explanation: The National Origins Act,
  which was part of the Immigration Act of
  1924, established the first national quotas
  on immigrants. Quotas were set at two
  percent of the number of foreign-born
  residents of a given country already living
  in the U.S. Germany, Great Britain, and
  Ireland had the largest quotas. Gompers,
  head of the American Federation of Labor,
  supported immigration restrictions.
 The U.S. committed to giving the Philippine
         Islands their independence
(A) following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after the
              Spanish-American War
   (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act
          (C) with the Platt Amendment
          (D) in the 1898 Treaty of Paris
          (E) with the Teller Amendment




Filipino President Emilio Aguinaldo and his aides, ca. 1900
  (B) with the passage of the 1916
              Jones Act
• Explanation:

 The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the
 Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S.,
 although many in America opposed the
 continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or
 Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the
 intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their
 freedom, though no date was specified. Their
 independence was achieved with the surrender
 of the Japanese in 1945.
                                 In which case did the U.S.
                                Supreme Court conclude that
                                  state governments could
                                 regulate railroad and grain
"Gift for the Grangers," 1873       elevator companies?


                        (A) Baker v. Carr
                       (B) Munn v. Illinois
                  (C) Commonwealth v. Hunt
                    (D) Plessy v. Ferguson
                      (E) Muller v. Oregon
               Answer:
          (B) Munn v. Illinois
Explanation:
 In the 1876 Munn case the Supreme
 Court supported the position of the
 Grange which held that business interests
 used for public good could be regulated by
 state governments. The case proved
 important to the growth of government
 regulation of businesses, including
 railroads
This declaration was made by which famous American
historian?
     A) Carl Degler B) Charles A. Beard
     C) Frederick Jackson Turner
     D) Steven Ambrose       E) Henry Adams
                                               “The wilderness masters the
                                               colonist. It finds him a European
                                               in dress, industries, tools, modes
                                               of travel, and thought. . . It strips
                                               off the garments of civilization
                                               and arrays him in a hunting shirt
                                               and moccasin. . . .Little by little
                                               he transforms the wilderness, but
                                               the outcome is not the old
                                               Europe. . . .The fact is, that here
"Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the
                                               is a new product that is American.
Cumberland Gap"
by George Caleb Bingham, 1851
                                               . . .”
                 Answer:
     (C)    Frederick Jackson Turner
Explanation: Turner delivered a paper entitled
 "The Significance of the Frontier in American
 History" to the 1893 American Historical
 Association. Using the statement from the 1890
 Census that the American frontier was officially
 closed, Turner developed an explanation of the
 impact of the "westering" character of the
 American people on institutions, economics,
 and attitudes.
                 The nullification crisis during
                  the Jackson administration
                   arose over which issue?


                 (A) the re-charter of the U.S.
                             Bank
                      (B) protective tariffs
                    (C) the Maysville Road
                  (D) the Peggy Eaton affair
                 (E) removal of the Cherokee
Andrew Jackson              Indians
      Answer: (B) protective tariffs
Explanation: The concept of nullification, that states need not
  obey federal laws they felt unconstitutional, emerged first
  during the Federalist Era in the Kentucky and Virginia
  Resolutions of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
  Tariffs, which are taxes on imports, were seen by many
  Southerners as benefiting the North while placing a financial
  burden on Southern citizens, who lacked a significant
  manufacturing basis and thus had to import more products.
  South Carolina's legislators, angered by the 1828 Tariff of
  Abominations, were still unhappy even though the Tariff of
  1832 passed by Congress and signed by Jackson, reduced
  tariff duties. A state convention voted 136-36 that the tariffs
  were unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina.
  This controversy, which Jackson saw as a challenge to his
  authority as president, provided states' rights arguments
  later used in the secession of the South before the Civil
  War.
Gleason's Pictorial, one of the hundreds of periodicals produced in the second quarter of the 19th century

The dramatic increase in numbers of printed periodicals
(newspapers and magazines) in the period between 1828 and
1860 was partly a result of
  A) improvements in education making literacy almost
universal
  B) changes in the printing process which allowed
photographs to be included in periodicals
  C) the rapid increase in population as economic conditions
drastically improved
  D) the transportation revolution which led to more rapid
movement of information
  E) the impact of the Second Great Awakening
 Answer: (D)   the transportation revolution which
    led to more rapid movement of information
Explanation: Publications--local, regional, and
 even national--exploded in numbers in the
 19th century. By 1828, New York City alone
 produced 161 newspapers. The speed by
 which information could be disseminated
 increased as improvements in transportation
 developed. In addition, political parties and
 candidates could broaden their appeal by
 gaining exposure beyond a limited
 geographic area.
                                        The Three
                                        Mile Island
                                        incident of
  Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania       1979
 (A) resulted in a loss of power to most of the state of
Pennsylvania
   (B) demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear power
plant meltdown
   (C) made clear that foreign oil was not sufficient to supply
American energy needs
   (D) led to an increase in terrorist attacks on power-
generating facilities
   (E) caused the U.S. to cease all nuclear power plant usage
                  Answer:
 (B)   demonstrated the potential danger of a
        nuclear power plant meltdown
Explanation: The release of
 radioactive gas and a near meltdown
 of the Three Mile Island nuclear
 power plant resulted in the evacuation
 of over 100,000 residents of the
 nearby area.
                                           One of the truly national
                                           forms of architecture that
                                           developed in all regions of
                                           the country in the early 19th
                                           century, this style often
                                           featured porticos, pilasters
American parlor from 1835 recreated at the (shallow rectangular
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
                                           columns projecting from a
    (A) Georgian                           wall), and friezes and
    (B) Prairie School reflected a growing pride in
    (C) Baroque                            democracy.
    (D) Egyptian Revival
    (E) Greek Revival
    Answer: (E)            Greek Revival
Explanation: The Greek Revival style was used
 extensively in both public buildings and homes
 throughout the U.S. in the first half of the 19th
 century. Strongly encouraged by Thomas
 Jefferson, who chose Benjamin Latrobe to design
 the U.S. Capitol, it often featured exterior columns
 like those in Greek temples. It often mixed
 American motifs with the classical Greek elements.
 Latrobe, for example, used tobacco leaves and
 corn cobs in his Capitol details.
   (A) the Anti-Saloon League
   (B) several Protestant denominations, including
Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians
   (C) the Women's Christian Temperance Union
   (D) German and Irish immigrants
   (E) prominent female reformers such as Susan
B. Anthony and Frances Willard


                                 During the Progressive
                                 Era, the Prohibition
                                 movement was supported
Carrie Nation, famous
                                 by all but which of the
Prohibitionist                   following?
with her beer keg-crushing axe
  Answer: (D) German and Irish
           immigrants
Explanation: Prohibitionists, who sought to limit the
  sale and consumption of alcohol, gained their
  widest political support during the Progressive Era
  and in 1919 persuaded enough states to approve
  the 18th Amendment, the only amendment that was
  later repealed. The Anti-Saloon League, many
  mainline Protestant denominations, the WCTU, and
  women reformers, including leading suffragists,
  supported Prohibition. German and Irish
  immigrants, mostly Roman Catholic, generally
  opposed Prohibition.
 The U.S. map following the Missouri Compromise
                                                  The chief reason for
                                                  legislators from
                                                  northern states favoring
                                                  the passage of the
                                                  Missouri Compromise
                                                  was that it


(A) prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana Territory
lands north of 36° 30' latitude, with the exception of Missouri
   (B) quieted residents of Maine who had been clamoring
for statehood
   (C) added Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state
   (D) finally settled the slavery question in the U.S.
   (E) ended slavery in the border states of Maryland,
Delaware and Kentucky
   Answer: (A) prohibited slavery's expansion
   in the Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30'
                       latitude
Explanation: The Missouri Compromise prevented
  slavery's expansion into the territories north of the 36°
  30' line, but allowed Missouri, north of the line, to enter
  as a slave state. To maintain the balance in the
  Senate between slave and free states, Maine was
  separated from Massachusetts and became its own
  state. Far from settling the controversy, the Missouri
  Compromise postponed legislative solutions to the
  1850s. Jefferson, in referring to the Missouri
  discussion, described it as being "a fire bell in the
  night, [it] awakened and filled me with terror. I
  considered it at once as the knell of the Union."
  An 1844 Whig Party platform included support of protective tariffs

Which of the following was not true of protective tariffs
in the first half of the 19th century?
   (A) they resulted in revenue for the federal
government, often funding internal improvements
   (B) they were generally favored by New England
   (C) they were generally opposed in the South
   (D) they resulted in lower prices for consumers
   (E) they were resented by European product
manufacturers
  Answer: (D) they resulted in
    lower prices for consumers
Explanation: Protective tariffs increased the
 prices of European imports, thus making
 home-grown manufactured goods more
 competitive. This supported the expansion
 of manufacturing interests, particularly in
 the New England states, but increased
 prices for consumers.
(A) President Truman's removal of Douglas
MacArthur
  (B) the entrance of China into the war
  (C) the withdrawal of most of the American troops
  (D) promises from the Soviet Union of nuclear
weapons
  (E) the withdrawal of Japanese troops
                                  U.S. Marines escape encirclement
Nearing defeat in the Korean   at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 1950

 War, North Korea launched
 a successful counterattack
on the United Nations forces
      in 1950 following
    Answer: (B) the entrance of
         China into the war
Explanation: United Nations forces had
 successfully pushed North Korean troops
 north of the 38th parallel in 1950 when China
 added 200,000 ground troops in support of
 North Korea. A force of 30,000 U.N. troops
 was surrounded at Chosin Reservoir but
 managed to escape. The combined Chinese
 and North Korean forces quickly recovered
 North Korean territory, though the war
 continued until the signing of the armistice in
 1953.
Which of the following provisions is not an example of the
Constitution modifying the Articles of Confederation?
  (A) Congress has the power to control interstate
commerce
  (B) amending the Constitution requires 2/3 vote of
Congress and 3/4 approval of states
  (C) passage of legislation requires a majority vote in
both houses of Congress plus the president's signature
  (D) two houses of Congress, one based on population
/one giving equal votes to each state, hold legislative power
  (E) only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to
declare war
     Answer: (E) only the Congress, not the
         states, is allowed to declare war
Explanation: The Constitution sought to create "a more
  perfect Union" and many of its provisions drastically
  modified the Articles of Confederation, adopted by the
  Second Continental Congress. Under the Articles,
  Congress had no effective control of interstate
  commerce, amending the Articles required a
  unanimous vote of the states, legislation required nine
  of the 13 states approving, and there was one house
  of Congress with each state equally represented. The
  Articles did reserve the right to declare war for
  Congress, which is also one of its powers under the
  Constitution, but did provide that " no State shall
  engage in any war without the consent of the United
  States in Congress assembled, unless such State be
  actually invaded by enemies."
                                      What is not true
                                      of the
                                      presidential
     Kennedy and Nixon faced off in   election of 1960?
             four televised debates

(A) John F. Kennedy won the national popular vote by less
than 1/10 of one percent
(B) Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved
controversial
(C) televised debates provided an important advantage for
Kennedy
(D) when Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested during the
campaign, Kennedy attempted to get him released, while
Nixon refused to become involved
(E) Kennedy chose a vice-presidential running-mate from
the South, while Nixon chose a running-mate from New
England
  Answer: (B) Richard Nixon's background
     as a Quaker proved controversial
• Explanation: While Kennedy had to explain to
  Protestant voters that his Roman Catholic faith
  would not impact his presidency, Nixon's religious
  background was not an issue. The 1960 election's
  popular vote margin (118,000) was the smallest in
  the 20th century (Al Gore won over 500,000 more
  votes in the 2000 election but George Bush was
  awarded Florida's electoral votes and the presidency
  by a Supreme Court decision). The series of
  televised presidential debates were seen as
  significant pluses for Kennedy, as was his support
  for King after his arrest. Lyndon Johnson of Texas
  and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. of Massachusetts were
  the Democratic and Republican vice-presidential
  candidates.
Alfred T. Mahan's
influential 1890 book
asserted that               Alfred Thayer Mahan, American strategist
                            and creator of the term "Middle East"


(A) the great empires of history had great navies
(B) infantry was more important in wartime than
ships
(C) establishing naval bases around the world
was unimportant
(D) the U.S. should not establish a colonial
empire
(E) war with Spain in the Caribbean was unwise
 Answer:(A) the great empires of
     history had great navies
• Explanation: Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan
  wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon
  History, 1660-1783 in 1890. In it, he
  reviewed military history and concluded that
  great navies were essential for success. His
  writings had tremendous impact on the
  U.S., which developed a battleship fleet
  partly because of his ideas, as well as other
  nations, particularly Japan.
                             One purpose of the World War I poster
                             pictured above was to
                             (A) cut into the profits being made by
                             American farmers trying to take
                             advantage of the increased demand for
                             food
                             (B) give ordinary citizens the
                             opportunity to participate in the war
                             effort
                             (C) sell Liberty Bonds
                             (D) allow American agricultural
                             goods to compete against German
James Montgomery Flagg's
                             goods on the world market
World War I
poster encouraging Victory   (E) discourage American families
Gardens
                             from eating foreign-grown vegetables
   Answer: (B) give ordinary citizens the
   opportunity to participate in the war effort

• Explanation:
  The Victory Gardens encouraged by the
  Committee of Public Information in this
  poster provided Americans with a chance
  to feel part of the war effort, in addition to
  reducing domestic demand for
  agricultural products. Victory Gardens
  were also encouraged during World War
  II
“The reason that the present school cannot organize itself as a
natural social unit is because…common and productive activity is
absent…When the school introduces and trains each child of
society into membership with such a little community, saturating
him with the spirit of service, and providing him with the
instruments of effective self direction, we…shall have the deepest
and best guarantee of a larger society which is worthy, lovely, and
harmonious.”

This quote is from which American educator?

      (A)    James Conant
      (B)    Horace Mann
      (C)    John Dewey
      (D)    Charles Eliot
      (E)    Theodore Sizer
                                                Early 20th Century
                                                classroom
    Answer:          (C)     John Dewey
• Explanation:
  John Dewey, American educator and philosopher,
  emphasized the importance of relevant education
  for students. He opposed rote memorization and
  encouraged teachers to place students at the
  center of the curriculum. Dewey viewed education
  as a critical element in democracy and established
  what became known as the progressive education
  movement. He wrote "Education is a social
  process. Education is growth. Education is not a
  preparation for life; education is life itself.”
                                        Which of the
             "The right of the people
                                        following is not part
             peaceably to
             assemble"
             is an important element
                                        of the Bill of Rights?
             of the Bill of Rights

(A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion
the public safety may require it..."
(B) "excessive bail shall not be required...nor cruel and
unusal punishments inflicted..."
(C) "no soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in
any house without the consent of the owner..."
(D) "Congress shall make no law...abridging the
freedom of speech..."
(E) "no person...shall be compelled in any criminal
case to be a witness against himself..."
Answer:(A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not
 be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or
     invasion the public safety may require it..."
• Explanation:
  Habeas corpus, literally "you shall have the
  body," is protected in Article I, Section 9 of the
  Constitution. It requires an authority such as a
  jailer to allow an individual to have a formal
  hearing to be informed of an alleged crime
  and not be unlawfully detained. B is part of
  the 8th, C the 3rd, D the 1st, and E the 5th
  Amendments, all part of the Bill of Rights.
Which of the following statements are true about Indians living in
North America before Spanish explorers reached the continent?
I. Tribes in the Southwest developed elaborate canal systems to
sustain agriculture
II. Several written languages were developed
III. Mississippi River Valley residents built huge temple mounds
and a city near present-day St. Louis that may have had 40,000
residents
IV. Horses enabled hunters to range far from their tribe in search
of food
V. The buffalo was a major source of food and clothing for Plains
Indians                        (A) I, II, and V
                                           (B)    I, III, and V
                                           (C)    III, IV, and V
                                           (D)    I, III, and IV
                                           (E)    All of the statements are
A massive ten-story pre-Columbian
Indian mound near Collinsville, Illinois
                                           true
                                                 All of the following
                                                 were goals of
                                                 Progressivism except
The 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire killed
146 workers and led to Progressive Era reforms




(A) the end of corruption in municipal governments
(B) making government more responsible to voters
(C) end of child labor
(D) a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of
socialism
(E) protecting the interests of consumers
 Answer:(D)     a rejection of capitalism and the
              adoption of socialism
• Explanation:

 While some Progressives were sympathetic
 with aspects of socialism, most rejected it as
 being too extreme. Progressives sought to
 use government and social action to reform
 society. Political corruption, political bosses,
 child labor, poor working conditions, and
 unsafe foods and drugs were all targets of
 Progressive reformers.
Reconstruction policies between 1867 and 1876
followed most closely the wishes of
Richmond, Virginia in 1865:
how should the South be restored to the
Union?
                                          A) President Abraham Lincoln
                                          B) President Andrew Johnson
                                          C) Southern plantation owners
                                          D) Northern Democrats in
                                          Congress
                                          E) Northern Republicans in
                                          Congress
          Answer:(E) Northern
         Republicans in Congress
• Explanation:
  Northern Republicans, particularly the group
  labeled the Radical Republicans, exerted the most
  influence on Reconstruction policies following the
  end of the Civil War. Lincoln's assassination in
  April 1865 was probably the worst possible
  scenario for the post-war South, as he had
  proposed a much more lenient set of policies than
  the Radicals, who wished to not only see the
  Republican Party succeed in southern states (as
  did Lincoln), but to punish the former Confederates
  for slavery and the Civil War.
A fundamentalist in
the 1920s would
believe all but which
of the following?
                          Grave of R.A. Torrey, a
                          leading American fundamentalist

(A) the words of the Bible were inspired by God
(B) Jesus was the son of Virgin Mary
(C) the world was created in six days in 4004 B.C.
(D) the first five books of the Bible were written
over many years by many different authors
(E) Jesus rose from the dead following his
crucifixion
  Answer:(D) the first five books of the Bible were
  written over many years by many different authors
• Explanation:

  Fundamentalism became a powerful force in American
  Protestantism in the first two decades of the 20th Century.
  Fundamentalists believed in the deity of Jesus, the virgin
  birth, the Atonement at the Crucifixion, the resurrection of
  Jesus, and the inerrancy of the Bible, among other tenets of
  Christianity. Other Christians rejected this approach as
  narrow and anti-science and interpreted the Bible,
  particularly Genesis in a figurative way. The most famous
  forum for fundamentalism came at the 1925 Scopes Trial in
  which William Jennings Bryan was cross-examined by
  Clarence Darrow on his literal interpretation of the Bible.
  Fundamentalists of the 1920s believed (as modern
  fundamentalists still do) that the Pentateuch, the first five
  books of the Bible, were all written by Moses.
The Confederacy's $100 bill featured a drawing of slaves hoeing cotton
Who is the author of the following quote:
"But I take higher ground. I hold that in the present state of
civilization, where two races of different origin, and
distinguished by color, and other physical differences, as well
as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in
the slaveholding States between the two, is, instead of an evil, a
good - a positive good. "
  (A)   Thomas Jefferson
  (B)   William Lloyd Garrison
  (C)   Robert E. Lee
  (D)   Jefferson Davis
  (E)   John C. Calhoun
              Answer:
          (E) John C. Calhoun
• Explanation:

 Calhoun, who served as Andrew Jackson's
 first vice-president, was a staunch defender
 of slavery. Rather than apologizing for it, he
 asserted in an 1837 speech to the U.S.
 Senate, that without slavery, white
 supremacy would be at risk. Southern
 slavery, he added "exempts us from the
 disorder and dangers resulting from this
 conflict of whites and free blacks."
                            President Bill
  President                 Clinton
  Bill Clinton

(A) was successful in his campaign to end discrimination
against homosexuals in the military
(B) was openly criticized by his vice-president, Al Gore,
who condemned his interaction with Monica Lewinsky as
not just inappropriate, but immoral
(C) strongly supported the passage of the North America
Free Trade Agreement
(D) became the only president in American history to be
impeached and convicted
(E) admitted to having extramarital affairs with Gennifer
Flowers, Paula Jones, and Monica Lewinsky
  Answer: (C) strongly supported the passage
   of the North America Free Trade Agreement
• Explanation:
  Clinton's early efforts to end anti-gay
  discrimination in the armed forces failed. Al Gore
  did not comment on Clinton's behavior which led
  to impeachment, only the second for a president
  in American history. While impeached by the
  House of Representatives, he was not convicted
  by the Senate. Clinton never admitted directly to
  having affairs with a series of women. He did
  push for passage of the North America Free
  Trade Agreement in 1993.
At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the
North had all of the following advantages
except:
(A) more railroad mileage
(B) more industry
(C) unity of opinion concerning war aims
(D) an established government
(E) superior naval resources
Union soldiers prior to the Battle of the Crater,
Petersburg, Virginia, 1864
     Answer:(C) unity of opinion
        concerning war aims
• Explanation:
  The North had overwhelming advantages at
  the start of the Civil War, including a larger
  free population, more railroads, greater
  industrial capacity, a government that was
  recognized by foreign nations, and a navy.
  The South, at the same time, had much
  greater unity among its white population in
  support of its war aims which helped it to
  endure across five Aprils (1861-1865).
                     According to British economist
Great Depression food line

                     John Maynard Keynes, who has
                     had a major impact on U.S.
                     economic policies since the
                     1930s, which of the following is
                     true?
(A) an increase in tariff rates is useful in overcoming a
depression
(B) a balanced budget is the key to economic stability
and prosperity
(C) the best way to cure for a depression is a reduction
in the national debt
(D) the primary problem of the Great Depression was
excessive government spending
(E) budget deficits can lead to an expanding economy
    Answer:(E) budget deficits can lead to an
              expanding economy
• Explanation:
  British economic theorist John Maynard Keynes was an
  advocate of government spending as a source of economic
  growth. He advocated governmental deficit financing
  (spending more in a budget year than collected revenue).
  While not publicly embracing Keynsian ideas, Franklin
  Roosevelt created a number of new federal jobs, particularly
  in the Second New Deal. Despite frequent calls for fiscal
  responsibility and a balanced budget from politicians in both
  the Republican and Democratic parties, in practice virtually
  all administrations have used deficit financing. In 1965
  economist Milton Friedman was quoted as saying "We are
  all Keynsian now" and in 1971 Republican President
  Richard Nixon remarked "I am now a Keynesian in
  economics" as he took the U.S. off the gold standard.
    British surrender at
       Yorktown, an          France signed an alliance with the
American-French victory in
 the American Revolution
                             United States and participated
                             openly in the American
                             Revolutionary War following
                             (A) a demonstration of American
                             strength in winning a major battle
                             (B) the issuance of the
                             Declaration of Independence
                             (C) the diplomatic mission of
                             Thomas Jefferson
                             (D) Spain's concluding a treaty
                             with the United States
                             (E) growing opposition to the war
                             in Great Britain by Whigs
   Answer: (A) a demonstration of American
       strength in winning a major battle
• Explanation:
     The American victory at Saratoga in 1778
  resulted in the surrender of 5800 British
  troops under the command of Gen. Burgoyne.
  This was the largest surrender in British
  history and convinced the French who had
  previously resisted Benjamin Franklin's
  requests to provide money, soldiers, and
  naval support to the American cause which
  proved crucial to the eventual victory at
  Yorktown in 1781.
                                         Which famous
                                         Depression-era American
                                         novel depicted the journey
                                         of the Joad family from
 Migrant worker children in California
                                         Oklahoma to the Central
 photographed by Dorothea Lange, 1935
                                         Valley of California?

(A) Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald
(B) Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis
(C) A Farewell to Arms by Ernest
Hemingway
(D) Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser
(E) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
 Answer:(E) The Grapes of Wrath
       by John Steinbeck
Explanation:

 Steinbeck's novel was met with severe
 criticism when it was published in 1939 for its
 sympathetic portrayal of Tom Joad, a young
 father who supports farm workers in
 opposition to the agricultural owners of
 California. It later won both the Nobel and the
 Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a
 feature film starring Henry Fonda.
                                              The decision to locate
                                              the U.S. capital in the
                                              District of Columbia
                                              between Maryland
 L'Enfant's plan for Washington, D.C., 1792
                                              and Virginia
(A) was made during the meetings of the First
Continental Congress
(B) was a major compromise at the 1787 Constitutional
Convention in Philadelphia
(C) was part of a 1790 compromise between northern
and southern interests that included the federal
government assuming state debts
(D) was intended to honor James Madison, a Virginian
and the "father of the Constitution"
(E) was included in the Bill of Rights
 Answer:(C) was part of a 1790 compromise between
northern and southern interests that included the federal
           government assuming state debts
Explanation:
 Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and
 James Madison helped arrange the Compromise
 of 1790 which provided for the District of
 Columbia to be established between two slave
 states (Virginia and Maryland) after 10 years in
 Philadelphia. This was a concession to southern
 interests. Another part of the Compromise
 allowed the federal government to assume the
 debts of the individual states, which was a goal
 of Hamilton's.
Significant domestic anti-war sentiment developed in
which of the following American wars?

I. War of 1812
II. Mexican-American War
III. World War I
IV. Korean War
V. Vietnam War

A) I, II, and III
(B) I, II and V
(C) II, IV, and V
(D) I, III, and V
(E) all of the above
                                Anti-war protestors meet military police at the
                                Pentagon in a famous 1967 anti-war protest
              Answer:(B) I, II and V
• Explanation:
  New England was the center of anti-war agitation during
  the War of 1812 as the residents felt the brunt of the
  trade embargo with Great Britain. Some Federalists
  plotted at the 1814 Hartford Convention to secede from
  the U.S. and join Canada. During the Mexican-American
  War, New England again had the largest group opposing
  the war, as abolitionists and other northerners saw the
  attack on Mexico as a means of adding slave territory to
  the U.S. While in its early years, the Vietnam War
  enjoyed the support of a cross-section of Americans, by
  1965 a significant anti-war element emerged, particularly
  on college campuses. World War II and the Korean War
  were generally supported by the American public
A group of Indians in Idaho, 1877
Which American Indian leader uttered the following
words:
"I am tired of fighting...The old men are killed. It is
the young men who say yes and no. It is cold and
have no blankets. The little children are freezing to
death...I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From
where the sun now stands, I will fight no more
forever.”
  A) Cochise of the Apaches B) Tecumseh of the
Shawnee C) Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce D) Crazy
Horse of the Sioux E) Black Kettle of the Cheyenne
              Answer:
    (C)Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
• Explanation:

 Leading his people on a 1700-mile
 trek across the Northwest while
 being pursued by the U.S. Army,
 Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
 finally surrendered in 1877
American troops in northern
Mexico, 1916                  President Wilson sent
                              General John Pershing
                              across the Mexican border
                              in pursuit of which
                              Mexican rebel leader?

                                (A) Pancho Villa
                                (B) Francisco Madero
                                (C) Victoriano Huerta
                                (D) Venustiano
                              Carranza
                                (E) Porfirio Diaz
     Answer: (A)          Pancho Villa
• Explanation:
  Villa expected support from the U.S. in his
  struggle for power with Mexico's president
  Venustiano Carranza. When Pres. Wilson did
  not offer help, Villa launched a series of raids
  across the U.S. border into New Mexico in
  1916, killing 18 and burning a town in one
  attack. Wilson dispatched Pershing to capture
  Villa, who successfully eluded the U.S. Army.
  Villa was assassinated in 1923.
John F. Kennedy earned a
Congressional
Medal of Honor for his service in
World War II

Which of the following American presidents had
absolutely no military experience before taking
office?
(A) Andrew Jackson
(B) William Henry Harrison
(C) Zachary Taylor
(D) Theodore Roosevelt
(E) Woodrow Wilson
        Answer:(E)        Woodrow Wilson
• Explanation:
  Jackson, elected in 1828, fought in the Creek War
  and the War of 1812. Harrison, elected in 1840, was
  the victorious general at the Battle of Tippecanoe
  against the Shawnee Confederacy in 1811 and also
  served in the War of 1812. Taylor, elected in 1848,
  was a general in the Mexican-American War.
  Roosevelt, who took office in 1901, led a group of
  Rough-Riders into battle in Cuba during the
  Spanish-American War. Wilson, a history professor
  and later president of Princeton University, had no
  military experience upon his election in 1912, though
  he served as commander-of-chief of American
  forces during World War I from 1917-1918.
                                    Which Spanish conquistador
                                    explored the American
                                    Southwest in search of the
                                    Seven Cities of Cibola and
                                    may have ventured as far
Spanish explorers head north from
Mexico, 1540
                                    north as Kansas in 1540?
Painting by Frederick Remington


(A) Hernando de Soto
(B) Ponce de Leon
(C) Francisco Coronado
(D) Hernan Cortes
(E) Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
     C) Francisco Coronado
• Explanation:
  Coronado and his group of about 300
  Spanish soldiers and four Franciscan
  priests ventured north from Mexico,
  reached the Grand Canyon, and
  encountered a number of Indian tribes
  while searching for the mythical Seven
  Cities of Cibola in a 1540-1542
  expedition.
Which of the following                 (A) the forced
was not one of the                     impressment of
issues that caused the                 American sailors on to
War Hawks to                           British ships
recommend war with                     (B) desire for
Great Britain in the years             Canadian land
leading up to the War of               (C) a dispute over the
1812?                                  Oregon border
                                       (D) British military
                                       support for Indian
                                       tribes in the Ohio River
                                       Valley
Battle of Chippawa, 1814, one of the
few American successes in Canada       (E) the Chesapeake-
during the War of 1812                 Leopard incident
   Answer:(C) a dispute over the Oregon
                 border
• Explanation: The War Hawks, mostly Democrat-
  Republicans from the south and west in the U.S.
  House of Representatives, urged President
  Madison to make war with Great Britain for a
  variety of reasons, including the impressment of
  American sailors, desire for Canadian lands,
  military aid to the Shawnee Confederation by the
  British, and the Chesapeake-Leopard incident, in
  which the British Leopard fired on the U.S. frigate
  Chesapeake off the Atlantic coast in 1807. The
  Oregon boundary dispute arose during the 1840s
  and was settled by the Oregon Treaty of 1846
Which of the following 1960s
Supreme Court decisions
affirmed the principle of "one
person, one vote" and
required states to reapportion
districts so that rural districts
with small population did not
exert more power than urban         An example of a
districts with larger               "gerrymandered" district,
population?                         Illinois, 2005

(A) Tinker v. Des Moines
(B) Miranda v. Arizona
(C) Baker v. Carr
(D) Gideon v. Wainwright
(E) Loving v. Virginia
       Answer:(C) Baker v. Carr
• Explanation: The 1962 Baker v. Carr decision
  ruled that reapportionment was a judicial, not
  merely a political matter and that courts could
  intervene to insure a fair distribution of voters
  within a state. Before this decision, rural (and often
  more conservative) districts wielded more political
  influence than more heavily populated urban
  districts. The decision still permitted the type of
  gerrymandering present in the map above, in
  which districts are drawn in such a way to protect
  incumbents. As long as the number of voters is
  roughly equal in districts, this practice has not
  been successfully challenged in federal courts.
 Cherry blossoms frame one of Washington, D.C.'s memorials
Which American wrote:
"I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal
hostility against every form of tyranny over the
mind of man."
(A) Elijah P. Lovejoy
(B) Thomas Paine
(C) John Adams
(D) Thomas Jefferson
(E) George Washington
  Answer:(D) Thomas Jefferson
• Explanation:

 This quote of Jefferson's, which circles his
 statue in the Jefferson Memorial in
 Washington, D.C., is from a letter to Benjamin
 Rush in 1800. Jefferson explains his belief
 that the First Amendment separates church
 and state and forbids the establishment of a
 state religion, which is the "tyranny over the
 mind of man" that Jefferson opposes.
California       Which of the following World War II-era
Japanese-        (December 1941-August 1945) events did
American
children         not occur in California?
photographed     (A) the establishment of the Manzanar
by Ansel Adams   camp for interned Japanese-Americans
during World     (B) the Zoot Suit riots in which Mexican-
War II
                 Americans were beaten by soldiers on
                 leave
                 (C) a Japanese submarine shelling a pier
                 north of Santa Barbara in 1942
                 (D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored
                 housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites
                 dead
                 (E) the movie "Casablanca" starring
                 Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman was
                 produced in Hollywood
Answer:(D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored
housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead
• Explanation:
  The 1943 race riots occurred in Detroit, Michigan
  and lasted for three days. Racial tension between
  blacks and whites led to violence. Early in June
  1943, 25,000 Packard plant workers, who
  produced engines for bombers and PT boats,
  stopped work in protest of the promotiharassing on
  of three blacks. Police were accused of and
  arresting blacks while ignoring the illegal actions of
  whites. Federal troops finally were called in to quell
  the rioting. All of the other events took place in
  California during World War II.
Frederic Edwin Church's "The Icebergs" (1861),
an example of American Romanticism in art
                                                 "Call me Ishmael" is the
                                                   opening line of what
                                                 famous example of 19th
                                                    century American
                                                   Romantic literature?


  (A) The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington
Irving
   (B) Moby Dick by Herman Melville
   (C) Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore
Cooper
   (D) The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe
   (E) The dying need but little, dear by Emily
Dickinson
    Answer: (B)      Moby-Dick by Herman
                     Melville
• Explanation: While critically panned by many
  when published in 1851, Moby-Dick by
  Herman Melville has been since viewed as
  one of the greatest novels in world literature. It
  depicts the search for a great white whale by
  Captain Ahab. Melville writes: "The White
  Whale swam before him as the monomaniac
  incarnation of all those malicious agencies
  which some deep men feel eating in them, till
  they are left living on with half a heart and half
  a lung.”
Which of the following New Deal critics developed a
very popular Share Our Wealth plan during the Great
Depression using the slogan "Every man a king but
no one wears a crown?"
  (A) Dr. Francis Townsend
  (B) Father Charles Coughlin
  (C) John L. Lewis
  (D) Huey Long
  (E) Norman Thomas
A sharecropper's home in the rural South during the Great Depression
   Answer:        (D)     Huey Long
• Explanation: Huey Long served as both
  governor and senator from Louisiana and
  built a following with his populist message
  of taxing the rich and providing $5000 for
  every family. Share Our Wealth clubs
  were set up across the nation and
  Franklin Roosevelt saw Long as a political
  threat in the 1936 presidential election.
  Long was assassinated, however, in
  September 1935.
                                               The incident between
                                               Congressman Preston
                                               Brooks and Senator
                                               Charles Sumner in 1856
"Tragic Prelude" by John Steuart Curry, 1941
      showing John Brown in Kansas             proved that
(A) slavery would result in war if compromises were not
enacted between the North and South
   (B) sectional violence had spread to the Kansas
territory
   (C) sectional violence had spread to the floor of
Congress
   (D) the violence that occurred during Bleeding
Kansas would be repeated in other territories
   (E) the Constitution was not meant to include
African-American slaves
 Answer: (C) sectional violence
had spread to the floor of Congress
• Explanation: Brooks felt that Sumner
  had besmirched the honor of his uncle,
  Senator Andrew Butler of South
  Carolina, in a speech on the Kansas-
  Nebraska Act. He attacked Sumner with
  a cane on the floor of the Senate,
  resulting in Sumner's hospitalization
  and heightening tensions over slavery.
Identify the author of this quote:
"No woman can call herself free who does not
own and control her body. No woman can call
herself free until she can choose consciously
whether she will or will not be a mother."
(A) Gloria Steinem (B) Margaret Sanger
(C) Alice Paul     (D) Jane Addams (E)         Susan
B. Anthony




New York Ciy women's rights protestors, 1921
    Answer: (B)    Margaret Sanger

• Explanation: Margaret Sanger,
  founded the American Birth Control
  League, the predecessor of Planned
  Parenthood in 1921 and advocated
  tirelessly for women's access to birth
  control.
                                             Which of the
                                             following battles is
                                             not matched
                                             correctly with its
 Gettysburg, site of the largest battle in
 the history of the Western Hemisphere
                                             war?

(A) Trenton--Revolutionary War
  (B) Chickamauga--Civil War
  (C) Manila Bay--Spanish-American War
  (D) San Jacinto--Mexican-American
War
  (E) Lake Erie (Put-In Bay)--War of 1812
   Answer: (D) San Jacinto--
     Mexican-American War
• Explanation: San Jacinto was the
  final battle in the Texas
  Independence fight in 1836. Mexican
  General Santa Anna was captured by
  Texan forces and signed a surrender.
  The Mexican-American War began in
  1846.
Oklahoma City    Which of the following statements is
bombing,
April 26, 1995   true about the 1995 Oklahoma City
                 bombing which resulted in the deaths of
                 168 people?
                 I. It was planned by Islamic extremists.
                 II. Timothy McVeigh was convicted of the
                 bombing and executed by lethal injection.
                 III. It was organized partly as a response to
                 the government sieges in Waco, Texas and
                 Ruby Ridge, Idaho.
                 IV. Terry Nichols was sentenced to life
                 imprisonment for his involvement in the
                 bombing.
                     (A) I, II, and IV (B) II, III, and IV (C) II
                 and IV only (D) I, III, and IV only
                     (E) all of the statements are true
 Answer: (B)       II, III, and IV only

• Explanation: Timothy McVeigh was
  executed by lethal injection for his
  involvement in the Oklahoma City
  bombing. He admitted too planning
  the bombing with Terry Nichols partly
  in retaliation for federal government
  raids at Ruby Ridge and Waco.
                               Which of the following statements are true
                               about the attack on Pearl Harbor on
                               December 7, 1941
                               I. Japan had not formally declared war on
                               the U.S. before the attack.
                               II. In addition to battleships and planes, a
                               large number of American aircraft carriers
U.S. propaganda poster, 1942
                               were destroyed in the attack.
                               III. On the next day, President Franklin
  (A) I, II,                   Roosevelt asked Congress for a
and III (B) I,                 declaration of war against Japan and
II, IV and III                 referred to December 7th as "a day of
(C) I, III, IV,                infamy"
                               IV. American forces in the Philippine
and V (D) II,
                               Islands were attacked the next day by
IV, and V                      Japan.
(E) all are                    V. The attack was the first of a foreign
   Answer: (C)           I, III, IV, and V only
• Explanation: No aircraft carriers were sunk by the
  Japanese on December 7th, though the U.S. lost four
  battleships, 188 airplanes, and over 2400 men. All
  three Pacific-based aircraft carriers were elsewhere on
  December 7th, so while the surprise Pearl Harbor
  brought the U.S. into the war, it did not cripple the
  American presence in the Pacific. Japanese Admiral
  Hara Tadaichi later commented, "We won a great
  tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost the
  war." For Statement V, "The attack was the first of a
  foreign nation on U.S. soil since the War of 1812,"
  some might contend that Pancho Villa's incursions into
  New Mexico in 1916 constituted an enemy attack,
  though Villa's raids were not part of a Mexican
  government plan of attack.
                                 Which of the following
                                 Progressive Era causes led to
                                 mass arrests, hunger strikes
                                 and the force-feeding of
Child labor, a Progressive Era   prisoners by the Washington,
cause: an eight-year-old news
     boy, St. Louis, 1910        D.C. police in 1917?
(A) the drafting of men into the armed forces
  (B) the passage of the 18th Amendment
(Prohibition)
  (C) the right of women to vote
  (D) unsafe mining practices
  (E) birth control and family planning
  Answer: (C) the right of women to vote
• Explanation: Despite pledging to support
  women's suffrage in his 1916 presidential
  campaign, President Woodrow Wilson refused to
  lend his aid to a constitutional amendment granting
  women the right to vote. Suffragists, led by Alice
  Paul, staged silent protests outside the White
  House in 1917. They were arrested and jailed. In a
  protest of jail conditions, Paul began a hunger
  strike that caused her to be relocated to the
  prison’s psychiatric ward where she was force-fed
  raw eggs through a plastic tube. Other women
  joined the strike which brought Wilson negative
  publicity. He finally relented and called for women's
  suffrage in January 1918. The 19th Amendment
  was ratified in 1920.
           Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905: Theodore Roosevelt received
      the Nobel Peace Prize for his help in settling the Russo-Japanese War

Which set of wars, dates, and treaties is incorrectly
matched?

I. Revolutionary War--1783--Treaty of Paris
II. War of 1812--1814--Treaty of Ghent
III. Mexican-American War--1848--Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo
IV. Sioux Indian-U.S. Army War--1868--Treaty of
Grenville
V. World War I--1919--Treaty of Versailles
Answer:(D) Sioux Indian-U.S. Army
   War--1868--Treaty of Grenville
• Explanation:

 Following the Batttle of Fallen Timbers, the
 Treaty of Greenville (1795) was signed
 between the U.S. government and
 representatives of several Indian tribes. In
 exchange for trade goods worth $20,000,
 most of the current state of Ohio was granted
 by the Indians to the U.S. The Treaty of Fort
 Laramie in 1868 ended Red Cloud's War,
 granting the Black Hills of South Dakota to the
 Lakota Sioux Indian nation.
                  Monument honoring the heroic Mexican cadets
                       in Chapultapec Park, Mexico City

Which of the following statements is not true of the
Mexican-American War?
I. Before an 1846 Texas-Mexico border dispute, President
Polk had sent a delegation to Mexico City in an attempt to
purchase California and New Mexico
II. Mexican General Santa Anna, who had been disgraced
and exiled for his actions in the Texas independence fight,
was brought out of exile and resumed his position as
President of Mexico
III. A group of Irish-American soldiers defected to the
Mexican side and formed the San Patricio Battalion
IV. General Zachary Taylor's forces outlasted Mexican troops
while greatly outnumbered at the battle of Buena Vista
    (A) I, II, and IV (B) II, III, and IV (C) I and III (D) I, III, and
IV (E) all of are true
  Answer: (E) all of the statements are true
• Explanation: Polk sent John Slidell to offer to
  purchase what is now the American Southwest from
  Mexico, but offended Mexican officials refused to meet
  the delegation. Santa Anna was brought out of Cuban
  exile by Polk in an attempt to end the war, but the
  effort backfired as Santa Anna led troops against the
  U.S. The San Patricio Battalion, composed mainly of
  Roman Catholics, was promised land grants for
  defecting to the Mexican cause. Many were caught
  and executed for treason. No land grants were ever
  confirmed for those who survived. Taylor's men,
  outnumbered perhaps 20,000 to 5,000, successfully
  resisted Santa Anna's attacks at Buena Vista.
The spirit of the Protestant
Reformation and the teachings of United States History Question
                                           of the Day
Martin Luther proved formative in
the founding of America. All of the
following ideas were preached by
Luther except:
A) the freedom of human will to
choose or reject salvation
B) the popular right to rebel
against unjust authority
C) the priesthood of all
believers
D) justification by faith alone
E) the evil of the sale of
indulgences for the forgiveness of     Martin Luther, whose ideas helped
                                        spur the settlement of America
sin
   Answer: A) the freedom of human will to
             accept or reject salvation
Explanation: Luther preached and wrote against
 human freedom of the will, contending that men
 and women were incapacited by sin and could
 not choose good over evil on their own. His
 ideas were a challenge not just to religious, but
 also to political authority. Many emigrants fled
 to the English colonies seeking escape from
 religious persecution set in motion by the
 Reformation. In addition, Luthers's idea that
 each person could approach God contributed to
 the anti-authority and self-governing attitudes of
 American colonists.
  Christopher Columbus         Within a half century of their visit
     showing objects           from Europe, the Spanish had
to Indians on arrival in the   opened the New World and
        West Indies
                               A) virtually exterminated the
                               Indians of the Caribbean
                               B) were being seriously
                               challenged for New World
                               dominance by the English
                               C) had created the richest and
                               most extensive empire in world
                               history
                               D) were being seriously
                               challenged for New World
                               dominance by the French
                               E) rapidly pushed through
                               western North America on their
                               way to Alaska
Answer: A) virtually exterminated the Indians
             of the Caribbean
Explanation: The Indians Columbus
 and subsequent Spanish explorers
 met in the Caribbean quickly
 succumbed to white man diseases
 and violence and virtually
 disappeared from many islands.
“I long to hear that you have declared   Women's rights
an independency. And, by the way, in has a long legacy
the new code of laws which I suppose in American history
it will be necessary for you to make, I
desire you would remember the ladies
and be more generous and favorable
to them than your ancestors. Do not
put such unlimited power into the
hands of the husbands. Remember,
all men would be tyrants if they could.”
  A) Martha Washington
  B) Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  C) Abigail Adams
  D) Dolley Madison
  E) Angelina Grimké
 Answer: C)      Abigail Adams

• Explanation: John Adams'
  wife Abigail provided an
  excellent sounding-board and
  support for her husband John
  in his role as one of America's
  founding fathers.
Alice Roosevelt   "No rumor could have exceeded the reality [in
Longworth,
                  the White House]; the study was filled with
Thedore
Roosevelt's       cronies, the air heavy with tobacco smoke, trays
eldest daughter   with bottles containing every imaginable brand
                  of whiskey stood about, cards and poker chips
                  ready at hand--a general atmosphere of waist-
                  coat unbuttoned, feet on the desk, and the
                  spittoon alongside."--Alice Roosevelt Longworth
                  This quote describes the White House of which
                  Republican American president, whose
                  administration was rocked with scandals and
                  who died before completing his first term?
                    (A) William Howard Taft
                    (B) Warren Gamaliel Harding
                    (C) Herbert Hoover
                    (D) Chester A. Arthur
                    (E) George H.W. Bush
 Answer: (B)      Warren Gamaliel Harding
Explanation: Harding, who admitted he was
 not qualified to be president, experienced the
 worst presidential scandal until Richard
 Nixon's Watergate gaffes. Harding's Secretary
 of the Interior Albert Fall was sentenced to
 prison for his involvement in the Teapot Dome
 scandal. Longworth was a Washington
 institution, unafraid to criticize or offend
 political leaders. She was banned from the
 White House during both the Taft and Wilson
 administrations.
Which of the following
environmental
catastrophes involved
nuclear power?
  (A) Three-Mile Island
  (B) the Exxon Valdez
incident
  (C) Love Canal
  (D) the 1971 Santa
Barbara spill
  (E) the 1969
Cuyahoga River fire

   The fear of nuclear war led to the
             construction
of fallout shelters throughout the U.S.
  Answer: (A)          Three-Mile Island
Explanation: Three-Mile Island refers to a
 Pennsylvania nuclear power plant partial core
 meltdown in 1979. The Exxon Valdez oil tanker
 ran aground in Alaska in 1989, spilling millions
 of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Alaska. Love
 Canal, a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New
 York, was built near a toxic waste dump.
 Serious health problems for residents resulted
 in the relocation of hundreds of families. An oil
 spill bespoiled California beaches off Santa
 Barabara in 1971.
                                            Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant's
In the 1869 Black Friday or Gould-             presidency was marred by
                                                        scandals
Fisk scandal
   (A) railroad companies were
involved in illegally creating monopolies
   (B) two speculators attempted to
use their influence with the Grant
administration to control the gold market
in the United States
   (C) Southern scalawags used
Reconstruction funds for their own
enrichment
   (D) Indian agents in the Black Hills
of South Dakota overcharged for
supplies delivered to Sioux Indians
   (E) the New York Stock Exchange
collapsed
 (B) two speculators attempted to use their influence with the
  Grant administration to control the gold market in the United
                             States
Explanation: Jay Gould and James Fisk
 almost accomplished their goal of
 controlling much of the gold in the United
 States by recruiting Grant's brother-in-law
 and convincing President Grant not to sell
 government gold. When Grant became
 aware of the scam, he sold millions of
 dollars of gold to lower the price. The
 result was a financial panic that tarnished
 the Grant administration.
Which of the following
were sources of the new
imperialist American
ideology of the 1890s?
                                        1898 cartoon displaying America's reach
                                       from Puerto Rico to the Philippine Islands
I. Social Darwinism—if the U.S. wants to survive, it needs to
expand
II. The belief in the inherent superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race
III. A new manifest destiny strain, suggesting that every nation
should be English in language, religion, and customs
IV. The idea that as the American frontier closed, interests would
turn outward to foreign frontiers
    (A) none of the above
    (B) II, III, and IV only
    (C) I and IV only
    (D) I, III, and IV only
    (E) all of the above
            (E)     all of the above
• Explanation: The 1890s witnessed a new form
  of manifest destiny, with Latin America and the
  Pacific as areas of focus. Social Darwinism
  suggested that as in nature, in society, only the
  strong survive. The superiority of white-skinned
  people, particularly Anglo-Saxons, was also a
  factor, characterized in Rudyard Kipling's poem
  "The White Man's Burden." Frederick Jackson
  Turner's thesis that the close of the American
  frontier would lead to looking for further areas of
  expansion was also part of the 1890s ideology.
Which of the following does not
describe the depression
beginning in 1929?
   (A) decline in international
trade
   (B) decline in the purchasing
power of the American people
   (C) inability to produce goods
to supply demand
   (D) decline in agricultural
prices
   (E) rise in unemployment         Destitute man,
                                    1935, photographed
                                    by Dorothea Lange
   (C)    inability to produce goods
           to supply demand
• Explanation: American industry had
  significant production capacity in 1929, but
  the Depression's economic effects
  significantly reduced the demand for
  products. As wages fell and
  unemployment increased, consumers
  purchased fewer goods, leading to higher
  inventories, price drops, and even more
  unemployment
 Joseph McCarthy
     displays a     All but which of the following
   proclamation
  of a suspicious
                    statements about Joseph
appointment made    McCarthy are true?
   by President     (A) he led a campaign to expose
   Truman, 1950
                    communists in the American government
                       (B) his methods of intimidation and
                    ridicule during committee hearings gave
                    him tremendous influence
                       (C) he was the chair of the House Un-
                    American Activities Committee
                       (D) he was formally censured by the
                    Senate following the Army-McCarthy
                    hearings
                       (E) he continually changed the number
                    of communists he claimed to have
                    discovered and refused to identify his
                    sources
     (C)    he was the chair of the House Un-
           American Activities Committee
• Explanation: McCarthy was a member of
  Subcommittee on Investigations of the
  Senate Foreign Relations Committee,
  though his investigations paralleled some
  of those by the House Un-American
  Activities Committee. McCarthy's reign of
  intimidation and fear effectively ended with
  the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings. He
  was censured by the Senate in December
  1954
                           In the Scottsboro Boys
                           case of the 1930s
 Scottsboro Boys marker,
Jackson County, Alabama

 (A) white boys were accused of raping two
white women
   (B) the defendants were found guilty by
all-white juries
   (C) all nine defendants were eventually
executed
   (D) a gang fight occurred between whites
and blacks
   (E) the U.S. Supreme Court intervened to
stay the executions of the boys
 the defendants were found guilty by
           all-white juries
• Explanation: The nine Scottsboro
  boys were African-Americans
  accused of raping two white
  women in Alabama in 1931. They
  were convicted by all-white juries
  and sentenced to death, though
  eventually all were released from
  prison.
Which of the following are true of writs
of habeas corpus
 I. According to the Constitution, they cannot
be suspended except in cases of rebellion or
invasion
 II. President Lincoln temporarily suspended
them during the Civil War
 III. They prevent cruel or unusual punishment
 IV. They require a court to determine if a
person is being detained lawfully
    (A) all of the above
                                               Writ of habeas
    (B) I, II, and III only
                                               corpus filed on
    (C) I, II, and IV only                         behalf
    (D) II and IV only                         of Guantanamo
    (E) I and II only                           Bay detainee,
                                                     2001
        (C)     I, II, and IV only
• Explanation: A writ of habeas corpus
  guarantees that an individual may not be
  unlawfully detained and that an
  imprisoning authority such as a jailer must
  deliver a person to a court to determine if
  this has taken place. The Constitution
  gives Congress the right to suspend it in
  time of war and President Lincoln did just
  that in 1861 because of concern over
  unrest in Maryland.
                                            President Richard
                                            Nixon
President Richard Nixon with edited
      White House transcripts, April 1974


A) was impeached by the House of Representatives
for obstruction of justice and abuse of power
   (B) resigned to allow Vice-President Spiro Agnew to
take over the reins of power
   (C) apologized to the American people for his
decisions and declared he was wrong to abuse power
   (D) resigned from office before the House could
impeach him, which it was likely to do
   (E) gained increasing support from the Republican
Party and the American public as he released
information about his involvement
   (D) resigned from office before the House
  could impeach him, which it was likely to do
Explanation: After the U.S. Supreme
 Court ruled in the 1974 U.S. v. Richard
 M. Nixon decision that the White House
 tapes needed to be turned over to the
 Special Prosecutor, members of Nixon's
 Republican Party convinced him to
 resign rather than fight impeachment
 hearings. Nixon became the first
 president to resign from office.

				
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