HORMONES

					                                                            HORMONES

HORMONE                   SOURCE OF            TARGET             REGULATORY                         HORMONES EFFECT ON
                          HORMONE              TISSUE OR          HORMONE                            TARGET
                                               ORGAN
CRH (corticotropin RH)    Hypothalamus         Anterior           CRH stimulated by low levels       Stimulates release of ACTH
                                               pituitary          of glucocorticoids and inhibited
                                                                  by high levels of
                                                                  glucocorticoids
ACTH                      Anterior             Adrenal cortex     Stimulated by CRH                  Triggers the release of
(adrenocorticotropic      pituitary                                                                  glucocorticoids
hormone)                  (tropic hormone)                                                           (cortisol)
GHRH                      Hypothalamus         Anterior           GHRH inhibited by high levels      Stimulates release of hGH
(growth hormone RH)                            pituitary          of somatomedins
and GHIH                                                          GHIH stimulated by high            Inhibits release of hGH
(growth hormone IH)                                               levels of somatomedins
                                                                  (compounds stimulating tissue
AKA somatostatin                                                  growth; released by liver)
hGH                       Anterior             ALL cells;         GHRH and GHIH                      Stimulates growth, protein
(human growth             pituitary            bone and                                              synthesis, lipid mobilization and
hormone)                                       skeletal                                              catabolism
                                               muscles
gnRH                      Hypothalamus         Anterior           gnRH stimulated by estrogen        Stimulates release of LH and FSH
(gonadatropin releasing                        pituitary          and inhibited by high levels of
hormone)                                                          testosterone and progesterone
LH(luteinizing            Anterior             Ovaries            Stimulated by GnRH                 Stimulates maturation of the ovaries;
hormone) AKA              pituitary (tropic    (follicle cells)                                      stimulates the testes to produce
(lutotropin)              hormone)              and testes                                           testosterone to produce sperm;
                                               (interstitial                                         Sex hormone
                                               cells)
FSH (follicle             Anterior             Ovaries and        Stimulated by GnRH and             Stimulates gamete production;
stimulating               pituitary (tropic    testes             inhibited by inhibin               sperm and egg
hormone)AKA               hormone)
(follitropin)
PIH (prolactin            Hypothalamus         Anterior           PIH stimulated by high levels      Inhibits release of PRL(prolactin)
Inhibiting Hormone)                            pituitary          of prolactin
dopamine
PRL (Prolactin)           Anterior pituitary   Mammary            Prolactin Releasing hormone        Stimulates production of milk
AKA mammotropin                                glands             (PRH) with high estrogen
                                                                  levels; and Prolactin inhibiting
                                                                  hormone (PIH) with low
                                                                  estrogen levels; accounts for
                                                                  swollen breast prior to
                                                                  menstruation
PRH                       Hypothalamus         Anterior           PRH inhibited by high levels of    Stimulates release of PRL
(Prolactin releasing                           pituitary          Prolactin
hormone)
TRH                       Hypothalamus         Anterior           Stimulates to produce and          Stimulates release of TSH and hGH
(thyrotropin releasing                         pituitary          secrete Thyroid Stimulating
hormone)                                                          Hormone (TSH)
TSH(thyroid               Anterior pituitary   Thyroid            Stimulated by TRH                  Stimulates secretion of T3 and T4
stimulating hormone)      (tropic hormone)
AKA(thyrotropin)
MSH (melanocyte           Anterior Pituitary   Melanocytes        Inhibited by dopamine; MSH-        Increase the production of melanin
Stimulating Hormone)                                              IH                                 in the epidermis; secreted during
AKA (melanotropin)                                                                                   fetal dev., early childhood,
                                                                                                     pregnancy, and certain diseases
OT                        Produced by             Uterus, mammary          Stimulated by            Uterine contractions; release of milk (let
(oxytocin)                hypothalamus and        glands                   nipple stimulation,      down) from PRL; sometimes used to stop
Neurohypophyseal          secreted by                                      drug pitocin, and        postpartum bleeding; cuddling hormone
hormones                  Posterior                                        start of labor
                          pituitary
Positive Feedback
ADH                       Produced by             Kidneys, sweat           ADH production           Increase water retention; inhibits urine
(Antidiuretic             hypothalamus and        glands                   and release              formation;
hormone)                  secreted by                                      stimulated by low
Neurohypophyseal          Posterior                                        blood volume, low
hormone                   pituitary                                        blood pressure,
                                                                           high osmotic
AKA                                                                        pressure in the
                                                                           blood, turned off
vasopressin                                                                by alcohol and
                                                                           caffeine

T4 (thyroxin)           Thyroid gland           Most body cells         Stimulated by TSH          Increase energy utilization, body heat
                                                except adult brain,                                production oxygen consumption, growth, and
Thyroid Hormone         Secreted by follicle    spleen, testes,                                    development; stimulates enzymes concerned
                        cells                   uterus, and the                                    with glucose oxidation, increase BMR;
Main hormone of                                 thyroid gland itself                               Increase # of adrenergic receptors in BV
metabolism
T3                      Thyroid gland           Most body cells         Stimulated by TSH          “……………”
(triiodothyronine)
                        Most formed at
                        target tissues by
                        converting T4 to
                        T3
Calcitonin              Thyroid gland           Bones and kidneys       Stimulated by              Decreases blood Ca2+
                        Produced by the                                 elevated Ca2+
                        parafollicular c-
                        clear cells


PTH (Parathyroid       Chief cells of          Bone, kidneys,          Stimulated by low         Controls Ca2+ balance in the blood in bone to
hormone)               Parathyroid gland       intestine               blood Ca2+ levels;        release Ca and phosphates into blood; in
AKA                                                                    PTH effects are           kidneys to enhance reabsorption of Ca; in the
parathormone                                                           enhanced by               intestine to increase absorption of Ca; causes
                                                                       calcitriol and            conversion of Vit. D into its active form,
                                                                       opposed by                calcitriol
                                                                       calcitonin

NE                       Adrenal medulla           Most cells               Stimulated by             Increase cardiac activity, blood pressure,
(norepinephrine)         (nervous tissue SNS)      Blood vessels,           activated                 glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels;
noraadrenaline                                     liver, heart             sympathetic               release of lipids by adipose tissue; more
AKA                                                                         preganglionic             potent for vasoconstriction and BP
catecholamines                                                              fibers (Ach
                                                                            release)

Epinephrine              Adrenal medulla           Most cells, blood        Stimulated by             Increase cardiac activity, blood pressure,
AKA                                                vessels, liver, heart    activated                 glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels;
catecholamines                                                              sympathetic               release of lipids by adipose tissue; more
                                                                            preganglionic             potent for heart and metabolic activities.
                                                                            fibers (Ach
                                                                            release)


Aldosterone              Adrenal cortex            Kidneys                                            Increase renal absorption of Na+ and water
Most potent 95% of       (glandular tissue;                                                           and accelerate urinary loss of K+; crave
(mineralocorticoids)     majority of gland)                                                           salty foods
Cortisol                 Adrenal cortex         Most body cells        Stimulated by        Increase blood sugar; keeps blood glucose
Most important                                                         ACTH                 levels constant; very active responding to
(glucocorticoids)                                                                           stress; anti-inflammatory; enhance epi’s
                                                                                            vasoconstrictive effects to increase BP;
                                                                                            diseases Cushing’s disease and Addison’s
                                                                                            disease
Androgens                Adrenal cortex         General; no effect                          Seem to be related to the female’s sex
(Gonadocorticoids)                              on sexual                                   drive
AKA                                             characteristics
Sex hormones
Testosterone is most
important

Glucagon               Secreted by alpha   Liver, adipose         Stimulated by low    Promotes glycogenolysis; gluconeogenesis from
                       cells of the        tissues                blood glucose        lactic acid, fats & AA; elevates blood glucose
                       pancreas                                   concentration;       concentrations
                                                                  inhibited by GHIH
                                                                  like hormone from
                                                                  delta cells
Insulin                Secreted by beta    Most cells             Stimulated by high   Lowers blood sugar; affects protein and fat
                       cells of the                               blood glucose        metabolism; enhances transport of glucose
                       pancreas                                   concentrations;
                                                                  inhibited by GH-
                                                                  IH like hormones
Testosterone &         Testes              Testes;                Stimulated by LH     Sperm maturation; secondary sex characteristics
                                                                                       and sex drive; necessary for sperm production;
                                                                  Stimulated by FSH    maintains sex organs in their functional state;
Inhibin                                    Anterior pituitary                          Inhibin inhibits FSH release

Estrogen                                   Uterus                                      Maturation of reproductive organs; appearance
                                                                                       of secondary sex characteristics; breast
Progesterone                               Uterus                                      development and cyclic changes
                                           (regulates period,
                                           pregnancy)
                       Ovaries
                                           pelvis, cervix
Relaxin                                    (dilates cervix and
                                           birth canal)

                                           anterior pituitary
Inhibin                                    (inhibits FSH
                                           release)



Thymosins              Thymus              Lymphocytes and        Inhibited by sex     Development of the T lymphocytes; coordinate
                                           other cells of the     hormones             and regulate immune response
                                           immune response

ANP                    Heart               Kidney, adrenal                             Reduces BP; blood volume, and blood Na
(atrial natriuretic                        cortex                                      concentration
peptide)
Gastrin; secretin;     Gastrointestinal    Stomach, liver,                             Stimulates local acting digestive hormones
serotonin              tract               pancreas
Estrogen,              Placenta            Uterus, ovary,                              Maintains pregnancy
progesterone,                              mammary gland
hCH, hCS
Erythropoietin,        Kidneys             Bone marrow                                 Signals production of RBC;
                                                                                       powerful vasoconstrictor
Renin
Cholecalciferol   Skin             Precursor of Vit. D
Leptin            Adipose tissue   Sensation of satiety (fullness)

                                   Reduces insulin sensitivity

Resistin