AOTS Round-table Discussion to Commemorate the 30th QCTC by gdf57j

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									SPECIAL FEATURE 1



AOTS Round-table Discussion to
Commemorate the 30th QCTC
Communicating the Japanese Culture of
Quality and Monozukuri


    T    he Quality Control Training Course (QCTC), one of the longest-lasting and
         most famous training programs of the AOTS Management Training Pro-
    gram, has been conducted since FY 1979. The 2008 training course (held in
                                                                                              tures and people, and it is likely that
                                                                                              the role of the QCTC will increase fur-
                                                                                              ther in the future. I would like you to
    February 2009 at KKC) will mark the 30th anniversary. An AOTS round-table                 talk about what development can be
    discussion to commemorate the 30th QCTC was held in Osaka on October 8,                   sought hereafter, based on the out-
    2008, and was attended by Mr. Kazuo Kaneko, President of AOTS, and Mr. Hideo              comes of the QCTC.
    Yoshihara, Director as well as General Manager of KKC (acting as MC), and by              Yoshihara: At AOTS, the QCTC has
    Dr. Yoshio Kondo, Professor Emeritus of Kyoto University, who has assisted this           been held once a year for the last 30
    course immensely since the very beginning of the course planning stages as the            years, but why has it continued so long?
    program director, Dr. Hideo Iwasaki, Professor of Kinki University, the current           I would first of all like Mr. Ranganathan,
    program director, and also by Mr. M. R. Ranganathan (India), who has attended             on behalf of the participants of AOTS
    other AOTS training courses in Quality Management and other areas. They remi-             training programs, to provide us with
    nisced on the past QCTC courses, as well as actively exchanged views on future            an outline regarding this.
    issues and prospects. In this issue, we will introduce to you how the round-table         Ranganathan: First of all, the AOTS
    discussion progressed.                                                                    training courses are interesting. The
                                                                                              participants gather from various coun-
                                                                                              tries and are able to exchange informa-
    Kaneko: Thank you very much for               turers, particularly Professor Kondo        tion about what each participant is
    making time in your busy schedules to         and Professor Iwasaki, have a lot to do     doing in their own country. At the time
    come here today. I think that the fact        with it; QC arrived from America, de-       when we were participating in the
    that the QCTC course (hereinafter             veloped in Japan and then spread to         QCTC, quality was said to be impor-
    QCTC) is being held for the 30th time         many countries in the world, becom-         tant in many countries, but it was not
    is of tremendous significance. I believe      ing, so to speak, the fundamental tech-     going well. We wanted the chance to
    that the links between the theoretical        nique for the manufacturing industry        come to Japan and study, and then to
    development of QC (Quality Control),          across the globe. It is of great signifi-   go back home and make use of what
    TQC (Total Quality Control) and               cance that participants come to Japan,      we had learned. Subsequently, the out-
    TQM (Total Quality Management)                the place where QC theory and Japa-         comes brought home by participants
    and the training programs of AOTS             nese culture and people are interlinked,    generated a ripple effect, and the layer
    focused on the QCTC are evident from          and undergo training programs at            of people promoting quality in their
    the history of this course. Initially, this   AOTS. I would like to hear about how        countries increased, thereby spreading
    course was aimed at responding pri-           this course has been designed and how       understanding and practice. The lectur-
    marily to the needs of Japanese affili-       it is helping developing countries.         ers are good, the course content is good,
    ated companies, but the course con-              I have recently been to Mexico and       participants are made to work hard,
    tent has changed with the times, and          Peru, and attended a seminar for Na-        and they can use this knowledge in their
    latterly, local companies in each coun-       tional Quality Week in Peru; at this        own countries. After we went home, we
    try have been enthusiastic participants;      seminar, the focus was on quality and       began QC circle activities and I not only
    thus, the global evolution of Japanese        participants expressed a desire to make     worked on these in my own company,
    quality activities is being promoted.         quality the foundation of discussions       but also went to other companies and
       With regard to the question of why         about regional integration. It is the       spoke about what QC circles are.
    this course is so popular and has con-        same in India as well. Networks are            Secondly, there are the QC tools; at
    tinued for so long, the efforts of the lec-   formed based on the respective cul-         the time that we participated, we learned



2                                                                                                                   KENSHU No. 185
about the New Seven Management                by quickly when you are actually liv-
Tools as management and development           ing it, so you must first of all think
techniques. Until then, we had figures        about what you should do.
as data and we gathered information and          If we think simply about the situa-
handled the data statistically, processing    tion thirty years ago, this was the age
it while looking at the size and location     of the old KKC*2. At that time, we
of the problem, so these tools were a new     talked about QC circles and were des-
concept for us. After returning home, we      perately striving to work out how to
explained the tools to many people and        teach people on the front-line of manu-
put them into practice.                       facturing about statistical techniques.
   Thirdly, when I go to stores in my         Iwasaki: I think that it was around
own country, there are signs saying           the time of the third course, in 1981,
“Please do not touch.” Our culture is         when I began to participate in the
to buy things without even touching           QCTC as a lecturer. At that time, Pro-
them. However, when I came to Japan,          fessor Kondo was the senior lecturer,
I was able to go and touch things, and        and AOTS had assembled the leading
buy things based on feeling them.             authorities in this field, in the form of
Through this, we were able to under-          P r o f e s s o r A n d o * 3, P r o f e s s o r
stand what “monozukuri*1” actually            Shimizu*4, Professor Ichikawa*5 and
is. There was not only study in the           Professor Ikeda* 6 . Basic training
classroom; we were able actually to see       courses had been being run by organi-
how what we had learned is practiced          zations such as the Union of Japanese               Mr. Kazuo Kaneko,
in Japan. And from this, we were filled       Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) and the             President of AOTS
with a strong desire to go back home          Japanese Standards Association (JSA)
and try this in our own countries.            since the early 1950s, and AOTS modi-
Yoshihara: You said that you had “good        fied their curriculum to meet new
lecturers,” and I would like to hear from     needs; those lecturers came to AOTS                sity of lectures concerning statistical
these two truly great lecturers.              as a matter of course and it is thanks             techniques. We wondered whether par-
Kondo: In a word, although 30 years           to the efforts of Professor Kondo that             ticipants would follow these statisti-
sounds like a long time, it has actually      it was possible to gather this group of            cal techniques if we gave such lectures
passed in a flash for me. I believe that      the most eminent professors in the                 on them, but the participants certainly
what is the most important is for ev-         Kansai area (Western area of Japan,                did keep up. The course was six weeks
eryone to be aware that from now on           centering on Osaka).                               long, so we were able to repeat the
as well, twenty or thirty years will go          Initially, there was a very high den-           content if necessary. We also provided
                                                                                                 guidance about themes. For example,
     NOTE
                                                                                                 we have participants write a report in
                                                                                                 advance about the quality issues faced
*1: The Japanese word Monozukuri literally means production, though its concept                  by companies in their country, and
   involves all operation processes including even design and marketing, as well                 then present this in front of the other
   as the attitude of workers and managers, characterizing Japanese manufactur-                  participants. The participants write
   ing. Monozukuri is the foundation of the productivity and competitiveness of                  and bring the report, the lecturer pro-
   Japanese industry.
                                                                                                 vides guidance on a one-to-one basis,
*2: At that time, KKC was located in the city of Suita in Osaka Prefecture. Subsequently,        and finally, the participants give their
    in June 1994, KKC moved to a larger building in Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka City.                    presentation in front of all of the par-
*3: Mr. Teiichi Ando (Emeritus Professor, Kyoto University): Positions were those                ticipants, so it is very practical. I be-
    held at the time                                                                             lieve that this is one of the reasons why
*4: Mr. Shoichi Shimizu (Emeritus Professor, Nagoya University)                                  it has continued for so long.
*5: Mr. Kunisuke Ichikawa (Emeritus Professor, Osaka University)                                 Yoshihara: Professor Kondo, do you
*6: Mr. Junpei Ikeda (Professor, Osaka Electro-Communication University)                         have any anecdotes to recount about
*7: Written by Professor Kondo (published in Japanese by the Japanese Standards                  the initial stages of this course?
    Association). The author recorded a hundred stories relating to QC based on his              Kondo: I wrote an example in my
    thoughts and experiences. It is full of excellent material and topics for case               book*7 constructed of 100 essays con-
    studies and group discussions aimed at teaching QC in a scientific manner on                 cerning QC. Essay number 57 relates
    the front line.                                                                              to the QCTC at the time of its 20th



Winter, 2009                                                                                                                                 3
SPECIAL FEATURE 1




                                                Dr. Yoshio Kondo
                                                Professor Emeritus
                                                Kyoto University

                                                1961:    Professor, Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto
                                                         University
                                                1983-85: Dean, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University
                                                1987:    Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University
                                                1988:    Honorary Professor, Northeast University of Technology, Shenyang,
                                                         China
                                                1992:    Honorary Member, Philippine Society for Quality Control
                                                1992-93: President, Japanese Society for Quality Control
                                                1994-96: President, International Academy for Quality
                                                1994:    Honorary Member, Japanese Society for Quality Control
                                                1997:    Chairman of Board, International Academy for Quality




                                                course duration has changed, being          the 1980s, the answer is quality con-
    anniversary. I will just introduce it       reduced from six weeks to four weeks,       trol. “In that case, let us go to Japan
    from part of the way through. This          and then further shortened to three         to study its quality control manage-
    course at the initial stage was six weeks   weeks; could you please look back and       ment” – needs have changed in this
    long, but we asked the participants’        provide us with a simple introduction       way. The level has increased in the
    host companies to allow us to increase      to the details of the changes?              various countries, and our attitude to
    the number of social gathering parties      Iwasaki: The biggest change has been        respond to their needs is linked to the
    for the participants. During the first      the shift from statistical techniques to    changes in the curriculum that have
    party of the course, a participant who      management techniques. Initially, we        occurred to date and the current ap-
    was in charge of inspection at his com-     focused on how to collate data, as well     proach to it.
    pany in the Philippines said to me that,    as covering the hypothesis test, estima-      The first course took place in 1979,
    “At my company, the inspection de-          tion and design of experimental plans.      and the first major revision of this
    partment and the manufacturing de-          We used to apply quite high-level sta-      course took place in 1998, with sub-
    partment are enemies. I came to learn       tistical analysis techniques. The num-      sequent changes in 2000 and 2005. It
    how to cope with manufacture.” I re-        ber of books in English or local lan-       took a very long time before the first
    plied, “Let’s talk again after you have     guages about statistical techniques in-     revision was made, and it has fre-
    studied thoroughly what the QC              creased, and the accessibility to these     quently been changed since then; the
    taught on this course actually is.” At      books made it possible for the over-        intervals have become shorter and
    the party after the certificate award-      seas technicians to study these before      shorter. This is the degree to which
    ing ceremony, he said to me, “I have        participating in the course. Really, this   needs have changed. We have imple-
    understood that inspection and manu-        was not an adequate level and it cov-       mented reforms to the course in order
    facturing are actually friends. From the    ered only a small portion of the knowl-     to respond to these needs.
    next course, I will ensure that we send     edge required, but the basic data analy-    Yoshihara: Initially, the participants
    people from the manufacturing depart-       sis methods for quality control never-      were mainly technicians and experts.
    ment.” I was very happy to hear this.       theless spread across the globe. In this    Following subsequent transitions, the
                                                situation, at the stage of how to use       focus is now on managers.
    Designing Curriculum that                   these techniques in management, if we       Kondo: Is it just about time to start
    Responds to Changing Needs                  ask what Japan’s secret has been for        thinking about a course for top man-
                                                improving quality and creating prod-        agement? The number of companies
    Yoshihara: Turning enemies into             ucts that can win out in global mar-        receiving or making efforts for the
    friends – that really is a wonderful        kets, against the background of the de-     Deming Prize has increased. AOTS
    story. Over the last thirty years, the      velopment of the Japanese economy in        should think of something to meet the



4                                                                                                                KENSHU No. 185
   Dr. Hideo Iwasaki
   Professor
   Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University

   1976: Lecturer, Kinki University
   1984: Associate Professor, Kinki University
   2000: Professor, Kinki University
   2008: Dean, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University




needs of such people. This kind of area    years, interest in the Deming Prize has
would be a key point in my opinion.        increased and companies are striving
                                           to do their best. In India, large scale
The Effects and Dissemination              companies tend to be part of indus-
of QCTC                                    trial conglomerates, but there are also
                                           many small and medium-sized enter-
Yoshihara: I think that I would like       prises in the component manufactur-
to hear a little about the effects and     ing industry, to which large scale com-
dissemination of the QCTC. When I          panies subcontract work. If these com-      among the participants, who came
myself went to New Delhi in India,         panies do not ensure good quality, this     from many states. Naturally, it is easi-
there were presentations at a Best Prac-   will have a negative impact on the large    est to communicate about quality if the
tice Convention organized by the           scale companies as well, so the large       professors from Japan teach directly.
AOTS Alumni Society, and at a gath-        scale companies are taking responsi-           We also explain in simple terms the
ering of people from South Asia held       bility for teaching quality to their sub-   things that we learned on the QCTC,
in Dhaka, Bangladesh, which was or-        contractors. However, it is necessary       and we are now creating books and
ganized by the AOTS Alumni Society.        to convey this to them in the language      materials. QC circle activities are
What surprised me was that 5S activi-      of that particular state, and the AOTS      popular, and kaizen, poka yoke (mis-
ties were being applied in various         Alumni Societies conduct activities in      take-proofing) and 5S are themes for
places, not only in companies, but also    the language of their state; I myself       QC circle activities.
in elementary schools and hospitals.       wrote a book in Tamil. I created it as         When we identify a failure, we use
Today, a 5S book is available in Tamil     a training course material and start        QC tools. When solving problems, we
and in English. Although it is a Paki-     from “What is quality?”                     do this on the basis of data. What we
stani book, Quality Management                With regard to QC circles, there are     always think of are Professor Kondo’s
Practices contains an expression of        various groups and at the time of the       words, “Creativity is the joy of think-
thanks to Professor Kondo.                 First National Conference in India, or-     ing.” Anybody can “think,” and it is
   Mr. Ranganathan, Malaysia has           ganized by NIQR (National Institute         fun to do something “creative.” In the
been the country with the highest num-     of Quality and Reliability) along with      case of QC circles, problem solving is,
ber of participants in the QCTC, while     our AOTS Alumni Society. Professor          fundamentally, creative solving.
India is in fourth place with fifty par-   Kondo was kind enough to come to               There are three types of problem
ticipants. I would like you to provide     Chennai and gave the keynote address        solving in Japanese thought. The first
us with an introduction to the specific    at a large seminar. Professor Kondo         is, literally the problem solving, the
outcomes in India.                         also inaugurated at that time Quality       second is problem preventing, and the
Ranganathan: India has been expe-          circles in Madras Port Trust, a Public      third is problem anticipation, and all
riencing remarkable economic growth        sector service industry which had           three are important. If we remember
and has a substantial layer of techni-     13,500 employees and 13 labor               various specific things, we can use
cal staff, and Japanese companies are      unions. Professor Teiichi Ando also         these ourselves in the workplace. Un-
now steadily expanding into India.         came the next year. We were able to         like the situation before our participa-
However, without good quality, manu-       conduct publicity activities about          tion in the QCTC, we have come to
facturing will not go well. In recent      AOTS and the AOTS Alumni Society            understand that even if there seem to



Winter, 2009                                                                                                                      5
SPECIAL FEATURE 1




                                              Mr. M.R. Ranganathan
                                              President, Nihon Technology Pvt. Ltd.

                                              1972:    Underwent AOTS Technical Training Program in the field of
                                                       Harbor Construction
                                              1975:    Founding Chairman of ABK-AOTS Dosokai Tamil Nadu Centre
                                              1977:    Underwent Production Management Training Course (PMTC)
                                              1985:    Underwent Program for Quality Management (PQM)
                                              2002-06: President, Federation of AOTS Alumni Associations of India
                                                       (FAAAI)



                                              prises that want to know about the          ity or production in their own compa-
                                              Deming Prize. How would it be if we         nies. Not only the AOTS Alumni So-
                                              included these points in the new train-     cieties, but also the individual ex-
                                              ing course?                                 AOTS participants are also striving
                                              Yoshihara: Mr. Ranganathan has made         hard. There are many ex-AOTS par-
                                              various contributions, to his own com-      ticipants who actively contribute both
                                              pany, as an expert, in an interpreting      in companies that have received the
                                              role, and also to the AOTS Alumni           Deming Prize and in those companies
    be no problems, there actually are        Society and in the arena of international   that are striving to win it.
    problems if one looks carefully.          exchange. He has also been Chairman
       At the Best Practice of Quality Con-   of the Federation of AOTS Alumni As-        Communicating the Culture
    vention, held by the Federation of        sociations of India.                        of Quality
    AOTS Alumni Associations of India         Ranganathan: That’s right. The
    and including participants from Egypt     AOTS Alumni Societies in India have         Iwasaki: Indian companies have mile-
    and various countries in Eastern Eu-      an expert list, and I send this to the      stones and the first is obtaining ISO
    rope, we hold seminars jointly, for ex-   Alumni Societies across the globe free      9000 certification. Next there is the in-
    ample with the AOTS Alumni Society,       of charge.                                  troduction of Six Sigma or the Bal-
    Egypt, when they come to India. We        Yoshihara: The fact that there are now      anced Scorecard, and finally they want
    also took 16 people with us from the      many companies in India that are aim-       to win the Deming Prize as one initia-
    eight AOTS Alumni Societies in India      ing to win the Deming Prize is due in       tive in phased TQM activities. How-
    to visit Egypt and give presentations,    part to the contribution made by Mr.        ever, do they really understand the true
    as well as viewing plants where em-       Ranganathan; of course, the large           meaning of TQM at that time? When
    ployees are learning about TQM or         number of participants in the QCTC          we conduct the Deming Prize exami-
    participating in QCTC. In addition, we    and the AOTS materials available in         nation, we express quite strict opin-
    also often exchange information about     English are also factors.                   ions through diagnosis and examina-
    QC through the WNF*8 program. We          Ranganathan: The people who have            tion, with regard to the question of
    exchange information about Best Prac-     studied on the AOTS training course         whether the company really under-
    tice, focusing on the degree to which     return home and are active in various       stands the true nature of TQM even
    the things we have learned in Japan       ways, taking on responsibility for qual-    though they may have obtained ISO
    are being used on a daily basis in our
    plants and companies.
       Exactly a month ago, when Profes-          NOTE
    sor Katsutoshi Ayano*9 came to New
    Delhi, the AOTS Alumni Society, Delhi     *8: WNF: World Network of Friendship (Implements training cooperation programs
    and the AOTS Alumni Association of            and so forth between AOTS Alumni Societies. For further details, please see
    Western India held two-day seminars.          page 15 of this publication.)
    Large scale companies can invite lec-     *9: Mr. Katsutoshi Ayano (Professor, Tokai University): Scheduled to be Program
    turers from Japan, but there are also         Director of the Program for Quality Management Promotion (PQMP) and the
    many small and medium-sized enter-            Program on Quality Control for Vietnam (VNQC) for FY2009.




6                                                                                                               KENSHU No. 185
9000 and introduced Six Sigma. They         is fine as long as it meets standards.
often counter that they have not pre-       When it comes to important quality,
viously had this pointed out to them,       greater efforts must be made to ensure
that they got their ISO certification       compliance with specifications or com-
without any problems, and that Six          pliance with the specifications set by
Sigma is going well, so why are these       customers.
things still being highlighted in the di-      With regard to the characteristics of
agnosis and examination for the             each country or region of the world,
Deming Prize? However, they then            for example, although there is a ten-
think again. If they then realize for the   dency to see Africa as a single entity, it
first time that the top managers must       consists of various countries. Japan
engage seriously in quality control ac-     and the countries of the West are at a
tivities and that they must rethink their   very competitive level, but there is
contacts with customers through qual-       quite a wide range of levels in other
ity, their endeavors gain momentum          regions of the world. A single region
and they reach almost the Deming            may have characteristics, but there are
Prize level.                                also differences between companies.
   They continue TQM activities in ear-     Kaneko: I went to a meeting in Peru
nest and they last a long time thereaf-     the other day and listened to what
ter. Real quality is created in the rela-   some people from the AOTS Alumni
tionship with the customer. One can         Society had to say; I was told that for
define quality through close commu-         people at local companies, the signifi-       Mr. Hideo Yoshihara,
nication with the customer, with man-       cance of the AOTS training program            Director and
agement activities being implemented        was that it is applicable not only within     General Manager of KKC
in order to achieve this. I believe that    manufacturing industry, but also in the
thoughts in this sense are on the right     wider realm of industry, that it is the
track.                                      only guidepost or yardstick in the
   One of the main reasons why the          world, and that it is a cornerstone          is that quality comes first, then pro-
QCTC has continued for so long is the       when thinking about what to do from          ductivity, followed by cost; with regard
fact that it places quality at the very     now on in one’s own management               to cost, for customers this is the price,
core of management. As Professor            work. I gained the feeling that the at-      while for manufacturers this is the cost
Kondo always says, in the concept of        titude to quality created in Japan will      of production. From the customer’s
quality there is a philosophy. There-       hold significance in a variety of places     perspective, productivity is hardly rel-
fore, this will never collapse. The com-    in the future.                               evant. What matters is being able to
mon language of manufacturers and              The Deming Prize winners and chal-        obtain a product when one needs it.
consumers is found in quality. One          lengers are now growing in India and         On the other hand, for manufacturers,
cannot go wrong so long as one main-        Thailand. It would be good to have the       productivity is important. However,
tains this management stance.               perspective that we should cultivate per-    the importance of quality is almost the
Yoshihara: With regard to the dissemi-      sonnel who will take on responsibility       same for both customers and manu-
nation and effects of quality, Profes-      for worldwide standards through the          facturers.
sor Kondo in particular has seen many       Deming Prize, including the successors       Yoshihara: There are more than 560
countries on almost all of the five con-    to the professors, who will support          people who have participated in
tinents of the world through various        them in Japan.                               QCTC in various countries around the
activities such as the AOTS Lecturing       Kondo: I often say that one must put         world, so I think that the number of
Tours, so I would be grateful if Pro-       in place the triplet of quality, produc-     people with the awareness of quality
fessor Kondo could tell us about what       tivity and cost, but it is a fact that of    is increasing steadily.
effects and significance quality has        these, quality has a nature that differs     Kondo: I certainly think so. And I
had, based on these experiences.            from that of the other two elements.         think that their number will increase
Kondo: Compliance with specifica-           Good quality has a nature that can be        further in the future. We must increase
tions and how to understand and sat-        described as the culture of quality. I       that number.
isfy the requirements of customers and      have not really heard of “the culture of
users. These are extremely important        productivity” or “the culture of cost.”      The Future of the QCTC
factors in pursuing quality. This is dif-   Ranganathan: One of the things that
ferent from the attitude that everything    I have learned from Professor Kondo          Kaneko: People overseas say that there



Winter, 2009                                                                                                                         7
SPECIAL FEATURE 1




            The Number of QCTC Participants by Country/Region                                 mesh structure, while Professor
          (FY 1979 – 2007: A total of 563 participants from 42 countries)                     Iwasaki spoke of adapting the course
                                                                                              to the diverse development stages of
                                                                                              countries, and listening to the discus-
             Europe                                                 Northeast Asia: 25        sions today, I believe that we must de-
               11                                                                             vise various means in order to create
    Latin America                                                                             training courses that respond to a di-
          60                             Asia                       Southeast Asia: 279
                                                                                              versity of actual needs. It will become
                                         431
          Africa                                                                              diffuse if there is no central focus, so I
            44                                                                                would certainly like to maintain the
                                                                    South Asia: 127           QCTC, with its 30-year history, as the
       Middle East
          17                                                                                  primary focus, and then to decide how
                                                                                              to respond to the diversified needs. I
                                                                                              do believe that we should maintain it
                                                                                              as an opportunity for people who re-
    is extremely great significance in hold-     Yoshihara: Countries and regions             ally need it.
    ing this course in Japan. If one asks        with different development stages               India has also developed consider-
    them what that significance is, they         should be divided up.                        ably, but even in India, there are still
    reply that when they actually came to        Iwasaki: Yes, it will be necessary to        needs for training courses especially for
    Japan, they understood the importance        divide them up. Irrespective of whether      companies in regional areas. If we look
    of quality for the very first time, real-    participants’ companies are large or         at the countries of the world, there is
    izing that it is a culture. I believe that   small, even if the company is a Japa-        a wide range of development stages,
    it is of very great significance that par-   nese affiliated one, there are significant   and I think we need to be even more
    ticipants actually come to Japan and         disparities and differences in level de-     conscious than previously of how we
    properly learn to take on the total          pending on the country. In this sense,       are targeting which strata.
    quality future.                              we must think about the direction of         Yoshihara: Quality is a major theme
    Iwasaki: At the end of the day, the          the focus of the QCTC.                       on the other management training
    world is 24 hours wide, and it is al-        Kondo: When thinking about ap-               courses as well and the QCTC can be
    ways daytime somewhere. For ex-              proaches to the QCTC in the future,          said to be one of the roots of such
    ample, integrated circuits designed in       I sometimes use the term “mesh               courses. Quality is truly essential and
    Japan are manufactured in Silicon Val-       structure.” If we see relationships be-      AOTS Management Training Courses
    ley, software and embedded hardware          tween countries as being like a mesh,        cannot exist without a focus on qual-
    are manufactured in Hyderabad in             rather than a one-way flow, they             ity.
    India, and assembly takes place in           have various combinations and dif-           Kondo: Please think about the ques-
    China or Taiwan. The worldwide de-           ferent directions, speeds and flows,         tion of why quality is indispensable.
    velopment, design and production pro-        so the question is how we can make           As I spoke a little of this earlier, if we
    cesses result in a product. The proper       use of this effectively. It may even be      talk of a culture, the culture of quality
    implementation of quality control            ten years from now, but should we            is possible as a concept. However, is
    must be established within a global          not have a system whereby people             there a culture of productivity? Is there
    network, and quality in this sense in        from developing countries come to            a culture of cost? There is something
    information technology means a sys-          Japan to give lectures or do some-           different here. When we think about
    tem in which good products cannot be         thing else that not only involves at-        the true nature of quality, I believe that
    produced unless a proper network is          tending as lecturers, but also various       it is vitally important to be absolutely
    put in place.                                other elements and combinations              clear that quality is different from pro-
       Today, the discussions have centered      thereof?                                     ductivity or cost, in that sense.
    on India, but India now has a suffi-         Yoshihara: We currently use a video          Yoshihara: Thank you very much for
    cient foundation to carry on autono-         conference system to introduce the           giving your valuable opinions today.
    mously. The problem is determining           cases of practice from overseas coun-
    the priority direction with regard to        tries including India and Thailand; I        * This manuscript is a summary of the
    how this QCTC can be of use in other         would like these to be taken into con-         content of the round-table discussions
    developing countries. It is necessary to     sideration when expanding such pro-            that took place on October 8, 2008
    make active approaches to such coun-         grams to other countries. I think this         and has been compiled by the Edito-
    tries and amend the curriculum of this       approach is worth considering.                 rial Staff of KENSHU magazine.
    course accordingly.                          Kaneko: Professor Kondo spoke of a             (The Editorial Staff)




8                                                                                                                   KENSHU No. 185

								
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