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					                      Phobias
•   an irrational fear that disrupts behavior.

•   Key term here is irrational, separates from general fears we all
    have.
        Types of Phobias
•   People can be phobic of
    many different things:

    •   situations

    •   activities

    •   things

    •   animals

    •   people
                       Causes
•   Caused by an event being recorded in the amygdala and
    hippocampus as dangerous or deadly.

•   This causes future exposure to a stimulus to cause a similar
    response.
        Top 10 Phobias
• Acrophobia - fear of heights
• Claustrophobia - fear of enclosed spaces
• Nyctophobia - fear of the dark
• Ophidiophia - fear of snakes
• Arachnophobia - fear of spiders
• Trypanophobia - fear of medical needles
• Astraphobia - fear of thunder and lightning
• Nosophobia - fear of disease
• Mysophobia (germophobia) - fear of germs
• Triskaidekaphobia - fear of the number “13”
                 Symptoms
•   When do symptoms occur?
    - When exposed to the feared object or situation
    - The closer you are to the object or feared situation
    - Symptoms are most severe when the thing you fear cannot be
    avoided
           Symptoms
•   Types of symptoms
    - heart palpitations, rapid heart beat
    - shortness of breath
    - numbness
    - fear of dying
    - trembling/shaking
    - feeling of choking
    - nausea
    - sweating
    - dizziness or faintness
    - feeling detached from yourself, lack of control
    - hot or cold flashes
  Specific Symptoms
• Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia
  - Upon seeing a needle or blood, you feel not
  only fear, but disgust as well
  - Initial heart rate and blood pressure increase,
  followed by a quick drop, which causes
  nausea, dizziness and fainting
  - Although fear of fainting is common to all
  phobias, blood-injection-injury phobia is the
  only phobia where fainting actually occurs
                 Treatment
•   Behavior Therapy
    •   Exposure treatment
                  Treatment
•   Flooding
    •   A person is immersed in the fear until they relax and the fear
        has faded
                  Treatment
•   Counter Conditioning
    •   Substitute a relaxation response for a fear response in the
        presence of phobic stimulus
        •   Systematic desensitization
        Basically the patient will train themselves to not fearful by
           being exposed to the stimulus for short amounts of time
                 Treatment
•   Modeling
    •   They see someone encountering the stimulus and reacting
        calmly

				
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