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					Number 50

                             Boiling Point
       Scaling up and
   commercialisation of
     household energy
             initiatives   PRACTICAL ANSWERS
                                  TO POVERTY
1111                                                                    In this edition . . .
2                   ITDG TECHNICAL                                      Firstly, welcome back to our colleagues in GTZ who are once
3                INFORMATION SERVICE                                    again co-producing and helping to fund this edition of Boiling
4                                                                       Point. I am sure everyone will be happy to see the centre pages
5                                                                       outlining the work done by GTZ worldwide.
        Technical Enquiry Service                                          This edition is a real celebration of success. Many of our
        Do you have a practical problem? We may have an                 authors have achieved major positive impacts, and I am grateful
        answer.                                                         that they have taken the time and effort to share their knowledge
8                                                                       with all of us. The differing (and sometimes conflicting)
9       Drawing on our international experience of working with         approaches seem to reflect how important it is for the solution to
10      small-scale technologies we provide practical information       be locally appropriate to the need. Mass production and commer-
1       and advice. Our service is free of charge to individuals,       cialisation, until recently considered ‘not quite suitable’ for NGO
2       businesses and development practitioners working in the         activities are now recognised as key aspects of poverty reduction
3       South. We aim to supply useful information directly rele-       – I hope you agree….or let your opinions be known by writing
                                                                        to me.
4       vant to your needs so please be clear and specific when
                                                                           Finally, welcome to Jon Rouse, our theme editor, who informs
5       making your enquiry. We have access to expertise in             me that it was ‘hard work but enjoyable’ – many thanks Jon, for
6       energy, agro-processing, food production, building materi-      all the time you spent working on this edition.
7       als and shelter, transport and small-scale manufacturing.
8       If you can use the internet then you can access a range
                                                                        Contributions to Boiling Point
9       of Technical Briefs –                      G   BP51: Sharing information and communicating
20111                                                                       knowledge This edition follows closely from BP50, with its
        technicalinformationservice or send your enquiry by email
1                                                                           theme of ‘Scaling up’. How can people share what they
        to otherwise please contact us at:             ‘know’ about household energy? What are the routes, both
3       Technical Information Service (Boiling Point)                       formal and informal, which can be supported and
        Intermediate Technology Development Group                           strengthened in order to allow knowledge to be shared more
4                                                                           freely? Are there ways for distributing information on house-
5       Schumacher Centre for Technology Development
                                                                            hold energy which you have found successful – locally?
6       Bourton Hall                                                        nationally? internationally? What factors inhibit people from
7       Bourton on Dunsmore                                                 sharing their knowledge? or from disseminating useful infor-
8       Warwickshire CV23 9QZ                                               mation? How can those barriers be overcome? These routes
9                                                                           could involve local participatory approaches, educational pro-
        Tel: +44 (0) 1926 634468                                            grammes, local theatre, books and journals, media, electronic
30           +44 (0) 1926 634400                                            networks, exchange visits etc. If you have successful strate-
1       Fax: +44 (0) 1926 634401                                            gies, Boiling Point would love to share your knowledge and
2                                                                           provide information so that others can benefit from your
3       Editorial Team                                                      experience.
4                                                                       G   BP52: Health, safety and household energy Boiling Point
        Elizabeth Bates –           Editor
5                                                                           last looked at health in BP40, and much has happened since
        Agnes Klingshirn –          GTZ Editor                              this edition. What have we learnt? What can we tell policy-
        Jan Ellway       –          Administrator                           makers when they ask how to remove smoke from millions of
8                                                                           households in their country? What are the dangers associated
        We would like to extend our thanks to the Shell                     with fuel-gathering, particularly in crisis situations – assault,
9       Foundation for financial support towards this edi-                  land-mines – we need to hear from anyone taking positive
40111   tion of Boiling Point                                               action to reduce these risks. Safety of children – what can be
1                                                                           done to reduce the number of burns for children – and also
2       Back issues of Boiling Point                                        women? If you can share your knowledge, this is a vitally
3                                                                           important issue.
4       49 – Forests, fuel and food     40 – Household energy           We’re on the ITDG website too
5       48 – Promoting household             and health                 good news is that the journal is visited by around 200 people per
6            energy for poverty         39 – Using biomass              month, with over a third to a half of those people downloading
7            reduction                       residues for energy        articles, in addition to the 2000 copies which we send out each
        47 – Household energy           38 – Household energy in        edition.
             and enterprise                  high cold regions              Articles should be no more than 1500 words in length.
9                                                                       Illustrations, such as drawings, photographs, graphs and bar
50      46 – Household energy           37 – Household energy
                                                                        charts, are essential. Articles can be submitted as typeseripts, on
1            and the vulnerable              in emergency
                                                                        disc, or by email.
        45 – Low cost electrification        situations                     All correspondence should be addressed to: Boiling Point
             for household energy       36 – Solar energy in the        editor, ITDG, Schumacher Centre for Technology & Development,
        44 – Linking household               home                       Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby CV23 9QZ, UK or by email to
4            energy with other          35 – How much can     
5            development objectives          NGOs achieve?
6                                                                          Boiling Point is the journal of ITDG’s energy programme.
        43 – Fuel options for house-    34 – Smoke removal              Typesetting by The Studio Publishing Services, Exeter, printing
7            hold energy                33 – Household energy           by Latimer Trend, Plymouth.
8       42 – Household energy and            developments in               Opinions expressed in contributory articles are those of the
9            the environment                 Asia                       authors, and not necessarily those of ITDG. We do not charge a
60      41 – Household energy; the      32 – Energy for the             subscription to Boiling Point, but would welcome donations to
6111         urban dimension                 household                  cover the cost of production and dispatch.

                                                                     Cover photo: Retailers in Accra market (photo: Alan Brewis)
                                       THEME EDITORIAL
6       Scaling up
9       Jonathan Rouse, Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University, Loughborough,
10      Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1509 223749 / 222885; Fax: +44 (0)1509 211079;
1       Email, Website:
2       A few years ago I was rather shocked                                                       Businesses for rigorous financial
                                                    Scaling up in Boiling Point 50             G
3       by people’s enthusiastic reaction to a                                                     viability and marketing strategies
4                                                   The papers in this issue of Boiling
        small project undertaken in India. It                                                  G   Municipalities and governments
5                                                   Point describe many different situa-
        had produced some very interesting                                                         for resources and a conducive
6                                                   tions, present many (sometimes oppo-
        findings, developed and tested a tech-                                                     policy environment
7                                                   sing) opinions, and tell diverse stories
        nology in the field and challenged a                                                   G   Financing institutions for responsi-
8       few ‘project norms’. However, the           from around the globe.
                                                       Brewis describes developing a               ble credit
9       project came to an end, had no chance
20111                                               strong marketing strategy, brand build-    G   Poor people, as experts on their
        of being scaled up, and ultimately had                                                     own needs, resources, limitations
1       no impact on indoor air quality in a        ing and paying commissions to sales
2                                                   staff, while Dutta describes how grant         and aspirations.
        single house. As it happens, the pro-                                                  G   Ensure a market exists, and if not,
3       ject was my responsibility. While the       money is invested rather than just
4                                                   expended. With all its benefits, taking        develop one – employ marketing
        methodology and lessons learned may                                                        specialists,
5       have contributed to the success of sub-     a business approach gives us the
6                                                   responsibility to ensure we are not        G   Respond to the legislative environ-
        sequent projects, I felt uneasy that as a
7                                                   merely delivering goods that waste             ment; if supportive – work with it,
        community of development profes-
8                                                   people’s money.                                if not work around and/or try to
        sionals, we were too easily satisfied.

9                                                      O’Neal presents a case for capital-         change it
30      The place of pilots                         intensive mass production of stoves in     G   Speak to people. Speak to people.
1                                                   factories, which contrasts interestingly       Speak to people.
2       Small projects and pilots are vital in
        developing effective, sustainable           with Brewis’ findings that small work-        This project involved pilot com-
3                                                   shops and a labour-intensive approach
4       household energy interventions. They                                                   posting projects, but the themes shared
        can help us determine whether inter-        give a good compromise between qual-       are striking.
5                                                   ity and price. Karve also describes suc-
6       ventions are safe, effective, appropri-
7       ate, demanded and saleable in ‘real         cess through supporting entrepreneurs.     Communication
        life’ conditions. We have a responsibil-       Provision of finance and health
8                                                                                              There is considerable scope for cross
        ity to ensure these in household energy     impacts as advocacy messages are
9                                                                                              learning between the energy, water,
        interventions so that we do not damage      described in Acharya’s description of
40111                                                                                          hygiene and sanitation sectors
        people’s health, waste their time and       Scaling up biogas in Nepal, and Cecel-
1                                                                                                 The value of communication within
2       money, and lose their trust. However,       ski explores the impact of women’s
                                                                                               the energy sector is highlighted in
3       without scaling up they only ever stand     status and the value of their labour.
                                                                                               Owala’s paper. Honest communication
4       to benefit a few people.                       The theme of partnership emerges
                                                                                               is key to upscaling: no one can learn
5           The Millennium Development              strongly:Brewis and Dutta stress the
                                                                                               anything useful from a failed pilot
6       Goals require us to take scaling up         importance of embracing the skills
                                                                                               described success, or from lessons
7       seriously and measure our successes         of different partners, whilst Palit des-
                                                                                               learned in a project which are never
8       in terms of reducing child mortality,       cribes complex institutional partner-
                                                    ships. Mazzoni describes public–           shared.
9       improving maternal health, aiding
                                                    private partnerships as a vehicle to          Boiling Point is an invaluable
50      access to education, reducing hunger
        and malnutrition and so on. What indi-      affordable electricity for the poor.       vehicle for sharing lessons learned,
        cators do we use to measure the suc-                                                   experiences and contributing to suc-
        cess of our interventions? Testing or       Scaling up elsewhere . . .                 cessful scaling up of household inter-
4       proving a technology in the field may                                                  ventions for the benefit of the poor.
                                                    The following outlines some of the
5       be very important, but are not enough.      recommendations for scaling up             Jonathan has both a technical and social
6       These goals challenge us to be braver       resulting from research recently           science background which he applies to a
7       in our objectives. Success should ulti-     undertaken at WEDC:                        range of activities. Since developing stoves
8       mately be measured by the (direct or                                                   with villagers in India in 2000, he has been
9       indirect) contribution made to sustain-     G   Form partnerships and get people       applying and teaching what he learned at
60      able, widespread self-expanding bene-           focusing on what they do best:         the Water, Engineering and Development
6111    fits to the quality of life of the poor.    G   NGOs for community mobilisation        Centre (WEDC) UK

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                         1
        Scaling up biogas in Nepal: what else is needed?
4       Jiwan Acharya1 (to whom correspondence should be sent), M. Sundar Bajgain2, Mr Prem Sagar Subedi3.
6       1. Research Officer, Winrock International Nepal, Baneswor, P. O. Box 1312, Kathmandu. Tel: 4467087;
7       Fax: +977–1–4476109; Email:
8       2. Executive Director, BSP-Nepal, Bakhundole, Lalitpur, Nepal, Tel. 5529840; Fax: +977–1–5524755;
9       Email:
10      3. Micro-finance Officer, Winrock International Nepal, Baneswor, P. O. Box 1312, Kathmandu. Tel: 4467087;
1       Fax: +977–1–4476109; Email:
3       Introduction                               Table 1    Biogas plants installed in Nepal since 1992
        Biogas is the mixture of gas produced      Phase                                                       Biogas plants installed
        by methane-based bacteria acting           First phase (1992–1994)                                     6824
        upon biodegradable materials in an         Second phase (1994–Feb. 1997)                               13 375
        environment that is lacking air. Biogas    Third phase (March 1997–June 2003)                          91 196
8                                                  TOTAL                                                       111 395
        is mainly composed of 60–70%
20111   methane, 30–40% carbon dioxide and         Source: BSP, 2004
1       some other gases. Biogas is colourless
        and burns with a clean blue flame sim-     2.7 million households owning cattle        G   A uniform technical design for all
        ilar to that of liquid petroleum gas       and buffalo (estimate 2001). The tech-          biogas plants
        (LPG) allowing for virtually smoke-        nical potential of biogas plants in         G   Thorough quality control and
        free combustion. Biogas can be used        Nepal is about 1.9 million: 57% in the          monitoring of production, installa-
        for cooking and lighting, refrigeration,   plains, 37% in hilly areas and 6% in            tion and after-sales services
        engine operation and electricity gener-    mountainous regions (BSP 2004).             G   Continuous R&D efforts to meet
        ation. To date, biogas is used mainly         Currently, the Biogas Support                the needs of end-users

        for cooking (80%) and lighting (20%)       Program has a target of increasing the      G   Outreach and awareness
        in Nepal.                                  number of quality biogas plants by an           programmes
            The technology has been available      additional 200 000 by 2009 in at least      G   Financial support for end-users
        in Nepal since the mid 1970s, but it       70 out of the 75 districts of Nepal.            through a government subsidy of
        was not until the early 1990s that the     BSP has given special attention to              US$70–US$150 (5000–11 000
        number of installations was substan-       developing appropriate biogas plant             Nepali Rupees per plant)
        tially scaled up by the Biogas Support     designs, especially for remote and          G   Stimulation of financial support
6       Program (BSP). This program was            high altitude areas.                            mechanisms such as micro-credit
7       established in 1992 by the Nepalese,                                                       facilities
8       Dutch and German governments.              Existing practice
                                                                                                  Biogas construction companies
9           The biogas plants being constructed    The challenge is to achieve 200 000         are responsible for marketing and
30      under BSP has following characteris-       new installations in just 6 years; more     installing biogas plants and providing
1       tics:                                      than the total biogas plants installed      maintenance and after-sales services
2                                                  since the 1970s to date, and ultimately     guarantees for at least three years
        G   Fixed dome – individual plant per
3                                                  to reach the total technical potential of
            household                                                                          following installation. BSP provides
4                                                  biogas in the country. It is thus impor-
        G   Sizes: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 cubic                                                operation and maintenance training to
5                                                  tant to understand the current practices
            metre                                                                              all households on day-to-day mainte-
6                                                  and modalities of the BSP.
        G   Feed materials: Cattle dung and                                                    nance and minor repairs. BSP’s policy
7                                                     Key elements of the sectoral
            water                                                                              of regular quality control and super-
8                                                  approach adopted by BSP include:
        G   Feasible up to 2100 metres                                                         vision of newly constructed plants, as
                                                                                               well as after sales service of plants,
40111   Current status                                                                         ensures the quality of plants and ser-
2       Table 1 shows the number of biogas                                                     vices.
3       plants installed in Nepal since 1992:                                                     According to BSP, around 97% of
4          Nepal is divided into three                                                         the total plants installed since 1992 are
5       east–west bands running the full width                                                 operational. About 80% of the total
6       of the country; by the end of the third                                                plants are of four cubic metre and six
7       phase, more than 111 000 plants were                                                   cubic metre sizes; a six cubic metre
8       installed – more on hills and Terai                                                    plant requires around 36 kg of cow
9       regions as shown in Figure 1.                                                          dung per day in hilly areas (mixed
50         Livestock plays an important role                                                   with an equal amount of water) to get
                                                   Figure 1 Geographical distribution of
1       in the Nepalese farming system, with       biogas production                           a stove burning for 3.5 hours. This
3       2                                                                                                   Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111    increases with altitute because of the     services. Table 2 shows the outreach         II. Health benefit aspects
2       retention time (average duration that      of MFIs in Nepal.                            Biogas can have significant health
3       dung remains in the digester). Around          Additionally, it is estimated that       benefits. According to the Integrated
4       60% of the biogas consumed is used         there are around 330 000 dairy farmer        Environmental Impact Analysis car-
5       for cooking.                               households (Winrock 2004) who are            ried out by BSP for 600 biogas users
6          Annually, each biogas plant can         potentially significant users of biogas.     (Figure 2) and 600 non-users, four per-
7       save more than four tonnes of fire-        Winrock estimates that more than             cent more non-biogas users have respi-
8       wood and 32 litres of kerosene. The        800 000 farmer households in Nepal           ratory diseases than those who own
9       annual time saving for firewood col-       are potential customers of micro-            biogas plants (3). Qualitative informa-
10      lection and cooking averages 1000          credit for the installation of biogas        tion from various household surveys
1       hours in each household with biogas        plants. It may not be technically or
                                                                                                carried out by BSP has revealed that
        plant. Each biogas plant produces          economically feasible for all dairy
3                                                                                               problems like respiratory illness, eye
        about five tonnes of organic, fertilizer   cooperative members to install biogas
4                                                                                               infection, asthma and lung problems
        annually, which can replace chemical       plants, but with a large proportion of
5                                                                                               have decreased after installing a bio-
        fertilizer. A recent study by Winrock      dairy cooperative member households
6                                                                                               gas plantn (Tables 3 & 4).
        Nepal and others found that each bio-      without biogas plants, there is a poten-
7                                                                                                   According to the Biogas Users’
        gas plant can mitigate about five          tially huge market.
8                                                                                               Survey conducted in 2000 with 100
        tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent            Winrock International Nepal, in
9                                                                                               households, biogas can have positive
        per year (1,5). The credits thus earned    collaboration with AEPC/BSP, is
20111                                                                                           impacts on the health of its users. Out
        could provide alternative financing        mobilising MFIs in order to achieve
1                                                                                               of 42 respondents who had respiratory
        for the sustainability of biogas pro-
2                                                  the set target of 200 000 additional         problems in the past, it was reported
        gram in Nepal. More information on
3                                                  installations by 2009, with plans for        that the problem has improved for 34
        biogas can be obtained from
4                                                  further scaling up beyond that date.         of them. Similarly, those who had
5                                                  Winrock International has developed          problems like asthma, eye infections
6       What else is needed?                       manuals and has already trained more         and lung problems found that their
7                                                  than 80 micro-finance institutions           problems had decreased after displac-
        The existing practice has focused on
8                                                  MFIs to finance biogas.                      ing dirtier fuels with biogas.
        environmental benefits, subsidy, qual-

        ity control, awareness creation etc. as
        the main drivings. There are other per-
1                                                  Table 2    Total membership of MFIs in Nepal (as of December 2003)
        tinent issues which need attention to
        scale up biogas in Nepal but this arti-    SN           Type of MFIs                             Number of        Number of
        cle focuses on two aspects: micro-                                                               institutions     members
        financing and health benefits.
5                                                  1            Development Banks                        9                253166
6                                                  2            Savings and Credit Cooperatives          1786             258195
        Micro-financing                            3            Financial Intermediary NGOs              30               18391
        The average plant costs about NRs.         Total                                                 1825             529752
9       25,000 (NRs.74~US$1), which is too         Source: Directory of MFIs, Center for Micro-finance
40111   costly for some potential users to pay
1       upfront in a country where 38% of the
2       Nepalese live with US$ 1 per day (11).
3       The government of Nepal currently
4       provides subsidy through the BSP and
5       the Alternative Energy Promotion
6       Centre (AEPC). This clearly indicates
7       that the poor, who do not have the
8       cash to pay for systems upfront, can-
9       not benefit from biogas and access
50      these government subsidies.
1          Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs)
2       could provide loans to those wishing
3       to purchase biogas plants who cannot
4       pay the upfront cost. MFIs are strate-
5       gically located in the rural areas and
6       have enabled easy access through their
7       simple procedures. The total member-
8       ship of MFIs in Nepal comprises more
9       than 500 000 rural customers (12% of
60      the total households in Nepal), receiv-
6111    ing financial as well as non-financial     Figure 2   Nepali woman cooking with biogasSource: BSP/Nepal

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                     3
1111    Table 3: Health benefits of biogas                                                       subsidies and information dissemina-
2                                                                                                tion, should be continued.
        Disease                 Problems in the past (HHs)* Present status of HHs
3                                                                                                   Since many of the accessible and
4                                Yes             No               Improved Remained same         more affluent, potential biogas areas
5                                                                                                are already supplied, it is anticipated
        Eye infection            72              18               69         3
6       Cases of burning         29              71               28         1                   that a much higher percentage of
7       Lung problem             38              62               33         5                   future plants will be sold to the poorer
8       Respiratory problems     42              58               34         8                   and more remote communities. Since
9       Asthma                   11              89                9         2                   His Majesty’s Government of Nepal
10      Dizziness/headache       27              93               16        11                   has a strategy to phase out the subsidy
1       Intestinal;/diarrhea     58              42               14        44
                                                                                                 gradually, an appropriate credit mech-
2       *HHs = households                                                                        anism for poor farmers is vital if BSP
3       Source: Biogas Users’ Survey 2000, BSP
                                                                                                 is to successfully meet its target of
4                                                                                                200 000 plants. In addition to increas-
5       Table 4    Health benefits of biogas (2)                                                 ing access to credit, the health benefits
6                                                                                                biogas offers should be communicated
7                                      Decrease               Increase           No disease
                                                                                                 to users, and to health and energy
8       Disease                        20                     –                  80              communities.
9       Cough                          53                     –                  47
20111   Headache                       33                     3                  67
        Nausea                          5                     –                  95              References
1       Chest pain                     15                     1                  85              1. Integrated Environment Impact Study
2       Lethargy                       11                     –                  89                 2002, BSP and Carbon Benefit Study of
3       Respiratory disease            41                     –                  59                 Winrock International Nepal and
4       Malaria                         8                     2                  92                 EcoSecurities
5       Typhoid                        10                     4                  90
                                                                                                 2. Integrated EIA Report, 2002 Biogas
        Total (%)                      22                     1                  77
                                                                                                    Support Program
        Source: Biogas Users’ Survey, 1999, BSP                                                  3. Annual Biogas Users’ Survey, 1999 and
                                                                                                    2000, Biogas Support Program

                                                                                                 4. Smith, K. et. al. ‘Greenhouse Gases from
            Unfortunately, these health benefits      and attract the attention of health pro-
                                                                                                    Small Scale Combustion Devices in
        are included under ‘other benefits’ in        grammes, motivating them to include           Developing Countries, India’ June 2000,
        the reports and the health community          biogas in their own programmes. The           Environmental Protection Agency
        seems not to have recognised the              health benefits of biogas should be        5. Winrock International Nepal 2004
        importance of such impacts.                   delivered by advocated by communi-            ‘Financing Renewable Energy Tech-
            During the preparation of the             ties and departments.                         nologies: A Guidebook for Micro-finance
        ‘Status Report for Nepal on Household                                                       Institutions in Nepal
6                                                     Conclusion and                             6. Winrock International Nepal, 2004
        Energy, Indoor Air Pollution and
7                                                                                                   ‘Annual Report 2003’, Kathmandu,
        Health Impacts’ conducted by Win-             recommendation
        rock International Nepal in 2003–
9                                                     Specific      and     target-oriented      7. Winrock International Nepal, 2004
        2004, no quantitative information                                                           ‘Status Report for Nepal on Household
30                                                    approaches like subsidy, quality
        available was found on the indoor air                                                       Energy, Indoor Air Pollution and Health
1                                                     control, private sector involvement
        quality impacts of biogas plants in                                                         Impacts’ Kathmandu, Nepal.
2                                                     etc. adopted by the Biogas Support
        Nepal. However, a comparative study                                                      8. Biogas Sector Partnership Nepal:
        carried out in India by Kirk Smith et al      Program have lead higher additional 
4                                                     targets of 200 000 being set. To date,
        in 2000 (4) shows that in terms of net                                                   9. Biogas Sector Partnership Annual Report
5                                                     environmental benefits have been the
        concentration of total suspended par-                                                       – 2003, 2004, Kathmandu, Nepal.
6                                                     driving factor of biogas promotion,        10.Directories of Micro-finance Institutions,
7       ticles (flue gas level concentration
        minus background concentration), bio-         while important health benefits are           Center for Micro-finance, Nepal
8                                                     underemphasized. Existing successful       11.National Planning Commission, 10th
9       gas has values comparable to those                                                          Five Year Development Plan, His
        of LPG, with the lowest values com-           approaches, including quality control,
40111                                                                                               Majesty’s Government of Nepal, 2002
1       pared to other common cooking fuels.
2       This has positive impacts on reducing         Table 5 Net total suspended parti-
        indoor air pollution level and the            cles’ concentrations in flue gas of
        corresponding health impacts (Table           some cooking fuels
5       5).                                           Fuel               Total suspended
6           Thus, it would benefit the BSP pro-                          particle (mg per
7       gramme (and/or other parties) to mea-                            m3)
8       sure indoor air pollution improve-            Biogas             0.25
9       ments following biogas installation,          LPG                0.32
50      and promote the health benefits. This         Kerosene           0.48
                                                      Crop residue       5.74
1       will both encourage biogas installation
3       4                                                                                                      Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Ten top tips for successful scaling up
4       Alan Brewis – EnterpriseWorks Worldwide Headquarters, 1828 L Street NW, Suite 1000,
5       Washington, DC 20036. USA
6       Tel: 202.293.4600. Fax: 202.293.4598
9       In November 2002 EnterpriseWorks            to shop in the afternoons or mornings?       possible, have the stove and its bene-
10      Ghana launched the ‘Gyapa’ improved         Do they read a newspaper and, if so,         fits featured in the script. This type of
1       charcoal stove—a variant of the             which one? Or do they get their news         product placement, especially when it
2       Kenya ceramic Jiko – with funding           from the local chat on the minibus they      involves well-known and well-liked
3       from USAID and the Shell Founda-            take to the market, or by socializing        actors, is very effective.
4       tion. By July 2004, over 36 000 stoves      after a religious gathering or maybe at
                                                                                                 G   Give the stove status and style:
5       had been sold. This equates to an           the clinic? Does someone else hold the
                                                                                                 Affordability is important but it isn’t
        annual savings of charcoal worth            purse strings? Is it their husband and, if
7                                                                                                the only factor that will lead to large
        $1 250 000 USD, a total of 3500             so, do they sit together in the evening
8                                                                                                sales volumes. Although the Gyapa
        hectares of forest preserved, and           watching TV? What do they watch and
9                                                                                                stove is aimed at households that can-
        around 28 000 tonnes of carbon diox-        when? With this sort of information,
20111                                                                                            not afford LPG or kerosene, it is still
        ide emissions averted. With sales now       much of which can be collected during
1                                                                                                sold as an up-market product with
        climbing beyond 3000 per month,             baseline surveys and verified during
2       Alan Brewis, Country Director for the       on-going project monitoring, an effec-       emphasis placed on the stove’s modern
3       EnterpriseWorks Ghana office, gives         tive marketing strategy can be               appearance both in advertising and the
4       us a few tips for successful scaling up.    designed.                                    design of the logo. It is important not
5                                                                                                to market the stove based on project
        G   Never tell your customer you are        G  Copy the private sector:
6                                                                                                goals alone; many Ghanaian cooks
7           from an NGO:                            Okay, we are not going to copy all of        have more pressing issues to worry
8       If the scale-up is going to be success-     their devious tricks, but many com-          about than deforestation up-country,

9       ful, then an independent, profitable        panies have been successfully selling
                                                                                                 though they will appreciate the mes-
30      supply chain must be built. Successful      products to your customers for a long
                                                                                                 sage of charcoal savings and reduced
1       projects generally work with existing       time. EnterpriseWorks projects build
                                                                                                 smoke. The Gyapa is marketed using
2       manufacturers and retailers; these are      strong brands for the products they are
                                                                                                 attributes such as being modern and
3       the project’s clients, and they will be     promoting; they develop brand names,
                                                    design logos (see Gyapa, above), and         stylish, easy to light, cooking quickly
4       supplying a new product to their cus-                                                    and saving money. As a starting point,
5       tomers (the project’s target group).        even compose memorable jingles that
                                                    will capture the attention of con-           many of the features that are important
6       The primary motive of the manufac-                                                       to the target group can be gleaned from
7       turers and retailers for scaling up will    sumers. In Ghana, entertaining compu-
                                                    ter animated stove images were devel-        careful design of the baseline ques-
8       be – and should be – profit. If the cus-
                                                    oped for TV adverts (you can view            tionnaire, and then modified later as
9       tomers realize that the stoves are being
                                                    them on the Ghana Household Energy           monitoring results are collected.
40111   promoted by a funded organization,
1       then sustainable scaling up becomes         page of;
                                                                                                 G  Balance demand creation with
2       much more difficult. Handouts or sub-       these were a great success. Many of
3       sidized pricing should be avoided           the kids in Accra and Kumasi will now
                                                                                                 There is little point in creating a
4       even in the early stages, since no cus-     spontaneously sing out the jingle when
                                                                                                 healthy demand for your smart new
5       tomer will want to pay the full pro-        they see Gyapa events in town. Social
                                                                                                 improved stove if they aren’t available
6       duction and distribution price if their     marketing will be essential: cooking
                                                    and eating competitions at local mar-        at the local market (cover picture).
7       neighbour was given a stove for less.
                                                    kets are great fun, and an effective         This sounds obvious, but when build-
        G  Know your customers and their            method of raising awareness and sell-        ing both supply and demand together
           habits:                                  ing stoves. The project should never         from zero, it can become quite a tricky
        When it comes to charcoal stoves, most      sell stoves directly at these events,        balancing act. Turn up the marketing
2       of the customers will be urban women        instead invite local retailers, help them    to stimulate demand but be prepared
3       with a family. There will be times dur-     to set up a stand and refer all sales to     to back off while the manufacturers
4       ing the day when the majority of such       them. It may be worth hiring the local       and retailers catch up. Both will be
5       women are listening to the radio; they      FM radio DJ to be the emcee at these         sceptical at first, but as demand picks
6       probably like to listen to certain local    events – they really bring in the            up and they notice your marketing
7       dramas, or they might have favourite        crowds. Use t-shirts, caps, pens,            efforts (you should be inviting them to
8       DJs or talk shows that they tune in to at   printed balloons etc. as advertising         local sales events and informing them
9       specific times of the day. Get to know      support. In Ghana, the sponsoring of         of advertising schedules), they will
60      their daily routine by asking some of       local evening TV dramas has also             become more willing to take on bigger
6111    the following questions: Do they tend       been a good value for the money. If          orders and consignments.

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                        5
4       Figure 1   Factory yard full of stoves ready for dispatch               Figure 2   Stoves need to be manufactured to a high quality
6       G  Pay attention to quality control:                 Ideally you could try supplying            sale or return supply and transport was
7       The early adopters that will buy the              retailers on a buy back basis: whatever       removed this dropped to only 62 retail-
8       new stoves in the first months are often          they don’t manage to sell, you buy            ers. Interestingly, total sales dropped by
9       a little more affluent than the typical           back from them. However, the retailer         only 31% and after 3 months it had
20111   customer that will eventually make up             has to pay up front for the stoves, so        returned to previous levels.
1       the bulk of total sales. These early              this rarely works in the early stages            If a good foundation of committed
2       adopters are sometimes local charac-              since they are uncertain that the stove       manufacturers linked to dynamic
3       ters and can be quite vocal; it is impor-         will sell. Providing initial stock on a       retailers has been laid, and a strong
4       tant that they have something positive            sale or return basis seems to be the          demand created, then sales – and,
5       to say about the new stove. In Ghana,             best compromise. With sale or return a        more importantly, benefits – will grow
        our target was to train 25 manufac-               small batch of stoves are delivered, if       without further subsidy.
        turers; in the end we trained – and re-           they sell them then they pay full
        trained – a total of 76. Of these, only 31                                                      G  Pay your sales agents on a com-
                                                          wholesale price, if they can’t sell them

        are reliably producing satisfactory               then they give the stoves back. Some             mission basis:
        quality stoves, and it is only these man-         chasing around for cash from sales            This is not a normal NGO approach
        ufacturers that we link to retailers              made by less reliable retailers is            but it is essential. Do not hire staff
        (Figure 2). The remaining ex-trainees             inevitable, but consider it as self selec-    with NGO experience for these posts;
        may make a few low quality stoves                 tion: any retailers that cause more than      choose sales staff from the commer-
        now and then for sale directly from               minor problems can be dropped early,          cial sector with extensive and success-
        their workshops, but these account for            and you can concentrate your efforts          ful commission-based sales experi-
6       less than 1% of total sales. Enterprise-                                                        ence. Give them targets and bonuses if
                                                          on the more reliable ones.
7       Works generally promotes and assists                                                            they reach them.
                                                             Supplying retailers with an initial
8       small-scale informal sector manufac-              stock for free is to be avoided at all        G  Beware of projects bearing (your
9       turers. Mass production through larger            costs—there will be no way to judge              stoves as) gifts
30      scale engineering firms has been tried            the reliability of the retailer, stoves       It is very tempting to boost sales by
1       in the past and while this does result in         will be sold far below cost price, and        supplying batches of stoves to not-for-
2       a high quality product, mechanized                the market for stoves in that area will       profit organizations; unfortunately
3       production requires a feed of consis-             be spoiled. It will also be necessary for     most of the stoves will then be distrib-
4       tently high quality and expensive new
                                                          the project to collect from manufac-          uted free or at a subsidized price. This
        raw material, which results in a more
6                                                         turers and deliver to retailers in the        short-term surge in sales does nothing
        costly stove. In most stove projects
7                                                         early stages, but as sales build, it will     to build the commercial supply chain
        EnterpriseWorks has found that well
8                                                         be possible to link good retailers with       that is essential for sustainability. In
        organized, small workshops with a pro-
9                                                         manufacturers, allowing them to sort          the long term, distributing stoves in
        duction line system using hand tools
40111                                                     out their own transport arrangements.         this way will weaken the supply chain
        and recycled materials, gives a good
1                                                            Retailers should be visited regularly      since it does not incorporate retailers,
        compromise between quality and price.
2                                                         and rewarded for high sales with              and does not build linkages between
        G  Treat your retailers well:                     t-shirts, caps and other promotional
3                                                                                                       them and manufacturers.
4       For the first few months retailers won’t          items. They are your link to customers,
5       be interested. Stoves are usually heavy           and you will need to cultivate a good         G  Use it!
6       and they take up a lot of valuable shop           relationship with them so that they will      Cook a variety of meals with the stove
7       space compared to nesting buckets,                assist during monitoring exercises.           at home and in the office from time to
8       basins and other kitchen equipment.               During the first year of the project in       time. You will then become more
9       Nevertheless, using established retail-           Ghana we were working with 261                familiar with its performance, and bet-
50      ers is an essential component of suc-             retailers in Accra and Kumasi; how-           ter able to interpret, and respond to,
1       cessful sustainable scaling up.                   ever, as project assistance in the form of    any feedback from users.
3       6                                                                                                              Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Rocket stoves for Sub-Saharan Africa
4       Peter Scott, 78590 Echo Hollow Lane, Cottage Grove, Or 97424, USA
5       Email:
7       Background                                       this is approximately 160 kg less
8                                                        wood to cook twice as much food.
9       Since Aug 2003, my partner, Jayme
                                                         Yes, it does seem counterintuitive that
10      Vineyard, and myself have been work-
                                                         the larger stove uses less wood. Write
1       ing with GTZ ProBEC (Program for
                                                         me if you would like more info on
2       Biomass Energy Conservation), EAP
                                                         how this works.
3       (Energy Advisory Project), World
4       Food Program and several small busi-             Less fuel and less smoke
5       nesses to introduce the Rocket Stove
6       principle to a number of countries in            These two stoves have cut the estate’s         Figure 2 Quantities of fuel used by open
7       Sub-Saharan Africa (Uganda, Lesotho,             fuel consumption by more than 90% as           fire and rocket stove to cook equal quantities
                                                         compared to the open fire. The stoves          of food (photo: Peter Scott)
8       Mozambique, Malawi, and Zambia).
9       Most of our work has focused on                  produce almost no visible smoke, and
20111   building institutional stoves (stoves for        yet they have no chimney – a fact that
1       boarding schools, tea estates, prisons           amazes people each day, all around the
2       etc. . . .) but we have also built bread         world (Figure 1). Devoted readers of
3       ovens, household stoves and kilns.               Boiling Point know that Dr Larry
4       In March, one of our project partners            Winiarski and Aprovecho Research
5       in Malawi (Eastern Produce Tea                   Center developed the Rocket Stove – a
6       Estates) asked us to help them design            unique system for cleanly burning bio-
7       a new stove that would be more fuel-             mass (see Boiling Point 47 page 36) in
8       efficient then their existing open fire.         the early 1980s – but it wasn’t until the

9       The estate cooks for 40 000 people per           last few years that the Rocket Stove
30      day so their choice of stove has far             has gained widespread recognition and
1       reaching impacts on the health of the            acceptance.
2       workers and the forests. The tea                    One of the keys to producing a
3       estate’s open fires use 170 kg of wood           smokeless Rocket stove is to find
4       to cook Nsima (corn porridge) for 55             inexpensive, local, and durable mate-
5       people. Using Rocket stove principles;           rials for the combustion chamber. In
6       we built a new 100 litre cook stove              Malawi, we have been blessed to work
7       that uses only 13 kg of wood to cook             with Dedza Pottery. They have helped
8       the same amount of food.                         us produce an insulative refractory            Figure 3 200 litre stove for cooking Nsima
9                                                                                                       (photo: Peter Scott )
           We also built them a 200-litre stove          brick that is light (0.67 g/cc) and
40111   that uses 9.5 kg–13 kg of wood to                durable (Figure 4). In other countries
1       cook enough Nsima for 220 people;                we have also used pumice blocks,
2                                                                                                       Figure 4 Combustion chamber in rocket
3                                                                                                       stove being made (photo: Peter Scott)
                                                                                                        vermiculite and non-insulative cera-
6                                                                                                       mic surrounded with insulation.
7                                                                                                          If you would like more info about
8                                                                                                       any of these stoves, please contact me
9                                                                                                       at or http://
60      Figure 1 Open fire using 170 kg and rocket stove using 13 kg of wood to cook equal quanti-
6111    ties of food – note the absence of visible smoke with the rocket stove. (photos: Peter Scott)   ources/stoves/Scott/subsahara.htm

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                                     7
        Designing stoves for mass production
4       Don O’Neal, HELPS International, 15301 Dallas Parkway, Suite 200, Addison TX 75001 US.
5       Email : Tel: 972–784–8259
        Introduction                                profit, and the product must be suffi-      care, and education. But, poverty
        It has been estimated that there is a       ciently valued that the consumer            reduction takes time.
10      current need for over 600 000 residen-      would rather have the product’s bene-          HELPS has been working in
1       tial cooking stoves in Guatemala alone      fits than the money he/she must pay.        poverty reduction in Guatemala for
2       and that the need will double in the            Commercialization, when achieved,       more than twenty years and is focus-
3       next 25 years. If Guatemala is indica-      is good for everyone. Unfortunately, in     ing on the following:
4       tive of other developing countries, the     rural Guatemala, 90% of the popula-
                                                    tion lives in poverty, and 75% live in      G   Curative and preventative health
5       world’s need for stoves is enormous
                                                    extreme poverty. No matter how good         G   Education
6       and becoming more acute. How do we
                                                    the solution is, or how low the price, in   G   Economic development
7       focus our money, time, and energy to
                                                    rural Guatemala and much of the             G   Community development
8       derive the maximum benefit and
                                                    world, they cannot afford it.               G   Infrastructure construction
9       ensure the people most in need are not
        left out? Mass-production, commer-                                                      G   Cooking stoves (Figure 2)
1       cialization, sustainability, and subsi-     Poverty reduction
                                                                                                All of these items must be addressed
2       dies are tools and goals but different      If our goal is only to have a commer-       simultaneously.
3       people have different ideas on their        cial operation supplying the somewhat
4       use. The HELPS stove project in             affluent, that can be done today. If we     Partnerships
5       Guatemala (Figure 1) has uses the           are to solve the problems confronting       Partial subsidies, usually thought of as
        principles described in this article.       the poor, then our programmes must          being negative, have a positive role
                                                    include poverty reduction components        when attempting to solve the problems
        Background                                  that will ‘lead’ to commercialization       of the poor. Partial subsidies should be

                                                    with time. If we rush to commercial-        used as a bridge between the poverty
        Commercialization                           ization without first reducing poverty,     condition and a self-sustaining,
        In this paper, commercialization is a       the poor will still be without solutions.   healthy economic condition. Once the
        steady state in which the needs of the      Poverty reduction programmes are            bridge is crossed, the need for them
        manufacturer, the distributor, and the      needed which address health, educa-
                                                                                                will no longer be needed, but without
        consumers are all met simultaneously;       tion, and economic development.
                                                                                                the bridge, there is no way across. In
        there has to be sufficient difference       Such programmes will increase the
6                                                                                               addition to the compelling humanitar-
        between the manufacturing cost and          purchasing power of those now poor
7                                                                                               ian motivation, major funding groups
        the price the consumer is willing to        to a level that they can, in the future,
8                                                                                               understand that all of us who live in
        pay. Both the manufacturer and the          pay for a commercial stove as well as
9       distributor must make a reasonable                                                      the more affluent countries derive a
                                                    paying for better housing, food, health
30                                                                                              benefit when the developing countries
1                                                                                               are stable. If we derive a benefit, then
2                                                                                               we should be a partnerpartners in pro-
3                                                                                               viding the bridge. It would be more
4                                                                                               constructive if we thought of this as
5                                                                                               partnerships rather than as subsidies.
7                                                                                               Designing stoves for mass
8                                                                                               production
                                                                                                Mass production is a manufacturing
1                                                                                               technique. It does not imply a complex
2                                                                                               factory or even a building. This tech-
3                                                                                               nique implies only that a group of
4                                                                                               identical products are manufactured.
5                                                                                               This can be a run of 100, or 1000, or
6                                                                                               more.
7                                                                                                  Mass production is independent of
8                                                                                               commercialization. A product can be
9                                                                                               mass-produced for use in a subsidized
50                                                                                              project or for a commercial project. In
1       Figure 1   Woman cooking on a HELPS stove                                               the case of the HELPS stove project,
3       8                                                                                                    Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111                                                                                                        he/she paid more than necessary
2                                                                                                           for the stove or that someone else
3                                                                                                           received better treatment. A
4                                                                                                           consistent product is the only way
5                                                                                                           an organization can have a
6                                                                                                           standard price.
7                                                                                                       G   Maintainability – Through consis-
8                                                                                                           tency comes maintainability of a
9                                                                                                           broad base of stoves. Businesses
10                                                                                                          dealing in large quantities must
1                                                                                                           have a stockpile of standard
2                                                                                                           replacement parts and trained local
3                                                                                                           repairmen.
4                                                                                                       G   Quality control – Quality of manu-
5                                                                                                           facture can be controlled in the
6                                                                                                           factory. An artisan stove, built on
7                                                                                                           site, requires that a person return
8                                                                                                           to each house for quality
9                                                                                                           inspection. If the artisans
20111                                                                                                       themselves check the stoves this is
1                                                                                                           unsatisfactory, as they will be
                                                                                                            judging themselves. A good indus-
                                                                                                            trial requirement is that a separate
                                                                                                            person is responsible for quality
5       Figure 2   Impact of stove installation on kitchen
                                                                                                            control and he / she reports to a
                                                                                                            more senior person than the people
7       stoves are sold to other NGOs for use                   The benefits of mass-produced               making the stoves.
8       in their community development pro-                  stoves are:                                G   Transportability – A mass

9       jects. Some of these NGOs elect to
                                                             G   Consistency – Each stove is manu-          produced stove can be designed so
30      part-subsidize their installations; oth-
1                                                                factured identically – thus, if            that it can be moved when the
        ers use micro-credit, while others sell                                                             family moves or builds a new
2                                                                maintained, its performance should
        at full price up front. All NGOs and                                                                room on the house.
3                                                                be consistent. This allows the
        end users receive in-depth training and                                                         G   Fast assembly and fire-up –
4                                                                manufacturer to know if it is
        follow-up inspection.                                                                               Assembly and fire-up of a mass
5                                                                working properly by making a
6                                                                quick test – the temperature rise of       produced stove can usually occur
        Stove design
7                                                                a standard amount of water which           within an hour. The stove is then
        Since one of the major poverty reduc-                    should match the results from a            ready to use. The alternative,
        tion functions of the cooking stove is                   laboratory stove – otherwise some-         building on site, impacts the fam-
        to provide improved health and safety,                   thing is wrong.                            ily because the stove needs to cure
        the selection of the stove design must                   Consistency is good from a com-            for several days. By then, training
        be tailored to provide those benefits. If                munity standpoint. No one feels            may be forgotten and the builder is
3       the stove solution is tailored only to
4       what people can now afford, the max-
5       imum health benefit will not be
6       derived and one of the major poverty
7       reduction factors will be missed.
8          There is not one stove that meets
9       everyone’s needs and it not practical
50      for one supplier to supply all the vari-
1       ous specialty stoves required.
2       However, the vast majority of house-
3       hold stoves share common require-
4       ments. Any solution that can make a
5       significant impact on a problem with
6       the magnitude of the world’s stove
7       needs must be mass-produced. The
8       provision for mass production must be
9       designed into the product and into its
60      distribution, marketing, installation
6111    and maintenance.                                     Figure 3   HELPS Rio Brovo stove factory

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                              9
1111        not there for the initial fire-up.            These include:                             tory testing are to determine if the
2           Alternatively, it requires the                                                           design meets the objectives, and to
3           builder to go back to retrain and             Research                                   establish performance specifications
4           fire-up.                                      The objectives of research (within the     that can be used to ensure consistency
5       G   Training – Training materials and             scope of the design process) are to        in performance characteristics that
6           courses can be specific to the                generate principles that could apply to    have been designed into the product.
7           stove installed. Pictures in the              many designs within the bounds of the
8           training material can be identical            project goals. An example of this is Dr    Field testing
9           to the stove the family receive.              Larry Winiarski’s stove guiding prin-      This is the first real customer-based
10          Training local trainers is easier             ciples (see Boiling Point 47, page 36).    test of the design. Without exception,
1           with a consistent product.                                                               there will be things that the users will
2       G   Volume – Greater numbers of                   Conceptual design                          find that could be done better or new
3           stoves can be produced in any                 During the ‘concept phase’, the            features that could be incorporated
4           given time. For example,                                                                 with minimum cost that would result
                                                          designer is aiming to solve a problem
5           Guatemala is expected to double                                                          in a better product. However, it is
                                                          or group of problems. Obtaining
6           its population within twenty years.                                                      counter productive to omit the prior
                                                          advice from potential users is
7           To provide the required volume of                                                        phases thinking that the users will find
                                                          absolutely necessary at this stage
8           stoves will require a mass-                   (Figure 5). However, even at this early    all the problems so why bother with
9           produced, consistent stove that is            phase, one must think about how the        the laboratory testing. If the user finds
20111       quickly and efficiently distributed.          product is to be mass-produced, mar-       many problems, his/her confidence in
1       G   Cost reduction – A mass-produced              keted, and distributed. The output of      the product can be destroyed and the
            product can be supplied at the                this phase generally consists of a         project marginalized before it is
            lowest possible cost for a given              design on paper and specifications that    started.
            design.                                       are to be used to guide the project. It
5                                                                                                    Design review
        G   Distribution – A stove designed for           outlines the customer needs as well as
            mass-production allows for                    mass marketing, training and distribu-     Following a solid field test, there will
            efficient distribution through nor-           tion strategies.                           be a need for a design review and for
            mal distribution channels (Figure

                                                                                                     changes to be made in order to incor-
            4).                                           Prototyping and laboratory                 porate what has been learned during
                                                          testing                                    the field test.
        Project phases                                    Once the project concept is well
        There are several specific phases relat-          defined, prototypes are constructed        Pilot production
        ing to designing for mass production.             and are typically tested in a laboratory   At this phase, a factory will be built
        Each phase has a specific objective.              environment. The goals of the labora-      and the tools necessary for limited
6                                                                                                    production will be constructed. Since
7                                                                                                    this requires considerable expense, it
8                                                                                                    is extremely important the all the
9                                                                                                    above steps have been taken and that
30                                                                                                   the product and its marketing and dis-
1                                                                                                    tribution techniques have been estab-
                                                                                                     lished prior to starting the pilot pro-
                                                                                                     duction phase.
5                                                                                                    Hard production
7                                                                                                    This is the scaling up phase. The tools
8                                                                                                    produced for the limited quantity of a
9                                                                                                    pilot project must be re-thought for
40111                                                                                                higher production quantities since dif-
1                                                                                                    ferent types of manufacturing tech-
2                                                                                                    nique may be more economical. For
3                                                                                                    example, sheet metal parts that have
4                                                                                                    been previously cut by hand might be
5                                                                                                    produced more economically in a
6                                                                                                    stamping press even when the cost of
7                                                                                                    a stamping die is included. It cannot
8                                                                                                    be over emphasized that all parts of
9                                                                                                    the project must be scaled-up at the
50                                                                                                   same time. It does not do any good to
1       Figure 4   Trained stove promoters with their certificates                                   scale-up production if distribution or
3       10                                                                                                        Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111                                                                                                 sufficient customers to justify the
2                                                                                                    scaling up to production quantities.
3                                                                                                    Therefore, it is necessary to make an
4                                                                                                    educated estimate of costs for the
5                                                                                                    quantities projected. Typically this is
6                                                                                                    done using a ‘manufacturing learning
7                                                                                                    curve’.
8                                                                                                       Experience gained from doing
9                                                                                                    repetitive tasks increases efficiency in
10                                                                                                   proportion to the number of repeti-
1                                                                                                    tions. This technique has been in use
2                                                                                                    since the mid 1930s and has been used
3                                                                                                    extensively by NASA. For those with
4                                                                                                    access to the web, a ‘Google’ search
5                                                                                                    on “Manufacturing Learning Curve”
6                                                                                                    will produce several articles on this
7                                                                                                    technique.
8                                                                                                       Each product or manufacturing
9                                                                                                    type will have its own learning curve.
                                                                                                     Experience during the pilot phase can
                                                                                                     be used to determine base (initial) cost
                                                                                                     and to estimate the percentage reduc-
                                                                                                     tion for each doubling of production
5                                                                                                    quantities. Typically, each time the
6       Figure 5   Discussing needs with potential stove users                                       production volume doubles, the cost
7                                                                                                    will be 80–95% of the cost before the
8       marketing lags behind. Spare part                  After handing over primary respon-        doubling. It should be pointed out that

9       depots and maintenance strategies               sibility for a product, the design engi-     this holds only if the production
30      must be in place to accommodate the             neer will typically be designing the         process is continuous. Starting and
1       increased production.                           next model. This new model must not          stopping of production will interrupt
2                                                       be introduced before it is ready to be       the learning process.
        Engineering for mass                            delivered or the customers will wait
4       production                                      for the new model thus destroying the        Conclusions
5       Engineering roles and                           market for the current product.              The need for cooking stoves in
6       responsibilities                                                                             Guatemala is large and is growing
7                                                       Quality
        In the design of the overall project, it                                                     faster than stoves are being distrib-
8                                                       In any organization engaged in mass
        is important to understand the differ-                                                       uted. If we are to solve the problems
9                                                       production, someone must be respon-
        ing roles of the production engineer                                                         associated with IAP, this trend must be
40111                                                   sible for maintaining quality. This
        and the design engineer, although in a                                                       reversed. The majority of these stove
1                                                       individual is responsible for the qual-
        small project, one person may have                                                           needs can be met by a few stove
2                                                       ity of the product shipped as well as
3       both of the duties..It is the responsibil-                                                   designs that can be mass-produced
        ity of the design engineer to design the        the quality of incoming purchased            and mass production is our only hope
4                                                       parts.
5       ‘product’ while it is the responsibility                                                     to produce stoves in sufficient quan-
        of the production engineer to design               To prevent the pressures of delivery      tity, quality, and at the lowest possible
6                                                       schedules from compromising quality,
7       the ‘process’ used in producing the                                                          cost for a given design.
        product. Each must be aware of, and             quality control should not be the
        understand, the other’s needs.                  responsibility of the production engi-       Don O’Neal is a retired corporate
           Handover of project control usually          neer or anyone in his/her organization       executive with 30+ years in engineering
50                                                                                                   management. His last post in industry was
        occurs during the pilot production              and should report at a higher level in
1                                                                                                    as Senior Vice President of Engineering for
2       phase. Before handover, the design              the organization than the manufactur-
                                                                                                     a public corporation. Previous assignments
3       engineer has primary responsibility             ing function.
                                                                                                     in industry have been as Vice President of
4       and consults with the production engi-                                                       Manufacturing and Vice President of
        neer about production issues. After             Cost considerations
5                                                                                                    Marketing. Don now serves as the project
6       handover, prime responsibility is with          The ability to determine manufactur-         manager of the HELPS stove project and is
7       the production engineer, though even            ing costs and to estimate future costs       on the boards of both HELPS International
8       after handover, any changes that affect         is vital to the success of the project. If   and ETHOS.
9       form, fit, or function should be signed         one were to set the selling price based      HELPS International is a non-profit corpo-
60      off and documented by the design                on the cost of producing in limited          ration that has been working in poverty
6111    engineer.                                       quantity, it would be difficult to find      reduction in Guatemala for over 20 years.

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                             11
        The Ecostove – getting rid of nearly 90% of kitchen
3       wood smoke
        Dana Charron, Director, Household Energy and Health, Center for Entrepreneurship in International Health and
        Development, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, US.
        Tel: 510–643–6432; 510–547–4036 (direct); 510–643–8236 (fax) Email:
1       Introduction                                 Health and Development (CEIHD),
2                                                    arrived in Nicaragua with an oversized
        In the developing world, exposure to
3                                                    suitcase full of sampling equipment to
        Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) is the sec-
4                                                    help find this proof. Initially
        ond most dangerous environmental
5                                                    PROLEÑA envisaged having a med-
        health risk after dirty water and is esti-
6                                                    ical team visit homes with and without
        mated to kill 1.6 million people each
7                                                    Ecostoves to collect health informa-
        year, most of them children under five.
8                                                    tion and symptoms like coughing and
        Increasingly, international donors
9                                                    wheezing and children’s health data,
        want to know that the technologies
20111                                                but making the links between health
        they support are combating this deadly
1                                                    benefits and installing a specific stove
        ‘kitchen killer’.                                                                       Figure 2 Ecostove with completely enclosed
2                                                    requires hundreds of families and
           During the 1990s, Rogerio de                                                         cooking surface (photo: Rogerio de Miranda)
3                                                    many weeks worth of data and is
        Miranda, as the director of the NGO
4                                                    hugely expensive.
        PROLEÑA, had witnessed the stifling
        conditions within households cooking         Linking reductions in IAP with
        on traditional wood fires (Figure 1).        health impacts
        PROLEÑA personnnel were con-
        vinced that the Ecostove (see Boiling        Instead, the team chose to assess the

        Point 47 – page 3) made families             health benefits by measuring expo-
        healthier; their homes looked, smelled,      sures to IAP in households with and
        and felt cleaner. PROLEÑA had been           without Ecostoves and assessing how
        manufacturing, distributing, and sell-       the reduction in IAP would affect their
        ing the energy-efficient Ecostove (an        health . (The combined results of sev-
        offspring of Aprovecho’s Rocket              eral studies support the use of IAP
        Stove with a chimney), in Nicaragua          exposure as an indicator of health
6                                                                                               Figure 3 Ecostove with partially open cook-
        and Honduras for several years.              risk.) The PROLEÑA study could link        ing surface – pothole under pot (photo:
7                                                    reduced exposure to smoke with             Rogerio de Miranda)
8       PROLEÑA needed proof to show pol-
        icymakers and funders in order to            reductions in illnesses affecting both
        secure the grants and loans needed to        children and adults. However, since        pothole providing direct contact
        expand its woodstove enterprise.             the relationship between the amount        between the fire and the pots. Both
                                                     of wood smoke and the levels of ill-       stoves had metal tube chimneys open
        Evaluating the Ecostove                      health is not well documented, the         above the roof. The team decided to
                                                     study would not be able to calculate       measure very small particles (PM2.5)
4       In January 2002, John McCracken, a           how much of each disease had been          in the wood smoke, as these have most
5       technical advisor from the Center for        avoided.                                   consistently been associated with neg-
6       Entrepreneurship in International                                                       ative health effects involving the lungs
7                                                    Design methodology
                                                                                                and heart.
9                                                    CEIHD designed a study that com-
                                                     pared the performance of two different     Implementation
1                                                    Ecostove designs – ‘closed’ (Figure 2)     This project had a very limited budget
2                                                    and ‘semi-open’ (Figure 3) – in reduc-     – around USD $12,000 – so sampling
3                                                    ing indoor concentrations and per-         equipment was borrowed from the
4                                                    sonal exposures to IAP. PROLEÑA            University of California, Berkeley,
5                                                    believed that the ‘semi-open’ model        laboratory analysis facilities were
6                                                    would increase energy efficiency and       donated by Harvard University, while
7                                                    affordability, but might increase IAP.     CEIHD and PROLEÑA provided a lot
8                                                    The ‘closed’ model has a completely        of staff time at no cost. The study was
9                                                    sealed steel griddle, while the slightly   funded by the Energy Sector
        Figure 1 Typical house without vented
50      woodstove in Nicaragua (photo: Rogerio de
                                                     less expensive ‘semi-open’ model,          Management Assistance Program of
1       Miranda)                                     offered a smaller griddle and one open     the World Bank.
3       12                                                                                                    Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111       The stove comparison study took
2       place in a village of 1000 homes
3       approximately 15 Km from Managua.
4       The residents relied exclusively on
5       wood burned in open fires for cook-
6       ing. We were fortunate to recruit a
7       Nicaraguan environmental scientist
8       with a masters degree and a Guate-
9       malan fieldwork supervisor with IAP-
10      monitoring experience to conduct the
1       monitoring with assistance from two
2       residents of the study village. The
3       study team recruited families whose
4       kitchens had walls on all four sides so
5       they would be able to detect the influ-
6       ence of stove type where emissions
                                                       Figure 5   Reductions in indoor air pollution and exposure
7       would be more concentrated and
8       where the houses were all of similar
9       design.                                           One month after installation, the
                                                                                                        Table 1 Per cent reductions in
20111      Thirty pairs of houses were                 study team repeated the same air pol-            personal exposures and kitchen
1       ‘matched’ according to street block            lution measurements. Data collection             levels of PM2.5
2       and kitchen type. In each home, the            included observations and questions
3       cooks were asked to wear particle              on time / activity patterns and housing          Model         Mean %reductions
4                                                                                                                     (95% CI)
        monitors for 24 hours of monitoring            characteristics. This helped control
5       (Figure 4). The same devices were              any effect these variables had on IAP                          Personal        Kitchen
6       hung on kitchen walls at a height of           exposures, so that any reduction in                            exposure        levels
7       1.5 meters and 1 meter from the stove          pollution level could be attributed to
                                                                                                        Closed    87 (76, 90)         94 (83, 97)
8       to obtain 24-hour average particulate          each stove type.                                 Semi-open 82 (66, 90)         87 (67, 94)

9       concentrations.
30         After the first round of measure-           Analysis and results
1       ments, in each pair of households,                                                              across Latin America. It is hoped that
                                                       Results showed that the two groups
2       PROLEÑA staff installed the closed                                                              further studies will determine whether
                                                       were very similar for the household
3       stove in one household, while the                                                               these improvements continue after the
                                                       variables and time-activity data col-
4       other received the semi-open model.                                                             stove has been installed for a longer
                                                       lected. Differences between them once
5       In addition, each family received a set                                                         period of time.
                                                       the stoves were installed were unlikely
6       of three new pots, since the Ecostove          to have been caused by differences in
7       for optimum performance requires flat                                                           Dana Charron (MBA) is the director of the
                                                       kitchen volume, duration of stove use,           Household Energy and Health program at
8       bottom pots. The cooks participated in         or other sources of smoke (such as               The Center for Entrepreneurship in
9       PROLEÑA’s standard training session            cigarettes).                                     International Health and Development
40111   on recommended ways for using and                 The study showed that both                    (CEIHD).
1       maintaining the stoves. The study              Ecostove models achieved large
2       team did not require the families to                                                            John McCracken is a doctoral candidate in
                                                       reductions in indoor air pollution and
3       use only the improved stove, as they                                                            environmental health at Harvard University
                                                       exposure among the cooks in the study
        wanted to imitate real-life conditions                                                          and a CEIHD associate.
5                                                      (Figure 5 & Table 1). The closed
        and determine how many people                                                         
6                                                      Ecostove model reduced kitchen PM2.5
        would use the Ecostoves in reality.            levels significantly more than the
7                                                                                                       Rogério C. de Miranda is the former direc-
8                                                      semi-open model (p-value = 0.028),               tor of PROLEÑA/Nicaragua and is now
9                                                      though there was not a significant               director of ECOFOGAO
                                                       difference in personal exposures. The            (, a private Ecostove
                                                       data showed that very little time was            manufacturer in Brazil.
2                                                      spent at the fire after the stove was
3                                                      received. Given the magnitude of the             CEIHD offers monitoring and evaluation
4                                                      exposure reductions, CEIHD con-                  services and equipment for household
5                                                      cluded that both Ecostove models                 energy interventions worldwide
6                                                      would offer strong health benefits to
7                                                      Nicaraguan families.
8                                                         The study proved to be a success,
9                                                      and PROLEÑA has since used the
        Figure 4 Personal exposure monitoring
60      setup with filter unit in breathing zone and   results to promote the Ecostove to
6111    monitor pump inside backpack                   policymakers and funding agencies

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                                13
        Programmes promoting improved household stoves
3       in China
        China Improved Stove Program Review Team with participants from the University of California, Berkeley and San
        Francisco; Tsinghua University; Renmin University; and the Chinese Centers for Disease Control.
8       For information, contact Prof. Zhang Xiliang, Tsinghua Unversity ( or Professor Kirk
9       R. Smith, Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco and School of Public Health, University of
10      California, Berkeley.(
3       Introduction                                     towards integrated household welfare     2. to evaluate the commercial stove
4                                                        programmes. Other agencies also have        production and marketing organiz-
        In rural China, crop wastes and wood             improved-stove programmes, includ-          ations that were created during the
        are the main household fuels. The use            ing the Ministry of Health (MOH) and        same period; and
        of these fuels burdens rural residents           the State Development Planning           3. to measure the household impacts
8       and ecosystems in many ways. This is             Commission.                                 of the programmes.
9       one of the reasons why China has                    A qualitative review of NISP
        undertaken programmes to improve                                                             To address the first two objectives,
20111                                                    implementation done in the early
        the welfare of rural residents, includ-                                                   the team implemented a facility survey
1                                                        1990s showed that the programme has
        ing several aimed at household stoves.                                                    of 108 government agencies and
2                                                        succeeded in putting stoves in the
                                                                                                  enterprises at different levels. To
3       In the early 1980s, the Chinese gov-             home (Smith, et al. 1993). However,
                                                                                                  address the third objective, a house-
4       ernment organized the world’s largest            the impact on air quality and health
                                                         were not assessed. Now, nearly a quar-   hold survey of 3476 households was
5       publicly financed initiative to improve
                                                         ter century after the programme’s        undertaken that included measures of:
        stoves – the National Improved Stove
        Program (NISP). It aimed to provide              inception, the question remains, ‘What   G   health
        rural households with more-efficient             have been the benefit of NISP?’          G   stove performance

        biomass stoves (Figure 1) and, later,               This independent multidisciplinary    G   socioeconomic factors
        improved coal stoves, for cooking and            review, funded by the Household          G    indoor air quality – in a sub-
        heating. The Ministry of Agriculture             Energy and Health Programme of the           sample of the households
        (MOA) ran the NISP, supporting 860               Shell Foundation, and carried out by a
                                                         multidisciplinary team from the Uni-        Three provinces were chosen to
        of the country’s approximately 2,100                                                      represent, respectively, high, medium,
        counties.                                        versity of California and several
                                                         Chinese institutions, had three major    and low adoption rates of improved
           The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)
6                                                        objectives:                              stoves and improved fuels. They also
        claimed that, in 1998, 185 million of
7                                                                                                 represent a significant range of income
        China’s 236 million rural households             1. to evaluate the implementation
8                                                                                                 and climate conditions.
        had improved biomass or coal stoves.                methods used to promote improved
9       In recent years, the MOA has turned                 stoves;
30                                                                                                Summary of major results
1                                                                                                 Stoves and fuels
                                                                                                  G China implemented broadly
                                                                                                    successful programmes that
                                                                                                    delivered better stoves to majority
                                                                                                    of households in targeted counties.
                                                                                                    That success was based on strong
8                                                                                                   administrative, technical, and out-
9                                                                                                   reach competence, and resources
40111                                                                                               situated at the local level, moti-
1                                                                                                   vated by sustained national-level
2                                                                                                   attention.
3                                                                                                 G Based on the household survey, it

4                                                                                                   appears that claims for penetration
5                                                                                                   of improved stoves were
6                                                                                                   somewhat overstated, partly due to
7                                                                                                   unclear definitions for improved
8                                                                                                   stoves. On this limited survey, it
9                                                                                                   would seem reasonable to adjust
50                                                                                                  official figures downward by
1       Figure 1   Improved stoves for biomass – chimney built into wall (photo: Kirk Smith)        around 20%.
3       14                                                                                                      Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111 G Although most biomass stoves                 higher than the national standard           oxide in people’s breath, and
2        now in use have flues, grates, and         for indoor air (150 g PM10/m3)              improved biomass stoves with
3        other ‘improved’ aspects, most             – sometimes more than twice as              lower levels of breath carbon
4        coal stoves lack flues and cannot          high.                                       monoxide, once the analysis was
5        be considered improved from the        G   Even in summer, many households             adjusted for age, sex, smoking
6        standpoint of indoor air quality           using coal experienced levels of            status, income, and education.
7        and health.                                carbon monoxide several times the       G   Household-reported childhood
8     G Field tests indicate improved               national indoor air quality standard        asthma and adult respiratory
9        stoves built some years ago are            of 10 mg/m3 (equivalent to 9                disease increased with coal use
10       probably not now reaching the              ppm), and in winter the situation           and, in general, went down with
1        20% to 30% efficiency levels tar-          was worse, particularly for house-          use of improved stoves and good
2        geted by government programmes,            holds also using biomass.                   stove maintenance.
3        but they are on average somewhat       G   If these results are typical of rural
4        more efficient than existing tradi-        households using solid fuels, then      Major recommendations
5        tional stoves.                             a large fraction of China’s rural       Based on measurements in three
6     G Efficiency of hand-built improved           population is currently chronically     provinces and two seasons, indoor air
7        stoves may deteriorate over time           exposed to levels of pollution sig-     pollution levels in rural households
8        due to materials, construction tech-       nificantly higher than those deter-     are substantially above the new
9        niques, and maintenance practices.         mined by the Chinese government         Chinese indoor air quality standards
20111    Commercial, mass-produced                  to harm human health.                   set to protect health. Because of the
1        stoves that retain improved            G   Because many households use             dozens of combinations of stoves and
2                                                   multiple fuels (Figure 3) in multi-     fuels, a larger study would be needed
         efficiency and emissions character-
3                                                   ple stoves for both cooking and         to determine which combinations
         istics over time have begun to
4                                                   space heating, improved biomass         work best. In general, improved bio-
         appear in many rural areas.
5                                                   stoves alone may not result in          mass stoves with flues produce sub-
      G In most areas, where stoves in the
6                                                                                           stantially lower indoor pollution lev-
         marketplace would once have been           reduced indoor air pollution in all
7                                                                                           els, but still do not meet standards.
         called ‘improved’ they are now             seasons. Improved stoves in the
8                                                                                           The widespread use of coal stoves
         accepted as the normal                     surveyed households, however, did

9                                                                                           without flues is associated with high
         conventional stove – people now            result in reduced concentrations
30                                                                                          levels in many households.
         expect ‘improved’ stoves and do            indoors of the very small and most
1                                                                                              Although NISP did not have indoor
         not regard them as special.                dangerous smoke particles for bio-
2                                                                                           air quality improvement as a major
      G A wide variety of stoves and fuels          mass fuel combinations.
         are used in rural areas (Figure 2);    G   Since many households change            objective, the health impacts of indoor
         in winter in the three provinces           fuels daily and seasonally, health      air pollution should be central in
         surveyed, 28 different fuel combi-         implications from fuel use are diffi-   future efforts. It would therefore be
         nations were used in the kitchens,         cult to assess. Further research is     beneficial to:
8        and in summer, 34 different fuel           needed to analyse health impacts,       – initiate public education pro-
9        combinations were used. This               as well as other effects such as          grammes about the health hazards
40111    made comparisons difficult among           regional and global air quality           of indoor air pollution from solid-
1        many combinations within the               impacts in more depth. Larger sam-        fuel cooking/heating systems that
2        sample size of this study.                 ple sizes would also be needed.           do not reliably vent smoke to the
3                                               G   The contribution of tobacco smoke         outside
4     Indoor air quality                            to indoor pollutant levels in houses    – conduct studies within communi-
5     G For nearly all the household                using solid fuels seemed to be            ties to evaluate specific health
6        stove/fuel groupings, the levels of        small compared to the magnitude           impacts of indoor air pollution,.
7        health-damaging particles were             and variability due to stove use.       – conduct before and after studies to
8                                                   As contributions from stoves              evaluate the indoor air quality ben-
9                                                   decrease the relative contribution        efits and the cost-effectiveness of
50                                                  of environmental tobacco smoke            interventions. (Smith, 2002)
1                                                   will increase.
                                                                                               Support is also needed for Ministry
2                                                                                           of Health-led programmes to better
3                                               Health
                                                                                            sort out the persistent problems of flu-
4                                               G In general, clean (gas) fuels and
                                                                                            orosis related to coal use. In addition
5                                                 clean-fuel stoves improved health
                                                                                            to the expertise and experience of the
6                                                 although these results were not
                                                                                            MOA in stove dissemination, outside
7                                                 always statistically significant;
                                                                                            resources could be crucial:
8                                                 possibly due to the small number
9                                                 of cases.                                 – to develop stove systems, includ-
60    Figure 2 Unvented stove with bellows      G Coal use was associated with                ing building modifications, that
6111 (photo: Kirk Smith)                          increased levels of carbon mon-             serve all household needs,

       Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                  15
1111                                                                                                  success with biomass stoves and less-
2                                                                                                     successful effort with coal stoves –
3                                                                                                     demonstrates what can be achieved
4                                                                                                     with a well-conceived and well-run
5                                                                                                     programme that is tailored to local
6                                                                                                     needs and evolves as conditions
7                                                                                                     change. It also shows how continued
8                                                                                                     progress in achieving rural develop-
9                                                                                                     ment goals may necessitate a shift in
10                                                                                                    policy focus to different fuels, actors,
1                                                                                                     and mechanisms. Providing a better
2                                                                                                     stove is rarely enough to achieve inter-
3                                                                                                     linked policy goals, as socio-eco-
4                                                                                                     nomic, ecological, and fuel-supply
5                                                                                                     conditions change.
6                                                                                                        Goals of programmes may include
7                                                                                                     improving public health, improving
8                                                                                                     safety, reducing fuel demand, and rais-
                                                                                                      ing overall welfare levels, while con-
        Figure 3   Woman using multiple fuels – coal briquettes, straw and wood, in a rural kitchen   tinuing to serve culturally conditioned
                                                                                                      livelihood and other activities. To
        – to create a business model that                a need for a new policy interventions        build long-term support for interven-
          enables a local manufacturer to                to encourage entrepreneurs to provide        tion programmes that may span more
5         supply affordable improved stove               new low-cost coal stoves. Such a pro-        than a decade, it is desirable to estab-
          systems, and                                   gramme would, ideally, involve the           lish clearly which goals are to be
        – to apply experience gained in                  cooperation of the Ministries of             served by an improved-stoves pro-
          other countries for designing out-             Agriculture and Health, in coordina-         gramme, map out its relationship to

          reach programmes.                              tion with other government agencies,         other programmes with overlapping
                                                         stove manufacturers and research and         goals, and provide a means for inde-
           It would be valuable to support the                                                        pendent tracking of programme per-
                                                         development organizations, with the
        China Association of Rural Energy                                                             formance in terms of changes in fuel
                                                         aim disseminating improved coal
        Industry (CAREI) , and the stove man-                                                         use, indoor air quality levels, health
                                                         stoves using a similar approach to that
        ufacturers it represents, to pursue ini-
                                                         used for improved biomass stoves.            outcomes, and other policy endpoints.
        tiatives that would foster the market
                                                         Ways to promote use of higher-grade
        for better coal stoves with flues by:                                                         References
6                                                        coal need to be found as well. Since
7       – creating a public-private research             rural electrification is now nearly uni-     Peabody, John W., et al., 2004. The Chinese
8         and development partnership to                 versal, targeted promotion of high-             National Improved Stove Program and
9         create inexpensive coal-briquette              efficiency electric appliances for com-         Rural Health, in preparation.
30        stoves with flues that can compete             mon tasks such as water heating and          Sinton, Jonathan E., Kirk R. Smith, John W.
1         with the currently popular portable                                                            Peabody, Rufus Edwards, Meredith M.
                                                         rice-making could also be effective.
2                                                                                                        Milet, Gan Quan, and Zheng Yin. 2004a.
          stoves,                                           While coal stoves should be the              Programmes to Promote Improved
3       – protecting intellectual property               focus of attention, some work remains           Household Stoves in China: An
4         rights of stove manufacturers, and             to be done on the introduction of more          Assessment of Programme Performance.
5       – building consensus with key                    advanced models, and on maintenance             Report to the Shell Foundation Sustain-
6         government departments to design               and repair of older biomass stoves to           able Energy Programme. Available at
7         and enforce standards for stove                retain their heat efficiency and indoor         the website of the Breathing Space
8         manufacturers that will help to                                                                Programme of the Shell Foundation:
                                                         air quality. This should be encouraged
9         eliminate the worst stoves from                                                      
                                                         through promotion of self-supporting
40111     the market and promote improve-                                                                breatheeasy/latest.html
                                                         commercial ventures. Both indoor air         Sinton, Jonathan E., Kirk R. Smith, John W.
1         ment in stove designs.                         quality protection and fuel efficiency          Peabody, Yaping Liu, Xiliang Zhang ,
3          Such support would be most valu-              ought to be included within the goals of        Rufus Edwards, Quan Gan, 2004, ‘An
4       able if integrated into a larger policy          this effort. As the body of older stoves        Assessment of Programmes to Promote
        of promoting improved coal stoves for            is often in good condition, develop-            Improved Household Stoves in China,’
                                                         ment of relatively inexpensive but              Energy for Sustainable Development
6       rural households. Without this govern-
                                                                                                         8(3):33–52. Available at KR Smith web-
7       ment-led initiative, it is likely that the       high-quality inserts for home installa-
8       large number of unvented coal stoves             tion into existing stoves to improve            page.asp?id=1
9       will continue to be sold, creating dan-          their combustion and efficiency char-        Edwards R, et al., 2004, The Chinese
50      gerously high levels of indoor pollu-            acteristics could be pursued.                   National Improved Stove Program and
1       tion and consequent ill health. There is            China’s experience – its relative            Indoor Air Quality, in preparation.
3       16                                                                                                          Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Is gender a key variable in household energy and
3       indoor air pollution interventions?
        Elizabeth Cecelski ,Technical Director for Research & Advocacy, ENERGIA, International Network on Gender and
        Sustainable Energy – P.O. Box 64, 3830 AB LEUSDEN, The Netherlands, tel. +31 (0)33 4326044/27
        Fax: +31 (0)33 4940791 Email: and
10      What makes a successful                    Table 1   Alternative household energy approaches based on the status of
1                                                  women
        household energy
3       programme?                                 Level of          Labour input into the subsistence economy by women
4       Household energy interventions are         of fuel
5       generally seen as beneficial to women,
6       affecting many aspects of their lives                          Low                            High
7       (Klingshirn, 2000; HEDON, 1995).           Low                 Integrate household energy     Provide information and
8       Many such programmes have                                      and indoor air pollution       technical assistance in
9       involved women as staff and entrepre-                          components into sectoral       stoves construction and
20111                                                                  programmes targeting           kitchen design
        neurs as well as beneficiaries. Despite                        women’s development            (e.g. Kenya-ITDG)
        this, many more household energy                               (e.g., Ethiopia – GTZ)
        programmes have failed than have
3                                                  High                Household energy and           Provide access to affordable
        succeeded in reducing wood fuel con-
4                                                                      indoor air pollution           improved fuels and stoves
5       sumption and indoor air pollution.
                                                                       programmes include             (Thailand, China)
6       Past research has identified success                           components to improve
7       factors, such as focus on likely adopter                       women’s status/quality of
        groups, financial sustainability, inter-                       life (employment, education
                                                                       . . . e.g. Nepal REDP,

9       action between stove designers, pro-
                                                                       Kenya-Mandaleo, Mali)
30      ducers and users, mass production,
1       minimal subsidies, and meeting con-
2       sumer needs (Barnes et al 1992). But       Commercialisation versus                  pollution programmes may be justi-
3       this research did not consider attention   inter-sectoral programmes                 fied. To be effective, these might need
4       to gender analysis as a factor in suc-                                               to include components to improve
                                                   The table suggests, for example, that     women’s status and quality of life,
5       cess or failure.
                                                   where both commercialisation of fuel      such as employment and education.
                                                   and women’s labour input are high, a      Low commercialisation of fuel but
7       Gender equality                            commercial approach to marketing
8                                                                                            high input into the subsistence econ-
        One possible factor could be the           improved cook stoves may be per-          omy of women’s work (even without
        degree of gender equality in the pro-      fectly appropriate and successful, as     high access to income) may favour
        ject area – both equality of treatment     witnessed in Thailand and China.          programmes such as the ITDG
2       under the law and equality of opportu-     Where commercialisation of both fuel      approach in a Maasai area of Kenya,
3       nity. One relevant measure of gender       and women’s labour is low, however,       where providing information and tech-
4       equality could be the value of women’s     a market approach may not be effec-       nical assistance in construction
5       labour to the household. Could this be     tive and, indeed, may be catastrophic,    (Figure 1) has helped promote smoke
6       key in predicting the type of household    because there is no incentive to pur-     hood dissemination. Even here,
7       energy intervention that will be suc-      chase improved stoves – people will       though, the cost of smoke hood mate-
8       cessful in a given area?                   gather fuel ‘for free’. Here, household   rials has been a problem.
9                                                  energy/indoor air pollution pro-
50      Different approaches                       grammes may be better integrated into     Factors affecting transition
1       dependent on status                        inter-sectoral programmes in health,
                                                                                             to improved technologies
2                                                  agriculture, etc., that already target
        This idea draws on discussions at the      women and men separately, as for          and fuels
4       Regional Workshop on Household             example in the GTZ-HEP approach in
                                                                                             Women’s employment
5       Energy, Indoor Air Pollution and           Ethiopia. In intermediate situations,
6       Health in New Delhi (ESMAP, June           where fuel commercialisation is high      Further light is shed by a comparison
7       2002). During this workshop, the           but women’s status and access to          of the China and India experiences
8       author presented a model on different      income is low – as for example in the     with dissemination of improved
9       approaches to household energy             Nepal REDP programme or the               stoves, by Nathans and Kelkar (1997),
60      issues, depending on women’s status        Mandaleo stoves programme in Kenya        which asserted that rural commercial-
6111    and labour.                                – separate household energy/indoor air    isation and women’s employment

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                 17
1111                                                                                             economise on their labour in fuel col-
2                                                                                                lection.
4                                                                                                Technologies other than
5                                                                                                stoves
7                                                                                                The question of labour as a factor in
8                                                                                                the adoption of energy technology
9                                                                                                applies not only to improved stoves,
10                                                                                               but to other energy technologies as
1                                                                                                well. Sanogo and Skutsch (2001)
2                                                                                                make the point, for example, that the
3                                                                                                cost-effectiveness of improved char-
4                                                                                                coal kilns is always done of the basis
5                                                                                                of returns on capital investment. But
6                                                                                                their case study of two women char-
7                                                                                                coal makers in Mali shows that it is
8                                                                                                the impact on their labour that may be
9                                                                                                the basis of decision making by the
20111                                                                                            charcoal makers themselves. The
1                                                                                                improved kilns require a lot more
2                                                                                                labour input, even though the output
3       Figure 1   Smoke hood promoted in Kajiado, West Kenya (photo: Nigel Bruce / ITDG)        of charcoal is higher for the same
4                                                                                                amount of wood.
        have been key factors in the differ-          bers. Kelkar and Nathan admit, how-
        ences in improved stove adoption in           ever, that the analysis would only hold    Researching gender and
        China and India (Nathan et al). Where         for farm households that collect, rather   energy
        fuel is gathered by unpaid labour,            than buy, their own fuel, (which is the

                                                                                                 Under DfID KaR research project
        there may only be an incentive to use         case in many rural areas today).           R8346, ENERGIA is currently collect-
        improved stoves if economizing on                The authors use this analysis to        ing examples of linkages between
        the labour of fuel collection is attrac-      explain the absence of a transition to     gender and energy project success and
        tive, that is, if alternative (paid or        modern fuels, and the continued high       failure, not only in improved stoves
        unpaid) employment opportunities              use of wood fuels, in many rural areas,    and indoor air pollution projects, but
        exist:                                        across all income groups. In Pakistan,     throughout the energy sector. We look
6                                                     for example, women’s free labour,          forward to being in touch with any
           Consequently, a gender disag-
7                                                     rather than income levels, is an           projects or researchers who can pro-
           gregated analysis of household
8                                                     explanatory factor for patterns of use     vide project reports, studies or anec-
           labour time, would lead to the
9                                                     of different fuels. Higher incomes in      dotal information with a bearing on
           conclusion that it is the avail-
30                                                    China than in India have been credited     gender as a key variable in energy
           ability or otherwise of women’s
1                                                     with accounting for the difference         interventions.
           unpaid labour time that is the
2                                                     in success rates in improved stove
           crucial factor in determining the
3                                                     dissemination. It could be, however,       Reference
4          extent of wood fuel use, or the
                                                      that the low participation in cash         Nathan, Dev and Govind Kelkar, 1997,
5          extent of economizing on wood
                                                      income activities by women in farm           “Wood Energy: The Role of Women’s
6          fuel use. Further, that even if
                                                      households in India could be an              Unvalued Labour”, Gender, Technology
7          income were to increase without
                                                      important factor. Availability of mod-       and Development, Vol. I No.2, Sage,
8          any reduction in the availability
                                                      ern fuels is not necessarily an expla-       India, 1997.
9          of women’s unpaid labour, then
                                                      nation either, since areas with a high
40111      there is not likely to be a reduc-                                                    Elizabeth Cecelski is a founding member
                                                      level of mechanization of agriculture
1          tion in the use of wood fuel,                                                         and presently Technical Adviser for
                                                      (Punjab), do not always have a high        Advocacy and Research of ENERGIA, the
2          either through using more fuel-
                                                      adoption rate of labour-saving modern      International Network on Gender and
3          efficient stoves or through
                                                      fuels. (Ibid.).                            Sustainable Energy, and is the author of
4          moving onto other fuels.
                                                                                                 several standard references on gender and
5                                                     Status of child education
           If women (or girls) had a cash                                                        energy. She has worked for more than
6                                                                                                twenty years in problems of energy and
7       income earning opportunity, then there        The authors believe this logic would
                                                                                                 developing countries, specializing in
8       would be pressure for the household to        hold good even with respect to the         energy, poverty and gender issues,
9       economise on their time, e.g. through         labour of children, for example, if the    especially in household and rural energy;
50      labour-saving innovations or the trans-       education of girls is not valued, then     and in rural electrification and rural
1       fer of tasks to other household mem-          again there would be no pressure to        development.
3       18                                                                                                    Boiling Point No 50 2005
10                         Household Energy Programme (HEP)
2                                                   Editor: Agnes Klingshirn
5                                        News from Headquarters
6                           International Conference for Renewable Energies – Bonn 2004
8       Introduction                                mitments and actions. Reaffirming the      area of research and development and
9                                                   Millennium Development Goals               initiatives for increased cooperation
        In June 2004, Bonn played host to 3600
20111                                               means that efficient, affordable and       with developing countries in the field
        participants attending the International
1                                                   clean energy technologies have to be       of renewable energy. The implementa-
        Conference for Renewable Energies –
2                                                   made available to the poor. In terms of    tion of the International Action Pro-
        renewables 2004, invited by the
3                                                   action this means:                         gramme will save more than 1.2 bil-
        German Government. The intergovern-
4                                                                                              lion tonnes of CO2 per year by 2015.
        mental conference, which was orga-          G   Making primary schooling accessi-
5                                                                                              Also by 2015, it will have provided
        nized by GTZ, was attended by delega-
6                                                       ble for all children, boys and girls   about one billion extra people with
        tions from 154 countries, including 121
7                                                       alike                                  access to modern energy. The success
        ministers responsible for energy, the
8                                                   G   Reducing child mortality by two        of renewables 2004 was based on its
        environment and development, along-
9                                                       thirds                                 new approach of building a bridge
        side many representatives from the

30                                                  G   Halving the proportion of people       between multilateralism, bilateral
        United Nations and other international
1                                                       without access to safe water,          cooperation and the more unilateral
        organisations,       non-governmental
2                                                   G   Improving the lives of at least 100    approach. In contrast to many previous
        organisations, civil society, the private
3                                                       million slum dwellers.                 international meetings, renewables
        sector and other stakeholder groups.
4                                                                                              2004 did not aim to achieve uniform
           Two central issues were addressed:          All this needs one thing: access to
5                                                                                              commitments for all countries.
6       G   How can the proportion of renew-        energy.                                    Instead, the outcome of renewables
7           able energies used in industrialised       Developing countries need to            2004 combines voluntary actions with
8           and developing countries be             expand energy services massively to        Policy Recommendations and a
9           substantially increased?                reach these goals, and for this they       Declaration containing a review
40111   G   How can the markets for                 need international co-operation.           clause.
1           renewable energies be better            Through expansion, the poor could             While participants could decide
2           developed?                              gain direct access to modern energy        freely on their own input to the Inter-
3                                                   services for cooking, lighting, and        national Action Programme, they
4       Political declaration on                    productive activities that generate an     accepted that measurable steps should
5       renewable energies                          income. With additional energy, they       be reported to the UN Commission on
6                                                   could build and operate schools allow-     Sustainable Development and that
        The outcome of these discussions lead
7                                                   ing all boys and girls to receive basic    progress should be reviewed. All key
        to a Political Declaration that signals a
8                                                   education; they could run hospitals        players will pave the way towards a
        worldwide turning point, according to
9                                                   that will help reduce child mortality;     sustainable energy future. In the fol-
        the international press. The Political
50                                                                                             low-up of the conference, the task
        Declaration embodies a new consen-          they could pump and convey water
1                                                                                              remains to ensure that the conference
        sus: that renewable energies are the        to those who are presently denied
2                                                                                              outcomes are put into practice world-
        energies of the future and thatenergy       access.
        efficiency, is of key importance. The                                                  wide. Only if this is achieved can we
4                                                   Voluntary pledges
        declaration reaffirms the Millennium                                                   truly speak of renewables 2004 being
        Development Goal to halve poverty by        Among the voluntary pledges com-           successful.
        2015.                                       piled are ambitious national targets for
7                                                                                              Policy recommendations for
8                                                   the expansion of renewable energy by
        Commitment to action                                                                   renewable energies
9                                                   more than 20 countries, financial com-
60      The International Action Programme          mitments by governments and financ-        The document ‘Policy Recommend-
6111    consists of almost 200 voluntary com-       ing institutions, commitments in the       ations for Renewable Energies’ is one

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                   19
1111    of the key conference outcomes.              institutional arrangements at all     8. To work together within a ‘global
2       Ministers and Government Represen-           levels, corporate responsibility,        policy network’ with
3       tatives reached agreement in the fol-        microfinance, public-private             representatives from parliaments,
4       lowing key areas:                            partnerships, and advanced               local and regional authorities,
5                                                    policies by Export Credit                academia, the private sector,
6       1. To build upon the results and
                                                     Agencies as crucial to expanding         international institutions, inter-
7          agreements reached at the major
                                                     finance for renewable energies.          national industry associations,
8          Global Summits, reaffirming
                                                  5. To support strengthening of human        consumers, civil society, women’s
9          their commitment to substantially
                                                     and institutional capacities for         groups, and relevant partnerships
10         increase with a sense of urgency
                                                     renewable energies through               worldwide.
1          the global share of renewable
                                                     building capacity for policy          9. To achieve tangible progress, as
2          energy in the total energy supply.
                                                     analysis and technology                  well as substantive follow-up and
3       2. To reaffirm their commitment to
                                                     assessment, strengthening                therefore to continue the high-
4          achieving the United Nations’
                                                     education, gender mainstreaming,         level political dialogue begun in
5          Millennium Development Goals.
                                                     raising awareness of government          Bonn.
6          It is estimated that up to one
7          billion people can be given               decision-makers and financiers,          The representatives complimented
8          access to energy services from            promoting consumer demand,            the Government of Germany and the
9          renewable sources, provided               supporting development of             German people for organising the
20111      that market development and               marketing, main-tenance, and          Conference and for the opportunity it
1          financing arrangements can be             other service capacities, and         represented to stress the importance
2          enhanced as intended through              strengthening regional and inter-     for advancing in the implementation
3          the Conference’s ‘International           national collaboration and            of the commitments of Johannesburg
4          Action Programme’.                        stakeholder participation.            on renewable energies to reach sus-
5       3. To endorse the need for coherent       6. To increase targeted research and     tainable development worldwide.
           regulatory and policy frameworks          development, especially by devel-        We have reported on the outcomes
           that support the development of           oped countries, emphasizing par-      of this conference fairly extensively in
           thriving markets for renewable            ticularly affordability and cost      the hope that this will motivate devel-
           energy technologies and recognise         reduction, innovative business and    opment agencies, civil society and the

           the important role of the private         financing models and cost-            private sector worldwide to join in the
           sector. They noted with                   effective, consumer-friendly cost-    task of monitoring the implementation
           appreciation the ‘Policy                  recovery models.                      of the International Action Program
           Recommendations for Renewable          7. To work toward these objectives,      agreed upon at the conference. If
           Energies’, which provide a menu           individually and jointly, by under-   you want more information on the
           of options to decision-makers.            taking the actions they have sub-     commitments of your government, the
6       4. To enhance international coopera-         mitted for inclusion in the ‘Inter-   national target is available from
7          tion for capacity building and            national Action Programme’ and        the relevant energy ministry of your
8          technology transfer, effective            through other voluntary measures      country.
2                                               Latest ProBec news
3                                                     Marlis Kees –
6       renewables 2004                           the Day of Biomass. It was titled        tives. A proposal has been submitted
7                                                 ‘Getting Biomass Energy fit for the      for upscaling BEC activities in 5
8       ProBEC was actively present at the
                                                  Future!’ and had a short scenic intro-   countries namely Namibia, Botswana,
9       Bonn Conference engaging in three
                                                  duction and a panel discussion. Last     Lesotho, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
40111   different activities: Mr Freddie
                                                  but not least, ProBEC also manned
1       Motlhatlhedi, Coordinator SADC,                                                    Launch of ProBEC SADC-
                                                  a stall and exhibits for interested
2       Energy      Programmes      presented
        ProBEC under best practices at the
                                                  visitors.                                North
4       Plenary Session. The presentation         European Union Energy                    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the
5       ‘Biomass energy – fulfilling energy                                                Netherlands (DGIS) has signed the
        needs for today and tomorrow?’
                                                  Initiative (EUEI)
6                                                                                          contract with GTZ-ProBEC on the
7       caught the grip of the audience from      has adopted ProBEC under para 8 as       expansion of ProBEC activities into
8       all over the world. His contribution      part of its action plan (www.renew-      Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. The
9       can be seen on www.renewables    Marlis Kees and Mr Freddie    duration of the program will be from
50 under ‘contributions of partic-   Motlhatlhedi from SADC had a meet-       01.07.2004–31.12.2006. The regional
1       ipants’. ProBEC staged a side event on    ing in Bonn with EUEI representa-        office of ProBEC SADC-North shall be
3       20                                                                                              Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111    in Lusaka, Zambia. The first planning      can start. It has been tested in schools   produced by New Dawn Engineering
2       workshop for ProBEC SADC-North             in Lesotho with promising results on       has won a prestigious award. The
3       was held from 12–13 August 2004 in         efficiency and ease of handling. It has    Design Institute of South Africa
4       Lusaka. The first national planning        also been adapted to cooking situa-        Award 2004 for Design Excellence
5       workshop for Tanzania is taking place      tions in Malawi and Mozambique.            has been bestowed on the VESTO
6       from 10–11 Nov. in Dar-es-Salaam.          Now we can proudly state that:             Stove. The judging criteria included:
7                                                                                             innovation, cost/value relationship,
8       UNDP/GEF proposal on                       G   WFP (World Food Programme)
                                                                                              performance, environmental impact,
9                                                      has ordered more than 100 stoves
        barrier removal                                                                       ease of maintenance and installation,
10                                                     in Lesotho and Malawi,
        A planning workshop for finalising the                                                manufacture and assembly.
1                                                  G   Prisons in Malawi will improve
2       UNDP-GEF proposal on removing                  their kitchens with the Rocket
        barriers to BEC in SME and institu-            stoves and                             Energy-efficient stoves in
4       tions in 5 ProBEC-South countries          G   Teacher Training Colleges in           developing countries
5       ((Nam, Les, RSA, Moz, Zim) shall               Malawi have expressed an interest      A Master’s thesis with the above
6       be held in South Africa in January             to do the same.                        named title has been completed by
7       2004. In order to prepare for these        G   Various stoves have been displayed     Andreas Michel at the RE studies pro-
8       planning workshops, impact assess-             at the ‘Blantyre Trade Fair 2004’ in   gram at the University of Oldennburg,
9       ment has been the focus of the                 Malawi and have attracted many
        regional office.                                                                      Germany, where you can find a
20111                                                  visitors. The stand won the Silver
                                                                                              detailed description and evaluation of
1                                                      Prize for the industrial/manufactur-
        The Rocket Stove is                                                                   the Rocket and VESTO stoves, among
2                                                      ing category!
        rocketing!                                                                            others. You can find this at the
4                                                  Our congratulations to the                 ProBEC website.
        The Rocket Stove technology for large
5       scale cooking has been developed to a      VESTO!
6       point where widespread dissemination       The VESTO Stove developed and
9                       Experience exchange on low-cost clay

                                and ceramic stoves
                                   Mrs Joyline T.M Tawha, ProBEC National Co-ordinator, Zimbabwe
3                                                      on predominant issues relating to        need to be of sufficient quality for
        Workshop participation
                                                       energy work such as food security,       users to realise the benefits of
5       A nine-day GTZ-Programme for
                                                       HIV /AIDS, indoor air pollution          saving energy, money and time:
6       Biomass       Energy      Conservation
                                                       (IAP), and kitchen management.           – Clays with the right properties
7       (ProBEC) experience exchange work-
                                                                                                    have to be selected and
8       shop on low cost clay and ceramic          Training in manufacturing                        prepared
9       stoves was held in Mulanje, Malawi
                                                   Some of the major components of the          – Correct dimensions have to be
40111   from 28 June to 08 July 2004. Partici-
                                                   training included                                maintained for critical compo-
1       pants included stove promoters and
                                                                                                    nents: fire chamber height ,
2       builders, field facilitators and exten-    G   Discussions ranged around heat
                                                                                                    pot rests, door openings and
        sion officers from governmental and            transfer principles governing effi-
4                                                                                                   stove wall thickness
        non-governmental organisations from            cient combustion, modes of heat
5                                                                                               – Fixed stoves have to be
        some of the ProBEC partner countries           transfer and finally how to
6                                                                                                   correctly positioned in a well-
        including Malawi, Mozambique,                  improve on the combustion and
7                                                                                                   ventilated kitchen to allow for
        Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.                heat transfer efficiency of the
8                                                                                                   good air circulation and smoke
        Although not one of the ProBEC part-           cooking system (including stove
9                                                                                                   removal (Figure 1)
        ner countries, Kenya was included,             technology, pot, fuel, and fire
50                                                                                              – The drying and firing process
        due to the country’s wide experience           management).
1                                                                                                   have to be well monitored
        on sustainable dissemination of clay       G   Insights into the experiences from
2                                                                                               – The user needs to maintain the
        and ceramic stoves.                            different countries, included infor-
3                                                                                                   stove and apply improved
           The workshop offered the opportu-           mation on the type(s) of stoves
4                                                                                                   kitchen and firewood manage-
        nity for promoters of various fuel-effi-       being promoted, dissemination
5                                                                                                   ment techniques (cutting, split-
        cient household stoves to:                     strategies, numbers disseminated,
6                                                                                                   ting and using dry firewood,
7       G   Share production, marketing and            results of efficiency tests, promo-          extinguishing firewood when
8           dissemination experiences                  tional methods, and challenges               cooking is finished, maintain-
9       G   Enhance their capacities to control        faced.                                       ing a small hot fire directly
60          the quality of stoves produced.        G   Quality control issues explained             under the pot, soaking dry
6111    G   Discuss and exchange experiences           that improved stove technologies             food, cutting food small,

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                 21
1111                                               G   Product – item on sale                 G   Commercialisation: participants
2                                                  G   Price – setting price to make a            agreed that for sustainability of
3                                                      profit                                     stove projects, efficient stove tech-
4                                                  G   Place – finding the best way to            nologies and techniques should be
5                                                      get the product to the customer            introduced through a commercial
6                                                  G   Promotion: creating ways to                or semi commercial approach. For
7                                                      persuade customers to buy your             mud stoves, commercialisation is
8                                                      product                                    mostly through the provision of
9                                                                                                 installation services while ceramic
10                                                 Pricing                                        stoves can be commercialised
                                                   More time was allocated to the pricing         through both selling and installing
                                                   aspect in response to participants’            in houses. The group identified
                                                   request for a pricing formula. Since           key stakeholders for support in
4       Figure 1: Stove installed in kitchen
                                                   clay and mud are normally collected            such an approach including
6                                                  and not bought, the pricing for mud            producers, artisans, stockists, pro-
               having all necessary
7                                                  and clay stoves involves costing the           moters and users. Governments
               ingredients within reach etc).
8                                                  time spent collecting the clay, firing         and the donor community are
9          Participants were given practical       and distribution costs + losses for clay       essential in training and awareness
20111   field experience in addressing quality     stoves, promotional costs and profit           raising.
1       control issues in stove production         margin. In general, the prices the pro-    G   HIV/AIDs: this session raised
2       (Figure 2) , installation and use, pack-   moters were charging were lower than           the awareness of participants on
3       ing, firing and off-loading of an          the ones they calculated at the work-          prevention, Voluntary testing and
4       improved kiln and on the production        shop, mainly because of some time              counselling (VTC), home based
5       and use of a retained heat cooker –        cost elements that they were taking for        care and nutritional needs of
        commonly referred to as a fireless         granted. The promoters agreed on the           patients and how stove projects
        cooker.                                    need for constant review of prices to          can alleviate the effect of
                                                   keep in line with prevailing conditions        HIV/AIDs including a better
        Training in marketing                      but still considering their customers’         cooking environment (reduced

        An introduction to marketing defined       ability to pay.                                exposure to smoke and excessive
        it as ‘the process that is aimed at                                                       heat), well cooked food, boiled
        improving on the quantities of the         Monitoring                                     water and less money or time
        products sold and profit accrued by        An introduction to monitoring defined          spent in acquiring firewood.
        concentrating on satisfying customers’     it as a process involving the collection   G   Monitoring systems: At the end
        needs’. The marketing concept thus         and analysis of data to ensure that the        of this session a recommendation
        entails determining the customers’         programme meets the objectives and             was passed by the participants,
        needs/wants and adapting and supply-       needs of the users. The participants           that it would be desirable to come
        ing these in a more efficient and effec-   were introduced to participatory               up with a more comprehensive
        tive manner than competitors.              impact monitoring – monitoring by              monitoring system, which involves
1          The four major steps involve iden-      different players including; users, pro-       the different players themselves
2       tifying and understanding customer         moters, installers, facilitators, exten-       in the monitoring process (after
3       needs, (4Ps of marketing) were dis-        sion staff, project management team,           appropriate training), as it is
4       cussed and participants agreed on key      and the donor at different impact lev-         through this process that they
5       issues to be considered for each com-      els. Participants agreed that to facili-       get a better understanding of
6       ponent. These components comprise:         tate the monitoring process survey             the interlinkages that exist
7                                                  should include: numbers produced               between them, which all contri-
8                                                  and/or installed, dates produced and/or        bute to a successful dissemin-
9                                                  installed, sales figures and problems          ation. It was further suggested
40111                                              encountered and the solutions that had         that ProBEC should take up the
1                                                  been found.                                    development of such a system
2                                                                                                 as soon as possible.
3                                                  Workshop outcomes
5                                                  G   An introduction to impact assess-
6                                                      ment: this gave participants an
7                                                      opportunity to assess the effective-
8                                                      ness of the work they are doing.
9                                                      This helped them to identify
50                                                     strengths and possibilities for
1       Figure 2   Newly constructed stove             improvement.
3       22                                                                                                  Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Strengthening community partnerships
4       Hellen Owala ITDG-EA Kisumu Office, P O Box 2260. Kisumu, Kenya
5       Tel 057–22486, Fax 057–22125, Email: <>
8       Introduction                                  able to raise their own capacities       marketing of the improved
9                                                     and train other people on those          ceramic stoves
        ITDG-East Africa recently completed
10                                                    technologies.                        G   Fireless cookers (hayboxes) were
        a successful biomass energy project
1                                                                                              promoted and have received
        on commercial production and mar-         Impacts of information
2                                                                                              significant attention from the com-
        keting of fuel efficient stoves. The
3                                                 sharing                                      munities from which the promot-
        lessons learnt have been shared with
4                                                 In July 2003, ProBEC facilitated the         ers came (2). These cookers con-
        various partners sharing a common
5                                                 visit of 13 stove promoters from             serve fuel and reduce the time
        interest, including the GTZ-funded
6                                                 Malawi and Zimbabwe to West Kenya            spent with the fire alight, thus
        ProBEC (Programme for Biomass
7                                                 to join with the stove promoters             reducing the amount of smoke
        Energy Conservation in Southern
8                                                 in West Kenya to exchange ideas.             generated as well.
        Africa). This paper describes two
9                                                 The key objectives for this visit com-   G   The IFSP (Integrated Food
        key findings that came out of the
20111                                             prised:                                      Security Programme) in Mulanje
1                                                                                              has built linkages between their
2       G   The need for ongoing support to       G   Building linkages at grassroots          food security work, and their work
3           local promoters (Figure 1)                level to initiate partnerships           on household energy and health,
4       G   The impact of sharing information     G   Sharing knowledge and skills on          thus broadening the impact of
5           through an exchange visit between         stove production and marketing           stoves.
6           ITDG-East Africa and the GTZ-         G   Initiating promoter-to-promoter
                                                      training                                As a result of the impact of this
7           funded organization ProBEC.
                                                                                           meeting, further meetings have been
                                                                                           arranged in Malawi for promoters

9       Ongoing support to local                  Achievements of the visit
                                                                                           from Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania,
30      promoters                                 G   There was promoter-to-promoter
1                                                                                          Zimbabwe and Kenya. They are
        One key lesson is that local stove pro-       training on quality control of       exchanging new ideas, and receiving
2                                                     ceramic stove products, clay
        moters should be identified and sup-                                               follow-up training on production and
3                                                     preparation, moulding, and firing.
        ported if they are to sustain the pro-                                             marketing of improved stoves.
4                                                 G   The Malawi team learnt about
        motion and dissemination of stoves in
        their communities after the projects          many aspects of the kitchen          Conclusion
6                                                     improvement activities promoted
7       ended. If this is happens:                                                         Sharing lessons learnt is very impor-
                                                      by ITDG
8       G   Communities are able to build         G   The teams shared the idea of set-    tant for both sustaining development
9           their own linkages with the pro-          ting up a promoters’ network in      activities and for scaling up of activi-
40111       moters for longer-term commercial                                              ties.
1           promotion and dissemination of        G   The visit to the Provincial
2           technologies and services that are                                             References
                                                      Commissioner was aired on televi-
3           having a positive impact on their                                              1. Agumba, M. & Abbott, V. (1996) How to
                                                      sion and thus the stove promoters
4           own lives.                                                                        Build, Use and Maintain a Better Bonfire
                                                      had the opportunity to promote
5       G   With well-communicated partici-                                                   Kiln, IT Kenya
                                                      their activities on the Kenyan
6           patory training, communities are                                               2. Still, D. (1999) The Haybox for energy
                                                      media.                                  conservation: Boiling Point 43, ITDG,
8                                                                                             UK
                                                  Impact of the exchange visit
50                                                G   Based on this visit, together with   [More details on the work done by
1                                                     previous input from ITDG-East        PRoBEC can be found in the GTZ
2                                                     Africa, the promoters from Malawi    pages]
3                                                     have constructed six ‘better
4                                                     bonfire kilns’ thus improving
5                                                     their firing technologies (1).
6                                                 G   One stove promoter has improved
7                                                     her production and marketing
8                                                     skills and has since increased
9                                                     her income as a direct result.
60      Figure 1 Stove promoters in West Kenya        She is now providing training in
6111    (photo: Vincent Okello/ITDG)                  other areas on production and

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                  23
        Dissemination of solar home systems in Vietnam:
3       a case study of successful partnership
        Soma Dutta, Asia Regional Network Coordinator, ENERGIA (, E 159, Sector 21, NOIDA,
        Uttar Pradesh, India, Tel +91–120–2532932, 9818484790 and Pham Thi Sam, Vietnam Women’s Union
        (, Vietnam Women’s Union, 39 Hang Chuoi Street, Hanoi, Vietnam., Tel +84 4 9719917,
        F. +84 4 9713143
10      Introduction                               district and provincial governmental              Equipment was installed in house-
1                                                  structure. VWU has several businesses             holds with 20% of the system cost
2       The Vietnam Women’s Union (VWU),
                                                   such as sale of seeds, fertilizers etc. Its       paid in advance by households,
3       a women’s NGO, in partnership with
                                                   interest in promoting solar home sys-             and the rest paid over 3–4 years,
4       the Solar Electric Light Company
                                                   tems stems from the potential of solar            interest-free.
5       (SELCO), a commercial company and
                                                   home systems in improving women’s             G   The VWU was responsible for col-
6       the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and
                                                   lot, reducing pollution and protecting            lection and management of funds.
7       Rural Development (VBARD), a
                                                   the global environment.
8       development finance institution, has                                                        Important achievements of this
9       been disseminating solar home systems      Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and              phase were: 600 solar home systems
20111   in Vietnam since 1995. The arrange-        Rural Development                             installed in five pilot communes pro-
1       ment makes use of a credit scheme                                                        viding lighting, access to radio and
        where VWU markets SELCO’s sys-             The Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and          television, improved cultural activi-
        tems and administers consumer loans        Rural Development (VBARD) is                  ties; 20% utilized solar electricity to
        provided by VBARD, while SELCO             wholly owned by the Government.               sew, make handicrafts and sell sun-
        provides systems and is responsible for    VBARD’s outreach extends to 70% of            dries – generating income.
        service.                                   the rural households served by the for-          The key lesson learned was that
                                                   mal financial institutions. In absolute       communication and education activi-
        Background                                 terms, it provides about three quarters       ties were key ingredients for success-
                                                   of rural credit in the country.

        Ten million people in Vietnam do not                                                     ful promotion of solar home systems.
        have access to grid electricity, espe-     The Solar Home System
        cially in mountainous and rural areas,                                                   Phase 2: Commer`cial expansion
        which directly affects women and
                                                                                                 Phase 2 begun in 1998, is similar to
        children, who have no chance to study,     In 1996, SELF installed 200 systems           Phase 1, but the advance payment by
        a key factor in the low status of          on credit, with a credit recovery record      households has been raised to 25%
        women. The Vietnamese government           of 85%. Aware that rural Vietnamese           (from 20%), with the remainder paid
6       has encouraged non-governmental            women make decisions on most                  over 3–4 years. Monthly interest is
7       organizations to play a role in provid-    domestic issues, SELF reached a joint         charged:
8       ing access to electricity to rural popu-   agreement for a solar project in sup-
9       lations. Solar home systems (SHSs)         port of rural women and children.
30      are a logical technological solution,
1       particularly in South Vietnam, where       Phase 1: Pilot project
2       solar radiation is abundant.               Between 1995 and 1998, a pilot pro-
3                                                  ject was implemented. This included
4       The organizations                          an innovative model used in Phase 2.
5       SELCO-Vietnam                              This model works as follows:
7       This is a commercial company, chosen       G   VWU, operating with local author-
8       to be the recipient of the “Award for          ities at the commune/ward,
9       Corporate Excellence 2001” by the              district, city and national level,
40111   U.S. State Department. The company,            promoted awareness of solar
1       (then called SELF), was the first solar        energy and solar home systems
2       energy company licensed to produce             in four target areas selected on
3       sell and service solar electric lighting       the basis of: no grid electricity,
4       systems in Vietnam.                            high solar radiation, demonstrated
5                                                      people’s need, and economic
        Vietnam Women’s Union                          development potential.
7       The Vietnam Women’s Union (VWU),           G   SELF provided necessary equip-
8       founded in 1930, represents more than          ment (panels, batteries, controllers,
9       11 million women in Vietnam, work-             lights etc.) and assisted in installa-
50      ing towards their equality and devel-          tion, repairs and maintenance; the
1       opment. The VWU is a key part of the           Rockefeller Fund facilitated credit.      Figure 1   System being installed
3       24                                                                                                      Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111    G   VBARD provides loans of up to
2           75% of the system cost at 1.15%
3           interest per month
4       G   SELCO provides financial and
5           technical assistance for manage-
6           ment, training, consumer credit,
7           marketing, and technical areas
8           including installation, repair and
9           maintenance of solar home sys-
10          tems. It pays the bank US$50 as
1           security for each system, which is
2           covered through IFC/GEF financ-
3           ing. If a purchaser defaults on pay-
4           ment, he/she is issued a notice to
5           pay within 60–90 days or SELCO
6           repossesses and refurbishes the
7           system, and VWU finds a new
8           buyer. VBARD has access to             Figure 2   Institutional arrangements
9           the SELCO guarantee for any
20111       resulting losses.
1       G   VWU is in charge of marketing;         markets provide an element of safety        into its venture. SELCO used the
2                                                  that has extended trading hours.            IFC/GEF financing to cover its collat-
            motivating households; developing
3                                                     VWU has effectively put solar            eral guarantee to VBARD, thereby
            material on basic maintenance;
4                                                  energy on the agenda at local and           ensuring their interest and involve-
            and conducting solar home
5                                                  national government level and several       ment in the operations.
            demonstrations in co-operation
6                                                  local authorities have started financing
            with SELCO. It is also responsible
7                                                  households for purchase of solar home       Conclusions
            for reporting problem areas that
            require troubleshooting, seeking       systems.

9                                                                                              This programme demonstrates how
            support of government bodies, and                                                  photovoltaic systems can contribute to
30                                                 Lessons learnt
            identifying new project implemen-                                                  sustainable development in remote
2           tation sites.                          Building on the pilot project               rural communities. Contrary to popu-
3       The roles of the three organisations       Setting up demonstration units              lar belief, the experience shows that
4       are summarised in the Figure 2.            resulted in creating awareness, which       even in poor rural areas, commercial-
5          The revolving credit system has         was followed up with targeting opin-        isation of solar home systems may be
6       been highly successful. Ninety-five        ion leaders and progressive farmers         possible. This initiative harnessed the
7       per cent of the payments are made on       first. The pilot project was instru-        core competencies of partners, mini-
8       time and there has been no problem         mental in effecting key changes in          mizing risks and keeping overheads
9       with defaults. Households have started     strategy, including fine-tuning the         low; developing financial mechanisms
40111   coming forward to buy solar home           technology and addressing problem           appropriate for consumers and posing
1       systems on a cash basis. In some spe-      areas.                                      little risk to lenders; creating a local
2       cific areas, the local government                                                      presence and responding to the oper-
3       offers 50% subsidy for people buying       Focusing on core competence                 ating environment. Perhaps the single
4       solar home systems. In these areas,                                                    most important lesson is identifying
                                                   By focusing on key competencies, the
5       VWU communes identify the house-                                                       untapped, potential markets and
                                                   strategy allows each party to focus on
6       holds for subsidy, and provide support                                                 nurturing them. It also demonstrates
                                                   its strength area.
7                                                                                              that a mass organization such as VWU
        for processing these applications.
8                                                  Creating local presence                     can play a key role in attracting the
9       Impacts                                                                                support and assistance of local author-
50                                                 VWU operates through its commune
        Nearly 2000 households and com-            offices, allowing it to respond better to   ities.
2       mune centres have installed solar          consumer needs. Its presence instils
                                                   confidence in rural customers. By set-      Sources
3       home systems under the project. Solar
        home systems are used for lighting,        ting up local sales and service centres,    1. SELCO, the Solar Electric Light
        accessing information, and generating      SELCO has involved local people and            Company website [online] http://www.
                                                   created jobs both in supply and quick [accessed: 4 August 2004]
6       income to improve living standards in
                                                                                               2. E & Co Energy Through Enterprise web-
7       rural areas. About 10% of the families     and effective repair.
                                                                                                  site [online]:
8       involved in the electrification project                                                   [accessed: 4 August 2004]
        have independently purchased black         Judicious use of grant money
9                                                                                              3. Solar Electric Light Fund website
60      and white televisions. In addition,        As in its India operations, SELCO              [online] [accessed: 4
6111    street lights installed in the village     treated grant money as investments             August 2004]

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                       25
        A model for dissemination of improved biomass
3       fuels and cooking devices through rural
7       Priyadarshini Karve, Project Co-ordinator, Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI), 2nd Floor, Maninee
8       Apartments, S.No.13, Dhayarigaon, Pune 411 041, India. E-mail: arti_pune@vsnl.netr
        Introduction                                 Abstract
2       India produces annually about 600            Appropriate Rural Technology Institute (ARTI) is conducting a project entitled
3       million tonnes of agro-waste.                ‘Commercialisation of Improved Biomass Fuels and Cooking Devices in India’
4       Although it is more than sufficient to       under funding from Shell Foundation, UK. The project was launched in January
5       satisfy the cooking energy require-          2003 in Maharashtra state, soon after the National Programme on Improved
6       ment of the entire country, the low-         Cookstoves ceased to operate in the state. The project is being implemented
7       density biomass is a highly inferior         through grassroots level non-government organizations. The aim is to establish at
8       fuel. Rural poor, not having access to       least 100 rural enterprises manufacturing and marketing improved biomass fuels
                                                     and cooking devices, by the end of 2005. It is also expected that by the end of this
9       better fuels, use it in inefficient cook-
                                                     period, there would be at least 100 000 rural households in the state routinely
20111   ing devices and in poorly ventilated
                                                     using these fuels and devices. At the half way stage, the project appears to be
1       houses, leading to harmful levels of
                                                     heading towards overachievement of the target.
2       indoor air pollution, and increasing
3       health risk to themselves.
4          Technologies exist for converting        ation, UK. The specific objectives of       selected volunteer households in their
5       agro-waste into superior fuels like         the project are to:                         areas of operation. These families
        charcoal, biogas, etc. Improved cook-                                                   were requested to try out various mod-
                                                    (a) Create a self-sustaining entre-
        stoves using traditional biofuels in                                                    els of improved cooking devices, as
                                                        preneurial network of at least
        cleaner and more efficient ways are                                                     well as char briquettes as improved

                                                        100 rural micro-enterprises for
        also known. During 1984–2002, the                                                       biomass fuel. Periodic feedback was
                                                        delivery of improved biomass
        Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy                                                     collected from the test users. Simul-
                                                        fuels and cooking devices in            taneously surveys were conducted to
        Sources (MNES), Government of
        India, implemented the National Pro-            Maharashtra.                            assess availability of biomass fuel, and
        gramme on Improved Chulha (NPIC),           (b) Establish use of improved bio-          to document traditional cooking prac-
        to introduce improved cookstoves into           mass fuels and cooking devices          tices. By the end of this phase, a clear
        rural households. Overall, this activity        as a common practice in at least        picture emerged regarding users’ pref-
6       failed to make a significant impact.            100 000 rural households in             erence in the area of operation of each
7       However, in the 1990s, Appropriate              Maharashtra.                            NGO.
8       Rural Technology Institute (ARTI),
        the Technical Backup support Unit
                                                    Methodology                                 Entrepreneurship training &
30                                                  Maharashtra state can be divided into       finance
        (TBU) of NPIC in Maharashtra and
        Goa states, introduced commercialisa-       five socioeconomic regions. Two             The project is currently in this phase.
        tion of improved cookstoves through         grassroots level non-government             NGOs have selected potential entre-
        rural micro-enterprises. As a result of     organisations are selected as associate     preneurs for training in fabrication
        this, by 2000, about 50 rural enter-        NGOs in each region. The project is         technology for the devices that are in
        prises, based on improved cookstoves,       being implemented through the follow-       demand in their area of operation.
        were reporting an average annual            ing phases:                                 ARTI is providing the technical know-
        turnover of Rs.150–200 thousand each                                                    how as well as basic entrepreneurship
        (Rs.1000 ~ $22). More importantly,          Market testing                              training to these candidates (Figure 1).
40111   they had created a culture of using         Through its work as Technical Backup        ARTI and the associate NGOs have
1       improved cookstoves in small areas          support Unit for NPIC, ARTI had the         constituted a revolving fund to pro-
2       of the two states. The National Pro-        technical know-how for production of        vide seed money to the new entrepre-
3       gramme ceased to operate in the state       a range of improved stoves (fixed as        neurs. Local banks are also being
4       from 2002, however, some of the             well as portable) to satisfy the diverse    encouraged to support these new busi-
5       entrepreneurs continued to sell             cooking needs of the various commu-         nesses.
6       improved stoves in the open market.         nities in the state. At the same time,
7          From January 2003, ARTI launched         ARTI had developed a complete chain         Promotion & marketing
8       a new initiative promoting improved         of technologies for converting agricul-     This phase too has been started almost
9       stoves as well as improved biomass          tural waste into char briquettes and        simultaneously. The NGOs are organ-
50      fuels through commercialisation,            using the briquettes as household fuel.     ising promotion campaigns in their
1       through funding from Shell Found-           In this phase, the associate NGOs           areas of operation to create awareness
3       26                                                                                                    Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111                                                                                               currently being financed through a
2                                                                                                  revolving fund. ARTI as well as the
3                                                                                                  associate NGOs are encouraging local
4                                                                                                  banks and financing institutes to sup-
5                                                                                                  port the new businesses.
7                                                                                                  Self-help groups
8                                                                                                  The strong movement of women’s self
9                                                                                                  help groups (SHGs) in the rural areas
10                                                                                                 of the state is proving highly benefi-
1                                                                                                  cial to the project. The SHGs are
2                                                                                                  involved in the project in a variety of
3                                                                                                  ways.
5                                                                                                  (a) In some locations, they are
6                                                                                                      financing the cost of the stoves
7                                                                                                      for their members. In this case,
8                                                                                                      the entrepreneur gets a bulk order
9                                                                                                      for all the members of an SHG
20111                                                                                                  (about 50–100 households). The
1                                                                                                      member households get improved
2                                                                                                      cooking devices of their choice
3                                                                                                      for a nominal down payment. The
4                                                                                                      entrepreneur is paid through the
5                                                                                                      SHG funds, and the members
6                                                                                                      repay the money to the SHG in
7                                                                                                      mutually-agreed-upon instalments.
8                                                                                                  (b) In some locations, the SHGs

9                                                                                                      themselves have taken up the
30                                                                                                     business of manufacturing and
1                                                                                                      marketing improved cooking
2                                                                                                      devices. The members operate
3                                                                                                      this business collectively and
4                                                                                                      share the profits in accordance
5                                                                                                      with their individual contri-
6                                                                                                      butions.
7                                                                                                  (c) In some locations, the SHGs have
        Figure 1   Training entrepreneurs in stove manufacture
8                                                                                                      shown willingness to finance the
9                                                                                                      local entrepreneurs. Some of the
        among the people, and to generate                   stoves produced no or less smoke
40111                                                                                                  potter–entrepreneurs are ineligible
        business for the trained entrepreneurs.             compared to traditional stoves,
1                                                                                                      to obtain bank loans, due to a
                                                            leading to significant increase in
2       Monitoring & expansion
                                                            cleanliness and comfort in the             variety of reasons. But the local
        In this phase (to start from January                kitchen.                                   SHGs with their experience of
        2005), the performance and sustain-             (b) Fuel saving, time saving and ease          100% loan recovery are willing to
        ability of the existing enterprises will            of operation were cited as                 take the risk in view of the profit-
        be closely monitored, and efforts will              benefits.                                  ability of the new business.
        be launched for the programme to                (c) Some of the stoves were favoured
8                                                                                                  Clean village contests
        each and every village in the state.                due to their aesthetic appeal and
50                                                          also as a status symbol.               Although, the state or central govern-
        Lessons learned                                 (d) Cost was a deterrent for some          ment is not directly involved in the
2       Feedback from users                                 sections of the rural society.         project, some of the existing govern-
3                                                                                                  ment and non-government welfare
        During the market-testing phase, the            Finance through revolving funds
4                                                                                                  schemes are proving useful in reach-
        test users’ feedback from all over the
5                                                       Halfway through the project period,        ing the products to the poor. One such
        state was generally in favour of the
6                                                       more than 50 entrepreneurs are active      noteworthy scheme is the ‘Clean
        improved devices and fuels. Some of
7                                                       in different regions of the state. Vill-   Village Contest’ being implemented
        the common observations were as
8                                                       age level awareness camps and pro-         by the Department of Rural Develop-
9                                                       grammes are being organised to create      ment of the state government. In this
60      (a) The most significant point for the          marketing opportunities for the fledg-     contest, one of the parameters for
6111        users was that the improved                 ling enterprises. Entrepreneurs are        judging the villages is number of

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                        27
1111    households using clean cooking                camps will be conducted in hundreds         beyond the project period. More
2       devices. In order to score well on this       of villages throughout the week. The        NGOs will have to be involved to
3       parameter, the village administrations        NGOs will also organise live cultural       reach the concept to each village in
4       are looking for improved stove suppli-        programmes based on local traditions,       each district of the state. In view of
5       ers. The families in the average              on the theme of improved biomass            these possible long-term activities, a
6       income group are urged to buy the             fuels and devices for healthier             tri-monthly newsletter ‘Blue Flame
7       stoves, whereas the administration is         kitchens during this week. As a build       Bulletin’ has been launched to enable
8       willing to pay for stoves to be installed     up to this Week, a series of radio pro-     the project partners to share their
9       in poor households.                           grammes will be aired from 12 radio         thoughts and experiences with each
10                                                    stations in the state covering 24 of the    other, and with other interested per-
1       Village-level awareness camps                 33 districts. The NGOs will publish         sons and organisations.
2       Village-level awareness camps are             articles and announcements in local
3       emerging as a successful promotion            media. A special issue devoted to           Conclusions
4       tool. The NGO representative (who is          ‘environmental pollution and health’        It is noteworthy that the total annual
5       already known and respected in the            of an education-based bimonthly (dis-       budget of the project is less than the
6       village) explains the benefits of the         tribution: 3000+) is being sponsored.       amount annually spent on subsidy in
7       improved cooking devices and fuels.           It contains articles about IAQ and the      NPIC. The major difference in this
8                                                     project. Copies will be distributed to
        Laminated photographs and/or models                                                       case is that the entire amount is being
9                                                     rural schools and voluntary organisa-
        as well as promotional video films are                                                    spent on entrepreneurship develop-
20111                                                 tions during the Week. Additional
        displayed. The effectiveness of an                                                        ment. The ten associate NGOs have
1                                                     publicity material is being produced in
        awareness camp is enhanced by the                                                         independent styles of operation, and
        presence of the local entrepreneurs to        the form of laminated photographs,          ARTI has allowed them to follow their
        accept orders. The new entrepreneur           video films, pamphlets, posters, etc.       own mode of implementation within
        can be immediately financed by the                Considering the momentum gained         the framework of the project. We
        NGO through the revolving fund to             by the project and the overwhelming         believe that we have put in place a dis-
        meet the sudden surge in demand.              response coming from the rural popu-        semination model that shows great
        This strategy is proving most success-        lation, it is estimated that the project    promise of success not only in the

        ful everywhere.                               would overachieve its target. Once the      state but also in other parts of the
                                                      minimum target of 100 enterprises and       country. We also feel that many fea-
        People-centred approach                       100,000 households is achieved, the         tures of this model are universally
        Already more than 20,000 cooking              emphasis will be on:                        applicable, and therefore invite the
        devices have been sold through the                                                        readers of Boiling Point to try out
        entrepreneurs, the associate NGOs and         (a) Conducting refresher courses for
                                                                                                  these strategies in their areas of oper-
        ARTI. The current users are fast                  successful entrepreneurs.               ation.
        becoming promoters, and the demand            (b) Conducting training courses for
7       is on the rise from all parts of the state.       new entrepreneurs wherever
8       The project is generating enthusiastic            required.
9       positive response from the rural peo-         (c) Continuing with promotion and
30      ple. This may appear surprising in the            marketing activities.
1       light of the failure of the NPIC. We          (d) Ensuring quality of the products
2       believe that our success is due to a peo-         through continuous monitoring
3       ple-centric approach in the promotion             and evaluation.
4       strategy, range of models available to           According to the statistics pub-
5       suit varied needs, and ready availabil-       lished by Ministry of Non-conven-
6       ity of the products in the neighbour-         tional Energy Sources and the
7       hood market through the local NGOs            Planning Commission of Government
        and entrepreneurs. All these vital            of India in 2000, the total potential for
        ingredients were missing in the sub-          improved biomass cooking devices
        sidy-driven government programme.             and fuels in Maharashtra state alone is
2                                                     approaching ten million households.
        Future strategy                               Obviously the number of entrepre-
4       A massive publicity and awareness             neurs will have to increase substan-
5       generation campaign is currently              tially if the entire potential is to be
6       being planned to give more impetus to         converted into market demand. The
7       the promotion campaign. ARTI and              project outcome so far demonstrates
8       the associate NGOs will organise a            that the right strategy for achieving
9       ‘Smoke Free Week’ throughout the              this goal is in place. However, the
50      entire state during November 1–6,             publicity, promotion and training
1       2004. Simultaneously, awareness               activities will have to be continued
3       28                                                                                                     Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Institutional partnership in improved cooking stove
3       dissemination: Experiences from West Bengal,
7       Debajit Palit, Research Associate, The Energy and Resources Institute, 503 Orion Tower, Dispur, Guwahati 781005,
8       Assam, India. Email:
1       Introduction                              Table 1     Improved cookstove dissemination in West Bengal
2       In India, rural households mostly use     Items                                       SWD          WBREDA          KVIC
3       biomass for their cooking and heating     Year of initiation of IC dissemination      1983         1993            1988
4       needs. The biomass is burnt in tradi-     Districts covered                            18           17               10
5       tional cooking stoves resulting in high   Total ICs installed (by 2000)               849 847      237 809         1 006 079
6       fuel consumption and significant          Source: TERI 2001
7       levels of indoor air pollution causing
8       poor health of women and children.                                                     households in at least one village of
9                                                                                              every target block for creating model
        Biomass collection is linked with
20111                                                                                          ‘smokeless’ villages.
        drudgery for women and children. To
1                                                                                                 The success of the programme
        reduce the firewood consumption, the
2                                                                                              highlighted the crucial role played by
        Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
3                                                                                              village level institutions, involving
        Sources (MNES) launched the
4                                                                                              village level institutions such as
        National Programme on Improved
5                                                                                              village panchayat members, school-
        Chulha (NPIC) in 1983, to dissemi-
6                                                                                              teachers, youth clubs, women’s groups
        nate improved mud stoves, equipped
7                                                                                              etc. for motivating, monitoring, and
        with chimneys, and portable metallic
                                                                                               evaluation of improved cooking

9       stoves. Later on, the West Bengal
        Renewable Energy Development                                                           stoves. (A panchayat is a rural local
30                                                                                             self-government or village council
1       Agency (WBREDA), and the Khadi
        and Village Industries Commission                                                      comprising of five democratically
        (KVIC), Government of India, also                                                      elected members.) In some districts,
        began stove dissemination under                                                        the programme was linked with the
        NPIC in the state.                                                                     state sponsored rural sanitation pro-
                                                                                               grammes and the Indira Awas Yojana
        Overview of NPIC in West                                                               (a rural housing scheme, named after
        Bengal                                                                                 the former Prime Minister of India,
                                                                                               Late Indira Gandhi) – to affect both
9       West Bengal recorded one of the high-                                                  health and sanitation benefits.
40111   est improved cooking stove penetra-                                                       A network of trained stove builders
1       tions under NPIC. Nearly four million     Figure 1   Sohini Seva one-pot mud stove     called Self Employed Workers (SEW)
2       stoves were disseminated in the state                                                  working under respective NGO pro-
3       by the end of March 2003 – 38% of
                                                  implementaton was adopted, with the          jects carried out the stove installation.
4       the total improved cooking stove
                                                  installation target being based on the       The NGOs concentrated more on cov-
5       potential in the state and well above
6                                                 capacity and demand from the respec-         ering the maximum number of house-
        the national average of 29% [MNES                                                      holds in a village than encompassing a
7                                                 tive NGOs (Figure 2). The Ram
        2004]. Table 1 describes the break-                                                    larger number of villages. The NGOs
8                                                 Krishna Mission Lokasiksha Parishad
        down of the improved cooking stove                                                     installed very large numbers of stoves
9                                                 (RKMLP) NGO adopted a unique clus-
        programme in the state.
50                                                ter approach for IC dissemination. To        through good marketing, a semi-com-
1       Institutional partnership:                coordinate, implement and monitor            mercial approach and providing work
2                                                 dissemination activities, cluster organi-    to stove builders – mostly youth and
        Experience from West                                                                   women.
3                                                 sations were formed comprising a
        Bengal                                    number of village youth clubs. Forty            Frequent interaction between
5       The main feature of the programme in      such cluster organisations and 1500          the users, stove builders, NGOs and
6       West Bengal is implementation entirely    youth clubs, spread over 4000 villages       the implementing agencies was
7       through a vast network of NGOs.           in 12 districts of the state, were           encouraged, resulting in custom-made
8       West Bengal enlisted about 150 NGOs       involved [Chakrabarty 1999]. KVIC            stoves at affordable prices by the
9       for stove dissemination throughout        encouraged its NGOs to adopt a cluster       NGOs. Though modification reduced
60      the state. In West Bengal, a combina-     approach to facilitate effective moni-       the designed thermal efficiency
6111    tion of ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’        toring, stipulating coverage of 100% of      to some extent, it facilitated higher

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                    29
2                                                                                                    Fig 3 Perceived benefits of improved cook-
3                                                                                                    stove (more than one benefit recorded per
6                                                                                                    Conclusion
8                                                                                                    The key to success in West Bengal
9                                                                                                    is the institutional partnership and
20111                                                                                                significant interaction between stove
1                                                                                                    users, builders, promoters and design-
2                                                                                                    ers. The NPIC in the state has shown
3                                                                                                    that support of village institutions
4                                                                                                    and innovative marketing efforts by
5                                                                                                    the implementing agencies and NGOs
        Figure 2   Institutional set up of NPIC in West Bengal                                       can achieve the desired success
                                                                                                     and the users are also willing to
        penetration and sustainability of the            fuelwood deficit, or where wood is          pay for the product, if the design is tai-

        stoves.                                          purchased, stove builders set a higher      lored according to the user’s require-
                                                         user contribution. The higher user          ments.
        Empowering women                                 contribution assisted limited commer-
                                                         cialisation and marketing, helping          References
        Involvement of a large number of
        educated youths as stove builders                stove builders to develop their market.     Barnes and Kumar 2002. ‘Success factors in
        helped to achieve success for the pro-           Flexibility in pricing allowed stove           improved stove programme: Lessons
        gramme. Many NGOs tried to                       manufacture with superior quality raw          from six states in India’. Pp 99–112.
        empower women by training them as                material for people with more money.           Journal for Environment Studies and
        stove builders and assigning stove-                 During 1995–2000, the percentage            Policy 5(2); New Delhi: The Energy and
8                                                                                                       Resources Institute
        building activities. Notwithstanding             of households using the stoves varied
9                                                                                                    Chakrabarty S S 1999. ‘Endeavour of
        the prevalent social customs, particu-           from 75% [TBU 2000 to 90% average
30                                                                                                      Ramkrishna Mission Ashrama Loksiksha
                                                         [TERI 2001]. The TERI figures may
1       larly those applicable to widows, stove                                                         Parishad     towards     promotion      of
2                                                        be higher because the survey was car-
        building allowed many to become                                                                 Renewable Energy systems in West
3                                                        ried out in three districts with the best
        financially independent.                                                                        Bengal’; In proceedings of Renewable
4                                                        success rate, whereas the TBU feed-            Energy Congress (eds. C P Dutta, S P
5       Stove pricing and                                back surveys covered the whole state.          Das and P Haldar) pp 1–7. Kalyani, West
6                                                        The ICs were the main stove in the             Bengal, India: University of Kalyani
7                                                        surveyed household. The TERI study             205pp.
8       NGOs were able to disseminate the                indicated that the primary benefit per-     MNES 2004. National Programme on
9       programme by building stoves in                  ceived by the users is cleanliness of          Improved Chulha. <>;
40111   user’s kitchen and charging the requi-           the kitchen because of smoke removal           New Delhi: Ministry of Non Conven-
        site stove building fee from the users.          through the chimney, followed by               tional Energy Sources.
        The Technical Backup Unit (TBU)                  health benefits, timesaving and fuel        T E R I. 2001. Evaluation of successful prac-
        suggested a recommended price but,               wood savings (Figure 3). Though the            tices for improved stoves in India: A case
3                                                                                                       study of West Bengal; Guwahati, Assam,
4       without formal fixed prices, NGOs                users were unable to qualify the health
                                                                                                        India: The Energy and Resources
5       from different districts fixed the price         benefits, most of them mentioned               Institute 105 pp.
6       to match the local situation. The bene-          elimination of eye discomfort while         TBU 2000. National Programme on
7       ficiary contribution in West Bengal of           cooking. Fuelwood savings featured             Improved Chulha Annual Report
8       around 60% of the recommended                    lowest in rural areas, owing to easy           1999–2000,        1998–99,      1997–98,
9       stove cost was one of the highest                access to supply of firewood and agri-         1996–97, 1995–96; Kalyani, West
50      among the Indian states [Barnes and              culture residues from the homesteads           Bengal: Technical Back up Unit,
1       Kumar 2002]. In some areas with a                and fields.                                    University of Kalyani
3       30                                                                                                         Boiling Point No 50 2005
        Project Gaia: Commercializing a new stove and
3       new fuel in Africa
        Harry Stokes1 and Bengt Ebbeson2
7       1. Stokes Consulting Group, 22 Mummasburg Street, Gettysburg, PA 17325 USA
8       Telephone: +717 495–4274; Fax: +717 334–7313; Email:
9       2. Dometic AB, Zurcherstrasse 239, CH-8500 Frauenfeld, Switzerland
10      Telephone: +41 52 720 66 44; Fax: +41 52 720 66 50; Email:
3       Project Concept – A stove                  G   Where methanol can be produced
4       and a fuel                                     in a country that has to import
5                                                      petroleum products but neverthe-
        Project Gaia first appeared in Boiling         less possesses natural gas, the
        Point No. 43 in 1999 when the con-             imported products could be
8       cept, pioneered in discussions with the        replaced by indigenously produced
9       Government of India in 1995, was               fuels.
20111   taken to governments and develop-          G   Eventually methanol, like ethanol,
1       ment practitioners in Central America,         could be produced from a biomass
2       the Caribbean and Africa.                      crop, through gas synthesis rather
3       The concept involved bringing alco-            than fermentation. Methanol,
4       hol-powered appliances, available in           unlike ethanol, would come from
5       Europe and North America, to the               the inedible portion of biomass
6       developing world, powering them not            crops, lignin and cellulose, rather
7       only with ethanol, when available, but         than from the starches and sugars
8       also with methanol, an alcohol pro-            required for ethanol.

9       duced worldwide on a vast scale from
30      natural gas primarily for sale into           The response we invariably
1       world chemical markets.                    received from policy makers and con-
2       The opportunities driving this concept     sumers, was: ‘We like the stove, but
3       were several-fold:                         how do we know there will be fuel to
                                                   run it?’ Thus we learnt that to prove        Figure 1   Project Gaia poster
        G   Availability of high quality alcohol   the stove, we would have to prove the
            appliances adapted for use in the      fuel, particularly the availability of the
6                                                                                               capacity. Almost all of Africa’s
            developing world                       fuel. In any market where we wished
7                                                                                               ethanol and methanol are exported.
        G   Some 35 million tonnes of              to introduce the stove, we would have
8                                                                                                  Natural gas can be converted by
            methanol are produced annually         to develop a fuel source, fuel packag-
9                                                                                               synthesis to methanol, handled at
            around the world, principally from     ing and transport, and fuel retailing –
40111                                                                                           room temperature like ethanol or
            natural gas. Much more methanol        in short, a supply chain for an entirely
1                                                                                               kerosene, through a simple and inex-
            will be produced as countries and      new fuel (Figure 1).
            multilateral development agencies                                                   pensive process – less than 4US cents
3                                                                                               per litre. Once accepted as a house-
4           such as the World Bank find ways       The Production of alcohols
            to reduce the flaring of natural gas                                                hold fuel, methanol can be delivered
5                                                  in Africa                                    to market, as a liquid, for sale in small
6           associated with the exploitation of
            oil in developing countries like       Ethanol is known because where it is         quantities. Conversion to methanol
            Nigeria and Bangladesh, or seek to     produced it is usually produced within       makes it possible for natural gas
            commercialise gas fields that exist    the economy, at a local distillery or at     sourced in Africa to remain in Africa
            in countries like Ethiopia and         the sugar mill. Small amounts of it          and be put to use by the peoples of
            Afghanistan.                           enter the local economy for beverage         Africa – the process is cheap and easy,
        G   Methanol can be produced much          and medicinal use. Molasses distilla-        requiring no costly and complex infra-
            more cheaply than ethanol or           tion plants exist in such countries as       structure. In contrast, ethanol pro-
            kerosene, and in theory could be       South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania,          duced by distillation will vary in cost
            sold to the consumer at a lower        Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya,             between 12 and 25 US cents.
6           price. Initial research showed that    Angola, Uganda, Egypt, Ethiopia and
            it could be marketed at about half     Mauritius. Although there are only           Current projects
8           the cost of non-subsidized kero-       two methanol producers in Africa,            The project is not like traditional stove
9           sene and in most instances on a        over twice as much methanol is pro-          projects as it deals with new fuels and
60          par with or under the cost of sub-     duced in Africa than ethanol. This is a      stoves supplied on an industrial scale.
6111        sidized kerosene.                      tiny fraction of Africa’s potential          Though fuel may ultimately be

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                     31
1111    derived from biomass, it is an                      At the time of writing, the             tionnaire with the family and also
2       improved liquid fuel, virtually un-              Ethiopian pilot study has been running     by personal observation in the family
3       known for household energy use in                for 10 months – some important             home – this delicate process requires
4       Africa. Can it address the problem of            lessons have been learned and mile-        respect for the family and its privacy.
5       scarcity and poor quality household              stones achieved. Four hundred stoves       Next steps include introduction of the
6       fuels on a scale equal to the size of the        are to be installed in homes in Addis      stoves with the fuel to the households.
7       problem? Is this achievable? How to              Ababa and 400 additional stoves are        This will be an exciting moment in
8       get it started?                                  ready for placement in institutional       the project, the central focus of
9                                                        settings (offices, hospitals, clinics,     this project – that it is not simply a
10      Key questions for                                shelters, refugee camps).                  stove project, but a stove and fuel pro-
1       commercialisation                                   Field staff were recruited from         ject.
2       Dometic is an appliance manufacturer             Addis Ababa University, with quality          Stoves will be monitored and safety
3       that has recently started looking at             control staff members who are              training given. After four weeks of free
4       markets in the developing world and is           Masters graduates to lead the field        fuel delivered to the home at a rate of
5       currently developing partnerships with           team (Figure 2) . The team has been        seven litres per week, the fuel will be
6       those with capacity to supply fuels.             trained in the use of the stoves and the   sold to the study participants at cost
7       Studies are under way in Ethiopia,               fuel, mainly by the quality control        price. Later, a selling price for the fuel
8       Nigeria and South Africa                         staff, particularly in safe handling and   will be charged, allowing project staff
9          A key output for the Shell Founda-            operation. Key partners have been          to observe how much fuel is consumed
20111   tion (which is supporting a pilot pro-           involved in the implementation: dis-       when purchased rather than given.
1       ject in Ethiopia) is a business plan that        trict administrators from the Addis           The field staff will conduct con-
        will create the blue print for the com-          Ababa city government; representa-         sumer research which will answer our
        mercialization of the Origo alcohol              tives from the City’s environmental        questions about the readiness of the
        stove (the ‘CleanCook’ stove) and its            works office; a stove commercializa-       stove, the fuel and the fuel distribution
        fuel in Ethiopia. A key purpose of the           tion expert from the Ethiopian Rural       system, and provide data on market-
        pilot study is to map opportunities and          Energy Development and Promotion           ability of the stove and fuel.
        problems, and advance as far as possi-           Center; a technical agency of the gov-        Though several ministries within
        ble prior to crafting business agree-            ernment; a former the head of              the federal government have been

        ments and commitment of investment               Ethiopia’s Science and Technology          helpful and supportive, the govern-
        capital. Fundamental questions seek to           Commission; a plant manager of             ment itself appears hindered by con-
        determine: ‘Are these suitable stoves/           Finchaa Sugar Company; the general         flicting regulation and policy that
        suitable fuels for the environment in            manager of Shell Ethiopia.                 inhibit investment in Ethiopia. How-
        which they are to be placed?’                       Selection of 500 homes in which to      ever, relationships have been forged
                                                         place study stoves was accomplished        with district government officers, with
        Case study: The project in                       in close collaboration with the city       the UN High Commission for Refu-
        Ethiopia                                         administrators to provide a representa-    gees to place stoves in two refugee
8       In 2003, Dometic was granted Shell               tive sample of lower and middle            camps which they manage (Figure 4),
9       Foundation funding for matching funds            income homes. Selecting from the           with the Ogaden Welfare and Develop-
30      for a pilot study with 1000 stoves.              whole city population has promoted         ment Association to place stoves in
1       Dometic teamed with the ethanol pro-             the stove widely and encourage more        both villages and displaced persons
2       ducer, Finchaa Sugar Factory, and a              people to buy the stove once it            camps, and there are discussions with
3       local metal goods manufacturer, Iacona           becomes commercially available.            a charity mission for placing stoves in
4       Engineering, which has an interest in               Baseline studies of each home           their 14 orphanages spread throughout
5       making alcohol stoves.                           involved an extensive survey ques-         Ethiopia.
50                                                                           Figure 3 Refugee camp into which the Ogaden Welfare and
1       Figure 2   Field monitoring team with Project Gaia shirts and caps   Development Association is introducing stoves
3       32                                                                                                       Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111       These projects provide valuable             its alcohol stove in a small consumer     Linde AG – the leading supplier of
2       lessons, and have a commercial objec-          study in South Africa in the year 2001    small, modular gas synthesis plants
3       tive that could make the difference for        by Mr Sten Danielsson, a visionary        worldwide, and has developed a mod-
4       this project. If a market involving            South African entrepreneur who saw        ular methanol plant with a capacity of
5       institutional users is developed as a          the need for improved stoves that         50 or 100 tonnes per day.
6       consequence of the pilot study, these          could be powered by methanol. The
7       institutional buyers with their larger         positive outcome of consumer study,       Nigeria
8       orders and ability to pay could justify        conducted by NOVA Institute – a           Dometic and HydroChem went to
9       a business start up that otherwise             small NGO specializing in household       Nigeria to seek opportunities to
10      might seem too risky with only the             energy, led to the emergence of a         address gas flaring in the Niger Delta.
1       consumer market.                               working group comprising the entre-       They teamed up with a local Nigerian
2          The pilot study is scheduled to be          preneur, methanol producer, the con-      NGO experienced in biomass stoves
3       concluded by June of 2005 with a               sulting NGO, and interested agencies      and household energy issues, the
4       business plan in place to guide the            within the South African government.      Centre for Household Energy and
5       establishment of a commercial project.         Now 300 stoves are in South Africa        Environment (CEHEEN). This team
6       The likelihood of a commercial pro-            awaiting funding for a full-scale pilot   approached the Nigerian federal gov-
7       ject and what form it will take are still      study.                                    ernment, and state and local govern-
8       too early to predict.                              Dometic has created a technology
                                                                                                 ments in the Delta. Delta State is the
                                                       partnership with the world’s leading      most productive oil state in Nigeria
20111   South Africa                                   small-scale gas synthesis process
1                                                                                                with the largest impact from gas flar-
        Dometic had been encouraged to test            company, HydroChem, a division of         ing. Ninety eight percent of its people
3                                                                                                are completely or partially dependent
4                                                                                                on traditional biomass fuels, and of
5                                                                                                those who use improved fuels, most
6                                                                                                use kerosene in cheap wick stoves on
7                                                                                                an occasional basis.
8                                                                                                   A ‘mini-pilot’ study of 20 stoves,

9                                                                                                assisted by Winrock International’s
30                                                                                               Nigeria office, was conducted in Delta
1                                                                                                State in 2003. A study of 300 stoves is
2                                                                                                soon to begin in Delta State, funded
3                                                                                                by the Government of Delta State and
4                                                                                                the U.S. Environmental Protection
5                                                                                                Agency Partners for Clean Indoor Air
6                                                                                                (PCIA) programme. The project in the
7                                                                                                Delta demonstrate to policy makers
8                                                                                                that Nigerian energy resources can be
9                                                                                                put to use in rural communities using
40111                                                                                            appropriate appliances with methanol
1                                                                                                fuel.
6111    Figure 4   Safety manual in Amharic language (photo: Project Gaia)

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                     33
        Public private partnerships for accessing
3       electricity in rural areas
        Ottavia Mazzoni and Hannah Isaac, Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd, Overmoor, Neston, Corsham, Wiltshire,
        SN13 9TZ, United Kingdom. Email: <> Tel: 01225 816831
8       This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the
9       benefit of developing countries. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the DFID.
2       Introduction                                had traditionally been delivered by         Surveys on electrification
3                                                   governments. Although service               projects
        Energy for Sustainable Development
4                                                   improvements have been apparent in
        (ESD) Ltd has recently co-ordinated                                                     The project team surveyed a set of
5                                                   many sectors such as telecommunica-
        work in Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka                                                      electrification projects owned: pri-
6                                                   tions, the electricity sector in develop-
        and Uganda to investigate how public-                                                   vately; by communities; and by local
7                                                   ing countries presents developers with
        private partnerships can lead to afford-                                                authorities. These included:
8                                                   a new set of challenges. This is mainly
        able electricity for the poor both at a
9                                                   due to the presence of large rural pop-     G   diesel off grid generators;
        community and household level in
20111                                               ulations that are far from the grid, and    G   micro-hydro schemes; and
        rural areas. This innovative study,
1                                                   to a relatively limited ability of those    G   solar photovoltaics (PV) home
        funded by The UK Government
2                                                   communities to pay for the service.             systems.
        Department        for     International
3                                                   Some of these issues are being
        Development, sought to resolve the                                                         Information was collected about
4                                                   addressed by the nature of decen-
        following questions:                                                                    both successful and unsuccessful
5                                                   tralised generation, and by innovative
        G   How can development efforts             ways of paying for electricity.             activities, and their impacts on liveli-
                                                       Another challenge is that the pri-       hoods were measured through collec-
            widen access to electricity on a
                                                    vate sector will tend to target wealth-     tion of primary research data.
            sustainable basis?

                                                    ier households, ignoring the poorest,       Livelihood impacts of the projects
        G   How do livelihood impacts of
                                                    most vulnerable parts of the popula-        were compiled from interviews with
            electricity reach down to the poor-
                                                    tion. Where there is a public-private       consumers (both household and insti-
            est in society?
                                                    partnership, the government, espe-          tutional) who were asked to provide
        G   What are the different roles for
                                                    cially through the social agendas of        feedback about how the introduction
            both private and public entities in
                                                    local authorities, can focus on people’s    of electricity had affected their lives.
            achieving this?
                                                    wellbeing and reduce this problem.          Table 1 shows a summary of the pro-
6          Over a period of eighteen months,        Thus partnerships have an important         jects surveyed, with a rating of their
7       in the four project countries, the          role to play in addressing the concerns     sustainability and their impacts on
8       Partnerships for Access to Community        of both public and private entities         people’s livelihood.
9       Electricity (PACE) project has exam-        engaged in financially viable electrifi-       This categorisation was based on
30      ined what has happened in a number          cation projects for the poorest rural       an assessment of each project in terms
1       of rural villages that have been electri-   communities.                                of access to electricity (direct and
2       fied in the last 10 years or so. The
3       work only looked at electricity as one      Table 1   Summary of case studies carried out
4       of a number of energy services, and
5                                                                                                           Livelihood    Sustainability
        involved studies at village level to find                                                           benefits
6       ways of maximizing the benefits of
7                                                   ETHIOPIA
        electricity access. The study also          Private diesel off-grid, Bonna                          X             X
8       involved interviews with the principal      Municipality owned diesel off-grid, Bonosha             X             X
9       actors in national government and the       Community owned off-grid micro-hydro, Yaye              XXX           XX
        private sector to determine the social
1                                                   NEPAL
        and political framework in which
2                                                   Micro hydro scheme, Ghandruk                            XXX           XXX
        public-private partnerships could           Small hydropower, Tehrathum                             XXX           XXX
        operate most successfully in bringing
        benefits to the poor.                       SRI LANKA
5                                                   Micro-hydro in Hettikanda and Athulauda Villages        XXX           XXX
6                                                   Solar PV home systems, Uva Province                     XX            XXX
8       Over the last 50 years, and particularly    UGANDA
9       since the late 1980s, there has been a      Mini-grid from diesel Genset, Magale Village            XX            X
50      general global trend towards the pri-       Micro hydro system, Kisiizi                             XXX           XXX
1       vate sector delivery of services that       [KEY: X – weak, XX – medium, XXX strong]
3       34                                                                                                   Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111    indirect) and performance of the sys-
                                                    Box 1 Uganda – Strong public private partnerships can enhance pro-
2       tem (reliability, safety, etc.). These      ject success
3       two characteristics must be considered
                                                    The Kisiizi Power Company, which is a partnership between the local community,
4       jointly. Otherwise, even when projects      the hospital, government and donors has attracted much interest and support from
5       deliver wide access to electricity, this    the different stakeholders, and is likely to be one of the first companies to receive
6       can be counteracted by a project’s          a subsidy from the Uganda Energy for Rural Transformation (ERT) programme.
7                                                      The company aims to upgrade the current 60KW capacity hydropower plant to
        overall failure.
                                                    294KW so that there is enough electricity to supply the Kisiizi Hospital and the vil-
8          The sustainability of the projects in    lage community. Regular supplies of electricity are expected to accelerate devel-
9       the case studies was measured in terms      opment of local businesses. 194 small businesses will benefit from the micro
10      of whether the projects were able to        hydropower upgrade, including milk and food processing, wood working and
1       attract sufficient revenues to ensure       welding.
2       that systems were well-maintained.
3       Issues such as mismanagement leading        Box 2 Sri Lanka – The role of local planning in ensuring wide access
4       to mistrust and thus failure to pay, or
5                                                   Uva Provincial Council has initiated an active solar home system programme but
        customer withdrawal as a result of an
                                                    recognises that there are limitations for livelihood improvement. For this reason,
6       unreliable electricity supply.              the Council is also undertaking a strategic plan to assess local hydro, wind and
7          Measurement         of     livelihood    biomass resources and identify potential sites for further electrification projects.
8       impacts was based on levels of access          Combining the technical aspects of planning with consultation work on local
9       to electricity, taking into account both    needs and aspirations will be an important step to identifying appropriate systems
20111                                               that respond to the needs of individual communities.
        the uses of electricity and the numbers        In some cases, solar home systems prove to be the adequate way of meeting
1       served. Those projects which received       local energy requirements, whilst in other communities the need to improve edu-
2       a high rating in terms of livelihood        cation, health or employment opportunities may justify additional investment in
3       benefits were those that were able to       higher capacity systems to bring electricity to schools, hospitals and local busi-
4                                                   nesses.
        supply electricity for communal use,           A sustainable planning process is the first step in ensuring that the benefits of
5       such as for hospitals, schools and          electrification reach the poorest in communities. Figure 1 shows a PV panel on
6       income-generating activities, rather        the roof of a private house roof in Uva Province.
7       than those that were restricted to the
8       supply of electricity for lighting to a

9       limited number of homes.
1       Lessons learnt
        Among the projects analysed, the most
4       successful case studies were those
5       with a good balance of public and pri-
6       vate partners since their inception.
7       Both private and public entities have
8       specific roles to play in delivering
9       electricity. For example, the planned
40111   expansion of the micro hydropower
1       plant in Kisiizi, Uganda (Box 1) sees
2       the involvement of numerous partners
3       including the Uganda Government,
4       multilateral organisations like the        Figure 1   Solar panel on house roof, Uva Province, Sri Lanka
5       Global Environment Facility (GEF),
6       the local community and the private
7       sector through the Kisiizi Power            Box 3 Ethiopia – Lack of access to information can make finance
        Company. Local authorities too, can         availability purposeless
9       play a leadership role in mobilising        Bonna town is located in southern Ethiopia (Figure 2) and has little prospects of
        communities for sustainable energy          getting connected to the national grid due to its remoteness. Almost US$18,000
50                                                  was raised by the local population in the hope to finance a local electrification pro-
1       planning, financially supporting pro-
                                                    gramme. Nine years down the line and the local community has not been able to
2       jects that deliver social benefits, and     make use of the money because of limited access to information on how to pro-
3       monitoring private sector service           ceed. Despite this a short term solution was found when a local business man
        delivery. This was seen in the case of      agreed to electrify Bonna using his privately owned diesel genset.
        Sri Lanka – Uva Provincial Council             The people connected complain of the poor standards of the service they
5                                                   receive as well as of the lack of transparency in the way the tariffs are set.
6       (Box 2). This helps to avoid the situa-     Although the original tariff was set in conjunction with the community at US$1.4
7       tion that arose in Bonna town, in           per light bulb, the genset owner has subsequently almost doubled it without con-
8       Ethiopia (Box 3) where poor service         sulting its clients. Despite the involvement of both public and private sector the
        delivery from the private sector led to     electrification process has mainly been dominated by the private party, leading to
9                                                   a very unsatisfactory situation for all, especially because the electricity available
60      mistrust and disillusionment of the         is barely enough to power light bulbs and nothing else.
6111    community.

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                        35
1       Figure 2   Street in Bonna town, Ethiopia
            Other lessons include:                  G   There needs to be a clear policy           that could be models for further
                                                        for rural electrification at country       replication.
5       G   Projects must first be sustainable
                                                        level to set common standards and
            before they can deliver significant
                                                        regulations. A policy of ‘light-       International lessons
            livelihood benefits;                        handed regulation’ (where the reg-
        G   Adequate planning is required if            ulator leaves much of the decision-    In addition to valuable country-spe-

            the economic and social benefits of         making powers to local authorities,    cific lessons, by working in four such
            electricity are to be maximised.            and/or designated agencies etc.),      diverse countries as Ethiopia, Nepal,
            Planners need to be aware that              would ease the uptake of rural         Sri Lanka and Uganda, the project
            demand for electricity rapidly              electrification projects;              team could identify some issues with
            increases as users become more          G   A co-ordinated effort is required      trans-national implications.
            accustomed to the range of                  at national level to make rural        G   Key to a successful rural electrifi-
            possible uses.                              electrification projects financially
6                                                                                                  cation programme is the political
        G   Electricity can alleviate the               viable and thus able to attract
7                                                                                                  and administrative power of local
            pressure on local forestry                  private investors;
8                                                                                                  authorities and their capacity to
            resources for cooking and heating       G   Donors and other institutions
9                                                                                                  engage developers and investors.
            water. However, the shift from              should specify pro-poor measures           Increasingly public-private
1           biomass to electricity must be sup-         when funding electrification pro-
                                                                                                   partnerships that develop are no
2           ported by efforts to promote the            jects. They should also support
                                                                                                   longer initiated at national level,
3           appropriate end use technologies –          specific flagship projects that
                                                                                                   but increasingly at a local author-
4           described in Box 4;                         include public-private partnerships
                                                                                                   ity level.
5                                                                                              G   The most significant livelihood
6                                                                                                  benefits were in projects that pro-
7        Box 4: Nepal – Strong institutional support made all the difference
         alongside community efforts                                                               vided electricity for institutional
8                                                                                                  and commercial use as well as to
9        Electrification of Ghandruk village in Nepal was spearheaded by the NGO
         Annapurna Area Conservation Project (ACAP) which joined hands with local lead-
                                                                                                   households, e.g. in the case of
40111                                                                                              Yaye, Ethiopia – rather than
         ers in 1990 to mobilise financial resources for the construction of a 50KW
1        hydropower plant. The organisation gave the community a loan for the project,             limited to household electricity
2        and also provided training in the design and management of electricity projects.          only.
3        In general, ACAP provided technical, financial and administrative assistance to
4        the project, and also contracted a resident engineer for two years to assist peo-        This project has produced material
         ple when utilising electricity for cooking.                                           that includes a set of useful case stud-
5           Apart from improving quality of life through providing private customers with
6        electricity for cooking and water heating as well as lighting, the project was        ies and a guidelines document enti-
7        expected to boost ACAP’s efforts to combine tourism with sustainable resource         tled: ‘Partnerships for Community
8        management through reducing fuel wood consumption by tourists. Commercial             Electricity: Policy Guidelines’ (Dec
9        users, especially hotels and restaurants were able to improve their services          2003)
         thanks to water heating and the use of low wattage electricity cookers which were
50       promoted by ITDG.                                                                        For more information see:
3       36                                                                                                   Boiling Point No 50 2005
3       ITDG energy news – Sparknet
                                                                                                 household energy source? How
                                                                                                 will more market based
1            Announcing the second Sparknet conference:
2                                                                                                approaches affect low-income
3            Topic: Policies for Sustainable Household Energy in Southern and                    households? – should action be
             Eastern Africa                                                                      taken to mitigate the associated
5                                                                                                risks?
             Date: February/March 2005
6                                                                                            G   What environmental issues are
7            How to participate:                                                                 important to men? – and to
8            Sign up online at (select ‘online conferences’), or               women? Are these the same? How
9            email Grant Ballard-Tremeer on <>                               can we alleviate the barriers to
20111                                                                                            fuel switching to cleaner fuels –
             The conference is 100% online using email and a conference web-                     for cooking? – for lighting? – for
1            site.
2                                                                                                labour saving? especially for the
             More information and updates can be found on the Sparknet                           very poor
3            website
4                                                                                            G   Which regions are characterised
5                                                                                                by acute firewood scarcity? What
6                                                                                                policies would be needed to
7       Conference 1: Household                   G   Will people be forced to move              trigger areas with a surplus to sup-
8       energy scenarios                              back down the energy ladder to             ply those with a deficit? – could

9       September 27–October 8                        more polluting fuels                       they be mapped and policies
30                                                G   What is the role of energy in mov-         agreed? Is natural forest manage-
1                                                     ing people out of poverty? Health          ment an option?
2       This e-conference focused on the key          effects of changes in fuel access or   G   What are the direct causes leading
3       areas of health, gender and household         cost – indoor air pollution,               to deforestation, both nationally
4       energy within the Sparknet countries;         transport costs; how are they              and regionally?
5       Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania,            affected by gender?                    G   What policies can be introduced to
6       Zambia, Mozambique and South              G   What financial policies should be          make fuelwood utilisation more
7       Africa. Each member of Sparknet pre-          adopted? – improved supply                 efficient?
8       sented papers looking at worst case,          chains for fuel? - subsidies on        G   Does the ‘cost’ of fuel gathering
9       business-as-usual, best case, the             improved cooking / lighting prod-          reflect the replacement cost?
40111   Southern partners within their coun-          ucts? – micro-credit? Are these
1       tries, and the Northern partners within                                                 All documents from the confer-
                                                      appropriate for women? How can
2       their specialisms of health, gender and                                              ence, including presentations and pro-
                                                      one factor-in women’s time when
3       forestry.                                                                            ceedings are available on the Sparknet
                                                      looking at fuel choice?
4           Email discussions followed incor-                                                website under the conference section:
                                                  G   How could education reduce the
5       porating ideas from around 140 e-mail         impacts of a worsening situation?
6       participants where these issues were                                                 conference
                                                      What policy action could lead to
7       discussed in detail.                          improved regional information-
8           Key areas included:                       sharing? What are the best ways to
        G   Which groups are most affected by         ‘package’ this information?
            changes in economic growth and        G   Are women represented in
            regional co-operation? – does it          decision-making at policy and
            impact on health, cleaner fuels,          household level?
            such as tariffs, or cross-border      G   How are the use, production, pro-
5           deforestation? What are the gender        vision and distribution of energy
6           dimension to these changes?               services organised? Will a change
7       G   Will changes lead to more rural           in energy affect how it is used and
8           migration? What impacts will this         the person who decides? – and
9           on the key areas? Could urban             who benefits?
60          planning or legislation reduce        G   Will fuelwood and charcoal
6111        some of the problems? – how?              remain the dominant sources of

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                  37
        WHO and UNDP highlight indoor smoke as the killer
3       in the kitchen
        Marc Lopatin – Shell Foundation, Shell International Ltd, Shell Centre, London, SE1 7NA, UK.
9       Figure 1   News compilation
        It’s not every day that Indoor Air           Daily carried the story alongside the    the indoor smoke problem and the
        Pollution makes global headlines. But        Financial Times. The United States       plight of those most affected: rural
4       on Friday 15 October 2004 – World            Environmental Protection Agency          women and their children. It was a day
5       Rural Women’s Day – the UNDP and             (USEPA) reacted to the news by issu-     to demonstrate not just the issue but
6       the World Health Organisation took           ing a supporting statement of its own.   also the solutions being worked on by
7       the unprecedented step of issuing a             During the course of the day, the     readers of Boiling Point all over the
8       joint statement calling for world to         WHO was interviewed by the BBC           world. In a few years’ time, the WHO
9       wake up to this ‘silent killer’ (1).         World Service and United Nations         is planning to present lessons learnt to
50          The boldly worded statement              radio. Meanwhile, global news chan-      governments based on innovative
1       described ‘how thick acrid smoke ris-        nel BBC World devoted an entire edi-     local and national projects’.
2       ing from stoves and fires inside homes       tion of its flagship daily news show,       The sentiment was shared by Karen
3       is associated with around 1.6 million        Asia Today, to discuss IAP with the      Westley, programme manager of
4       deaths per year in developing coun-          Shell Foundation, an Indian entrepre-    Breathing Space™ at the Shell
5       tries – that’s one life lost every 20 sec-   neur and the UNDP.                       Foundation – a $10m commitment to
6       onds to the killer in the kitchen’.             Commenting on the day’s success       scaling up sustainable solutions to IAP
7           The news was picked up by Reuters        Eva Rehfuesse, who led the awareness     in six countries. ‘The October 15th
8       and Associated Press and was repro-          raising initiative from the WHO’s        publicity drive is great news for the
9       duced around the world. Online news-         headquarters in Geneva, said: ‘The       Partnership for Clean Indoor Air. It’s
60      papers across continents including the       combined action by the WHO and           great to see the partnership’s biggest
6111    Washington Times and the China               UNDP highlighted the magnitude of        members front up the issue before a

        38                                                                                                 Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111                                                                                              mainstream media audience around
2                                                                                                 the world. We face a tough challenge
3                                                                                                 bringing attention to our cause in some
4                                                                                                 parts of the world but at least now we
5                                                                                                 have some something to build on.’
6                                                                                                    Cowan Coventry, ITDG’s chief
7                                                                                                 executive, and Kurt Hoffman, director
8                                                                                                 of the Shell Foundation, issued a state-
9                                                                                                 ment ask whether there is the political
10                                                                                                will to match the solutions being
1                                                                                                 implemented across the developing
2                                                                                                 world (2) and (3).
3                                                                                                    The case for raising the importance
4                                                                                                 of IAP received a second boost just
5                                                                                                 two weeks later. In late October, the
6                                                                                                 Paris-based International Energy
7                                                                                                 Agency (IEA) released its authorita-
8                                                                                                 tive World Energy Outlook (2004)
9                                                                                                 which again drew attention to solving
20111                                                                                             IAP.
1     Figure 2 Woman cooking using biomass stove
                                                                                                     In a chapter entitled Energy and
                                                                                                  Development, the report pointed out
                                                                                                  that ‘the achievement of the Millen-
       Indoor air pollution toolkit                                                               nium Development Goals would most
6      For the past four years, the Shell Foundation has been running Breathing                   likely require a substantial reduction
7      Space™ – a $10m investment to promote solutions for reducing IAP that can be               in the use of traditional biomass for
       scaled up to reach the two billion people we know are at risk.                             cooking and heating’. The IEA esti-
8      Breathing Space will shortly enter a scale-up phase for successful pilot pro-
9      grammes and the Shell Foundation will be summarising and disseminating its
                                                                                                  mated that if poverty alleviation tar-
30     approach through a commercialisation toolkit. It will be designed to provide a             gets were to be met, the use of modern
1      framework for the development of demand driven, financially viable models for              cooking and heating fuels would have
       delivering improved household energy solutions.                                            to be extended to 700 million more
2         The toolkit is being compiled in India by Accenture Development Partnerships
3      – a charitable organisation that brings business, technology and management                people by 2015.
4      skills to the developing world. On completion, it will help to better understand the
5      market and its size; understand consumer behaviour; decide who produces and                Further information
6      provides products and services and how they are distributed; and identify poten-
                                                                                                  1. WHO:
       tial sources of local financing for businesses.
7         Commenting on the toolkit, Karen Westley, Shell Foundation programme man-                  tre/news/statements/2004/statement5/en/
8      ager, said: ‘It’s part of our overall aim of infusing development thinking with ‘busi-     2. Shell Foundation: http://www.shellfoun-
9      ness DNA’ to ensure solutions are both financially sustainable and scalable. In     
40111 terms of IAP, our ultimate goal is to export the final methodology to other parts of        3. ITDG:
       India as well as Asia and Africa, where IAP remains a major health hazard.’                   who)
                                                                                                  4. CEIHD: ;
4      Household Energy Monitoring and Evaluation Consortium
5      The Shell Foundation and The Center for Entrepreneurship in International Health
6      and Development (CEIHD) invite you to join the Household Energy Monitoring
7      and Evaluation Consortium in 2005. A cross-section of NGOs, researchers, poli-
       cymakers and funding agencies will be participating in this new forum to share
       knowledge and technologies for assessing household energy solutions. The con-
9      sortium’s activities will include:
       G Distributing high-quality equipment including the new UCB particle monitor
1      G Training for indoor air pollution monitoring and stove performance
2      G Developing a network of regional providers offering on-site assistance with
3          monitoring and evaluation activities
       G Convening an annual meeting where participants can discuss shared perfor-
           mance indicators and standardized metrics
5      G Offering funds and support to research institutions to improve existing or invent
6          new monitoring and evaluation tools
7      G Creating an accessible, global, electronic library of monitoring and evaluation

8          results from household energy interventions around the world
9      CEIHD already offers assistance with intervention monitoring and evaluation to
           NGOs. For more information visit the CEIHD website (4) or contact Dana
60         Charron at or +1–510–643–6432

                                                                                                Boiling Point No 50 2005                39
              What’s happening in
              household energy?
8                                                                                                    Information: Crispin Pemberton-Pigott;
        Ashden Awards for
                                                                                                     Email: or Rina King;
10      Sustainable Energy
                                                                                                     Email: Website:
1       The Ashden Trust is inviting submis-                                               
2       sions for the Ashden Awards for
3       Sustainable Energy 2005. We hope to                                                          Partnership for Clean
4       offer five first prizes of up to £30,000                                                     Indoor Air
5       each, for outstanding sustainable
6                                                                                                    The first electronic newsletter for the
        energy projects (three for developing                                                        Partnership for Clean Indoor Air is
7       countries and two for the UK). The
8                                                                                                    now online. If you would like to
        awards are for community-based
9                                                                                                    receive it automatically via the Partner-
        renewable energy. Overseas applicants
20111                                                                                                ship, complete your partner profile on-
        will be asked to send a concept note
1                                                                                                    line at
        by the end of November (concept note
2                                                                                                    PCIA would love to highlight your
        forms are on the website).
3                                                                                                    household energy and health achieve-
           Full details of criteria and applica-
4                                                                                                    ments,events and news in the next edi-
        tion instructions can be found on the
5                                                                                                    tion of the PCIA Bulletin. Please send
6                                                                                                    your contributions to pciaonline@
7       Inheriting the World: the                                                           by January 5, 2005 for the
8                                                                                                    next edition of the Bulletin.
        Atlas of Children’s Health
30      and the Environment                                                                          Information: Brenda Doroski, U.S.
1       A useful atlas on child health can be      Figure 1   Vesto stove                            Environmental Protection Agency,
2       found at: <                                                           Partnership for Clean Indoor Air,
                                                                                           , Phone:
3       publications/atlas/en/>. The map enti-     cook and simultaneously reduce fire               202–343–9764
4       tled ‘Indoor Smoke: Breaking Down          emissions, increase the stove life and
5       Respiratory Defences’ can be found on      offer a measure of controllability of             PEER Africa – Energy and
6       the web at:        the fire’s intensity. Made mainly of              Environmentally Costs
7       publications/en/09indoorsmoke.pdf ;        stainless steel, the Vesto cuts fuel con-
8                                                                                                    Optimised EECO™
        it is also be available as a poster from   sumption typically by 70%. The Vesto
9       the WHO website. Another map high-         is already being marketed in several
40111   lights how indoor air pollution and        countries. It contains design innova-             PEER Africa has been active main-
1       poverty are linked can be found at:        tions including pre-heated primary                streaming the Energy and Environ-
2      and secondary air, and it makes char-             mentally Costs Optimised EECO™
3       n/02richpoor.pdf                           coal as it cooks. It can use woods nor-           development concepts to address inte-
4                                                  mally considered to hard to burn well,            grated low-income human settle-
5       Vesto Stove wins major                     compressed sawdust logs and low                   ment/energy management government
6       design award                               density biomass briquettes.                       policy and strategy initiatives. Two
8       The Vesto stove, a multi-fuel biomass
9       cooking stove, has been given the
50      Chairman’s Award as an outstanding
1       example of design excellence by the
2       Design Institute of South Africa
3       (DISA). This is a new type of stove,
4       with a number of innovations intended
5       for use in low income communities.
6          The Vesto is produced by New
7       Dawn Engineering (Swaziland and
8       South Africa). It is the result of a two
9       year project to find increase the effi-
60      ciency substantially, to reduce signifi-
6111    cantly the amount of fuel required to      Figure 2   Low-income settlements, South Africa

        40                                                                                                        Boiling Point No 50 2005
1111    model projects are underway in South         give light for 10 years continuously         disaggregated data, of the issues around
2       Africa, in Johannesburg (Alexandra)          and their price keeps falling so oil         urban energy supply and use for poor
3       and in Cape Town (Atlantis), spon-           lamps and candles can now be                 people’s livelihood strategies. The team
4       sored by the Provincial or Local             replaced by these devices which, with        is headed by Joy Clancy from the
5       Government Departments of Housing.           the solar panels, last for many years.       University of Twente in the Netherlands
6       The programme involves two separate             DIY Solar powering is quite unlike        working with partners from Nigeria,
7       pilot projects involving about 9,000         Solar Home Systems (SHS) as it just          Brazil and the Philippines and ENER-
8       beneficiaries. The programme focuses         intended to make a little electricity        GIA (the international network on gen-
9       on reduction of space heating and            affordable for those without mains           der and energy). The study will collect
10      lighting demand via extensive capac-         electricity and has no other use – for       data on the role that energy plays in
1       ity building programmes with local           example, a radio can be powered for          enabling poor urban women and men’s
2       community leaders. The second area           as little $1.We also give information        strategies to create sustainable liveli-
3       of focus is based on applied research        about self-assembly solar cookers.           hood strategies and outcomes. The
4       linking energy and fire prevention                                                        three country partners will disseminate
                                                     Information: BioDesign, 15 Sandyhurst
5       management. The third aspect of the          Lane, Ashford, Kent UK TN25 4NS              the results through national workshops
6       projects being considered is based on Tel/Fax                  and a final international workshop will
7       the long term strategy to look into          44–1233–626677                               be held in London in June 2005, which
8       sustainable ways to obtain bridging                                                       will be followed by a special issue of
9       finance for small scale contractors via      Innovative renewable                         ENERGIA News.
20111   loan guarantees and support.                 energy application initiative
1                                                                                                 Information: Joy Clancy, TDG, University
                                                     in rural Tanzania                            of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
2       Information: D. Mothusi Guy PEER Africa
        (Pty) Ltd. Email:, Tel:   Rural Tanzania is targeted in a    
        +27825796032                                 research project that a Sokoine
4                                                                                                 Domestic Use of Energy
                                                     University (SUA) lecturer, Dr Joseph
        Cremasco bioheater                           Mpagalile, is pursuing in the US             Conference 2005
        combustion system: high                      together with a team of US researchers       The Cape Technikon, Cape
8       efficiency biomass conver-                   led by Professor Milford Hanna of the        Town
9       sion for a sustainable future                University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The          29–31 March 2005
30                                                   research, funded by Fulbright African        Issues addressed include: sustainable
        A small-scale, high-efficiency, low          Research Scholarship and adminis-
1       emissions biomass thermal processor                                                       energy provision; aspects from the
2                                                    tered by the U.S. State Department’s         Johannesburg World Summit on
        has been designed that can accept a          Bureau of Educational and Cultural
3       wide variety of biomass feed materials                                                    Sustainable Development; implica-
4                                                    Affairs, looks into ways of using solar      tions of the Kyoto protocol; environ-
        as fuels to generate heat or combined        (PV modules) to power vegetable oil
        heat and power (CHP). the Cremasco                                                        mental legislation; the role of renew-
6                                                    presses. It is expected that the effort to   ables; off-grid electricity supply and
        Bioheater processes low-grade bio-           improve small-scale oil processing in
7                                                                                                 subsidised tariffs.
        mass fuels, some with very high mois-        rural areas of Tanzania will enrich its
8                                                                                                 Information: DUE 2005, Nickey
        ture content, in some cases approach-        scientific and technological develop-
9                                                                                                 Amsterdam, CAPE TECHNIKON, Room
        ing 70% by weight water. From such           ment and contribute to worldwide
40111                                                                                             3.09, Engineering Building, Tennant Street,
        wet fuels, the bioheater has demon-          technological development. The pro-          CAPE TOWN, 8001.
2       strated that it can sustain combustion       ject will help rural area communities        Email:; Tel: +2721 – 460
3       at temperatures of 1000C to 1200C            conserve the environment by using            3658; Fax: +2721 – 460 3701
4       with no visible smoke emissions due to       solar energy and vegetable oils.
        incompletely combusted organics. For                                                      Indoor Air 2005:
5                                                    Information: Dr J. J. Mpagalile, Nebraska
6       example, the Cremasco Bioheater con-         University-Lincoln
                                                                                                  The 10th International
7       sumes coffee pulp as fuel to generate        Department of Biological Engineering         Conference on Indoor Air
8       heat for drying wet green coffee beans,      Systems, Industrial and Agricultural         Quality and Climate
9       eliminating polluting coffee pulp and        Products Center                              Sep. 4–Sep. 9, 2005, Beijing,
        reducing pressures on forestry.              228 L.W. Chase Hall, Lincoln, NE
                                                     68583–0730. Tel: (402) 472 1758; Fax:        China
1       Further information: Frank Scott , Email:    (402) 472 6338                               The conference will provide opportu-
2       Frank Scott []                                                         nities to exchange new ideas on indoor
3                                                    Energy services in urban                     air sciences, to hear the state-of-the-art
4       Solar PV Electricity for Poor                poor livelihoods                             technologies, to identify solutions for
5       Communities                                  A research study, begun in 2003, funded      problems related to indoor air, and to
        A technique has been developed so            by the UK’s Department for Inter-            build partnerships within and between
        that small solar-pv panels can be            national Development (DFID) Know-            sciences such as engineering, medi-
        easily self-assembled by NGOs to             ledge and Research Programme (KaR)           cine, chemistry, microbiology and
        power low cost devices such as radios,       is aiming to provide a clear understand-     architecture.
6111    torches, etc. New ultra-bright LEDs          ing, based on micro-level gender-            Information:

        Boiling Point No 50 2005                                                                                                          41
    Boiling Point is a technical journal for those working with stoves
   and household energy. It deals with technical, social, financial and
    environmental issues and aims to improve the quality of life for
            poor communities living in the developing world.

        Theme editorial: scaling up                                                                                     1
        Jonathan Rouse
        Scaling up biogas in Nepal: what else is needed?                                                                2
        Jiwan Acharya, Sundar Bajgain and Prem Sagar Subedi

                                                                                                                            Theme articles
        Ten top tips for successful scaling up                                                                          5
        Alan Brewis
        Rocket stoves for sub-Saharan Africa                                                                            7
        Peter Scott
        Designing stoves for mass production                                                                            8
        Don O’Neal
        The Ecostove – getting rid of nearly 90% of kitchen wood smoke                                                 12
        Dana Charron
        Programmes promoting improved household energy in China                                                        14
        Professor Zhang Xiliang and Professor Kirk Smith
        Is gender a key variable in household energy and indoor air pollution interventions?                           17
        Elizabeth Cecelski

        GTZ pages                                                                                                      19
        Editor: Agnes Klingshirn
        Strengthening community partnerships                                                                           23
        Hellen Owala
        Dissemination of solar home systems in Vietnam: a case study of

                                                                                                                            Theme articles
        successful partnership                                                                                         24
        Soma Dutta
        A model for dissemination of improved biomass fuels and cooking devices
        through rural enterprises                                                                                      26
        Priyadarshini Karve
        Institutional partnership in improved cooking stove dissemination: experiences
        from West Bengal, India                                                                                        29
        Debajit Palit
        Project Gaia: commercializing a new stove and new fuel in Africa                                               31
        Harry Stokes and Bengt Ebbeson
        Public private partnerships for accessing electricity in rural areas                                           34
        Ottavia Mazzoni and Hannah Isaacs
        ITDG energy news – Sparknet conferences                                                                        37
        WHO and UNDP highlight indoor smoke as the killer in the kitchen                                               38
        Marc Lopatin
        What’s happening in household energy?                                                                          40

                    Our mission is to build the technical skills of poor people in developing countries,
                    enabling them to improve the quality of their lives and that of future generations
                        Intermediate Technology Development Group Ltd., Patron: HRH The Prince of Wales, KG, KT, GCB
       TO POVERTY                        Company Reg No. 871954, England. Reg. Charity No. 247257

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