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					From apembert Fri Jul 16 00:29:07 1993
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      id AA26793; Fri, 16 Jul 93 00:27:12 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307160427.AA26793@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: n.. zseny subj-pred
To: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Date: Fri, 16 Jul 93 0:27:12 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: ROs

SENTENCES:       SUBJECTS    AND   PREDICATES

SUBJECT(S) OF A SENTENCES


The SUBJECT of the sentence tells who or what the sentence is
about.

EX:       Rain   fell   in   torrents   all     day.
                |
           subject

          The planes that dropped the bombs on Libya are
landing in London now.
                      Subject

  The COMPLETE SUBJECT is all the words that make up the
subject.

EX:   All tenth grade students who have paid their class dues are
                       complete subject

             invited to the class picnic.


   The SIMPLE SUBJECT is the NOUN in the COMPLETE SUBJECT that
performs the
action of the sentence.

                               simple subject
                                   \ /
                        The planes that dropped the bombs on
Libya...

                             simple subject
                                 \ /
           All tenth grade students who have paid their class
dues...



DIRECTIONS: In the following sentences, underline the COMPLETE
SUBJECT, then
draw a circle around the SIMPLE Subject.   Remember, the SIMPLE
subject is
always
a Noun in the Complete Subject!!!

1.   Brandon spent twenty dollars at the dance.
2.   Chris' brother won three marbles after school.
3.   We went to town to buy some paper last night.
4.   Gerald and Angela like to put ketchup on their hot dogs.
5.   Mary, the girl in the first row, dropped her pencil.
6.   St. Louis has many mills and factories.
7. Oaks are usually the last trees to shed their leaves in the
fall.
8.   The sunflower always turns its face toward the sun.
9.   Many famous people are seen on television each week.
l0. A robin's nest and an owl's nest are in that tree.
11. The giant trees of California are called the skyscrapers
of the forest.
12. Many sections of the United States have beautiful streams
and lakes.
13. Mr. Coleburn, the editor of our weekly paper, wrote this
article.
14. Paul Revere was a patriot, a silversmith, and a designer
of bookplates.
15. The man put the new phone in Jerry's room.




PREDICATES
     Page 2


The PREDICATE is the word or group of words that describe what
the subject does
or is. The PREDICATE always includes the COMPLETE VERB.



                verb
               / \
EX:     Rain   fell in torrents all day.
                  =================================
                          predicate



                                                      verb
                                                  /          \
    The planes that dropped the bombs on Libya are landing in
London now.

================================

predicate



                                         verb
                                        /    \
All students who have paid their dues are invited to the class
picnic.

=================================
                                                        predicate




DIRECTIONS: Draw a Double Line under the PREDICATE in each
sentence. Then
draw
a BOX around the complete verb(s).


1. My father caught five bass last week.

2. Who has earned the most money?

3. We have been writing to you every week.

4. Who has been repairing this bird cage?

5. No one in this class has taken it more than twice.

6. He was walking to work every day that week.

7. By whom has the fire been discovered?

8. The prom committee placed the ivy in old lamps.

9. You have charged me too much for this pencil.

10. Lane and Todd live on farms.

11. We have been going to a meeting every Friday.

12. John, get up and answer the telephone.

13. Todd had been earning five dollars every Saturday.

14. Chris delivers the evening papers.
15. We enjoyed our trip to the Pocono Mountains.




SUBJECTS AND PREDICATES
                                                           Page 3

DIRECTIONS: UNDERLINE the COMPLETE SUBJECT, then draw a circle
around the
SIMPLE subject. Draw TWO LINES under the PREDICATE, then draw
a box around the
complete VERB(S).

l.    I thought my workbook had been stolen.

2. Thomas Edison had been trying the experiments for a long
time.

3.    We walk a mile each day.

4.    Leroy is telling me about his favorite class.

5.    His best friend was telephoning the girl.

6.    Mary will tear the wrapping from the package.

7. The Ohio River has been flowing into the Mississippi for
centuries.

8.    We have been taught how to play the new card game.

9.    The level of the lake has been rising rapidly.

10.   All the girls have been told the story.

11.   The boy had a plan to get his book back.

12.   L.D. students must work harder than other students.

13.   Danny took the dictionary and the atlas to the library.

14.   Thirteen dogs walked across the road and ran into the yard.

15.   Mark found his money after he walked in the store.


16.   The ship was sunk by the storm and the wind.

17.   The Columbia was flown to Florida.

18.   A teacher from New Hampshire died in a space shuttle
accident.

19.   Most students enjoy the talent show.

20.   Mary gave him the directions to the party.

21.   Gerald puts brown sugar and cinnamon on his oatmeal.

22.   Mike likes girls.

23.   Which religion did you read about in the book?

24.   How many books did you read this year?

25.   My uncle brought me this rug from Cairo, Egypt.

26.   Marvin has received a letter from his brother in Alaska.

27.   A student should learn the value of good literature.

28.   The secretary's report is on Madeline's desk.

29.   Boston and Philadelphia are interesting cities.

30. Through the dense fog we could see the masts of the
schooner.

31.   George Washington Carver experimented with peanuts.

32.   The world's strangest animals live in Australia.

33. On the coast and in the mountains of Peru you can find the
ruins of

            ancient cities.

34.   Libraries are homes for books.

35.   St. Augustine is the oldest town in our country.




From apembert   Sat Jul 17 12:53:23 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA17575; Sat, 17 Jul 93 12:51:27 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171651.AA17575@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: grammer-sentence completers
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 12:51:26 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: RO


COMPLETERS

Direct Objects

THE DIRECT OBJECT RECEIVES THE ACTION OF THE VERB:
The Direct Object is usually a noun that follows an action verb.

Steps to find the direct object of an action verb:

EX:    Mrs. Scott read the test

1.    FIND   THE VERB: read
2.    FIND   THE SUBJECT; WHO OR WHAT read? Mrs. Scott
3.    FIND   THE OBJECT; WHO OR WHAT DID Mrs. Scott read?
       the   test

Use the above steps to find the direct objects in these
sentences:

A.    Michael threw the football across the field.

    1. VERB _____________ 2.       SUBJECT:   WHO OR WHAT threw?
____________

      3.     OBJECT: WHO OR WHAT DID Michael throw? ______


B.    Danny had been throwing snowballs all afternoon.

    1. COMPLETE VERB _______ ________ _____________
    2. SUBJECT: WHO OR WHAT had been throwing?
___________________
    3. OBJECT: WHO OR WHAT had Danny been throwing?
__________________


C. All of the students, who made A's this semester, earned
their grades.

      1.     COMPLETE VERB _______________
      2.     SUBJECT: WHO OR WHAT earned? ____________________
      3.     OBJECT: WHO OR WHAT DID All earn? ___________________
D.    Timmy sold the stamps to his brother.

     COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ____________ OBJECT
___________


E.    Brandon and Danny gave a good laugh to Mr. Hurt.

     COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ______________and
_____________
     OBJECT _________________

F.    Angela carried milk and cookies to her grandmother's house.

      COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ____________
      OBJECT ___________and ____________


G. The little boy kicked and hit the evil man who was trying
to kidnap him.

     COMPLETE VERB _____________and ______________ SUBJECT
____________
     OBJECT ______________




SENT.4    Page 2
Subject Completer

THE SUBJECT COMPLETER FOLLOWS THE LINKING VERB AND COMPLETES
THE MEANING OF THE
SENTENCE. The subject completer may be a noun, pronoun, an
adjective, or an
adverb.


Steps to find the subject completer:

EX:    Mrs. Scott looks lovely today.

1.    FIND THE LINKING VERB: looks
2.    FIND THE SUBJECT; WHO OR WHAT looks?
       Mrs. Scott
3.    FIND THE SUBJECT COMPLETER; Mrs. Scott looks WHO OR
       WHAT? lovely
4.    DRAW AN ARROW FROM lovely TO Mrs. Scott
       IT DESCRIBES.

Use the above steps to find the subject completers in these
sentences:

A.   Michael felt excited when the plane left the ground.

    1. VERB _____________ 2. SUBJECT: WHO OR WHAT felt?
____________
    3. SUBJECT COMPLETER:Michael felt WHO OR WHAT? ___________
    4. DRAW AN ARROW FROM excited TO Michael.

B.   Danny has been looking pale all week.

    1. COMPLETE VERB _______ ________ _____________
    2. SUBJECT: WHO OR WHAT has been looking?
___________________
    3. SUBJECT COMPLETER: Danny has been looking WHO OR WHAT?
          __________________  DRAW AN ARROW FROM pale TO Danny.

C. All of the students, who made A's this semester, looked
happy.

    1. COMPLETE VERB _______________
    2. SUBJECT: WHO OR WHAT looked? ____________________
    3. SUBJECT COMPLETER: All looked WHO OR WHAT?
___________________
    4. DRAW AN ARROW FROM happy TO All.

D.   Timmy's brother is always a good student.

COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ____________ SUBJECT COMPLETER
___________
        Draw an arrow from the Subject Completer to the Subject.

E.   Brandon and Timmy seem tired.

COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ____________and______________
  SUBJECT COMPLETER ___________
  Draw an arrow from the Subject Completer to the Subject.

F.   Angela remained angry and hungry after the bus left.

     COMPLETE VERB __________ SUBJECT ____________
     SUBJECT COMPLETER ___________and ____________
        Draw an arrow from the Subject Completer to the Subject.

G. The little train looked and felt tired when it got to the
top of the hill.

     COMPLETE VERB _____________and ______________ SUBJECT
____________
     SUBJECT COMPLETER ______________
        Draw an arrow from the Subject Completer to the Subject.
SENTENCE COMPLETERS Page 3

In the following sentences, find and circle the DIRECT OBJECT.


1.   Daryl took the books to the library.

2.   The AIASA members are selling the Cougar pennants.

3.   The president gave the diamond necklace to his wife.

4.   The police investigated the theft of the computer.

5.   The other team lost the game because of the snow.

6.   Students are selling buckets and bunnies to raise the money.

7.   The Juniors are having a carwash next week.

8.   The plumber turned the pipe with the wrench.

9.   Ray was the winner at the VICA competition.

10. The snow covered roads, fields, and houses.

11. The storm knocked out the power lines.

12. We lit an old kerosene lamp.

13. The wind ripped the old storm door off the front of the
house.

14. The flying door broke the daffodil heads peeking out of the
ground.

15. We stitched our quilt during the long cold night.




In the following sentences, find and circle the SUBJECT
COMPLETER. Then draw
an
arrow from the SUBJECT COMPLETER to the Subject.

1. The baby's mother smiled proudly as the little tyke tried
to walk.

2.   He seems too small for his age.

3.   After the fall, he looked surprised.

4.   The students seem nervous today.
5.   Graham is the SCA President.

6.   John Warner is a Virginia Senator

7.   Jerry Baliles is the Governor of Virginia.

8.   Chuck Robb was the Governor before Baliles was elected.

9.   These movie stars are pretty even without their makeup.

10. Tomatoes are my favorite food.

11. Ghosts aren't real.

12. His father is a deacon in the church.

13. The game stakes were too high for me.

14. That dog looks mighty fierce to me.

15. Isn't that foam around his mouth?




From apembert Sat Jul 17 12:58:26 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA17682; Sat, 17 Jul 93 12:57:10 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171657.AA17682@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: sentence fragments
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 12:57:09 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

SENT.6     Sentence Fragments


A SENTENCE FRAGMENT IS AN INCOMPLETE SENTENCE.



Most fragments include phrases or dependent clauses.   Phrase
fragments occur in
the following ways:


Fragment (SUBJECT MISSING) .......... had seen the potted plant
Correct:   Brandon had seen the potted plant.
Fragment (PREDICATE MISSING) The boy who wrecked his car........
Correct: The boy who wrecked his car was afraid to tell his
father.


Fragment (SUBJECT AND PREDICATE MISSING) .... .... with your
fingers
Correct: You may eat the sandwich with your fingers.



Dependent clauses are sentence fragments, such as the following:

FRAGMENT:     because of the snow
CORECT:      School closed early because of the snow.


FRAGMENT:  as the water rushed along
CORRECT: As the water rushed along, it picked up sticks and
leaves.



DIRECTIONS: Label the following sentences as (F) fragments, or
(S) sentences:

_______ 1.    happiness is a warm blanket

_______ 2.    with miles and miles of red tape

_______ 3.    Mike likes girls

_______ 4.    if she will go out with me

_______ 5.    all of you will be late to class

_______ 6.    sat on the first desk

_______ 7.    all the students who take English with Mrs.
Pemberton

_______ 8.    because Mr. Hurt said we would

_______ 9.    have no fear

_______ 10. when are you going to see him
SENT.6   FRAGMENTS                                 Page 2


DIRECTIONS: Identify the following groups of words as (S)
sentence, or

     (F) Fragment. If the words are a fragment, write them into
     sentence on the line below. (If a sentence, leave the
line blank.)


_______ 1.   computers are one of the greatest inventions of our
time

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 2.   Apple computers, one of the first computers used in
schools

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 3.   has an Apple computer

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 4.   a lot of money

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 5.   a complete Apple II computer system

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 6.   looks like the one in the picture

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 7.   how to hook up any of these componants

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 8.   the Apple IIc, which first appeared in 1984
_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 9.   after unpacking the disk drive

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 10. before plugging the unit into a wall outlet

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 11. if you have trouble with power surges

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 12. at the back of the main circuit board

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 13. the Apple II actually has two kinds of memory

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 14. the contents of ROM never change; but the contents
of RAM are

               lost when you turn off the computer.

_________________________________________________________________________
___

_______ 15. as soon as all components are connected

_________________________________________________________________________
___
From apembert Sat Jul 17 13:03:24 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA17788; Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:02:31 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171702.AA17788@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: sentence patterns
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:02:31 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

SENT. 5:   SENTENCE PATTERNS


SENTENCE PATTERN 1:    SUBJECT-VERB   (S-V)

Sentence Pattern 1 is made up of a simple subject and an
intransitive verb.
Each may have modifiers, but the modifiers do not change
the basic pattern.

               S        V
Ex:     The children played.
                 S        V
          The children played with their toys.
                                 S        V
             The noisy little children played with their
toys.


DIRECTIONS: Identify the Subject (S) and Verb (V) in each
of the following
        Pattern 1 sentences.



1.       The little baby gurgled.
2.    Her mother smiled proudly.

3.    Then they slept in silence.

4.    The wind blew softly.

5.    The tree rocked in the wind.


6.    A branch crackled at its base.

7.    The sound echoed in the forest.

8.    A gust of wind echoed in the forest.

9.    It snapped completely off.


10.   The branch tumbled to the ground.

11.   Bus 23 was late yesterday.

12.   The bus slid off the road.

13.   The right front wheel fell into the ditch.

14.   The tow truck came quickly.

15.   The truck failed.


16.   The students got off the bus.

17.   They pushed hard.

18.   The wheel rolled onto the road.

19.   The students cheered loudly.


20.   All of them climbed back on the bus.

21.   The principal would not listen to the story.

22.   He laughed at the idea.

23.   The proud students didn't care about the principal

24.   They were proud of their work.

25.   The bus driver was proud of the students, too.
SENT. 5:   SENTENCE PATTERNS                            Page
2

SENTENCE PATTERN 2:    SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT   (S-V-O)

Sentence Pattern 2 is made up of a simple subject, a
transitive verb, and a
direct object.

           S        V                  O
EX:     Students built the brick wall.
             S      V            O
           They carried the bricks.
                    S      V              O
                Students built the brick wall during their
Masonry class.
                      S     V          O
                    They carried the bricks from the truck.

SENTENCE PATTERN 2a:   SUBJECT-VERB-INDIRECT OBJECT-DIRECT
OBJECT (S-V-IO-DO)

Sentence Pattern 2a is made up of a subject, a transitive
verb, an indirect
object, and a direct object. Sentence Pattern 2a is just
like Pattern 2, with
the addition of the indirect object. The indirect object
comes AFTER the verb,
and IN FRONT of the direct object.

          S    V    IO       DO
EX:     Tammy gave Chris the pen.
            S     V     IO        DO
          Leroy told Roscoe the answer.
              S    V    IO      DO
            James gave Chris a ride to Burkeville.
                            S             V      IO
DO
                The whole group of girls sang Mr. Glover a
song.

DIRECTIONS: Identify the Subject (S), Verb (V), Object (O)
or the
        Subject (S), Verb (V), Indirect Object (IO), and
Direct Object (DO)
          in each of the following sentences.

1.    Heavy trucks hauled bricks to the same place.

2.    The drivers unloaded the bricks in tall stacks.
3. At noon another truck brought the workers their
lunches.

4. Cooks had made the workers some sandwiches in the
morning.

5.   The workers eagerly ate the ham sandwiches.

6.   By nightfall, the boss gave the workers a rest.

7.   They welcomed the end of the day.

8.   The next day they mixed mortar in large pans.

9.   Some workers laid the bricks in neat rows.

10. These workers spread mortar over each row of bricks.


11. The workers laid more bricks in the fresh mortar.

12. At the end of the week, the boss gave the workers their
paychecks.

13. Lots of workers took home paychecks that week.

14. Last week students took home their report cards.

15. Some kids promised their parents better grades next
time.

16. Some parents promised their kids gifts for better
grades next time.

17. Todd bought the girl a necklace.

18. The girl wore the necklace to school.

19. All her friends liked the necklace.

20. The girl now likes Todd.


SENT 5:   SENTENCE PATTERNS                             Page
3

SENTENCE PATTERN 3    SUBJECT-LINKING VERB-SUBJECT COMPLETER
(S-LV-SC)

Sentence Pattern 3 is made up of a subject, a linking verb,
and a subject
completer. The subject completer may be a noun, a pronoun,
an adjective, or an
adverb.
        S      LV        SC
EX:   Angus became a chief.
          S   LV   SC
          He was proud.
                   S    LV    SC
             His clan grew restless.


DIRECTIONS: Identify the Subject (S), Linking Verb (LV),
and Subject
        Completer (SC) in each of the following sentences.

1.    The land was hilly.

2.    The trees seemed short in the rocky soil.

3.    They were spindly.

4.    The inhabitants were tough.

5.    They became famous for their fighting ability.


6.    They were rugged like their country.

7. The students were late for class because of the
accident.

8.    None of the students were injured in the accident.

9.    They seemed very nervous.

10. Some of the girls were crying.


11. A few of the boys got angry at the teacher.

12. The teacher acted tough.

13. She really felt sorry for the students.

14. By lunch time, most of the students seemed more
relaxed.

15. Some of the students were afraid to go home on the same
bus.


16. A few of them became sick during the day.

17. All were glad when the day ended.

18. Last Wednesday seemed longer than one day.
19. Even the band sounded off-key that day.

20. That was the last accident I ever want to have.


21.   Mr. Glover is the Assistant Principal of our school.

22.   Mrs. Pemberton is our teacher.

23.   Mrs. Scott is the best aide in the school.

24.   Miss Bryant is my math teacher.

25.   Nottoway is the best school in the state!




SENT 5:      SENTENCE PATTERNS                               Page
4



DIRECTIONS: Identify the sentence pattern of each of the
following sentences.

      S-V:    Subject-Verb

      S-V-O:    Subject-Verb-Direct Object

         S-V-IO-DO:    Subject-Verb-Indirect Object-Direct
Object

         S-LV-SC:     Subject-Linking Verb-Subject Completer


____________      1. AIDS has arrived in this area.

____________ 2. The Virginia Department of Health would
not give the editor

                         the facts about Nottoway.

____________     3. Mr. Casey W. Riley is the Director of the
Bureau of

                         Sexually-Transmitted Diseases.
____________   4. He told the editor the truth.

____________   5. Cases were found in three nearby counties.

____________ 6. No cases were found in Nottoway or in
Dinwiddie as yet.

____________ 7. Amelia, Lunenburg, and Brunswick have one
case of AIDS in

                     each county.

____________ 8. Doctors in Virginia have reported 366
cases of AIDS.

____________ 9. In Virginia, 219 people have died from
AIDS since 1982.

____________ 10. AIDS is a serious problem in this state.



____________ 11. The Blackstone Family Practice Center
opened a new medical

                   center on Church Street last month.

____________ 12. The new center was created to provide more
medical services

                   to the area.

____________ 13. The center will provide physical therapy
services and

                   hearing-aid services in a quiet setting.

____________ 14. Occupational therapy and speech therapy
will be offered

                   in the near future.

____________ 15. Plans for a dietician have also been
announced.

____________ 16. Other services may be offered in the
future.

____________ 17. Dr. Steve Spence will be the director of
the new center.

____________ 18. He gave the receptionist a desk by the
window.
____________ 19. The receptionist gave him a smile.

____________ 20. The doctor told the reporter the whole
story.


____________ 21. Some candidates for town council gave Mrs.
Utley the

                   petitions for their candidacy.

____________ 22. Mrs. Utley is the Deputy County Clerk.

____________ 23. She filed the papers on the next day.

____________ 24. The town will hold a special electon next
week.

____________ 25. New town council members will be elected.

____________ 26. Each ward in town will elect its own
council person.

____________ 27. Two councilmen will be elected from the
whole town.

____________ 28. The new council will have more new members
than old ones.

____________ 29. Some town residents do not like the new
ward system.

____________ 30. The court ordered this new election
system.



____________ 31.

____________ 32.

____________ 33.

____________ 34.

____________ 35.

____________ 36.

____________ 37.

____________ 38.
____________ 39.

____________ 40.




From apembert Sat Jul 17 13:08:27 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA17818; Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:06:17 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171706.AA17818@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: sentence purpose
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:06:16 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

PURPOSES OF SENTENCES



A DECLARATIVE SENTENCE DECLARES A FACT, OPINION OR FEELING.
 A Declarative
Sentence usually ends with a period.

EX:       The pencil rolled off the desk and across the
room.

          Everyone laughed at the boy who lost his pencil.

          I didn't laugh because I was the one who lost it.

          I wish it had been John they were laughing at.




AN INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE ASKS A QUESTION.   An
Interrogative Sentence usually
ends with a question mark.

EX:       Who dropped the pencil?

          Why did it roll so far across the room?

          May I go and get my pencil?

          What are you laughing about?
AN IMPERATIVE SENTENCE REQUESTS OR ORDERS SOMETHING. An
Imperative Sentence
usually ends with a period. An Imperative Sentence usually
omits the subject; [
you ] is the understood subject.

EX:        Please close the door.

              Stop the silliness in here right now.

              Finish your work before the bell rings.

              Don't get out of your seat unless the fire alarm
rings.




AN EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE EXPRESSES SHOCK OR SURPRISE. An
Exclamatory Sentence
usually ends with an Exclamation Mark. Some Exclamatory
Sentences have an
understood [you] as the subject.

EX:        You're going to the office this time!

              Ow! I'm in pain! I'm in pain!

              Stop beating on me!

              The bridge is out!




PURPOSES OF SENTENCES
Page 2

In the space provided, indicate the purpose of each of
these sentences. Write
"D" = Declarative Sentence; "I" = Interrogative Sentence;
      "IM" = Imperative Sentence; "E" = Exclamatory
Setence.

______ 1. The members of the newspaper staff are
inventing a new column.

______   2.    What will it be about?
______   3.   It will be like "Dear Abby", but funnier.

______   4.   Who will write it?

______ 5. Several staff members will write it, but will
call themselves

              "Elvira".


______   6.   Sounds great!

______   7.   Would you like to help write the column?

______   8.   Get real!

______ 9. I'm serious, you could help think up the
letters to "Elvira".

______   10. And if I think of one, what do I do then?


______   11. Write it down and give it to Mary.

______   12. Suppose Mary doesn't like it?

______   13. Then talk her into it.

______ 14. I couldn't talk Mary into a banana split if she
was starving!

______   15. Don't you and Mary get along?


______ 16. We have not been friends since I went to the
prom with her

              boyfriend last year.

______   17. What a bum you are!

______   18. Does that mean I can't help write "Elvira"?

______   19. Just stick to writing the club news from now
on.

______   20. Aw, you teachers take all the fun out of life!


______   21. Don't you remember how it was when you were
young?

______   22. Yes I do, but back then I was in Terry's place,
not yours.

______   23. You were the loser!

______ 24. Not really, the boy was killed in a car
accident a few weeks

             after graduation.

______   25. What happened to the other girl?


______   26. She was elected Mayor of the town last year.

______   27. Mayor! And you're just a teacher!

______ 28. Remember that when I cut your next article from
the paper.

______   29. You wouldn't!

______   30. Would you?




From apembert Sat Jul 17 13:14:02 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA18089; Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:09:18 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171709.AA18089@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: sentence types
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:09:18 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O


TYPES OF SENTENCES



SIMPLE SENTENCES

A SIMPLE SENTENCE CONTAINS ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE:
     Ex:      We were late to class.

             The students in my English class are very
funny at times.

              The storm winds make waves many feet high.

             Timmy, Jamie, Danny, and Michael turned in
their book reports
               on time.

             Brandon read the book, filled out the form,
but forgot to
               write the description of the story.


COMPOUND SENTENCES

A COMPOUND SENTENCE CONTAINS TWO OR MORE INDEPENDENT
CLAUSES


     Ex: Storms at sea build up towering waves, and those
waves can do
              severe damage.

            Each of us finished the day's assignment, then
all of us
                began to discuss the decorations for the
prom.

          Some of us finished in ten minutes, some took
almost thirty
               minutes to finish, but everyone finished
before the bell
               rang.

          The girls' bathroom is on the left; the boys'
bathroom is on
               the right.


COMPLEX SENTENCE

A COMPLEX SENTENCE IS MADE UP OF ONE OR MORE DEPENDENT
CLAUSES ADDED TO AN
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.


Ex: The girls were late to class because they were
gossiping in the hall.

=======================================
     When the plumbers arrived, water was running down the
steps of the
     =========================
          school.

     After you pass this class, you can go to a regular
English class.
     =========================

    You can go to the dance tonight if your room is clean
by three o'clock.

=======================================




TYPE OF SENTENCES
Page 2

Write the letter for the type of sentence in the space
before each
sentence: S = Simple Sentence; C = Compound Sentence;     Cx
= Complex
Sentence.

______ 1.   Most waves are about twenty feet high, but some
have been

             estimated near fifty feet high.

______ 2. If a five-story building were at the bottom of a
wave, the top

             of the wave would splash the roof of the
building.

______ 3. No one wants to be caught in a typhoon, and no
one wants to be

             wiped out by a fifty-foot wave.

______ 4. When the fire alarm rings, Timmy will be
responsible for getting

             Tammy to a safe place.
______ 5. Jamie and Danny will hold up traffic, and Timmy
will push the

             wheelchair.

______ 6. Getting yourself out of the building fast is
important, but

             getting everyone out safely is more important.

______ 7.   Cold and rainy days are not good for a fire
drill.

______ 8. Many students catch cold because they run
outdoors without a

             coat or sweater.

______ 9. Of course, if it were a real fire, it wouldn't
matter what the

             weather was outside.

______ 10. Once we had a "fire drill" to send off the
football team to the

             district championship game.

______ 11. It was a cold day, but few students complained.

______ 12. The best time for a fire drill is during a
difficult test

            because the teacher usually gives you extra
time to finish.

______ 13. My history teacher didn't do it that way last
week.

______ 14. When we came back from the fire drill, she
collected all the

             test papers and threw them in the trash.

______ 15. She passed out a new test the next day, and I
flunked it.

______ 16. Now I'm barely passing History for this
semester, and nearly

             flunking English as well.

______ 17. If I am going to be a Senior next year, I better
spend more time

            studying the rest of this year.

______ 18. I am not the kind of student who can get all A's
and B's

            without cracking a book.

______ 19. When I study for a test, I have to read the
material over and

            over many times before it sticks to my brain.

______ 20. Sometimes my brother helps me study; he asks me
questions and

            calls out spelling words to me.




From apembert Sat Jul 17 13:18:37 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA18772; Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:15:11 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171715.AA18772@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: sentence types
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 13:15:10 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

TYPES OF SENTENCES



SIMPLE SENTENCES

A SIMPLE SENTENCE CONTAINS ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE:


     Ex:     We were late to class.

             The students in my English class are very
funny at times.

             The storm winds make waves many feet high.

             Timmy, Jamie, Danny, and Michael turned in
their book reports
               on time.
             Brandon read the book, filled out the form,
but forgot to
               write the description of the story.


COMPOUND SENTENCES

A COMPOUND SENTENCE CONTAINS TWO OR MORE INDEPENDENT
CLAUSES


     Ex: Storms at sea build up towering waves, and those
waves can do
              severe damage.

            Each of us finished the day's assignment, then
all of us
                began to discuss the decorations for the
prom.

          Some of us finished in ten minutes, some took
almost thirty
               minutes to finish, but everyone finished
before the bell
               rang.

          The girls' bathroom is on the left; the boys'
bathroom is on
               the right.


COMPLEX SENTENCE

A COMPLEX SENTENCE IS MADE UP OF ONE OR MORE DEPENDENT
CLAUSES ADDED TO AN
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.


Ex: The girls were late to class because they were
gossiping in the hall.

=======================================

     When the plumbers arrived, water was running down the
steps of the
     =========================
          school.

     After you pass this class, you can go to a regular
English class.
     =========================

    You can go to the dance tonight if your room is clean
by three o'clock.
=======================================




TYPE OF SENTENCES
Page 2

Write the letter for the type of sentence in the space
before each
sentence: S = Simple Sentence; C = Compound Sentence;      Cx
= Complex
Sentence.

______ 1.   Most waves are about twenty feet high, but some
have been

             estimated near fifty feet high.

______ 2. If a five-story building were at the bottom of a
wave, the top

             of the wave would splash the roof of the
building.

______ 3. No one wants to be caught in a typhoon, and no
one wants to be

             wiped out by a fifty-foot wave.

______ 4. When the fire alarm rings, Timmy will be
responsible for getting

             Tammy to a safe place.

______ 5. Jamie and Danny will hold up traffic, and Timmy
will push the

             wheelchair.

______ 6. Getting yourself out of the building fast is
important, but

             getting everyone out safely is more important.

______ 7.   Cold and rainy days are not good for a fire
drill.

______ 8. Many students catch cold because they run
outdoors without a

            coat or sweater.

______ 9. Of course, if it were a real fire, it wouldn't
matter what the

            weather was outside.

______ 10. Once we had a "fire drill" to send off the
football team to the

            district championship game.

______ 11. It was a cold day, but few students complained.

______ 12. The best time for a fire drill is during a
difficult test

            because the teacher usually gives you extra
time to finish.

______ 13. My history teacher didn't do it that way last
week.

______ 14. When we came back from the fire drill, she
collected all the

            test papers and threw them in the trash.

______ 15. She passed out a new test the next day, and I
flunked it.

______ 16. Now I'm barely passing History for this
semester, and nearly

            flunking English as well.

______ 17. If I am going to be a Senior next year, I better
spend more time

            studying the rest of this year.

______ 18. I am not the kind of student who can get all A's
and B's

            without cracking a book.

______ 19. When I study for a test, I have to read the
material over and
             over many times before it sticks to my brain.

______ 20. Sometimes my brother helps me study; he asks me
questions and

             calls out spelling words to me.




From apembert Sat Jul 17 15:13:23 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA21901; Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:13:06 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171913.AA21901@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: adjectives
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:13:06 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

                                  ADJECTIVES

An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun.
EXAMPLE: The field is covered with white flowers.

Some adjectives tell what kind: good, kind, smooth.
Some adjectives tell how many: four men, five apples.
A few adjectives point out: that chair, this lamp.

The articles a, an, and the are adjectives.

A.   From the list of adjectives given below select an
     appropriate one and write it in front of the given
     noun.

gorgeous       fragrant       polite           cold
tireless       windy          shining          diligent
happy          foolish        sly              brave
sharp          brown


l.   ____________ Scout            8.   ____________ girls

2.   ____________ flower           9.   ____________sunset

3.   ____________ worker          l0.   ____________ dimes

4.   ____________ water           ll.   ____________ prank

5.   ____________ fox             l2.   ____________ deeds

6.   ____________ student         l3.   ____________ suit
7.   ____________ day               l4.   ____________ knife



B.   Use each of the following adjectives in a sentence:

     l.   curious         3.   gigantic        5.   warm
     2.   happy           4.   wise            6.   beautiful

l.   _______________________________________________________

2.   _______________________________________________________

3.   _______________________________________________________

4.   _______________________________________________________

5.   _______________________________________________________

6.   _______________________________________________________


C. Write five sentences in which you use an adjective
tell-
    ing what kind:

l.   _______________________________________________________

2.   _______________________________________________________

3.   _______________________________________________________

4.   _______________________________________________________

5.   _______________________________________________________


D. Write five sentences in which you use an adjective
tell-
    ing how many:

l.   _______________________________________________________

2.   _______________________________________________________

3.   _______________________________________________________

4.   _______________________________________________________

5.   _______________________________________________________


E.   Fill in each blank with an adjective telling what kind:
l.   Todd hurt his finger on a   _____________ nail.

2.   A __________ wind blew my hat down the ______________
     street.

3.   The __________ wind scattered the      ___________ leaves
     over the lawn.

4.   A   __________ lilac bush grows near the hedge.

5.   The winter days are __________   and     __________.

6.   This __________ path leads to a __________ garden.

7.   ____________ clouds gathered in the west.

8.   A __________ stream found its was down the ___________
     hillside.

9.   We have removed the ____________ curtains.


F.   Fill in each blank with an adjective telling how many
or
     which one:

l.   Take _________ maps to Mrs. Mira's room.

2.   You may take ____________ books.

3.   I have _____________ new pencils.

4. There are only     ____________ pieces of candy in the
box.

5.   _____________ book is yours.

6.   I have ______________ white puppies.

7.   We had    ____________ days of holiday at Thanksgiving.


G. Write two adjectives that could be used to describe
each
     of the following nouns:

l.   flowers                _____________        _____________

2.   cowboys                _____________        _____________

3.   an automobile          _____________        _____________

4.   a friend               _____________        _____________
5.    a highway   _____________    _____________

6.    a garden    _____________    _____________

7.    a bicycle   _____________    _____________

8.    Indians     _____________    _____________

9.    snow        _____________    _____________

l0. a path        _____________    _____________

ll. a baby

l2. a sunset      ______________   ______________

l3. a book        ______________   ______________

l4. an aviator

l5. a kitten      ______________   ______________

l6. a train       ______________   ______________

l7. a mountain    ______________   ______________

l8. the wind      ______________   ______________

l9. a river       ______________   ______________

20. a house       ______________   ______________

2l. a road        ______________   ______________

22. a picture     ______________
_______________

23. a movie       ______________
_______________

24. a city        ______________
_______________

25. a hero        ______________
_______________

26. a soldier     ______________
_______________

27. a lawn        ______________
_______________

28.   a rug       ______________
_______________

29. a chair               ______________
_______________


H.   Write three nouns that you could correctly describe by
     each of the following adjectives:


l. graceful    ___________    _____________
__________

2. tall        ___________    _____________
__________

3. deep        ___________    ______________
__________

4. courageous ___________     ______________
__________

5. smooth      ___________    ______________
__________

6. level       ___________    ______________
__________

7. brilliant   ___________    ______________
__________

8. fierce      ___________    ______________
__________

9. careless    ___________    ______________
__________

l0. lovely     ___________    ______________
__________

ll. delightful ___________    ______________
__________

l2. brave      ___________    ______________
__________

l3. quiet      ___________    ______________
__________

l4. solemn     ___________     ______________
__________

l5. jolly      ___________    ______________
__________
l6. charming   ___________    ______________
__________

l7. polite     ___________    ______________
__________

l8. ugly       ___________     ______________
__________

l9. dangerous ___________     ______________
__________

20. keen       ___________    ______________
__________

2l. pleasant   ___________    ______________
__________

22. beautiful ___________     ______________
__________

23. woolen     ___________    ______________
__________

24. dull       ___________    ______________
__________

25. dismal     ___________    ______________
__________

26. good       ___________    ______________
__________

27. attractive __________     ______________
__________

28. wise       ___________      _____________
__________

29. horrible   ___________    ______________
__________



An adjective that comes from a proper noun is called a
proper adjective. It is always written with a capital
letter.

I.   Write a proper adjective formed each of the following
     proper nouns:

l.   South America _____________   9.   Canada _____________
2.   America   __________________   l0. Norway _____________

3.   England   __________________   ll. Scotland ___________

4.   Mexico    __________________   l2. Ireland ____________

5.   France ____________________    l3. China ______________

6.   Puerto Rico _______________    l4.   Alaska ____________

7.   Africa ____________________    l5. Italy ______________

8.   Spain _____________________    l6.   Hawaii ____________


J.   Write a sentence of your own in which you use each of
     the proper adjectives forned in the above exercise:

l.
________________________________________________________

2.
________________________________________________________

3.
________________________________________________________

4.
________________________________________________________

5.
________________________________________________________

6.
________________________________________________________

7.
________________________________________________________

8.
________________________________________________________

9.   _______________________________________________________

l0.
________________________________________________________

ll. _______________________________________________________

l2.
________________________________________________________

l3.
________________________________________________________
l4.
________________________________________________________

l5.
________________________________________________________

l6.
________________________________________________________



K.   Circle each adjective in the following sentences:

l.   This narrow path leads to the highest point of the
     mountain.

2.   We have three black kittens.

3.   White lilacs perfumed the whole house.

4.   We have solved three difficult problems.

5.   A careful person avoids accidents.

6.   They filled several baskets with used clothing.

7.   The wind whistled through the tall pines.

8.   Our August nights have been hot and sultry.

9.   The early beams of sunlight streamed through the
     open window.

l0. I bought four grapefruit.

ll. King Midas sat in a golden chair.

l2. Every building should have an excellent foundation.

l3   Mighty oaks from little acorns grow.

l4. Between the two streams lies a fertile plain.

l5. The noted lecturer was in a jovial mood.

l6. Beautiful flowers grew in the narrow border.

l7. Have you solved the eighth exercise?

l8. Large orange butterflies flew among the fragrant
    blossoms.

l9. Which is the largest state in the Union?
20. This narrow path leads to a shady nook.

2l. This desolate region was crossed by brave pioneers.

22. The whole thing was unfair.

23. A tiny stream found its way down the rocky hillside.

24. The dusty curtains have been washed.

25. The taller girl is her sister.

26. The summer days are long.

27. Isn't Margie wearing a new coat?

28. Diligent study prepares students for good jobs.

29. During her early life she had been a poor person.

30. On every side we saw lofty mountains.

3l. The intense heat affected the sturdiest workers.

32. Rice grows in a warm, damp climate.

33. Swiss shepherds call their sheep with large wooden
    horns.

34. A cheerful person gives pleasure to many people.

35. Phil has always been an adventuresome lad..

36. A small village nestles at the foot of the high
    mountains.

37. John Burroughs was a famous naturalist.

38. From the shadowy gloom of the narrow street a faint
    gleam of light appeared.

39. I enjoyed the historical stories of the colonial days.

40. The smaller boy is my brother.



                          Comparison of Adjectives

If we say, "Stella is a tall girl," we think simply of
Stella; but if we say, "Stella is taller than Nancy," we
have compared Stella's height with another girls'. If we
say, "Stella is the tallest girl in the group." The idea
of comparison includes more than one other person.

Comparison is the name for the changes in the form of an
adjective to show the different degrees of a quality or
quantity.

An adjective has three degrees: (l) positive, (2)
comparative, and (3) superlative.

The simple form of the adjective is called the positive
degree.
     Example: Tall

The form used to show the comparison between two people or
things is called the comparative degree.
          Example: Taller

When three or more things are being compared, the
superlative degree is used.
          Example: Tallest

REMEMBER:
            Add er to form the comparative degree and est to
            the superlative degree of all adjectives of one
            syllable and a few adjectives of two syllables.


A. Write the comparison of each of the following
adjectives

Positive                  Comparative
Superlative

l. smooth                 ___________
___________

2. young                  ___________
___________

3. sweet                  ___________
___________

4. strong                 ___________
___________

5. lazy                   ___________
___________

6. great                  ___________
___________

7. kind                   ___________
___________
8. calm                  ___________
___________

9. rough                 ___________
___________

l0. narrow               ___________
___________

ll. deep                 ___________
___________

l2. wise                 ___________
___________

l3. happy                ___________
___________

l4. cold                 ___________
___________

l5. pretty               ___________
___________



REMEMBER:

Place more or less before some adjectives of two syllables
and all adjectives of three syllables to form the com-
parative.

Place most or least before some adjectives of two syllables
and all adjectives of three syllables to form the super-
lative.

Some adjectives are irregular in comparison.

B. Write the comparison of each of the following
adjectives


Positive            Comparative         Superlative

l.   energetic      _____________       _______________

2.   courteous      _____________       _______________

3.   impatient      _____________       _______________

4.   important      _____________       _______________

5.   difficult      _____________       _______________
6.   wonderful         _____________       _______________

7.   gracious          _____________       _______________

8.   agreeable         _____________       _______________

9.   faithful          _____________       _______________

l0. comfortable        _____________       _______________

ll. patient            _____________       _______________

l2. powerful           _____________       _______________

l3. generous           _____________       _______________

l4. humorous           _____________       _______________

l5. valuable           _____________       _______________


C.   Write the comparison of each of the following:


Positive               Comparative         Superlative

l.   bad               ___________         _______________

2.   little            ___________         _______________

3.   late              ___________         _______________

4.   good              ___________         _______________

5.   many              ___________         _______________

6.   near              ___________         _______________


D.   In each of the blanks in the following sentences write
     the correct degree of the adjective in the parentheses:

l. (good)       Is the Sod Turners a ________________ book
than
                Black Warrior?

2.   (tall)     Who is the ____________ of the three brothers?

3.   (useful)    Of all the metals, which is the ___________?

4.   (young)     Which is the ______________, Sally or Linda?

5.   (difficult)     I think this is the ____________ problem
                     in the lesson.
6. (near)      Which planet is ______________ the earth,
Venus
               or Jupiter?

7.   (small)     Which is our ___________ state?

8. (hot)    In our state August is usually our
_____________
            month.

9.   (young)    Reggie is the __________ man at the plant.

l0. (wide)     The Amazon is the ___________ river in the
               world.

ll. (old)      Who is _________, Jerome or Martin?

l2. (large)     Which is the __________ city in your state?

l3. (courteous)     Dan is always the ___________ person at
                    a party.

l4. (good)     This poem is the __________ one I have read
               this year.

l5. (cold)     This must be the __________ night so far this
               winter.

l6. (studious)     Of the two sisters, Paula is the
_________.

l7. (tall)     Who is _______________, Kay or Carol?

l8. (wealthy)     This is the home of the __________ merchant
                  in our city.

l9. (good)     Who is   the ____________ worker in the office?

20. (useful)     Which is the _______________, electric
lights
                 or the telephone?

2l. (beautiful)     Your garden is the ____________ one I
have
                     seen.

22. (narrow)     That is the _____________ of all the bridges
                 on the road.

23. (large)     Cleveland is ____________ than Cincinnati.

24. (good)     Of the three books, this one is the _________.
25. (good)      That is the ___________ collection in the
                museum.

26. (famous)      Washington became the ____________ general
of
                  the Revolution.

27. (fair)      Snow White was ______________ than the queen.

28. (large)      Marc lives in the ____________ house on that
                 street.



E.   Fill in the blank with the correct degree of comparison
     for each adjective given in the parentheses:


l. (changeable)      The weather seems   _____________ this
year
                     than last.

2.   (faithful)    The dog is the ____________ of all animals.

3.   (obstinate)   Is James _____________ than usual?

4.   (difficult)   Isn't the seventh problem __________ than
                   the eighth?

5.   (lovely)    I think the rose is the ___________ of all
                 flowers.

6. (long) Which is the ____________ river, the
Mississippi
            or the Amazon?

7.   (good)   Show me the ____________ pen you have.

8. (high)     Where are the __________ mountains in the
world?

9.   (enjoyable)   Which is the ________________ , television
                   or the movies?

l0. (reckless)     That boy is the _____________ driver of the
                   three brothers.

ll. (young)     Of all the players, Maria is the ____________.

l2. (tall)    Alberto is the ___________ of the three men.

l3. (busy)    Theresa is the ___________ person in the
office.
l4. (quiet)    We have found the ___________ spot in the
park.

l5. (wealthy)    Mrs. Anders is the _________ person in our
town.

l6. (narrow)    The old bridge was __________ than this new
one.

l7. (difficult)    These two problems are _______________
than
                   the other two.

l8. (comfortable)    Here is the __________ chair in the
room.

l9. (fast)    Donny is the _________ runner of the two boys.

20. (beautiful)    Of all the pictures on display, this is
the
                     __________________.

2l. (small)    Which is the ________ state in the Union?\

22. (clever)    I think Clarice is a __________girl than
Nora.

23. (good)    That is the _____________ story in the book.

24. (pretty)     That tree is the __________ one on our
street.

25. (large)    Is Los Angeles or Chicago the _________ city?

26. (quick)    Lester seems to be the _________ of all the
               players.

27. (tall)    Philip is _________ than his older brother.

28. (wide)     Grand Avenue is the ___________ street in our
               town.

29. (old)    Which is the ______________ city on the North
             American continent?




Using A and An


A and an are different froms of the same word.

     REMEMBER:
                USE a before words beginning with a con-
                 sonant sound.
                Use an before words beginning with a
                 vowel sound




Write the correct word, a or an, in each blank:

l.    _______   chair         37.   ________   orchard

2.    _______   evergreen     38.   ________   American

3.    _______   pencil        39.   ________   album

4.    _______   desk          40.   ________   cloud

5.    _______   number        41.   ________   tablet

6.    _______   arithmetic    42.   ________   school

7.    _______   illness       43.   ________   insect

8.    _______   book          44.   ________   artist

9.    _______   eye           45.   ________   table

l0.   _______   airplane      46.   ________   piano

ll.   _______   flag          47.   ________   bird

l2.   _______   ocean         48.   ________   stove

l3.   _______   tree          49.   ________   inch

l4.   _______   hour          50.   ________   accident

l5.   _______   orange        5l.   ________   abbreviation

l6.   _______   apricot       52.   ________   dictionary

l7.   _______   town          53.   ________   sentence

l8.   _______   eraser        54.   ________   quotation

l9.   _______   onion         55.   ________   hobby

20.   _______   apple         56.   ________   address

21.   _______   avenue        57.   ________   watch

22.   _______   explorer      58.   ________   paragraph
23.   _______    poem             59.   ________   envelope

24.   _______    cap              60.   ________   ocean

25.   _______    actor            6l.   ________   engineer

26.   _______    report           62.   ________   pioneer

27.   _______    house            63.   ________   camp

28.   _______    overcoat         64.   ________   education

29.   _______    street           65.   ________   radio

30.   _______    store            66.   ________   umbrella

3l.   _______    automobile       67.   ________   Indiam

32.   _______    rabbit           68.   ________   answer

33.   _______    needle           69.   ________   object

34.   _______    merchant         70.   ________   picnic

35.   _______    aviator          7l.   ________   road

36.   _______    island           72.   ________   error



                              USING TWO, TOO, AND TO


REMEMBER:

Two is a number.
Too means also or besides. Too also means more than
enough,
To means toward. To is also used with such words as be,
sing, play, and other action words.


Fill in the blanks with two, too, or to:

l.    Most of us read __________ rapidly.

2.    I was   __________ frightened _________ utter a word.

3.    I am going __________ the gymnasium.

4.    There are ___________ new couples on our block.

5.    May I go, __________?
6.   Do you think it is _________ cold for us ___________
      cook the steaks outside?

7.   I have ___________ new books.

8.   Our party lasted _____________ hours.

9.   This room is ____________ warm.

l0. After I had played football for ___________ hours, I
     was ____________ tired ___________ walk home.

ll. Don't put __________ much salt on your melon.

l2. I beieve it is _________ warm ___________ walk to the
     station.

l3. These steps are ___________ steep __________ be safe.

l4. The film on desert animals will be shown at
____________
     0'clock.

l5. Wouldn't you like __________ to with us, ____________?

l6   Isn't it ___________ cold for a game?\

l7   I am going ___________ the cafeteria ___________ get
       ____________ sandwiches.

l8   Don't ask ____________ many questions.

l9. His uncle flew ___________ Detroit yesterday.

20. We have planted ____________ very fine iris bulbs in
the
     garden.

2l. We have decided ___________      see that game.



From apembert Sat Jul 17 15:23:29 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA21996; Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:21:41 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171921.AA21996@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: nouns
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:21:41 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

CIRCLE EACH NOUN IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
 l.   The giant trees of California are rightly called the
      skyscrapers of the forest.
 2.   Joyce and Ellen found many interesting things in an
old
     trunk in the attic of their grandmother's.
 3.  Many sections of the United States have beautiful
     streams and lakes.
 4. Mr. Allen, the editor of our daily paper, wrote this
     article.
 5. Paul Revere was a patriot, a silversmith, and a de-
     signer of bookplates.
 6. St. Louis has many mills and factories.
 7. Oaks are usually the last trees in the forest to shed
     their leaves in the fall.
 8. The sunflower always turns its face toward the sun.
 9. Many famous people are seen on television each week.
l0. There is a robin's nest in that tree.
ll. My uncle brought me this rug from Cairo, Egypt.
l2. Martin has received a letter from his brother who is
     stationed in Alaska.
l3. A child should be taught the value of good literature.
l4. The secretary's report is on Madeline's desk.
l5. Boston and Philadelphia are interesting cities.
l6. The prairies of Texas are carpeted with verbenas,
     thistles, and coreopsis.
l7. Through the dense fog we could see the masts of the
     schooner.
l8. Walt Disney's hobby of making pictures of a mouse grew
     into the moving pictures of Mickey Mouse.
l9. George Washington Carver experimented with peanuts.
20. The world's strangest animals live in Australia.
2l. On the coast and in the mountains of Peru are ruins of
     ancient cities built by the Incas.
22. Libraries are homes for books.
23. St. Augustine is the oldest town in our country.
24. Robin Hood and his merry group lived in the forest.
25. The giant redwoods of California are the world's
oldest
     and largest trees.
26. Monticello, the beautiful home of Thomas Jefferson, is
     built on a hill near Charlottesville, Virginia.
27. Our class has been studying about synonyms, antonyms,
     and homonyms.
28. The sills and beams of the old house were put together
     with wooden pegs.
29. The state of Vermont is noted for its beautiful
     scenery.
30. Carolyn made these colorful favors for our luncheon.

Circle each noun and classify as common (c.n.) or proper
(p.n.):

 l.   The sturdy timber of the oak is used in constructing
       furniture, bridges, and ships.
 2.    Robert Fulton was a painter, a jeweler, a farmer, an
       engineer, and an inventor.
 3.    The main crops of Puerto Rico are sugar, tobacco,
       coffee, and fruits.
 4.    The pecan groves of Texas furnish the eastern part of
       our country with nuts.
 5.    A good reputation is more valuable than money.
 6.    The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge between Brooklyn and
       Staten Island is the longest suspension bridge in the
       world.
 7.    To the children of ancient Greece the sky was a story-
       book filled with wonderful pictures.
 8.    Kilimanjaro is the tallest mountain in Africa.
 9.    People of the earliest civilizations used gold for
       their ornaments.
l0.    The names of the five Great Lakes are Huron, Ontario,
       Michigan, Erie, and Superior.
ll.    The orange tree is an evergreen which bears beautiful
       blossoms and delicious fruits.
l2.    Rockefeller Center is the largest privately owned
       business and entertainment center in America.
l3.    The principal crops grown in the United States are
       apples, corn, cotton, oats, peaches, potatoes, rice
       rye, wheat, and tobacco.
l4.    William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania.
l5.    On the shelves of this library you will find many
       stories of magic and enchantment.
l6.    Commander Byrd, an American naval officer, made the
       first airplane flight to the NOrth Pole.
l7.    Dr. Jeanne Spurlock, a psychiatrist, went to Howard
       University College of Medicine.
l8.    The orange tree was brought from Asia to Europe.
l9.    Columbia is the world's leading producer of emeralds.
20.    The Bay Psalm Book was the first book published in
       America.
2l.    A road passes through a tunnel cut in the base of a
       giant tree in California.
22.    The Navajo Indians make beautiful silver and turquoise
       jewelry.
23.    Tom and Archie anchored the tent while Sam and Ted
pre-
       pared the food.
24.    Jefferson introduced the decimal system of coinage
       (dollars, dimes, cents) that we now use.
25.    Our home is on the shore of Lake Michigan.


Fill the blank in each sentence with the plural of the word
in parenthesis:

 l.    (penny) How many ____________ make a dollar?
 2.    (dress) Maurine makes all of her own ______________.
 3.    (loaf) How many ______________ of bread do we need
for
                   our sandwich?
 4. (alley)      Flowers are being planted in all of our
city's
                  ______________.
 5.   (bridge)    How many ____________ were destroyed by the
                   flood?
  6. (brush)     Mr. Perez got two new ____________
yesterday.
  7. (county) How many __________ are there in your
state?
  8. (company) How many oil __________ have offices in
                 that town?
  9. (story) I like to read ___________ about our
pioneers.
l0. (country) How many __________ are there in South
                 America?
ll. (boot) Morris, do you have a pair of fishing _______
.
l2. (library) There are many __________ in the schools of
                 our state.
l3. (key) I seem to have misplaced my __________ this
              morning.
l4. (foot) My new shoes pinch my _____________ .
l5. (sheep) The shepherd always takes good care of his
               ________________.
l6. (nickel) I have five Jefferson _____________.
l7. (city) Many ________________ are establishing re-
              creation centers.
l8. (turkey) Texas ranches ship many carloads of
_________
                to market.
l9. (chimney) Many __________ were blown down during the
                 recent storm.
20. (family) Many __________ have left the storm-swept
                region.
2l. (leaf) The high wind scattered the dead ____________
              over the yard.
22. (elf) I still like to read stories about __________ .
23. (Mosquito) __________ breed wherever there is
standing
                  water.
24. (friend) Her ___________ arrived on the bus
yesterday.
25. (desk) New ____________ have been ordered for our
              office.
26. (bench) Concrete ___________ have been placed along
               the walk.
27. (tomato) Mother asked me to buy a poun of __________.
28. (party) The girls went to three ________ during the
               holidays.
29. (piano) The mansion has two ____________ in one room.
Fill in the blank in each sentence with the possessive form
of the word in parentheses:

 l.   (company)     The __________ picnic will be at the park
                     Saturday afternoon.
 2. (dog)       That ___________ owner should pay for the
damage
            it did.
 3.   (women)The __________ organization of the church
              planned the meeting.
 4. (Richard) ___________ account of his trip was very in-
              teresting.
 5. (Father) ___________ explanation of the problem was
               very clear.
 6. (cat) That __________ engine is on fire!
 7. (Franklin) __________ brother made the candy for our
                  party.
 8. (Men) __________ coats are sold at the store in that
            block.
 9. (car) My ___________ eyes are blue.
l0. (brother) We want to go to his __________ ranch.
ll. (child) A __________ toy was found inn our yard.
l2. (captain) The __________ ship was one of the newest.
l3. (baby) That dog played with the ___________ shoe.
l4. (teacher) Her __________ name is Miss Gustafson.
l5. (Benny) We are going to ___________ party tomorrow.
l6. (deer) They saw a __________ track in the snow.
l7. (Sue) ___________ workis the neatest I have ever
seen.
l8. (country) We display our _________ flag every day.
l9. (redbird) I have heard that ___________ call every day
               this week.
20. (minister) The ___________ sermon was much too long.
21. (sister)   Marjoy wants to wear her __________
sweater.
22. (Spot) We found _____________ food spilled on the
             floor.
23. (children) The __________ parade is held every
spring.
24. (neighbor) OUr __________ yard has just been mowed.
25. (class) It is this __________ time to take the test.
26. (ladies) This store sells _____________ clothes.
27. (woman) The ___________ exhibit of industrial designs
             won first place.
28. (squirrel) The ____________ teeth were very sharp.
29. (woman) The _____________ real estate business is
very
              successful.

COMMON/PROPER NOUNS
 FILL IN THE CHART WITH COMMON OR PROPER NOUNS;

                            COMMON               PROPER
                      school                  _______________
                      _______________         South America
                      town                    _______________
                      _______________         Ronald Reagan
                      city                    _______________
                      _______________         Church Street
                      state                   _______________
                      _______________         Methodist
                      county                  _______________
                      _______________         Appalachian Mts.
                      country                 _______________
                      _______________         Agatha Christie
                      company                 _______________
                      _______________         Gerald Lee
                      doctor                  _______________
                      _______________         Chicken Pox
                      Principal               _______________
                      _______________         English
                      T.V. show               _______________
                      _______________         scientist
                      radio station           _______________
                      _______________         inventor
                      month                   _______________



Write a proper noun suggested to you by each of the
following common nouns;



l.    school _________          ll.     doctor _______________
2.    town ___________          l2.     Senator ______________
3.    child __________          l3.     train ________________
4.    year ___________          l4.     dentist ______________
5.    zoo ____________          l5.     bus __________________
6.    street _________          l6.     mountain _____________
7.    ocean __________          l7.     Radio Station ________
8.    car ____________          l8.     company ______________
9.    principal ______          l9.     store ________________
l0.   T.V. show ______          20.     President ____________


Write a common noun suggested to you by each of the
following proper nouns:

l.    California                      ll.   Alice
2.    North America                   l2.   Colorado
3.    George Washington               l3.   Nancy Reagan
4.    Friday                          l4.   l776
5.    Fort Lee                        l5.   Natural Bridge
6.    Chuch Robb                      l6.   Mexico
7.    Nottoway Courthouse             l7.   Better Homes and
                                             Garden
8. Easter                            l8.     Chicago
9. Pacific                           l9.     King's Dominion
l0. Arkansas                         20.     December


                                 Nouns

     A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or
quality. Examples: Mary, boy, dog, house, happiness.

     A   Write the names for the following:

l.   Six rivers in your state:
     ______________________              _____________________
     ______________________              ______________________
     ______________________              ______________________

2.   Six objects that you see in the classroom:
     _____________________           _____________________
     _____________________           _____________________
     _____________________           _____________________

3.   Six cities that you have read about:
     _____________________           _____________________
     _____________________           _____________________
     _____________________           _____________________

4.   Six famous people:
     ______________________              _____________________
     ______________________              _____________________
     ______________________              _____________________

5.   Eight states of the United States:
     ______________________          ______________________
     ______________________          ______________________
     ______________________          ______________________




There are two main classes of nouns: common nouns and
proper nouns.
A common noun is a name that may be given to any one of
a class of objects. Examples: girl, state, author.
A proper noun is the name of a particular personl, place,
or thing. Examples: Louise, Tennessee, Mark Twain,
Philadelphia, Fido.


D. Write a proper noun suggested to you each of the
follow-
    ing common nouns:
l.    college                       l3.    teacher
2.    ship                          l4.    classmate
3.    cave                          l5.    automobile
4.    canald                        l6.    airplane
5.    river                         l7.    lake
6.    governor                      l8.    isthmus
7.    newspaper                     l9.    avenue
8.    railroad                      20.    park
9.    physician                     2l.    month
l0.   book                          22.    boy
ll.   inventor                      23.    girl
l2.   movie                         24.    state


E.    Write a common noun suggested to you by each of the
      following proper nouns:

l.    Alaska                        ll.    Bernard
2.    South America                 l2.    Michigan
3.    Jimmy Carter                  l3.    Edna Ferber
4.    Tuesday                       l4.    February
5.    West Point                    l5.    Rocky Mountains
6.    Samuel F. B. Morse            l6.    Puerto Rico
7.    Alamo                         l7.    Popular Science
                                            Monthly
8. Christmas                        l8.    Sandra
9. Atlantic                         l9.    Andes
l0. Arizona                         20.    Detroit




                               Nouns:   Singular and Plural

     Nouns that name one person, place, or thing are said
to
have singular number. Examples: girl, sound, pear, lake.
     Nouns that name more than one person, place, or thing
are said to have plural number.   Examples:    girls, sounds,
pears, lakes.

Most nouns form their plurals by adding s: girl, girls;
top, tops.
Most nouns ending in ch, sh, z or x form their plurals by
adding es: church, churches; brush brushes; ax, axes.
Nouns ending in y that have a consonant before the y form
 their plurals by changing the y to i and adding es:
city,
cities; army, armies.
Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals
re-
gularly (by adding s): boy, boys.
Some nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by changing
the f or fe to ves: loaf, loaves; thief, thieves.
Some nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by adding
s:
roof, roofs; bluff, bluffs.
Most nouns ending in o that have a vowel just before the o
form their plurals by adding s: radio, radios.
Some nouns ending in o that have a consonant just before
the
o form their plurals by adding es: potato, potatoes.
Some nouns ending in o that have a consonant just before
the
o form their plurals by adding s: piano, pianos.
A few nouns follow no rule in forming their plurals: foot,
feet; child, children.
A few nouns have the same form for both numbers: trout,
trout; sheep, sheep.

A.   Write the plural for each of the following nouns:

l. newspaper ____________                l3.   city
_________
2. chair ________________                l4.   tax
__________
3. town _________________                l5.   wolf
_________
4. half _________________                l6.   alley
________
5. valley _______________                l7.   teacher
______
6. body _________________                l8.   school
_______
7. book _________________                l9.   day
__________
8. leaf _________________                20.   copy
_________
9. brush ________________                2l.    author
_______
l0. office _______________               22.   county
_______
ll. box __________________               23.   family
_______
l2. man __________________               24.   deer
_________


B.   Write the plural for each of the following nouns:

l. boy _________________                 l6.   pencil
_______
2. country _____________                 l7.   switch
_______
3. knife _______________                 l8.   bush
_________
4. journey _____________                 l9.   child
________
5. history _____________                 20.   building
_____
6. dress _______________                 2l.   inch
_________
7. dish ________________                 22.   lily
_________
8. loaf ________________                 23.   thief
________
9. sandwich ____________                 24.   hoof
_________
l0. sister ______________                25.   cuff
________
ll half ________________                 26.   fife
_________
l2. army ________________                27.   toy
__________
l3. apple _______________                28.   potato
________
l4. peach _______________                29.   pine
_________
l5. pair ________________                30.   baby
_________


C.   Write the plural for each of the following nouns:

l. house _______________                 l3.   class
________
2. monkey ______________                 l4.   chimney
______
3. mouse _______________                 l5.   pen
__________
4. boot ________________                 l6.   tooth
________
5. foot ________________                 l7.   piano
________
6. story _______________                 l8.   tree
_________
7. church ______________                 l9.   pencil
_______
8. pan _________________                 20.   hero
_________
9. cherry ______________                 2l.   library
______
l0. radio _______________                22.   sash
_________
ll. holiday _____________                23.   roof
_________
l2. six _________________                24.   curtain
______



                                    Possessives

REMEMBER:

Add a apostrophe and s to singular nouns to show
possession.
Example: boy's, Mr. Thomas's.
When a plural ends in s, add only an apostrophe to show
possession. Example: chairs', dolls'.
When a plural does not end in s, add an apostrophe and s
to show possession. Example: children's

A. Write the possessive form of each of the following
words:


l. girl ____________               9.   Dr. Ray
____________
2. child ___________              l0.   ladies
_____________
3. women ___________              ll.   brother
____________
4. children ________              l2.   soldier
____________
5. Jobs ____________              l3.   men
________________
6. baby ____________              l4.   aunt
_______________
7. boys ____________              l5.   pony
_______________
8. teacher _________

B.   Use each possessive formed above in a sentence:

l.   _____________________________________________________
2.   _____________________________________________________
3.   _____________________________________________________
4.   _____________________________________________________
5.   _____________________________________________________
6.    _____________________________________________________
7.    _____________________________________________________
8.    _____________________________________________________
9.    _____________________________________________________
l0.   _____________________________________________________
ll.   _____________________________________________________
l2.   _____________________________________________________
l3.   _____________________________________________________
l4.   _____________________________________________________
l5.   _____________________________________________________


C.    Write in a shorter way each of the following groups of
      words which show possession:

l.    the   cap belonging to Jim _____________________________
2.    the   hat that belongs to Aunt Kate ____________________
3.    the   smile that the baby has __________________________
4.    the   car that my parents own __________________________
5.    the   red cape that belongs to Ann _____________________
6.    the   collar of the dog ________________________________
7.    the   golf clubs that belong to Allen __________________
8.    the   hats that belong to the ladies ___________________
9.    the   shoes that belong to the men _____________________
l0.   the   opinion of the editor ____________________________
ll.   the   lunches of the children __________________________
l2.   the   coat belonging to Henry __________________________
l3.   the   assignments of the teacher _______________________
l4.   the   mother of Corinne ________________________________
l5.   the   class of Miss Lane _______________________________
l6.   the   friend of my mother _______________________________
l7.   the   friends of our parents ___________________________


D.    Write a sentence of your own in which you use the
      possessive form of each of these nouns:



l. people         3.   grandmother     5.   Lassie   7.
friend
2. boy            4.   Uncle Edward    6.   pupil    8.
kitten

                             9.   Mr. Pulaski
                            l0.   Sharon

l.
________________________________________________________
2.
________________________________________________________
3.
________________________________________________________
4.
________________________________________________________
5.
________________________________________________________
6.
________________________________________________________
7.
________________________________________________________
8.
________________________________________________________
9.
________________________________________________________
l0.
________________________________________________________




s

                         Nouns:   Singluar and Plural

        Nouns that name one person, place, or thing are said
    to have singular number. Examples: girl, sound, pear,



    lake.

      Nouns that name more than one person, place, or thing,
  are said to have plural number.   Examples:    girls,
sounds,
  pear, lakes.




________             _________________
____________________________        ___________________
    ____________________________
____________________

2.  Six objects that you see in the classroom:
    ________________________
_______________________
    ________________________
_______________________
    ________________________
_______________________

3.  Six cities that you have read about:
    ________________________
_______________________
    ________________________
_______________________
    ________________________
_______________________
     __________________________________________________
             COMMON                             PROPER



From apembert Sat Jul 17 15:43:23 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA22151; Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:39:30 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171939.AA22151@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: verbs
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:39:29 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

                                   VERBS

A verb is a word that asserts action, being, or state of
being.   Examples: James went to town. These books
are mine. The baby is pretty.

A.    Circle each verb:

l.    Eagles build their nests on high cliffs.

2.    Joan forgot her lunch.

3.    Silkworms spin cocoons.

4.    Squirrels are thrifty animals.

5.    Miss Morris explained the problem.

6.    March is a windy month.

7.    Maryland is a small state.

8.    The pioneers made their own furniture.

9.    The wind howled.

l0. Thomas saves his money.

ll. Mother pulled her coat around her.

l2. The dog barked furiously.
l3. The boys made a snowman.

l4. Our state produces cotton and corn.

l5. The canary sleeps with its head under its wing.

l6. She speaks Sppanish beautifully.

l7. The storm uprooted these two hackberry trees.

l8. The bus stops at the corner.

l9. We ddesigned our own costumes.

20. Our team won four games.

2l. The mechanic worked on our car for several hours.

22. New Mexico produces valuable minerals.

23. I read an interesting story about the Sioux Indians.

24. We made satisfactory scores on our last test.

25. Lewis mowed the lawn.

26. The rain ruined my cap.

27. I saw a beautiful rainbow this morning.

28. The dry logs crackled in the fireplace.

29. We built a swimming pool in our backyard.

30. Mother selected yellow curtains for her kichen windows.

3l. Orange trees grow in Texas, Florida, and California.



B.   Circle each verb:


l.   Chrysanthemums bloom in the fall of the year.

2.   Mother painted the fence.

3.   Mario fed the fish last week.

4.   Lewis sharpened all the pencils.

5.   I made a B on my final test.

6.   The boys and girls swept the corridor.
7.   Who discovered America?

8.   Morse invented the telegraph.

9.   Who built this model airplane?

l0. Our neighbors have a parrot.

ll. This scarf came from France.

l2. I spelled every word correctly.

l3. The woman collected tiny shoes.

l4. Bobby raises pigeons.

l5. Lorene found her ring.

l6. My father caught five large fish.

l7. Who has the most money?

l8. We wrote to you last week.

l9. Who made this bird cage?

20. Who brought these beautiful roses?

2l. We walk to work every day.

22. Who discovered the fire?

23. We placed the ivy in old lamps.

24. I paid too much for this pencil.

25. George and Royce live on a farm.

26. We go to a meeting every Friday.

27. John, answer the telephone.

28. Frank earned five dollars last Saturday.

29. Jerry delivers the evening papers.

30. We enjoyed our trip to the Rocky Mountains.

3l. Who has my workbook?

32. Who invented the microscope?

33. We walk a mile each day.
34. George thanked me.

35. His friend telephoned the message.

36. Mary tore the wrapping from the package.

37. The Ohio River flows into the Mississippi.

38. We learned how to play the new card game.

39. The level of the lake rose rapidly.




                              VERBS:   PRINCIPAL PARTS


l.    Every verb is made up of three principal parts.

2.    The first principal part shows present time:
      I walk, I speak, I know.

3.    The second principal part shows past time:
      I walked, I spoke, I knew.

4.    The third principal part also shows past time, but it
      takes a helping verb: I have walked, I have spoken,
      I have known.

5.    The    word tense is used to denote time

6.  A verb that forms its second and third principal parts
    by adding d or ed to the first principal part or by
    changing a final d in the first principal part to a t
    is called a regular verb: walk, walked, walked;
play,
    played, played:   send, sent, sent,



 A.   Write the past tense and past participle for each of
      following verbs:


      Present Tense              Past Tense              Past

Participle
                                                     Past Action
                                                      Completed


l.    walk                   _______________     ______________
2.   visit               _______________    ______________

3.   cook                _______________     ______________

4.   follow              _______________    ______________

5.   arrange             _______________    ______________

6.   talk                _______________    ______________

7.   add                 _______________     ______________

8.   learn               _______________    ______________

9.   paint               _______________    ______________

l0. plant                _______________    ______________

ll. work                 _______________     ______________

l2. divide               _______________    ______________

l3. miss                 _______________    ______________

l4. score                _______________    ______________

l5. smile                _______________    ______________

l6. collect              _______________    ______________

l7. laugh                _______________    ______________

l8. change               _______________    ______________

     .

A verb that forms its second and third principal parts in
some other way is called an irregular verb; see, saw, seen,
take, took, and taken.

B. Write the past tense and past participle for each of
the
    following verbs:


  PRESENT TENSE          PAST TENSE         PAST
PARTICIPLE
                                              PAST ACTION
                                               COMPLETED


l. see              ____________________
_______________
2. take           ____________________
_______________

3. go             ____________________
_______________

4. eat            ____________________
_______________

5. come           ____________________
_______________

6. run            ____________________
_______________

7. give           ____________________
_______________

8. do             ____________________
_______________

9. know           ____________________
_______________

l0. fall          ____________________
_______________

ll. grow          ____________________
_______________

l2. write         ____________________
_______________

l3. drink         ____________________
_______________

l4. sing          ____________________
_______________

l5. ring          ____________________
_______________

l6. break         ___________________
_______________

l7. speak         ____________________
_______________

l8. choose        ____________________
_______________

l9. freeze        ____________________
_______________
20. throw           ____________________
_______________

2l. blow            ____________________
_______________

22. fly             ____________________
_______________

23. draw            ____________________
_______________

24. begin            ____________________
_______________

25. bring           ____________________
_______________




A verb may consist of more than one word. Such a verb is
called a verb phrase. EXAMPLES: The girls are singing.
Where are you going?


C.   Circle each verb or verb phrase:


l.   The first American schools were held in homes.

2.   Who invented the jet engine?

3.   The New England Primer was America's earliest testbook.

4.   John Philip Sousa was a bandmaster and composer.

5.   Who built the first reaper?

6.   My friends will arrive Saturday afternoon.

7.   What was the final score?

8.   Alton made this unusual birdhouse.

9.   The beach was covered with many shells.

l0. I have never ridden on a motor scooter.

ll. The artist is molding clay.

l2. Luther and his parents spent last summer in the Ozarks.
l3. The names of the new employees are posted on the
    bulletin board.

l4. Frank, where did you find that old hat?

l5. Where is she going?

l6. We have finished trimming the hedge.

l7. Our nation exports many kinds of food.

l8. My friend is reading a book about the Civil War.

l9. Jane Addams helped many foreign-born people in Chicago.

20. Where was oil first discovered in the United States?

2l. Jenny Lind was called the Swedish Nightingale.

22. We are planning automobile trip to Miami.

23. That dog has howled for two hours.

24. Miss Dunn says that all job application forms must be
    turned in by noon.

25. I have written letters to several companies.

26. Can you name two important cities in this state?

27. The hummingbird received its name from the sound of its
    wings.

28. Jan's poem will be printed in the newspaper.

29. Charles and Edward are playing baseball.

30. This table has been painted recently.

3l. Tom and Dick are saving their money for a camping trip.

32. What interesting books have you been reading?

33. Jane, have you been visiting in Minnesota?

34. Our guests have arrived.

35. To whom are you writing?

36. Who was Pasteur?


D.   Circle each verb or verb phrase:
l.   Our house is located on the corner of Main and Elm.

2.   Jane is planning her summer trip.

3.   The rabbit scampered away.

4.   Cindy and her brother were raking leaves.

5.   We started on our trip yesterday.

6.   The woman played the piano beautifully.

7.   The couple built a small cabin.

8.   Mary was writing a letter to her sister.

9.   My question has been answered.

l0. The gardener was spraying the shrubs.

ll. The rules of every game demand fair play.

l2. Connie is making a shadow box.

l3. Announcements are always written on the bulletin board.

l4. My room has been papered.

l5. We are writing travel letters.

l6. We are studying about Mexico.

l7. The astronauts must be physically and mentally alert.

l8. We have looked everywhere for his watch.

l9. We have spent many happy hours in the swimming pool.

20. Everyone applauded the performers.

2l. Have you broken your pen?

22. The poem, "Eletelephony," was written by Laura E.
    Richards.

23. Close the window.

24. I have added many stamps to my growing collection.

25. We played several new games today.

26. Have you seen Bernice this morning?

27. George has sold his bicycle.
28. The parade starts at ten o'clock.

29. We have finished the first mile of our hike.

30. Have you solved the sixth problem?

3l. Name three of our largest American cities.

32. King Midas sat in a golden chair.

33. Both of my brothers play baseball.

34. Gorgeous butterflies flew among the flowers.

35. The giant trees swayed in the breeze.

36. I enjoyed every number of the program.

37. Lupe always arrives at work on time.

38. Move the desk to this side of the room.

39. Maria hit the ball into left field.


                                    Participles


A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. EXAMPLE:
Having decided on the location of his tulip bed. Father
started to spade it thoroughly.

Participles have tense and voice.


A.   Circle each Participle:

l.   We saw a deer running through the snow.

2.   The chart showing sales figures is very helpful.

3.   The cat, seeing the dog, scampered to the nearest tree.

4.   Having missed our train, we returned to the hotel.

5.   We saw the thunderstorm advancing across the plains.

6.   Airplanes carrying great quantities of mail fly across
     our continent.

7.   His foot, struck by the falling timbers, was painfully
     injured.
8.   Anne, writing too rapidly, made many error.

9.   Students preparing for aviation should master
     mathematics.

l0. We drove slowly, enjoying every minute of the drive.

ll. Onions are among the largest vegetable crops produced
in
    the United States.

l2. The truck, burdened with its load, traveled slowly over
    the rough road.

l3. Jan, thinking that she had passed the test, was very
    happy.

l4. Several passengers injured in the wreck were bought to
    the local hospital.

l5. That city, expanding in all directions, will soon be
the
    largest metropolis in the state.

l6. The fire, fanned by the high winds, threatened the
    entire area.

l7. Shoving others aside, the rude man went to the front of
    the line.

l8. The lake, frozen solidly, looked like a huge mirror.

l9. The boy playing the trombone is my brother.

20. Driving very carefully, he ascended the steep, slippery
    hill.

2l. At Rip Van Winkle's heels ran a troop of children,
    hooting at him and pointing at his long beard.

22. Balloons lifting weather instruments are released daily
    by many weather stations.

23. The Nurek Dam, located in the Soviet Union, is the
    world's highest dam.

24. Using his parachute, the pilot survived the accident.

25. Whistling and humming softly, the artist worked
    patiently.

26. He kept us waiting an hour.

27. The youngster, whistling a tune, trudged slowly down
     the road.

28. Foreigns lands owned and governed by a nation are
    called territories.

29. Those standing near the fence should form a second
    line.

30. Holding tightly to the rail, we slowly walked down the
    steep ramp.



                           REVIEW OF CORRECT USUAGE


A.   Cross out the incorrect word:

l.   (Wasn't, Weren't) you able to have your party?

2.   (Isn't, Aren't)   Gloria and Peggy to ride the same bus?

3.   (Wasn't, Weren't) Gail and her sister at home when you
     called?

4.   Ben had (want, gone) to see his brother.

5.   Mr. Olsen, have you (came, come) to see my father?

6.   Have you (saw, seen) the beautiful flowers in Mrs.
     Young's yard?

7. I believe that Chuck has (drew, drawn) the best
designs.

8.   The wind has (blew, blown) down our birdhouse.

9.   A strong gale (blew, blown) in from the Great Lakes.

l0. My sister has often (sang, sung) this song.

ll. Has he (wrote, written) her letter of complaint?

l2. The little bird had (fell, fallen) from its nest.

l3. Have you (chose, chosen) the new employee?

l4. Have you had your picture (took, taken) lately?

l5. It (doesn't, don't) make any difference to use.

l6. Dick has (drew, drawn) the cover design.

l7. Have you (ate, eaten) your lunch, Jerry?
l8. Hasn't it (began, begun) to rain?

l9. We have (began, begun) the study of equations.

20. Alice, have you (began, begun) repairing that motor?

2l. Have you (saw, seen) the new commemorative stamp?

22. Marty has (broke, broken) his new bat.

23. Has the whistle (blew, blown)?

24. Bob and Bill (hasn't, haven't) been at work today.

25. The women have (came, come) to help raise money for the
    charity.

26. Have all the girls (went, gone)?

27. (Isn't, Aren't) the children playing baseball this
    afternoon?

28. (Wasn't, Weren't) those flowers for me?

29. All the pears have (fell, fallen) from the trees.

30. Why (doesn't, don't) Connie play in the band?

3l. The girls have (went, gone) to the matinee.


B.   Cross out the incorrect word:

l.   Have you (drew, drawn) a picture for that contest?

2.   I have (ate, eaten) my lunch.

3.   The wind has (blew, blown) all night.

4.   How many glasses of lemonade has Ricky (drank, drunk)?

5.   Tim has (broke, broken) his arm.

6.   I'm sorry that it has (began, begun) to rain.

7. Have you (saw, seen) the last issue of that new
magazine

8.   The guests were (gave, given) hats and noise makers.

9.   I have just (wrote, written) to Beth.

l0. We (ate, eaten) all the nut bread sandwiches.
ll. The ball was (three, thrown) out of bounds.

l2. Have you (saw, seen) the new ball park?

l3. The wind (blew, blown) our flag pole down.

l4. I (knew, known) every person at the picnic.

l5. The baby (feel, fallen) down the steps.

l6. The performance (began, begun) promptly at eight
o'clock

l7. Who (broke, broken) this dish?

l8. We (took, taken) many pictures of the beautiful garden.

l9. The boys and girls have (went, gone) to the basketball
    game.

20. I (saw,seen) Betty and her sister at the game last
night

2l. Janet, have you ever (sand, sung) this song?

22. The warning bell has not (rang, rung).

23. Has Marianne (broke, broken) her little mirror?

24. We were (gave, given) an Easter vacation.

25. Wasn't Johnny (threw, thrown) from his horse?

26. Linda (came, come) an hour ago.

27. Carol has (did, done) very well in her music this year.

28. All the class representatives have been (chose,
chosen).

29. The boys accidentally (broke, broken) this window.

30. These gardenias were (grew, grown) in a hothouse.

3l. Dan's older brother (drove, driven) the car.

32. Our friends have (came, come).

33. We were (gave, given) permission to use the auditorium.

34. Have you (wrote, written) about the royalty fee on our
    play?
From apembert Sun Jul 18 16:33:25 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA29388; Sun, 18 Jul 93 16:31:58 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307182031.AA29388@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: subject verb agreement\
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sun, 18 Jul 93 16:31:57 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

U5W5. GRAMMER TEST                       NAME
_____________________________
CH.9 AGREEMENT OF SUBJECTS AND VERBS     DATE
________________ PERIOD _____

I.   CHOOSE THE CORRECT FOR OF THE VERB FOR EACH SENTENCE:

1.   An ambulance driver (hurry/hurries) to the hospital.
2.   Airplane pilots (learn/learns) how to fly new jets.
3.   To ride a bike, you (pedal/pedals) with your feet.
4.   Women (has/have) taken many roles outside the home.
5.   More people (work/works) in cities than work on farms.

II. CHOOSE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB 'BE' FOR EACH
SENTENCE:

1.   The Iliad (is/are) a story about the Trojan War.
2.   This war (was/were) fought thousand of years ago.
3.   Troy (was/were) a city in Persia, near ancient Greece.
4.   The Trojans (was/were) guilty of stealing Helen, the
      wife of a Greek king.
5.   Helen's husband asked the other kings, "(Is/Are) you
      willing to help me?"

III. CHOOSE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB TO GO WITH THESE
COMPOUND
SUBJECTS:

1.   Dale and Gary (eat/eats) their lunch slowly.
2.   It seems that both the four Loud sisters and their
      brother; Leroy, (want/wants) to form a rock group.
3.   Leroy and his sisters (is/are) always practicing.
4.   Wind and rain (is/are) often found together.
5.   Either we or the Louds (has/have) to move.

IV. CHOOSE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB TO USE WITH THESE
CONFUSING
SUBJECTS:

1.   A group of creatures often (have/has) its own special
      name.
2.   Gaggle, the word for a group of geese is a funny word -
      but then, a bunch of geese (is/are) a funny sight.
3.    The family (live/lives) in three different states.
4.    The gaggle of geese (was/were) honking noisily.
5.    The news (is/are) on TV at 6 p.m.

U5W6. GRAMMER TEST
CH.9 AGREEMENT OF SUBJECTS AND VERBS      DATE

IV.    CHOOSE THE CORRECT VERB FORM:

1.    A group of creatures (have/has) its own special name.
2.    Gaggle, the word for a group of geese is a funny word -
       but then, a bunch of geese (is/are) a funny sight.
3.    The family (live/lives) in three different states.
4.    The gaggle of geese (was/were) honking noisily.
5.    The news (is/are) on TV at 6 p.m.

V.    CHOOSE THE CORRECT FORM OF EACH PRONOUN:

1.    After he repeated his question, Mary answered (he/him).
2.    The boys put every mouse in (its/their) cage.
3.    Tom said, "(I/me) don't know what happened."
4.    All the grey mice could eat (its/their) food in peace.
5.    The white mice had food given to (it/them) every day.

VI. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ADJECTIVE/ADVERB FORM:

1. I swim (good/well), but Daryl hates the water.
2. Daryl plays basketball (good/well), and I can't
dribble.
3. The cake Eric made tasted (good/well).
4. Roscoe walks (slow/slowly).
5. Robert appears (neat/neatly).

VII.    WRITE A SENTENCE USING EACH FORMS OF THESE VERBS:

1. bind
___________________________________________________________

2. bound
___________________________________________________________

3. have bound
___________________________________________________________

4. choose
___________________________________________________________

5. chose
___________________________________________________________

6. have chosen
___________________________________________________________
VIII.   REWRITE THESE SENTENCE WITH DOUBLE NEGATIVES:

1. I don't have no paper.
___________________________________________________________

2. She told us that none of us would never graduate.
___________________________________________________________

3. We hardly never have a night without lots of homework.
___________________________________________________________

4. Didn't you get no desert with your lunch?
___________________________________________________________



U6W1. GRAMMER TEST
CH.9 AGREEMENT OF SUBJECTS AND VERBS       DATE

I.    CHOOSE THE CORRECT FOR OF THE VERB FOR EACH SENTENCE:

1.    An ambulance driver (hurry/hurries) to the hospital.
2.    Airplane pilots (learn/learns) how to fly new jets.
3.    To ride a bike, you (pedal/pedals) with your feet.
4.    Women (has/have) taken many roles outside the home.
5.    More people (work/works) in cities than work on farms.
6.    The Iliad (is/are) a story about the Trojan War.
7.    This war (was/were) fought thousand of years ago.
8.    Troy (was/were) a city in Persia, near ancient Greece.
9.    The Trojans (was/were) guilty of stealing Helen, the
       wife of a Greek king.
10.    Helen's husband asked the other kings, "(Is/Are) you
       willing to help me?"
11.    Dale and Gary (eat/eats) their lunch slowly.
12.    It seems that both the four Loud sisters and their
       brother; Leroy, (want/wants) to form a rock group.
13.    Leroy and his sisters (is/are) always practicing.
14.    Wind and rain (is/are) often found together.
15.    Either we or the Louds (has/have) to move.
16.    A group of creatures often (have/has) its own special
       name.
17.    Gaggle, the word for a group of geese is a funny word
-
      but then, a bunch of geese (is/are) a funny sight.
18.   The family (live/lives) in three different states.
19.   The gaggle of geese (was/were) honking noisily.
20.   The news (is/are) on TV at 6 p.m.
21.   A group of creatures (have/has) its own special name.
22.   Gaggle, the word for a group of geese is a funny word
-
      but   then, a bunch of geese (is/are) a funny sight.
23.   The   family (live/lives) in three different states.
24.   The   gaggle of geese (was/were) honking noisily.
25.   The   news (is/are) on TV at 6 p.m.
II.    CHOOSE THE CORRECT FORM OF EACH PRONOUN:

1.    After he repeated his question, Mary answered (he/him).
2.    The boys put every mouse in (its/their) cage.
3.    Tom said, "(I/me) don't know what happened."
4.    All the grey mice could eat (its/their) food in peace.
5.    The white mice had food given to (it/them) every day.

III. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ADJECTIVE/ADVERB FORM:

1. Robert writes (good/well), but Ray hates to write
anything.
2. Gerald plays pinball (good/well), but I can't even
score.
3. The cake Vernetta made tasted (good/well).
4. Danny walks (slow/slowly).
5. Leroy appears (neat/neatly).


U6W1    Group 1                                       Page 2

IV.    WRITE A SENTENCE USING EACH FORM OF THESE VERBS:

1. give
 __________________________________________________________

2. gave
___________________________________________________________

3. have given
___________________________________________________________

4. know
___________________________________________________________

5. knew
___________________________________________________________

6. have known
___________________________________________________________


V.    REWRITE THESE SENTENCE WITH DOUBLE NEGATIVES:

1. I don't have no pencils, no pens, or no paper.
___________________________________________________________

2. He said that none of us would never work for him again.
___________________________________________________________

3. She hardly never has a date on Saturday night.
___________________________________________________________
4. Didn't you get no shoelaces with your new shoes?
___________________________________________________________


From apembert Sat Jul 17 15:33:23 1993
Received: by vdoe386.vak12ed.edu (5.65/1.34)
      id AA22094; Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:31:34 -0400
From: apembert (Anne Pemberton)
Message-Id: <9307171931.AA22094@vdoe386.vak12ed.edu>
Subject: pronouns
To: apembert (anne pemberton)
Date: Sat, 17 Jul 93 15:31:33 EDT
X-Mailer: PENELM [version 2.3.1 PL11]
Status: O

                                 Pronouns

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.       Examples:
he,
she, him, her, it.

The most common pronouns are:

I          he        her        we          they      you
hers       our       their      your        my        him
theirs     yours     mine       she         its       us
me         it        his        them        ours

A. Make a sentence of your own in which you use each of
the
    following pronouns:

we         him       my         our         them      its

her        I         mine       their

____________________________________________________________
 them      ours

A.    Make a sentence of your own in which you use each of the
      following pronouns:

we         him       my         our         them      its

her        I         mine       their

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
 use each of the
    following pronouns:

we         him       my         our         them      its

her        I         mine       their
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
 my        our       them      its

her       I        mine      their

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
     their

____________________________________________________________
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____________________________________________________________


B.   Circle each pronoun:

       l.    She told me about her ice skating.
       2.    They have brought their sandwiches for our price.
       3.    He and I watched the little boys play marbles.
       4.    The girls knew that they would miss their bus un-
             less they ran for it.
       5.    Gordon told Victor and me about his sister's fly-
             ing school.
        6.   We have recently painted our garage.
        7.   He asked us to meet him at nine o'clock.
        8.   My sister and I have decided to go with you.
        9.   I have your notebook, Ellen.
       l0.   We haven't heard from them since they moved away.
       ll.   Jon left his bicycle in our garage.
       l2.   Mary, may I go with you ?
       l3.   We thought they were going with us.
       l4.   Carl, did you see my new football?
       l5.   He and Claude always sharpen our pencils.
       l6.   Alaska is valuable for its salmon.
       l7.   She has invited you and me to go shopping with
her.
       l8.   Why did she send for you and me?
       l9.   I have brought you several presents.
       20.   Tammy, are you going with them?
       2l.   Did Eloise invite us to her recital?
       22.   You and I must improve our English grades.
       23.   San Francisco is noted for its climate.
       24.   Are they coming by for us?
       25.   Didn't your sister make these cookies for you and
             me?
       26.   Linda, didn't Ida ask us to meet her at nine
             o'clock?
       27.   My sister and I have decided to go with them to
             the game.
       28.   She helped us with our lessons.
       29.   Fred and his brother came by our house this
             morning.
       30.   Mrs. Adams, I have brought you some candy.
       3l.   I saw him at the show last night.
     32.   Dennis, we were waiting for you.
     33.   Joyce, hasn't Barbara invited us to her party?
     34.   We thought they were coming by for us.
     35.   She is late today.
     36.   Sandra, may I go with you to Eva's party.
     37.   California is noted for its flowers.
     38.   Tony brought me this new puzzle.
     39.   She gave me a book I have wanted for a long time.


C.   Each sentence contains a pronoun and the noun or nouns
     for which the pronouns stands:   Draw one line under
     the pronoun and a cirlce the noun or nouns for which
     the pronoun stands:

     l.    Lora lost her bracelet.
     2.    Edmond broke his arm.
     3.    The dogs wagged their tails.
     4.    Mother, did you bake this cake?
     5.    The referee blew his whistle.
     6.    The children should take their wraps.
     7.    Didn't the kittens lose their mittens?
     8.    Louis Armstrong was famous for his music and
smile.
     9.    Edward entered his model airplane in the contest.
    l0.    This book has a number of its pages missing.
    ll.    My aunt and uncle have sold their Arizona ranch.
    l2.    The Eskimos build their igloos of snow blocks.
    l3.    Where did Florida get its name?
    l4.    Claire, will you be avid fan?
    l5.    David showed the boys his wonderful stamp
           collection.
     l6.   Coffee found its way from Arabia to Java.
     l7.   The magpie builds its nest with precision.
     l8.   Eldon sprained his ankle in the last game.
     l9.   Uncle Fred drove his car to the top of the peak.
     20.   Louise left her raincoat in the doctor's office.
     2l.   Isn't Alaska noted for its salmon?
     22.   Horace brought his mother a beautiful shawl from
           India.
     23.   Eloise, where is your brother?
     24.   Manuel forgot his appointment with the dentist.
     25.   The boys have gone to their swimming lesson.
     26.   Mildred practices her music lesson each morning.
     27.   Juan gave his father a beautiful paperweight.
     28.   Mr. Owens found his keys.
     29.   The little girls broke their swing.
     30.   Peggy, where is your little sister?
     3l.   Each Scout said that he would help with the paper
           drive.
     32.   Dick quickly found his mistake.
     33.   Mary, is this your music box?
     34.   The women worked hard for their candidate.
     35.   The dancers left their shoes in the bus.
      36.   Delfina's parents gave her a watch for a
            graduation gift.
      37.   The boys offered their services in cleaning the
            vacant lot.
      38.   Did you ever watch a spider spin its web?
      39.   Nathan Hale died for his country.


D.    Circle each pronoun.

l.    He went with us to the picnic.
2.    Did you find your magazine?
3.    We are going with them to the concert.
4.    She ran to meet her father.
5.    Did you see him?
6.    I saw them at the party.
7.    He spoke to George and me.
8.    I have brought my music for you to play.
9.    Mr. and Mrs. Cameron invited Lem and me to go with them
      to their cabin.
l0.   Judith brought me these flowers from her garden.
ll.   Why can't we go with them?
l2.   California is noted for its climate.
l3.   I went with my sister to get her clarinet.
l4.   Louis brought my sister and me some French coins.
l5.   Isn't the Chesapeake Bay noted for its oysters?
l6.   Between you and me, I think that last program was
      silly.
l7.   Did Miss Tonetti explain the experiment to you and him?
l8.   Landon, have you found your locker key?


E.    Circle the pronoun.

l.    May I go with you?
2.    He and I sat in the bleachers.
3.    I saw them this morning.
4.    Who has my library book?
5.    For whom shall I ask?
6.    I do not have my ring with me.
7.    She told me about her trip to Canada.
8.    They are coming by our house.
9.    You and I must improve our writing.
l0.   We haven't heard from Uncle James since he left.
ll.   Come with us.
l2.   Aren't you and I going with Albert?
l3.   You should plan your theme before you write it.
l4.   Aren't they coming by for us?
l5.   Kentucky is noted for the beauty of its hills.
l6.   My brother and I have a new book on stamps.
l7.   Rover doesn't like his collar.
l8.   Sam told us an interesting story about his dog.
l9.   We are planning our summer vacation.
                      NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS OF PRONOUNS

l.  When a pronoun subject is needed for a sentence, the
    nominative forms I, you, she, he, it, we, and they are
    used.
2. When a pronoun is part of a complete predicate after
    such expressions as it is or it was, the nominative
    forms I, you, she, he, it, we and they are used.
3. When the pronoun I is used with nouns or other
pronouns,
    it is always named last. Examples: Marie and I go to
    the same school.
4. When the pronoun is part of a phrase after such words
as
    for, to, with, from, after, in, of, over, at, against,
    except, and between, use the objective forms me, us,
    you, her, him, it, and them.

.
REMEMBER TO USE THE FOLLOWING CORRECT EXPRESSIONS:

        l.   It   is I.                      l3.   Is it I?
        2.   It   was I.                     l4.   Was it I?
        3.   It   is you.                    l5.   Is it you?
        4.   It   was you.                   l6.   Was it you?
        5.   It   is he.                     l7.   Is it he?
        6.   It   was he.                    l8.   Was it he?
        7.   It   is she.                    l9.   Is it she?
        8.   It   was she.                   20.   Was it she?
        9.   It   was not I.                 2l.   Wasn't it he?
       l0.   It   wasn't he.                 22.   Wasn't it she?
       ll.   It   wasn't she.                23.   Was it not he?
       l2.   It   was they.                  24.   Was it not
she?


                                     CORRECT USUAGE

Cross out the incorrect word:

l. Helen and (I,me) helped with the puppets.
2. (She, Her) and (I, me) are going to the studio.
3. Why can't Lucile and (I, me) go with them?
4. Don and (I,me) skated all afternoon.
5. Sue and (I, me) are going by Janet's house.
6. Did you see Ellen and (I, Me) when we passed your
house?
7. (He, Him) and (I, me) played tennis this morning.
8. Kay and (I, me) were five minutes late yesterday
    morning.
9. (She, Her) and (I, me) spent an hour in the library.
l0. Eloise, are you going with Peggy and (I, me) to see
Dot?
ll. Scott invited Roger and (I, me) to one of the club
     picnics.
l2. I am going to see Doris and (she, her) about our club.
l3. Grandmother and (I, me) made more of that candy.
l4. Was it (she, her)?
l5. Randolph and (I, me) are going over there now.
l6. It was (I, me).
l7. It is (I, me).
l8. The lady told Barry and (I, me) to come for her old
     magazines.
l9. It was (he, him).
20. I went with Mrs. Krueger and (she, her) to the hobby
     show.
2l. That dinner was prepared by Steve and (I, me).
22. Miss Johns told Roger and (I, me) to make less noise.
23. Stand between her and (I, me).
24. It was (she, her).
25. Miss Carr praised Eldon and (I, me) for our work in the
     yard.
26. Mrs. Schmidt, may Bert and (I, me) carry your packages?
27. Will you talk to Peggy and (she, her) about our sewing
     club?
28. Ben, can't you go with Harold and (I, me) to visit the
     airport?
29. Grandfather gave Dave and (I, me) a long ride.
30. (He, Him) and (I, me) are getting some groceries for
     Mother.
3l. Susan and (I, me) are going with (she, her) to the
park.



                                  PERSONAL PRONOUNS

A personal pronoun stands for a noun or noun word group
that
names a particular person, place or thing.

     EXAMPLE:   The women at the club gave Jeff a trophy.

                They gave him a trophy.

                                  PERSONAL PRONOUNS


     Singular                               Plural

     lst   -   I, me, my, mine              we, us, our, ours
     2nd   -   you, your, yours             you, your, yours
     3rd   -   he, him, his                 they, them, their,
               she, her, hers                 theirs
               it, its
The use of a pronoun in a sentence determines its form.
This is called its case.

       l.    The subjective case of the personal pronoun shows
             who is the actor of the sentence.

       2.    The objective case of the personal pronoun shows
             the object or result of the sentence action.

Subjective Case                        Objective Case
                          Singular
       I                                     me
       you                                   you
       he                                    him
       she                                   her
       it                                    it
                          Plural
       we                                    us
       you                                   you
       they                                  them

Subject Forms
     I, we, he, she, they                    Use of the subject
                                             forms
                                             A. for the subject
                                             B. to mean the
same
                                                    as the subject

Examples:
     Subject                           Mean same as the subject

       l.    I came.                   l.   It   was   I.
       2.    We came.                  2.   It   was   we.
       3.    He came.                  3.   It   was   he.
       4.    She came.                 4.   It   was   she.
       5.    They came.                5.   It   was   they.

Object forms
     me, us, her, him, them            Use of the object forms
                                       A. for the object of
the
                                            verb
                                       B.   for the object of a
                                            preposition

Examples:
     Object of verb:                   Object of Preposition:

       l.    Lucille invited me.       l. The girls spoke to
me.
       2.    Margaret took us.         2. Helen sat between us.
       3.    The girls called her.     3. Jane went with her.
       4.    The guest told him.       4. That boy works for
him
      5.   The boys introduced them. 5. The mistake was made
                                        by them.


Exercise 6:

C.    The Possessive Case

     The possessive case of the personal pronoun shows that
something belongs to someone of something.

      Examples:     My idea is as good as yours.
                    But, their plan is better than ours.

     Some possessives modify nouns.     When they do, they are
often thought of as adjectives.
     my,       idea      their              house

      Singular                        Plural
      my, mine                        our, ours
      your, yours                     your, yours
      his
      her, hers                       their, theirs
      it, its

RECOGNIZING AND USING PRONOUNS

A PRONOUN IS A WORD USED IN PLACE OF A NOUN.

Following are the different kinds of pronouns.

     Personal:    (Used in place of specific persons,
animals,
                 places, and things.) I, me, us, he, him,
                 she, her, it, they, them, his, hers, my
                 mine, ours, its, your, our,yours, you.
      Relative: (Used to relate clauses to nouns)
                 who, whose, whom, which, what, that.
      Interrogative: (Used to ask questions) who? whose?
                      whom? which? what?
      Indefinite: (Used without reference to specific
                   persons) all, another, any, anybody,
                   both, each, one, either, everyone,
                   everybody.
      Demonstrative: (Used to point out.) this, that,
                      these, those. Note: Demonstrative
                      pronouns are often used as adjectives
                      to tell which one: that boy, those
                      dogs.
      Reflexive: (Used to refer back to another noun or
                  pronoun) myself, yourself, himself, her-
                  self, itself, ourselves, yourselves, them-
                  selves.
Exercise S    -   Pick the Pronouns

l.    Whose words are these, I think I know.
2.    He hurt himself badly when they crashed.
3.    What did you see at his house?
4.    Anybody who wants to go will be able to come with me.
5.    Everyone came, but nobody brought his mandolin.
6.    Whose books are these on my desk?

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

The relative pronouns are:    who, which, and that.

The words which and that have the same form for both the
subject and the object, but the word who has three
different
forms.

EXAMPLES:    l. Mr. Brown is the man who opened the new
store.
                (The pronoun who is the subject of the verb
                opened.) - Nominative case.
             2. Mary is the girl whose book was torn.
                (The pronoun whose is the possessive form of
                the pronoun who.) - possessive case.
             3. Bob is the boy whom you want.
                 (The pronoun whom is the object of the verb
                 want.) objective case.

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates to some
preceding word in the sentence and at the same time has
a noun use.

A relative pronoun may be used as the subject, the
subjective complement, the object of a verb or a pre-
position, or as a possessive modifier.

The pronoun who refers to persons, which to things, and
that
to either persons or things.

EXAMPLES:    l.   The person who called on the phone had the
                  wrong number.
             2.   The book which I bought is an old edition.
             3.   The tree that stands in front of my window
                  is an elm.
             4.   Jean was the only girl that could go with
us.

A relative pronoun is found only in a complex sentence.

A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent
clause and one or more dependent clauses.
     Example: The message that he sent brought good news.

An independent clause is a group of words containing a sub-
ject and a predicate and making complete sense when
standing
alone.

A dependent clause is a group of words containing a subject
and a predicate but depending upon some other word in the
sentence for its meaning.



     Examples:
          l. The farm (that was sold to Mr. Jones) belong
               to my grandfather.
          2. The man who called for you left his card.

      Pronoun            Antecedent                 Use
l.   that                farm               subject of verb
                                             was sold
2.   who                 man                subject of verb
                                            called



These possessive pronouns can take the place of possessive
form nouns.

     my         your     his        her        its      our
                               their

Write the correct possessive pronouns to complete the sen-
tences below.


                                      April 7, l9____

Dear Terry,

__________ town held __________ spring festival last week
-
a fair from the Middle Ages. We filled __________ stomachs
with delicious foods and heard some musicians play
_________
ancient instruments.
In the Middle Ages, knights showed __________ courage by
galloping at each other with long lances. Each man tried
to
knock the other off __________ horse. _________ brother
Mike entered a similar contest. The target was a ring.
Racing at full speed, he aimed _________ lance and hit the
ring dead center. Pam brought __________ camera, so I
have
plenty of pictures to show you.


                                     ___________ friend,
                                     Kim



These possessive form pronouns can take the place of entire
noun phrases.

     mine       yours     his        hers        its          ours
                                theirs

            Their ranch has nearly l,200 acres.
            Theirs has nearly l,200 acres.

Above each capitalize phrase in the sentences below, write
the possessive form pronoun that can take its place.

l. I've tasted lots of spaghetti, but I like YOUR
SPAGHETTI
    best.

2.   OUR CATS are the only cats in the building.

3.   No one else has fingerprints exactly like MY FINGER-
     PRINTS.

4.   When Sue lost her lunch, Rick gave her half of HIS
     LUNCH.

5.   A tree is the usual place for a nest, but the
     bowerbird builds ITS NEST on the ground.

6.   I drew this map quickly, so SHENA'S MAP may be more
     accurate.

7.   Costumes should be funny, but THEIR DISGUISES were
     ridiculous!

8.   Dad drinks his coffee black, but Mon adds sugar to
     HER COFFEE.



Pronouns take the place of nouns. Subject pronouns are
used as subjects and after linking verbs.

I    you        he        she       it      we         they

     We held a talent contest at camp.
     The judges were Sally and I.
Object pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect
objects,and objects of prepositions.

me      you         him       her       it    us      them

     Hank saved us a piece of cheesecake.
     He gave it to me after dinner.


Above each capitalize noun or group of words in the
sentences below, write the correct pronooun to take
its place.

     Nam was talking about her family.        "The detectives

in the family are Dad and NAN," Nan said.          "This winter

DAD AND NAN traced our family tree.       DAD AND NAN visited

my great-grandmother and asked GREATGRANDMOTHER many

questions.     The answers surprised    DAD AND NAN.    Our

ancestors came from France and Spain.        OUR ANCESTORS also

came from England.     And one of OUR ANCESTORS       was an

American Indian.     Greatgrandmother gave NAN a diary

written by her grandfather.     GREAT-GRANDMOTHER had a

picture of HER GRANDFATHER, too.       HER GRANDFATHER looked

just like Dad wearing strange clothes and a mustache!'




Write the correct pronouns to complete the sentences below.

     "Do      __________ know any good ghost stories?"         Bill

asked   __________.    Lightning flashed.     __________     were

on vacation, but a fierce storm had trapped         ____________

in the tiny cabin.     __________ shook and groaned in the

wind.   __________ shivered and said, "What an awful night

for horror stories!"

     "But __________ is perfect!"       Bill insisted.     "On
nights like this, Mary Shelley and her friends gathered to

tell hair-raising tales.    __________ tried to top each

other.   One night Mary read the others a story    __________

had written.     __________ was about a scientist named

Frankenstein.    __________ built a creature from parts of

human bodies.    The thing was very ugly, and everyone was

afraid of __________ . Frankenstein left
 _________ followed _______ to the Arctic.



     "Mary's friends agreed that the chilling tale
fascinat-

ed __________.    __________urged __________ to publish
_____.

That story has been scaring people since l8l8."

				
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