Holographic Environment by lintoleomathew

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									        COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KIDANGOOR

 (Under the Co-operative Academy of Professional Education Estd. By Govt.of kerala)
 KIDANGOOR SOUTH P.O KOTTAYAM – 686 583 PH 04822 255056,256056,256456
         Email cek cape@sancharnet .in Website : www.ce-kgr.org


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering




 HOLOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT
              SEMINAR REPORT PRESENTED BY


                LUBNA SHAHUL HAMEED




 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
                  October 2004
               COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KIDANGOOR

    (Under the Co-operative Academy of Professional Education Estd. By Govt.of kerala)
    KIDANGOOR SOUTH P.O KOTTAYAM – 686 583 PH 04822 255056,256056,256456
            Email cek cape@sancharnet .in Website : www.ce-kgr.org


  Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering




                                CERTIFICATE
                                                                   Date ………….



         Certified that this seminar work titled HOLOGRAPHIC
ENVIRONMENT is the bonafide record of the work done by
LUBNA SHAHUL HAMEED of B-Tech in Electronics and
communication Engineering, towards the partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of
Technology, by the Cochin University of Science and Technology




Internal Guide                 Head Of The Department                Coordinator

Miss Deepthy                        Mrs.Seema A.K                    Mr.Deepak V.K
              ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


     First and Foremost we thank God Almighty for His divine
grace and blessings in making all this possible. May He continue to
lead us in the years to come.


     We are grateful to our respected principal, Dr. K.
Venkateswara Mallan, for his guidance and support. We extend
deep gratitude to our internal guide, Miss. Deepthy , Lecturer in
Electronics & Communication, whose careful and meticulous
reviews improved the quality of this work.


     We express our sincere thanks to the HOD of Electronics &
Communication for her support and guidance and thanks to the
entire cast and crew of Electronics & Communication for their co-
operation.


     Last, but not the least, we would like to thank all our friends
and the parents who supported us with their love and
encouragement for the completion of this seminar.
                                       Lubna Shahul Hameed
                              Abstract
                         Scientists today are developing a new
communications technology that will allow you and your friends to interact
inside a simulated environment even if you are thousands of miles apart.

Most of the basic components for this network are already in place to allow
the development of tele-immersion. Tele-immersion is the scientific
community's answer to the holodeck.

By combining cameras and Internet Telephony, videoconferencing has
allowed the real-time exchange of more information than ever without
physically bringing each person into one central room. Tele-immersion takes
videoconferencing to the next level. It will create a central, simulated
environment that will allow everyone to come together in one virtual room,
and no one will have to leave their physical location to do so. In this article,
you'll find out how employees in Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo and Paris
will soon meet in a tele-immersive environment and shake hands with
holographic images of their co-workers.
                        INDEX
                                           Page No:
CHAPTER 1

     Introduction                            1

CHAPTER 2

     Beyond video conferencing               3

CHAPTER 3

     Building a Holographic Environment      7

CHAPTER 4

     Holographic Technology                 10

CHAPTER 5

     Types of 3D projection Technologies    13

CHAPTER 6

     The Holodeck                           15
       6.1 What is Holodeck
       6.2 Construction

CHAPTER 7

     Applications                           19

CONCLUSION                                  20

REFERENCE                                   21

APPENDIX
Seminar Report 2004                                                       1

1.Introduction
                      It is a new communication technology that allow people
to interact in a simulated environment even if they are thousands of miles
apart. Earlier tele-immersion technology was used.There are different types of
technologies used for 3D projections.
                         Here we are mentioning about the holo deck
technology. Holo decks are special rooms made up of Omni Directional Holo
diodes (OHD). These micro-miniature devices can project full colour stereo
scopic images and are also able to create force fields in three dimensions.




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Seminar Report 2004                                         2




                                            Chapter2

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Seminar Report 2004                                                         3

2.Beyond Videoconferencing
                             In the office of the future, you won't call people
with a phone. You will command your computer to call a particular person.
"Computer, call Joe at the London office." Suddenly, one of your office walls
will flicker and Joe will be sitting across from you as if he were right there.
On the other end, Joe will experience the same immersive connection. That's
the idea behind tele-immersion: bringing two or more distant people together
in a single, simulated office setting. Business travel will be practically
unnecessary.

This type of communication will take us beyond the limits of
videoconferencing. Have you ever used a Webcam to teleconference with
another person? If you have, then you've seen that videoconferencing via the
Internet is not a perfect form of communication. The image is close to real-
time, but there are delays that cause a jerking video. Also, if someone walks
out of view of that one camera, you can no longer see the person. With tele-
immersion, people can't walk out of the view of the camera. In fact, you can
peer around their office just by looking at the display screen from different
angles. It's like having a window to look through.

Holographic environments will be generated by computers with computing
speeds thousands of times faster than your PC. There are several steps to
constructing a holographic environment:

   1. The computer recognizes the presence and movements of people and
      objects.
   2. The computer tracks those images.
   3. The computer projects those images on a stereo-immersive surface.

There are several groups working together on the National Tele-Immersion
Initiative (NTII) to bring us all together in these virtual environments.

 Tele-immersion may sound similar to virtual reality, but there are key
differences between the two technologies. Virtual reality allows you to move
in a computer-generated 3-D environment, but tele-immersion, for now, can
only create a 3-D environment that you can see -- you can't interact in it. The
next step is to merge tele-immersion and virtual reality to allow users to alter
the scenes that they see.



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Seminar Report 2004                                                       4
The applications for immersive holographic environments are endless.
Imagine a video game free of joysticks, in which you become a participant in
the game, fighting monsters or scoring touchdowns. Instead of traveling
hundreds of miles to visit your relatives for the holidays, you'll simply call
them up and join them in a shared holographic room. Eventually, you will
even be able to hug other people using this technology. Doctors and soldiers
could use tele-immersion to train in a simulated environment.




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Seminar Report 2004                                            5




                             Figure2.1


    Holographic projection using Tele-immersion Technology




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Seminar Report 2004                                         6




                                                 Chapter3
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Seminar Report 2004                                                        7

3.Building a Holographic Environment
                              The early prototypes of tele-immersive displays
require users to wear special goggles and a head device that tracks the
viewpoints of users looking at the screen. On the other end, the people that
appear as 3-D images are being tracked with an array of seven ordinary video
cameras, while two other video cameras capture real light patterns projected
in each room to calculate distances. This enables the proper depth to be re-
created on the screen. So, if a viewer moves his head to the right, he can see
the corresponding images that would be seen if he were actually in the room
with the person on the screen.

Images on the screen are split and polarized to create a different image for
each eye. The goggles then combine these images so that the brain recognizes
only one 3-D image. This process is similar to how those old 3-D movie
glasses work. Early experiments, like the one at UNC in May, have
experienced some glitches, similar to those of normal video-conferencing.
The scenes being projected are only refreshed three times per second, which
creates a jerky image. If that rate could be improved to 10 frames per second,
it would create a seamless projected image that would be like looking through
a window at another person. Scientists are developing new technologies to
support this type of communication, including:

   •   Internet2 - This would replace the current Internet infrastructure. This
       new network will have a higher bandwidth and speeds 1,000 times
       faster than today's Internet. This high-bandwidth, high-speed network is
       necessary to transfer the large amounts of data that tele-immersion will
       produce.
   •   Display technologies - Stereo-immersive displays would have to
       present a clear view of the scenes being transmitted.
   •   Haptic sensors would allow people to touch projections as if they were
       real.
   •   Desktop supercomputers would perform the trillions of calculations
       needed to create a holographic environment. Another possibility to
       support these environments would be a network of computers that share
       power.

Tele-immersion will blur the lines between real and computer-generated
images. It will be the ultimate tele-commuting technology, almost entirely
eliminating the rush-hour drive to work. Instead of commuting, people could
attend board meetings by projecting themselves into the company's

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Seminar Report 2004                                                           8
conference room. And if your job requires you to travel, you could still be
home for dinner by tele-immersing yourself into the family kitchen. Because
this technology is still in the early stages of development, the possibilities are
truly endless.




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Seminar Report 2004                                         9




                                            Chapter4

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4. Holographic Technology
Still Images The basic hologram. A simple 3-D image that provides either a
3/4th view or a complete image that you can walk around in its more
advanced mode.

Moving Images A step above the still image, it still does not always offer a
complete image, but it is a moving image. Often used for communications,
video panels, and entertainment.

Stable Moving Images A Stable Moving image is an interesting variation of
the normal Moving Image. It is an independent moving image of a single
object (like a person) projected through an emitter powerful enough to cause
the image to generate its own surface tension. This makes the image appear
ultra real, and indistinguishable from the real thing. However if the surface
tension is broken by anything, such as someone touching the image, then the
hologram will totally break down and dissolve.

Holo-rooms Again, this is just a step above "moving images." It is a room
that provides a full holographic environment. The viewer still cannot touch
the holograms but the illusion will be so real that he feels that he can. The
introduction of props can make the illusion so real that the viewer can be
convinced that he is in a real environment. Often used for therapy, and
entertainment.

Interactive Holograms This is a step above the "moving image" or the
"holo-room" because it enables the viewer to "feel" the holograms. It is really
not an advancement in the hologram, as much as it is a support tool for it. The
viewer wears a suit that is linked to the holograms and keeps track of where
you are and where they are suppose to be... When the viewer is touching or is
touched by the hologram the suit responds giving the illusion that the viewer
is interacting with the hologram. Often used for therapy and entertainment.

Interactive Holographic Realties This is the ultimate Holo-room. It is more
than a simple hologram projection studio; it also contains replication devices
and force fields. Instead of wearing a suit as in "interactive holograms" the
viewer actually feels the holograms, either because he is touching an actual
thing (provided by the rooms replication devices) or because he is touching a
force field that is occupying the same space as the hologram. An advanced
system can also deceive a viewers perception (make them walk in a curve
while they think they are walking a straight line) to make a confined area

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seem like a vast one. Often used for therapy, entertainment, black ops, and for
training purpose.

Virtual Realities VR are artificial realities created within a computer, instead
of outside one with holograms. The viewer either interacts with them via
special goggles and gloves (and sometimes with a suit like the ones in
"interactive holograms"), or they have gotten a computer jack implant so that
they interact with the computer directly from the brain.




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                                              Chapter5
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Seminar Report 2004                                                     13

5.Types Of 3D Projection Technologies
            These 3D Projection Technologies now available for commercial
use fit five categories:

The Transcreen Transparent projection screen
Life sized hologram
The Holo deck
The Laser Cube
Holomirror 3D volumetric projector

Each of these technologies is capable of creating the illusion of an image
suspended in space. Some methods permit movement of the image. Some
are volumetric (having apparent depth). With some you can even walk up to
and put your hand through the image. Each technology is appropriate for
some applications but not for others. For example if you want to see a life-
sized ghostly image moving around on stage, the method of choice would be
2D image projection onto a moving transparent screen. To generate a real
3D image floating in space with actual depth you would use stereo 3D
projection onto our TransScreen along with polarized 3D glasses. If you want
a smaller close-up 3D retail display, a laser-created hologram or The
Hologone parabolic mirror projector might work best.




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                                      Chapter6

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6.HOLODECK
6.1What is Holodeck

                  Holographic Environment Simulator, generally
referred to as the Holodeck, can recreate simulated experiences - any
place, any time, with anyone - so real that some find life in the
holodeck's simulated reality more interesting than their real lives.

When the holodeck is not in use, it is simply a large, empty black       room
with yellow grid lines dividing the interior.


 The Holodecks are the familial descendents of the cassette tapes and
newspaper headlines that were passed up to astronauts during the flights of
the mid-twentieth century. These devices, which utilize forcefield generators,
replicators and imaging devices allow Starfleet ship crews to survive the
rigors of extended missions without giving up the psychological benefits of a
walk in a park, or a night under the stars.

6.2Construction

"The Holodeck utilizes two main subsystems, the holographic imagery
subsystem and the matter conversion subsystem. The holographic imager
subsection creates the realistic background environments. The matter
conversion subsystem creates physical "props" from the starship's central raw
matter supplies. Under normal conditions, a participant in a Holodeck
simulation should not be able to detect differences between a real object and a
simulated one.

The basic mechanism behind holoscene is the omni-directional holo
diode(OHD),a micro miniature device that can project full colour stereoscopic
images and force fields in three dimensions. The walls of the holoscene are
covered with millions of OHD’s,under dedicated high-speed computer
control. Their job is to make the images seen in the holodeck. It also
generates force fields that stimulate the sense of touch of holographic images.

Shaped force fields and background imagery allow a visitor to
experience volumes and distances apparently larger than the holoscene
room could physically accommodate.


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Seminar Report 2004                                                       16
The OHD comprises two types of microminiature device that projects a
variety of special forcefields. The density of OHDs is 400 per cm^2, only
slightly less than the active visual matrix of a multilayer display panel, and
powered by standard medium-duty electro plasma taps. Entire walls are
covered by OHDs, manufactured in an inexpensive wide-roll circuit printing
process. A typical Holodeck surface comprises twelve subprocessing layers
totaling 3.5 mm, diffusion bonded to a lightweight structural cooling tile
averaging 3.04 cm thick. The primary subprocessor/emitter materials include
keiyurium, silicon animide, and superconducting DiBeCu 732. Each single
OHD measures 0.01 mm. The optical data network mechanism by which
OHDs are sent impulses is similar to that for smaller display screens, though
complete walls are broken down into manageable high speed segments, each
0.61 m^2. Dedicated high speed subsections of the starship main computers
drive these room sized displays."

The OHDs also manipulate force fields in three dimensions, allowing users to
feel holoprojected objects. The tactile feedback is perfected by algorithms
approximating the actual surfaces of the objects being simulated. Other
senses, such as sound and smell, are taken care of in more traditional ways,
with atomizers and speakers. These can also be incorporated into replicated
objects and characters for a more realistic experience.

The shaped force fields and background imagery allow a participant to scroll
through the hologenerated landscape. In this way, areas much larger than the
Holodeck itself can be experienced.




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                           Figure 6.1

    Holographic projection using Holodeck Technology




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                                                  Chapter7



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7.APPLICATIONS
The applications of Holographic Environments are endless.
  • Doctors and soldiers could use this technology to train in a simulated
      environment.
  • This technology can also be used for entertainment.
  • Often used for therapy.




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CONCLUSION
             Chief among the holodeck etiquette rules is a ban on using a
living person - especially someone serving on the same ship - as a model for
personal fantasy fulfillment. However, there is nothing within the holodeck
systems that prevents anyone from doing just that.

Although a crew member can still break a leg while skiing or get a shiner
from a boxer, safety parameters are built into the holodeck systems that
prevent serious injury or death. Safety systems can go off-line, but this is
unusual, and is normally the result of shipwide difficulties.

Some individuals establish a psychologically dangerous dependency on the
holodeck. This condition is known as holodiction. While it is not common, it
is often very difficult to resolve, especially as holodiction usually marks
deeper problems.




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REFERENCE

www.howstuffworks.com
www.geocities.com
home.sprintmail.com
www.startreck.com




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                                             APPENDIX

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