Chapter 8
As Americans we
 love to get our
 money’s worth!
       The Big Texan
        Steak Ranch
        Amarillo, TX
Almost 42,000 people from
around the world have
traveled to Amarillo and
attempted to eat the
specially cut 72-oz. top
sirloin steak, a baked potato,
salad, dinner roll and shrimp
cocktail. About 8,000 have
succeeded in completing the
feat and joining the ranks of
Big Texan champions.

 Last year higher market
prices for cattle pushed the
price to $72.00 for the meal.
                         Pointer’s Pizza
                                   St Louis, MO

   For years now, Pointers has
    offered a $500 prize to any two-
    member team who can demolish
    an entire 10-pound, two-meat-
    topping, 28-inch pizza in an hour
    without leaving the customer area.
    Teams must call at least a day in
    advance and cannot compete
    during lunch or dinner rushes. A
    pair of recent winners advise
    ordering lean toppings such as
    turkey and chicken, lest nausea
    becomes a disqualifying factor.
    The Pointersaurus Challenge costs
    $42, but the pizza sells briskly for
    parties and office lunches at $35
    for a cheese pizza and $5 for each
                         Ben & Jerry’s
   20 scoops of ice cream (4.5
   10 scoops of chopped walnuts
   5 scoops of fresh whipped cream
   4 scoops of hot fudge
   5 chocolate chip cookies
   2 scoops of M&M’s
   2 scoops of Reeses
   2 scoops of chocolate jimmies
   1 giant homemade brownie
The Big Mac
                   Lone Star

   Typical Meal           How many portions?
                   Portion Sizes

   1 tsp margarine = the tip of your thumb
   1 oz. cheese = your thumb, four dice stacked
   3 oz. chicken or meat = deck of cards
   1 c. pasta = tennis ball
   2 T. peanut butter = large marshmallow
   1 medium potato = computer mouse
   1 medium fruit = baseball
   ¼ c. nuts = golf ball
   2 oz. bagel = yo-yo or hockey puck
   Small cookie or cracker = poker chip

   Is the study of food and how our
    bodies use food as fuel for our body
    and our health.

   There is a link between lifetime
    nutritional habits and these diseases:
      Heart disease
      Cancer
      Stroke
      Diabetes
             Foods Are Composed Of:

   Carbohydrates
   Proteins
   Fats
   Vitamins
   Minerals
   Water

    ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS – The nutrients that we
    must include in our diet. Our body does NOT
    manufacture them.
   Foods are various
    combinations of these
       Example- meat is a lot of protein,
        water, fat, vitamins, minerals, but
        very little CHO.
   Energy (the ability to do
    work) for the body is
    supplied by every bite that
    you eat.
   Nutrients are released into
    the body by the process of
    digestion, which breaks
    down food into compounds
    that can be used by the

Food provides two different and
 distinct groups of nutrients:

 Macronutrients (macro = big) CHO,
 protein, fats, water

 Micronutrients (micro = small)
 vitamins and minerals
Best Choices
                  Six Classes of Essential

                                   Provide Energy

    Carbohydrates                                                            Fat
                                           Protein                     9 calories/gram
      4 calories/gram
                                        4 calories/gram             Supply energy, insulate,
   Supply energy to cells in
                                  Repair tissue, help in growth,   Support and cushion organs
 brain, nervous system, blood
                                  Supply energy, regulate H2O       Provide for absorption of
and to muscles during exercise.
                                                                      Fat-soluble vitamins
      Ideal Eating Plan

                   Protein        10-35%

                   CHO            45-65%
30%      CHO

10%                Fat            20-35%
0%                 Saturated Fat < 7-10%
                   Monounsaturated Fat - Up to
                   Polyunsaturated Fat – Up to 10%
              Six Classes of Essential Nutrients

                              DO NOT
                           Provide Energy
                          But Are Still Vital

                               Minerals                    Water
     Vitamins                 Help regulate            The body is about
   Initiate or speed        body functions, aid      60% water. Regulates
up chemical reactions   in growth and maintenance   temperature. Removes
        in cells.
                             of body tissues.           waste products.

   Alcohol –      Although alcohol is not an essential
    nutrient, it does provide energy.
   7 Calories/gram

    Calories are the potential energy for the
    body to produce work.
    One Kcal represents the amount of heat it takes to
    raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree

   Are organic compounds composed
    of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
   Found mostly in plant sources. The
    only animal source is milk.
   CHO are our brain food and some
    cells in the nervous system only use
    CHO as fuel. They do not utilize
   CHO also used during high-intensity
   AT LEAST 55% of our total calories
    should come from CHO, with no
    more than 10-15% of these from
    simple CHO sources.

   They are classified as simple or

   Simple are sugars, complex are
    starches or fiber.
        Simple Carbohydrates

 Sugars  and starches occur naturally in many
  foods—including milk, fruits, some
  vegetables, bread, cereals, and grains.
    These foods, however, provide many
     important nutrients.
    On the other hand, so-called added sugars-
     supply added calories, but few nutrients.
 Foods rich in added sugars include things like
  soft drinks and desserts.
        Leading Sources of Calories in
              the American Diet
 1. Regular soft drinks (7.1% of total calories)
 2. Cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, pastries (3.6%)
 3. Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meat loaf (3.1%)
 4. Pizza (3.1%)
 5. Potato chips, corn chips, popcorn (2.9%)
 6. Rice (2.7%)
 7. Rolls, buns, English muffins, bagels (2.7%)
 8. Cheese or cheese spread (2.6%)
 9. Beer (2.6%)
10. French fries, fried potatoes (2.2%)
Source: Block, G. 2004. Foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S.: Data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2000. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis 17: 439–447.
               Choose Sensibly
               Carbonated beverages         8-10 tsp
   How        yogurt                       7 tsp
               1 cup canned corn            3 tsp
    sugar is
    added      1 tablespoon ketchup         1 tsp
    to         Glazed donut                 6 tsp
    this???    1 choc. Éclair or piece of
               angel food cake              7 tsp
               2 oz. chocolate candy        8 tsp
               Iced chocolate cake or
               berry pie                    10 tsp
               4 oz hard candy              20 tsp
                         Choose Sensibly
   A sugar by any other name…
       Read the label to locate hidden sugars in the foods you

       Sugars are listed by many different names, including
        brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, fructose, fruit
        juice concentrate, glucose or dextrose, high-fructose corn
        syrup, honey, lactose, maltose, molasses, raw sugar,
        table sugar, or sucrose, and syrup.

            If one of these appears near the top of the ingredients list, the
             food is probably high in added sugars.

 Study in Annual Review of Nutrition found
  that women ages 20-39 increased their
  daily caloric intake from 1,652 to 2,028
  (376 more calories).
 Also during this time they     the calories
  from protein and fat. Primarily sugar
  intake increased.
 We now consume an additional 25
  lbs./year of sugar that previous years.
      High Fructose Corn Syrup

 Created in 1967, a combination of fructose
  and glucose
 Cheaper and 1.16 times sweeter than
  cane-derived sugar
 1970 HFCS was in 1% of products
 2000 HFCS in 42% of products
 According to 2008 USDA report – 57% of
  all sugar on the market is purchased by
  food and beverage industry.

 AverageAmerican intake of added sugars:
 males-22 tsps., females, 16 tsps.
       does not include naturally occurring sugars
   This
   found in foods such as milk and fruits.
 The   USDA recommendation:
   1600 calories/day = no more than 6 tsp/day
   2200 calories/day = no more than 12 tsp/day
   2800 calories/day = no more than 18 tsp/day
Chocolate Shake
     Complex Carbohydrates

 Complex carbohydrates consist of
 chains of many sugar molecules

  Found in plants, especially grains,
   legumes, and tubers
  Include starches and most types of dietary
       Whole Grains
 Before they are processed, all grains are
  whole grains consisting of an inner layer of
  germ, a middle layer called the endosperm,
  and an outer layer of bran

 During processing, the germ and bran are
  often removed, leaving just the starchy

 Refined carbohydrates usually retain all the
  calories of a whole grain but lose many of
  the nutrients
                   Whole Grains

   Whole grains are higher than refined
    carbohydrates in fiber, vitamins, minerals,
    and other beneficial compounds

   Whole grains take longer to digest
     Make people feel full sooner
     Cause a slower rise in glucose levels

 Choose    3 or more servings of whole
    grains per day
       Complex Carbohydrates
   Complex CHO are broken down through
    digestive processes to glucose for use by the
    body. Glucose remains in the blood and
    some is converted to glycogen and is stored
    in the liver, muscles, and kidneys.
   The body can pack about 400 gr. of
    glycogen. Together with glucose stored,
    there are about of 1,800 calories of energy.
   Diets low in CHO promote lean tissue and
    water loss. Each gram of glycogen is stored
    with 2-3 grams of water. Thus low CHO
    intake leads to water loss.
                CHO and Energy

   Glucose is then carried into your cells with
    the help of insulin, a hormone secreted by
    your pancreas.
   Remember. . .with oxygen, glucose is
    converted to ATP in the mitochondria of the
   Without oxygen, red blood cells change
    glucose to energy (ATP), but lactic acid is a
                               CHO Uses
   CHO also protect muscles. When you need energy the body
    looks for CHO first.
   If none are available, because you are on a low CHO diet or
    you have a condition the inhibits the body from using CHO,
    the body will use its own protein tissues (muscles).
   CHO also:
       Regulate the amount of sugar circulating in the blood, so that your
        cells get the energy they need.
       Provide nutrients for the friendly bacteria in the intestinal tract that
        help digest food.
       They help the body absorb calcium.
       They help to lower cholesterol levels and regulate blood pressure,
        especially fiber.
            Where do we get CHO?

   Most important sources of CHO are plant
    foods – fruits, vegetables, and grains.
   Milk and milk products do contain CHO.
   Meat, fish and poultry do not have CHO.
   You need:
      6-11 servings /day of grain foods (bread,
       cereals, pasta, rice)
      2-4 servings of fruit
      3-5 servings of vegetables
             Glycemic Index

   Glycemic Index – Is the measure of how
    strong of an effect a CHO food has on blood
    glucose levels.

   A high glycemic index CHO tends to cause a
    quick and dramatic rise in glucose and insulin
    levels. High glycemic foods can increase
    appetite, and are linked to increased
    diabetes and heart disease.
Glycemic Index
                              Bagel 72
Basmati Rice 58               Blueberry Muffin 59
Brown Rice 55                 Croissant 67
Long grain White Rice 56      Donut 76
Short grain White Rice 72     Pita Bread 57
Uncle Ben's Converted 44      Pumpernickel Bread 51
Noodles (instant) 46          Rye Bread 76
Taco Shells 68                Sour Dough Bread 52
Glycemic Index of Fruit       Sponge Cake 46
Apple 38                      Stone Ground Whole wheat bread 53
Banana 55                     Waffles 76
Cantaloupe 65                 White Bread 70
Cherries 22                   Whole Wheat Bread 69
Grapefruit 25                 Glycemic Index of Dairy
Grapes 46                     Milk (whole) 22
Kiwi 52                       Milk (skimmed) 32
Mango 55                      Milk (chocolate flavored) 34
Orange 44                     Ice Cream (whole) 61
Papaya 58                     Ice cream (low-fat) 50
Pear 38                       Yogurt (low-fat) 33
Pineapple 66                  Glycemic Index of Snacks
Plum 39                       Cashews 22
Watermelon 103
                              Chocolate Bar 49
Glycemic Index of             Corn Chips 72
Vegetables                    Jelly Beans 80
Beets 69                      Peanuts 14
Broccoli 10                   Popcorn 55
Cabbage 10                    Potato Chips 55
Carrots 49                    Pretzels 83
Corn 55                       Snickers Bar 41
Green Peas 48                 Walnuts 15
Lettuce 10                    Glycemic Index of Cookies
Mushrooms 10                  Graham Crackers 74
Onions 10                     Kavli Crispbread 71
Parsnips 97                   Melba Toast 70
Potato (baked) 93             Oatmeal Cookies 55
Potato (mashed, instant) 86   Rice Cakes 82
Potato (new) 62               Rice Crackers 91
Potato (french fries) 75      Ryvita Crispbread 69
Red Peppers 10                Soda Crackers 74
Pumpkin 75                    Shortbread Cookies 64
Sweet Potato 54               Stoned Wheat Thins 67
Glycemic Index of Beans       Vanilla Wafers
Baked Beans 48                Water crackers 78
Broad Beans 79                Glycemic Index of Sugars
          Fiber—A Closer Look
   Dietary fiber = non-digestible carbohydrates and
    lignin that are present naturally in plants

   Functional fiber = non-digestible carbohydrates
    isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a
    lab and added to a food or supplement

   Total fiber = dietary fiber + functional fiber
              Types of Fiber

 Soluble (viscous) fiber = fiber that
 dissolves in water or is broken
 down by bacteria in the large
   Slows the body’s absorption of glucose
   Binds cholesterol-containing compounds
   Sources: pears, apples, prunes, oat, oranges,
                    Types of Fiber
 Insoluble    fiber = fiber that doesn’t
    dissolve in water
     Makes feces bulkier and softer
     Helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and
     Sources: bran (outer layer of wheat/corn), the
      skins of fruit and root vegetables, and leafy

   Fiber adds no calories to your diet. There is no fiber in
    meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products and eggs.
Recommended Intake of Fiber

 Women  = 25 grams per day
 Men = 38 grams per day

   Americans currently consume about
    half this amount
                      Why Do We Need Fiber?

  Fiber helps to speed the passage
of waste through the intestinal
tract which lowers the risk of
cancer because any potential
carcinogens are moved out quickly.

   Water-soluble fiber binds with
    cholesterol in the intestinal tract and
    blocks the absorption and helps the
    body release it. Thus, a lower total
    cholesterol level!!

   Less cholesterol means less risk of
    heart disease!
        Refined vs. Unrefined Fiber
   The processing of package foods can remove fiber.

   REFINED CHO – Retain all the calories, but
    are lower in fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

   UNREFINED CHO (Whole Grains)– Take longer to
    chew and digest and enter the blood more slowly.
    Thus, you feel fuller longer, more anti-oxidant
    vitamins and phytochemicals and decrease risk of

   Example: Long grain rice vs Minute Rice

   Recommended to consume 45-65% (275-300
    grams) of total calories as CHO, with not more than
    10% from simple CHO. Athletes may need more,
    especially endurance athletes! Marathoners CHO
    load right before the event because they exercise for
    longer than 90 minutes.

   Choose fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to
    fuel the body!
                  12 Great Foods
                   Center for Science in the Public Interest

   Whole Grains (bread, pasta)
   Beans
   Brown rice
   Oatmeal
   Sweet potato
   Baked potato
   Broccoli
   Spinach/kale
   Strawberries
   Oranges (orange juice)
   Cantaloupe
   Skim milk (yogurt)

How many are carbohydrates??
 ―Those    who think they have no
  time for healthy eating will sooner
  or later have to find time for

Edward Stanley (1826-1893) from The Conduct of
                          FATS (Lipids)
   The most concentrated source of energy. We store 50 times more
    energy in the form of fat, than in CHO.

   3500 calories = 1 pound of fat.

   The body burns fat as an energy source for periods of rest and low to
    moderate physical activity. About 70% of the energy we need comes
    from fat, 30% from glucose, except for high intensity work.

   Function of fats:
      Insulation
      Cushion body organs
      Provide energy
      Vitamin storage (fat soluble A, D, E, K)
      Add flavor and texture to foods.

     Some fat is invisible, as it is tucked in and around our organs. It is a
       part of every cell membrane. Brain tissue is also rich in fat.
                                   Fats in Food

   Food contains 3 kinds of fats: triglycerides,
    phospholipids and sterols.

   Triglycerides are the fats you use to make adipose
    tissue and what you burn for energy.

   Phospholipids help to carry hormones and vitamins
    through the blood and across cell membranes.

   Sterols are fat and alcohol compounds with no
       Vitamin D, testosterone and cholesterol are sterols.
                           Right Amount of Fat

   Balance must occur to get the right amount of fat in your
    healthy eating plan.
       Too much – risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancers
       Too little – infants and children do not grow, not able to absorb A, D, E,
        K that help with vision, smooth skin, immune system and reproductive

   Fat should make up <30% of calories, with no more
    than 10% from saturated fat sources.

       For 2000 cal./day that would be 600 calories or fewer from
        fat and 200 calories or fewer of that from saturated fat.
                      Foods and Fats

   Fruits and vegetables have only traces of fat, primarily
    unsaturated fatty acids.
   Grains have very small amounts of fat.
   Dairy products vary. Cream is high-fat. Whole milk and
    cheeses are moderately high in fat. Skim milk and skim milk
    products are low fat foods. Most fat in dairy is saturated.
   Meat is moderately high in fat – mainly saturated.
   Chicken and turkey are lower in fat.
   Fish may be high or low, but is primarily unsaturated fatty
   Vegetable oils, butter and lard are high fat. Most oils are
    unsaturated. Lard and butter are saturated.
   Triglycerides are the most abundant type of
    fat – 98% of the fat eaten and stored in the

   Triglycerides are composed of a glycerine
    molecule (an alcohol) plus three fatty acid
    chains. Fatty acids are the building blocks of

   Fatty acids are made up of a chain of carbon
    atoms with oxygen attached at the end and
    hydrogen atoms attached along the length of
    the chain.
            Types and Sources of Fats
   Saturated fat = a fat with no carbon-carbon double
    bonds; usually solid at room temperature
       Found primarily in animal foods and palm and coconut oils, dairy
        products, baked goods, Crisco, butter.

   Monounsaturated fat = a fat with one carbon-
    carbon double bond; usually liquid at room
       Sources: Avocados, canola oil, cashew nuts, olives, olive oil, peanuts,
        peanut oil, peanut butter, almonds, pecans

   Polyunsaturated fat = a fat with two or more
    carbon-carbon double bonds; usually liquid at room
       Found in certain vegetables, fatty fish, corn oil, cottonseed oil, filbert
        nuts, safflower oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, walnuts.
Choose Sensibly
             Types and Sources of Fats

   Two key forms of polyunsaturated fats:
       Omega-3 fatty acids are produced when the endmost
        double bond of a polyunsaturated fat occurs three carbons
        from the end of the fatty acid chain
            Found primarily in fish

       Omega-6 fatty acids are produced when the endmost
        double bond of a polyunsaturated fat occurs six carbons
        from the end of the fatty acid chain
            Found primarily in certain vegetable oils, especially corn, soybean,
             and cottonseed oils
         Omega-3 Fatty Acids
   Promotes heart health. May prevent blood
    clots, aids heart to beat in a steady rhythm,
    reduces BP and risk of heart attack and

   Recommended to have two or more servings
    of fish/week. Examples: salmon, tuna,
    trout, mackerel, sardines and anchovies.

   Plant sources include dark green leafy
    vegetables, walnuts, canola oil and flax
   The process of adding hydrogen to an oil to improve the texture of foods and
    increase the shelf life. (Trans Fatty Acids)

   Turns a liquid into a solid. Example: vegetable oil converted to margarine.

   Trans fats are found in cookies, crackers, fried chicken, peanut butter, pies,
    cakes, French fries and many more.

   ―Studies have shown that gram for gram, trans fats are more harmful than
    saturated fats.‖

   Trans fat connected to development of heart disease. (Raises LDL, lowers
    HDL). Heart disease risk could be cut in half by reducing trans fats by 4

   Read the nutritional labels – look for partially-hydrogenated vegetable oils,
    which tells you it has trans fat in it!

   Choose liquid oils over margarine or shortening for cooking. Look for trans-
    free soft margarine over stick margarine.
  Saturated and Trans Fats:
Comparing Butter and Margarine


     spread                          Saturated fat
      Tub                            Trans fat
    margarine                        Other fats

                0   5     10    15
            Grams of fat in 1          SOURCE: Food and Drug Administration

                                          Total, Saturated, and Trans Fat
                                            Content of Selected Foods

                                                                                                 Other fats
Total fat grams per serving

                                                                                                 Trans fat
                                                                                                 Saturated fat




                                   French fries   Doughnut   Pound cake Potato chips   Candy bar           Milk (whole)

                                                                                       SOURCE: Food and Drug Administration
Choose Sensibly

   Two Essential FA: Linoleic fatty acid (plant foods –
    omega-6 family) and alpha-linolenic fatty acid (fish –
    omega-3 family) Deficiencies are rare in U.S.

   Recommended that <30% of total calories come from fat
    sources, with no more than 7-10% from saturated fat, up
    to 10% from polyunsaturated fats, and up to 20% from
    monounsaturated sources.

    Average American consumes 33% (or 75 grams) of
    calories from fat.
   Is a type of fat (sterol) found in animal products only.

   Also manufactured in the body in the liver.

   Cholesterol does help enable nerve to send messages
    back and forth; protects the integrity of cell membranes;
    helps to absorb Vit. A,D,E,K,; is a base to build
    hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

   But. . . high levels of cholesterol are linked to coronary
    artery disease.

   RDA for dietary cholesterol is less than 300 mg./day.

   Protein comes from the Greek word, protos, meaning ―of
    prime importance‖.
   Proteins are a major component of all plant and animal
    tissues, second only to water.
   Our bodies constantly assemble, break down and use
   When we eat more protein than we need, the excess is
    either used to make energy or stored as fat.

   Protein mainly associated with animal
    foods – beef, chicken, fish, or milk.

   But, plant foods also have protein. Dried
    beans and peas, grains, nuts, seeds and

   Human body is full of proteins.
   There are proteins in the outer and inner membranes
    of every living cell.
   Hair, nails, and outer layers of skin are made of the
    protein, keratin.
   Muscle tissue contains proteins.
   Bone has lots of protein in the inner structure.
   RBC have hemoglobin (carries oxygen in blood) and
    globin is protein.

   Are complex chemical structures
    containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    and nitrogen combined into chains
    called amino acids.

   Amino Acids are the ―building blocks of
    protein‖, or links to create protein.
                            Uses of Protein

       Proteins from foods are broken down into amino
        acids by digestive enzymes.

       Body has 20 different amino acids in foods to
        choose from when building sequences of AA.

         9 of the amino acids are ―essential‖ because they cannot be
          manufactured in the body, only obtained through foods.
         Body can manufacture the other ―nonessential‖ 11.
         When AA link together to form a protein, their characteristics
          work together to determine their specific function.
   COMPLETE PROTEIN – High quality protein that
    provides all nine essential amino acids.
   Examples: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, soybeans
   Plant sources are usually low in 1 or 2 amino acids.

   INCOMPLETE PROTEIN – Low quality protein
    that supply only some of the 9 essential
   Examples: Beans, peas, nuts
   Come from plant sources.
   Foods can be mixed and matched to produce complete proteins. Example:
    Peanut butter sandwich on whole wheat; rice and beans; cheese sandwich
    on whole wheat; yogurt with nuts.
                  Protein Sources
 3 ounces lean meat, poultry, or fish
 1/2 cup tofu
       20–25 grams of protein
   1 cup legumes
       15–20 grams of protein
   1 cup milk or yogurt or 1-1/2 ounces
       8–12 grams of protein
   Cereals, grains, nuts, vegetables
       2–4 grams of protein per serving
                   Protein Requirements

   Need around 15% of total calories from protein
    or 0.8-1.0 grams/kg of body weight. (0.4

   On a 2000 calorie/day plan that would be about
    300 calories (4 cal./gram)

   About 2/3 of protein intake in the American diet is from
    animal sources, also high in saturated fat/cholesterol.

   175 lb. man needs about 63 grams/day. This
    would be two or three 3-ounce servings of lean
    meat, fish, poultry. (21 grams/3-ounce serving)
                     WHO NEEDS EXTRA PROTEIN?

   Anyone who is building new tissue quickly needs more
    than 0.8 grams.
       Infants many need as much as 2.0 grams/kg
       Adolescents need as much as 1.2 grams/kg
       Pregnant women need an extra 10 grams/day. Those who are nursing
        need an extra 15 grams/day in the first 6 months.
       Injuries may increase your protein needs, especially if there has been a
        lot of blood loss, as the protein is needed to make new hemoglobin.
       Athletes?? Research suggests that athletes easily meet their
        requirements – about an additional 0.5-0.8 gr./kg per day in their normal
           You cannot force your body to build muscle by pumping in more
            protein than you need, any more than you can make your car run
            faster by adding more gas to a full tank. Extra protein does not build
            muscles; only regular workouts fueled by a mix of nutrients can do

   For resistive training athletes – 1.7 to 1.8 gr./kg
   For endurance athletes – 1.2 to 1.4 gr./kg.

   Average American consumes almost twice as much protein as they need, so most
    athletes already get enough.

   Consuming larger than normal amounts of protein does not enhance physical
    performance, as that is not the function of protein.

   Protein supplements???? – If excess protein means excess calories, then fat
    weight, not muscle weight is gained.
      Purified protein supplements can contribute to calcium losses and
        therefore harm bone health.
      Excess protein means excess nitrogen that must be excreted, a risk for
      Supplements of some single amino acids can interfere with absorption of
        other amino acids.

Guilt Free Nutrition Packed with Milk Chocolate, Peanuts, & Caramel!
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 Well, those days are over. Now there's one health
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caramel and surrounded by creamy milk chocolate.
    One bite and you'll understand the bar got it's
                    name! Oh Yeah!

  Protein 26 gr x 4 = 104 cal./380 = 27% protein
         Fat calories = 180/380 = 47% fat
   Vitamins are organic (containing carbon) compounds
    required in small amounts to regulate cellular functions.

   Vitamins do not provide energy, but help to release stored
    energy in CHO, fats, protein. Vitamins also critical in
    production of red blood cells and maintenance of nervous,
    skeletal and immune systems. Vitamins prevent nutritional
    deficiency diseases and promote healing and good health.

   Most are obtained through the diet, except for Vitamin D
    (obtained through sunlight) and Vitamin K which the body
    can produce from bacteria in the intestines.

   Humans need 13 vitamins. They are classified as fat-soluble or water-

       Fat-soluble (dissolve in fat) are A, D, E, K and are stored
        for long periods in fat tissue and liver. Over-
        consumption can lead to toxic effects.

       Water-soluble are 8 B-complex vitamins and C. They
        are absorbed directly into the blood, used or excreted.
        Need to be replaced frequently.
          B-complex include biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic
           acid, riboflavin, thiamine B6, and B12

         Vitamin Sources are abundant in fruits, vegetables and processed foods such as
            cereals which have been enriched with vitamins.
         Limit cooking to preserve nutrients and eat fresh fruits/veges when possible.
                           A, D, E, K
   Vitamin A – moisturizing nutrient for skin and membranes.
    Vision vitamin. Promotes growth of healthy bones and teeth.
    Helps immune system fight off infections. Sources: whole
    milk, eggs, butter; yellow, red, dark green fruits/vegetables.

   Vitamin D – Is essential to help body absorb calcium for bones
    and teeth. Sources: sunlight, fish oils, egg yolks

   Vitamin E – Helps to maintain a healthy reproductive system,
    nerves, muscles. Helps maintain a healthy heart. Sources:
    vegetable oils, nuts, whole grains, green leafy vegetables.

   Vitamin K – Blood clotting. Helps to make bone and kidney
    tissues. Sources: dark green leafy vegetables, cheese, liver
    cereals, milk.

   They are inorganic (non-carbon containing)
    substances that exist freely in nature. They
    aid in growth and maintenance of body
    tissues, normal heart rhythm, body water
    supplies, acid-base balance of the blood and
    nerve impulse conduction.
   There are at least 17 essential minerals.
      Major Minerals (required in amounts exceeding 100 mg) –
       Calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium,
       chloride, and magnesium.
       Trace minerals (required in smaller amounts) include fluoride, iron,
        selenium, zinc, arsenic, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine,
        manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, and vanadium.
       Minerals most commonly lacking in the diet are iron and
       Sodium, potassium and chloride are the primary minerals
        lost through perspiration. Potassium is essential for
        maintenance of the heart beat– found in citrus
        fruits/juices, bananas, dates, nuts, fresh vegetables, meat,
        and fish.
       Iron deficiency leads to anemia. Iron is an essential part
        of hemoglobin.
       Calcium deficiency leads to osteoporosis.

   Substances that help prevent harmful effects caused by
    oxidation within the body.
   Free radicals or ―oxygen free radicals‖ are unstable
    elements formed when the body uses oxygen or breaks
    down certain fats or protein as a normal part of
   Cigarette smoke, radiation (x-rays), alcohol, heat and
    certain pollutants also produce free radicals.
   This unstable molecule is missing an electron and will react
    with any molecule it encounters to take an electron. This
    damages cell membranes and mutates genes. This can
    lead to aging, cancer, CVD, and degenerative diseases such
    as arthritis.

 Antioxidants react with free radicals and
  donate lost electrons. They help by blocking
  the formation and action of free radicals and
  repair the damage they cause.
 Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants!
  Examples: Vit. C, A (beta-carotene), E and
  selenium. It is best to get the antioxidants
  from foods, not supplements.
   Phytochemicals means plant chemicals and are found only in
    plant food. They are not vitamins or minerals, but are a
    compound found to help prevent chronic diseases, especially
   There are hundreds, maybe thousands of phytochemicals in
    fruits and vegetables. Some examples - Allyl Sulfides –
    garlic, onions; Isoflavones – soybeans; Polyphenols – green
    tea, grapes; Saponins – beans and legumes.
   Antioxidants are a particular type of phytochemical.
   Many choose to follow a vegetarian diet.
   Four types of vegetarian diets.
      Vegans – Considered true vegetarians. Diets are void of
       meat, chicken, fish, eggs or milk products. Vegan’s primary
       sources of protein are vegetables, fruits, and grains. Vegans
       may have to supplement diet with B12, normally found only
       in meat products.
      Lactovegetarians – Eat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables
       but do not consume other animal products (meat, poultry,
       fish or eggs)
      Ovolactovegetarians – They eat eggs as well as dairy
       products, fruits, and vegetables but do not consume meat,
       poultry, and fish.
      Semivegetarians – Eat fruits, vegetables, dairy, eggs, and a
       small selection of poultry, fish and other seafood. They do
       not consume any beef or pork.
    Choose and prepare foods and
   beverages with little salt (sodium)

 The human body requires 500 mg
 Average American consumes about 4,000-
  6,000 mg/day.
 High Na intake associated with HTN.
 USDA recommendation: no more than
  2,300 mg/day or about 1 tsp. NaCl/day.
             Play it safe with food.
   Know how to prepare, handle, and store food safely to
    keep you and your family safe:
   Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits, and
    vegetables. To avoid spreading bacteria to other foods,
    meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.
   Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while
    shopping, preparing, or storing.
   Cook meat, poultry, and fish to safe internal
    temperatures to kill microorganisms.
   Chill perishable foods promptly and thaw foods properly.
   Keep food safe to eat.
       Food-borne illness is caused by eating foods that contain harmful
        bacteria, toxins, parasites, viruses, or chemical contaminants.
       S/S of having eaten unsafe food may appear within half an hour,
        or may not develop for up to 3 weeks.
                   STEAK & SHAKE
   Rate the meals from least amount of total calories
    to most calories.
    1. The Original Double Burger
           Regular French fry
          Large Diet Coke with Cherry Syrup
    2. Turkey Melt
          Baked Beans
          Cup of Beef Vegetable Soup
          Large Lemonade
    3. Chicken Taco Salad
          Cookies & Cream shake (regular)
    4. Chili 3-way
           Small garden salad with honey French dressing
           Hi-C Fruit Punch (regular)
     The Results
1.   Original Double
     1067 cal., 55 g. fat, 17.5 g. sat fat
2.   Chili 3-way
     1077 cal., 53.5 g. fat, 20.5 g. sat fat.
3.   Turkey Melt
     1645 cal., 77.5 g. fat, 18 g. sat fat.
4.   Chicken Taco Salad
     1854 cal., 95.5 g. fat, 32 g. sat fat
Rate the meals from least
    amount of total calories    Pizza Hut
    to the most.

   1. 2 slices of hand-tossed
       pepperoni pizza
       Medium Mt. Dew

   2. Breadsticks (2) with
      dipping sauce
      Personal size Cheese
      pan pizza
      Large Diet Pepsi

   3. 2 slices Thin crust
      Veggie Lover’s Pizza
       Medium Pepsi
                       The Results
1.   2 slices pepperoni pizza
     670 cal., 22 g. fat, 9 g. sat fat, 2 g. trans fat

2.   2 slices Veggie Lover’s pizza
     700 cal., 20 g. fat, 9 g., sat fat

3.   Personal size Cheese pizza
     960 cal., 39 g. fat, 13.5 g. sat fat., .5 g. trans fat