VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 7/10/2011
A Comparison of Treatment Methods for Arundo donax (giant cane) General Comments: • All project areas could need FWS consultation: Section 7 or 10. • All methods require at last 5 years follow-up for resprouts. METHOD1 BEST USE TIMING TOOLS/ POSSIBLE REVEGETATION Typical ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES EQUIPMENT PERMITS2 division of labor cost over 10 years SPRAY ONLY For small and When plant is Herbicide, back-pack County Ag Can be initiated Yr1: 84% Low soil Risk from drift to non- large green. Best in sprayer, power Commission four months after Yr2: 7% disturbance. target plants. Licensed Spray leaves and infestations late sprayer, or aerial permit for treatment. Stands Yr3: 3% Requires less labor applicator needed if stems with where full- summer/early (plane, helicopter). pesticide that are left Yr4: than other non-landowner applies systemic height fall when application by standing can have Yr5: 2% methods. herbicide. herbicide. applications are plant energy is non-landowner. plants planted into Yr:6 feasible. Use on transferred to them. Mowed Yr:7 2% Aerial (aircraft) pure stands of roots. stands can also have Yr:8 applications are non- Arundo. plants planted after Yr:9 target and work poorly. mowing. Yr:10 2% Require use of low concentration per label. BEND AND Mixed and pure Spray in late Flail or fixed tooth County Ag Can be initiated Yr1: 84% Very effective. Increased labor costs to SPRAY stands. Small or summer/early mower to mow/mulch Commission four months after Yr2: 7% Less risk of drift. bend canes. Licensed large fall when Arundo. Not required permit for treatment. Stands Yr3: 3% Uses less herbicide applicator needed Bend over canes infestations. plant energy is for all stands. pesticide that are left Yr4: than Spray-Only Standing dead Arundo to concentrate Bending transferred to application by standing can have Yr5: 2% method. Biomass could pose fire risk. If surface area of generally only roots. Cut or non-landowner. plants planted into Yr:6 can be left on site. using flail/fixed tooth clump or lay flat done around or mulch dead them. Mowed Yr:7 2% Potential reduction mower, heavy on ground. near desirable canes approx. Permit(s) to work stands can also have Yr:8 in labor costs to equipment operator Spray. Leave on vegetation. three months in channel with plants planted after Yr:9 remove biomass. needed. Access and ground to Where none after backhoe if mowing. Yr:10 2% Low soil slope must be suitable compost, or mow occurs, can use treatment. biomass disturbance. to use mower. and mulch Spray Only reduction occurs. standing canes method. later. METHOD1 BEST USE TIMING TOOLS/ POSSIBLE REVEGETATION Typical ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES EQUIPMENT PERMITS2 division of labor cost over 10 years CUT, Historically Cut in spring Loppers or power County Ag Must wait until re- Yr1: 46% Low soil Risk from drift to non- RESPROUT, used with pure to summer. brush cutter (steel- Commission sprouting is low Yr2: 20% disturbance. target plants. Licensed AND SPRAY stands, large Spray blade weed whacker), permit for enough to allow Yr3: 10% Potentially less applicator needed. infestations. regrowth in herbicide, sprayer. pesticide planting- typically Yr4: 10% risk of non-target Multiple repeat Cut and remove late application by two years. Yr5: 5% herbicide drift than treatments required. canes; allowing summer/early non-landowner. Yr:6 5% when spraying Cane can reach original roots to resprout, fall when Yr:7 2% full-grown canes. height before then following up plant energy is Permit(s) to Yr:8 Can use volunteers retreatment, thus with foliar spray transferred to work in channel Yr:9 for cutting cane. negating advantages. roots. (This if biomass Yr:10 2% Shorter canes rarely occurs-- reduction translocate less in practice occurs. Definite herbicide, resulting in multiple DFG 1600 poorer results. retreatments permits. occur throughout the year.) CUT STUMP Small stands, Anytime Chainsaw, loppers, Must wait until re- Yr1: 63% Low soil Requires handling mixed during herbicide. sprouting is low Yr2: 18% disturbance. Low high-concentration Cut stalks to vegetation, growing enough to allow Yr3: 5% risk of non-target herbicide. within 2” of close proximity season. Best planting- typically Yr4: 5% herbicide drift. Risk of spillage. ground, then to water, and in late one or two years. Yr5: 5% Can use volunteers Impractical for large immediately for follow-up summer/early Usually fairly high Yr:6 for cutting cane infestations. apply undiluted treatments. fall when ruderal weed cover Yr:7 2% and removing. glyphosate to plant energy is due to lack of Yr:8 Volunteers can stump. transferred to Arundo mulch Yr:9 work near roots. layer. Yr:10 2% applicator. INJECTION3 In very Best suited in JK injection gun County Ag Ability to plant Yr 1: 25% May not need to Labor-intensive. sensitive, high late summer www.Jkinjectiontools. Commission back or revegetate Yr 2: 70% retreat, especially Impractical for large Concerntrated visibility work or fall, or com permit for area immediately. (dead stem if inject all stems infestations. herbicides areas. Also when plants pesticide Depending on site, removal) in each clump. injected into when selective actively application by circumstances may Yr 3: 5% Useful in areas stalks at 90º (internal) growing up non-landowner. warrant waiting 6-9 with sensitive angle. placement of through a months to see if species since low herbicide is killing frost. retreatment needed. risk of herbicide desired. drift. METHOD1 BEST USE TIMING TOOLS POSSIBLE REVEGETATION Typical ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES PERMITS2 division of labor cost over 10 years TARPING Only practical Optimal time Thick, fully opaque DFG 1600 Must wait until Yr1: 85% Effective at killing Very labor intensive. for small is in tarp secured with tarping is complete: Yr2: 15% the roots of Not practical for large Cover plants with infestations on May/early stakes, soil staples, or one year. Yr3: Arundo. Requires infestations or on tarps relatively level June. Tarps heavy rock. Yr4: no use of slopes or rocky terrain. ground. should be left Yr5: herbicides. Tarps must be in place for Yr:6 Efficacy compares removed. six months Yr:7 favorably or better (long Yr:8 to herbicide enough?). Yr:9 treatment. Yr:10 ROOT Can be used on Dry season to Loppers, pick, shovel. Permit(s) to Must wait until re- Yr1: 78% While herbicide is Moderate to significant REMOVAL any size area. avoid soil backhoe, or excavator work in channel sprouting is low Yr2: 7% not required for soil disturbance. (generally not Often used for loss. with backhoe: enough to allow Yr3: 3% initial treatment, recommended) exposed or ACOE 404, planting- typically Yr4: most excavation Major successional overhanging RWQCB 401, one year. Bare soil Yr5: 5% methods leave problems—problem Cut canes, then clumps, so as to DFG 1600. encourages Yr:6 large amounts of sites become weed lots. dig up root mass minimize excessive weed Yr:7 5% rhizome that using hand tools erosion. Burn permit if cover that reduces Yr:8 require several or machinery or burning debris. planting survival. Yr:9 years of extract all Yr:10 2% retreatment with biomass using High cost of herbicide. machinery. initial effort No herbicide used. masks later year May reduce efforts number of resprouts. METHOD1 BEST USE TIMING TOOLS POSSIBLE Re-vegetation Typical ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES PERMITS2 division of labor cost over 10 years BIOCONTROL All infestations, During growth Bug net and a jar APHIS PPQ 526 When Costs is in R&D; Low cost once R&D and regulatory but possibly period for interstate appropriate if implementation is R&D completed; hurdles can be slow Introduction of best in large importation, needed; gradual almost without physical access not (not anticipated to be specialist stands where following decline may cost once host- necessary, control available until at least herbivores to populations can Section 7 allow natural range testing and sustainable with 2008), minor risk of suppress growth build; good in Statement of recovery of regulatory no collateral non-target impacts; sensitive or FONSI desirable plants approval is in damage and biomass may still inaccessible Concurrence place; monitoring expected dispersal remain and can be fire sites can be a long- to new or sensitive hazard term cost, if habitats; can desired improve habitat quality by providing new food resources for wildlife 1 Up to 5 years follow-up monitoring for resprouts. 2 Significant vegetation removal may require a CDFG Stream Alteration Agreement. 3 Injection rate for A. donax has not yet been labeled. Check with local herbicide representative for updated information. This information is intended as guidelines for selecting a method(s) of Arundo eradication, and is not an endorsement of any particular herbicide. Sources: Arundo: A Landowner Handbook: TAdN Arundo Eradication and Coordination Program and SMSLRWMA.org web site.
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