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Arundo A Landowner Handbook

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 4

  • pg 1
									                                                                     A Comparison of Treatment Methods
                                                                        for Arundo donax (giant cane)
    General Comments:
    • All project areas could need FWS consultation: Section 7 or 10.
    • All methods require at last 5 years follow-up for resprouts.

 METHOD1            BEST USE            TIMING              TOOLS/              POSSIBLE            REVEGETATION           Typical       ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
                                                          EQUIPMENT             PERMITS2                                   division of
                                                                                                                           labor cost
                                                                                                                           over 10 years
SPRAY ONLY          For small and      When plant is     Herbicide, back-pack   County Ag           Can be initiated       Yr1: 84%   Low soil               Risk from drift to non-
                    large              green. Best in    sprayer, power         Commission          four months after      Yr2: 7%    disturbance.           target plants. Licensed
Spray leaves and    infestations       late              sprayer, or aerial     permit for          treatment. Stands      Yr3: 3%    Requires less labor    applicator needed if
stems with          where full-        summer/early      (plane, helicopter).   pesticide           that are left          Yr4:       than other             non-landowner applies
systemic            height             fall when                                application by      standing can have      Yr5: 2%    methods.               herbicide.
herbicide.          applications are   plant energy is                          non-landowner.      plants planted into    Yr:6
                    feasible. Use on   transferred to                                               them. Mowed            Yr:7 2%                           Aerial (aircraft)
                    pure stands of     roots.                                                       stands can also have   Yr:8                              applications are non-
                    Arundo.                                                                         plants planted after   Yr:9                              target and work poorly.
                                                                                                    mowing.                Yr:10 2%                          Require use of low
                                                                                                                                                             concentration per label.



BEND AND            Mixed and pure     Spray in late     Flail or fixed tooth   County Ag           Can be initiated       Yr1: 84%   Very effective.        Increased labor costs to
SPRAY               stands. Small or   summer/early      mower to mow/mulch     Commission          four months after      Yr2: 7%    Less risk of drift.    bend canes. Licensed
                    large              fall when         Arundo. Not required   permit for          treatment. Stands      Yr3: 3%    Uses less herbicide    applicator needed
Bend over canes     infestations.      plant energy is   for all stands.        pesticide           that are left          Yr4:       than Spray-Only        Standing dead Arundo
to concentrate      Bending            transferred to                           application by      standing can have      Yr5: 2%    method. Biomass        could pose fire risk. If
surface area of     generally only     roots. Cut or                            non-landowner.      plants planted into    Yr:6       can be left on site.   using flail/fixed tooth
clump or lay flat   done around or     mulch dead                                                   them. Mowed            Yr:7 2%    Potential reduction    mower, heavy
on ground.          near desirable     canes approx.                            Permit(s) to work   stands can also have   Yr:8       in labor costs to      equipment operator
Spray. Leave on     vegetation.        three months                             in channel with     plants planted after   Yr:9       remove biomass.        needed. Access and
ground to           Where none         after                                    backhoe if          mowing.                Yr:10 2%   Low soil               slope must be suitable
compost, or mow     occurs, can use    treatment.                               biomass                                               disturbance.           to use mower.
and mulch           Spray Only                                                  reduction occurs.
standing canes      method.
later.
 METHOD1             BEST USE           TIMING              TOOLS/               POSSIBLE           REVEGETATION          Typical       ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
                                                          EQUIPMENT              PERMITS2                                 division of
                                                                                                                          labor cost
                                                                                                                          over 10 years
CUT,                 Historically      Cut in spring     Loppers or power        County Ag          Must wait until re-   Yr1: 46%     Low soil               Risk from drift to non-
RESPROUT,            used with pure    to summer.        brush cutter (steel-    Commission         sprouting is low      Yr2: 20%     disturbance.           target plants. Licensed
AND SPRAY            stands, large     Spray             blade weed whacker),    permit for         enough to allow       Yr3: 10%     Potentially less       applicator needed.
                     infestations.     regrowth in       herbicide, sprayer.     pesticide          planting- typically   Yr4: 10%     risk of non-target     Multiple repeat
Cut and remove                         late                                      application by     two years.            Yr5: 5%      herbicide drift than   treatments required.
canes; allowing                        summer/early                              non-landowner.                           Yr:6 5%      when spraying          Cane can reach original
roots to resprout,                     fall when                                                                          Yr:7 2%      full-grown canes.      height before
then following up                      plant energy is                           Permit(s) to                             Yr:8         Can use volunteers     retreatment, thus
with foliar spray                      transferred to                            work in channel                          Yr:9         for cutting cane.      negating advantages.
                                       roots. (This                              if biomass                               Yr:10 2%                            Shorter canes
                                       rarely occurs--                           reduction                                                                    translocate less
                                       in practice                               occurs. Definite                                                             herbicide, resulting in
                                       multiple                                  DFG 1600                                                                     poorer results.
                                       retreatments                              permits.
                                       occur
                                       throughout the
                                       year.)
CUT STUMP            Small stands,     Anytime           Chainsaw, loppers,                         Must wait until re-   Yr1: 63%     Low soil               Requires handling
                     mixed             during            herbicide.                                 sprouting is low      Yr2: 18%     disturbance. Low       high-concentration
Cut stalks to        vegetation,       growing                                                      enough to allow       Yr3: 5%      risk of non-target     herbicide.
within 2” of         close proximity   season. Best                                                 planting- typically   Yr4: 5%      herbicide drift.       Risk of spillage.
ground, then         to water, and     in late                                                      one or two years.     Yr5: 5%      Can use volunteers     Impractical for large
immediately          for follow-up     summer/early                                                 Usually fairly high   Yr:6         for cutting cane       infestations.
apply undiluted      treatments.       fall when                                                    ruderal weed cover    Yr:7 2%      and removing.
glyphosate to                          plant energy is                                              due to lack of        Yr:8         Volunteers can
stump.                                 transferred to                                               Arundo mulch          Yr:9         work near
                                       roots.                                                       layer.                Yr:10 2%     applicator.
INJECTION3           In very           Best suited in    JK injection gun        County Ag          Ability to plant      Yr 1: 25%    May not need to        Labor-intensive.
                     sensitive, high   late summer       www.Jkinjectiontools.   Commission         back or revegetate    Yr 2: 70%    retreat, especially    Impractical for large
Concerntrated        visibility work   or fall, or       com                     permit for         area immediately.     (dead stem   if inject all stems    infestations.
herbicides           areas. Also       when plants                               pesticide          Depending on site,    removal)     in each clump.
injected into        when selective    actively                                  application by     circumstances may     Yr 3: 5%     Useful in areas
stalks at 90º        (internal)        growing up                                non-landowner.     warrant waiting 6-9                with sensitive
angle.               placement of      through a                                                    months to see if                   species since low
                     herbicide is      killing frost.                                               retreatment needed.                risk of herbicide
                     desired.                                                                                                          drift.
METHOD1             BEST USE           TIMING           TOOLS                      POSSIBLE          REVEGETATION           Typical       ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
                                                                                   PERMITS2                                 division of
                                                                                                                            labor cost
                                                                                                                            over 10 years
TARPING             Only practical     Optimal time     Thick, fully opaque        DFG 1600          Must wait until        Yr1: 85%           Effective at killing   Very labor intensive.
                    for small          is in            tarp secured with                            tarping is complete:   Yr2: 15%           the roots of           Not practical for large
Cover plants with   infestations on    May/early        stakes, soil staples, or                     one year.              Yr3:               Arundo. Requires       infestations or on
tarps               relatively level   June. Tarps      heavy rock.                                                         Yr4:               no use of              slopes or rocky terrain.
                    ground.            should be left                                                                       Yr5:               herbicides.            Tarps must be
                                       in place for                                                                         Yr:6               Efficacy compares      removed.
                                       six months                                                                           Yr:7               favorably or better
                                       (long                                                                                Yr:8               to herbicide
                                       enough?).                                                                            Yr:9               treatment.
                                                                                                                            Yr:10

ROOT                Can be used on     Dry season to    Loppers, pick, shovel.     Permit(s) to      Must wait until re-    Yr1: 78%           While herbicide is     Moderate to significant
REMOVAL             any size area.     avoid soil       backhoe, or excavator      work in channel   sprouting is low       Yr2: 7%            not required for       soil disturbance.
(generally not      Often used for     loss.                                       with backhoe:     enough to allow        Yr3: 3%            initial treatment,
recommended)        exposed or                                                     ACOE 404,         planting- typically    Yr4:               most excavation        Major successional
                    overhanging                                                    RWQCB 401,        one year. Bare soil    Yr5: 5%            methods leave          problems—problem
Cut canes, then     clumps, so as to                                               DFG 1600.         encourages             Yr:6               large amounts of       sites become weed lots.
dig up root mass    minimize                                                                         excessive weed         Yr:7 5%            rhizome that
using hand tools    erosion.                                                       Burn permit if    cover that reduces     Yr:8               require several
or machinery or                                                                    burning debris.   planting survival.     Yr:9               years of
extract all                                                                                                                 Yr:10 2%           retreatment with
biomass using                                                                                                               High cost of       herbicide.
machinery.                                                                                                                  initial effort     No herbicide used.
                                                                                                                            masks later year   May reduce
                                                                                                                            efforts            number of
                                                                                                                                               resprouts.
METHOD1             BEST USE            TIMING           TOOLS                    POSSIBLE            Re-vegetation Typical                    ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
                                                                                  PERMITS2                          division of
                                                                                                                    labor cost
                                                                                                                    over 10 years
BIOCONTROL          All infestations,   During growth    Bug net and a jar        APHIS PPQ 526       When                 Costs is in R&D;    Low cost once         R&D and regulatory
                    but possibly        period                                    for interstate      appropriate if       implementation is   R&D completed;        hurdles can be slow
Introduction of     best in large                                                 importation,        needed; gradual      almost without      physical access not   (not anticipated to be
specialist          stands where                                                  following           decline may          cost once host-     necessary, control    available until at least
herbivores to       populations can                                               Section 7           allow natural        range testing and   sustainable with      2008), minor risk of
suppress growth     build; good in                                                Statement of        recovery of          regulatory          no collateral         non-target impacts;
                    sensitive or                                                  FONSI               desirable plants     approval is in      damage and            biomass may still
                    inaccessible                                                  Concurrence                              place; monitoring   expected dispersal    remain and can be fire
                    sites                                                                                                  can be a long-      to new or sensitive   hazard
                                                                                                                           term cost, if       habitats; can
                                                                                                                           desired             improve habitat
                                                                                                                                               quality by
                                                                                                                                               providing new
                                                                                                                                               food resources for
                                                                                                                                               wildlife
   1
     Up to 5 years follow-up monitoring for resprouts.
   2
     Significant vegetation removal may require a CDFG Stream Alteration Agreement.
   3
     Injection rate for A. donax has not yet been labeled. Check with local herbicide representative for updated information.

   This information is intended as guidelines for selecting a method(s) of Arundo eradication, and is not an endorsement of any particular herbicide.
   Sources: Arundo: A Landowner Handbook: TAdN Arundo Eradication and Coordination Program and SMSLRWMA.org web site.

								
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