Document Sample
CH 1 Terms
100 the ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal life (think figment)
200 the intended and recognized consequence of some element of society
300 the unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society
400 containing a negative consequence for the stability of the social system
500 putting yourself in the place of others and trying to see the situation through their eyes
Sociology Then
100 early sociologist, obsessed with class, and whose beliefs are the basis of the conflict theory
200 Comte coined this term for processes that hold society together
300 Big change in the 1800s that led to the development of sociology
400 along with Comte, one of the first sociologists to systematically apply the methods of science to the study of
500 Weber coined this term for the description comprised of the essential characteristics of a feature of society
Sociology Now
100 perspective that focuses on how individuals interact with one another in society
200 perspective in which people focus on the forces in society that promote competition and change
300 perspective that views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system
400 important in interactionism; anything that represents something else
500 the process of focusing on how people use symbols when interacting; part of the interactionist perspective
CH 1 Hodgepodge
100 disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and functions of human society in a scientific
200 studies human society and social behavior
300 deals with the behavior and thinking of organisms
400 the consequence that an element of society produces for the maintenance of its social system
500 Herbert Spencer’s belief that only the fittest societies will survive over time; outdated today
Components of Culture
100 The organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system
200 The shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
300 Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance
400 Norms that have great moral significance attached to them
What is Culture?
100 All the shared products of human groups, including both physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors
shared by a group
200 A group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling
of unity
300 Physical objects that people create and use
400 Abstract human creations such as family patterns, political systems, and work practices
Cultural Variation
100 Certain features that are developed to ensure the fulfillment of some needs of society and are common to all
cultures, such as marriage, cooking and music
200 The tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior
300 The belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards or
another culture; helps people to understand practices that seem strange of different from those in their own culture
400 A group that shares values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population; examples
include Chinatown, Miami’s Little Havana, and the Southwest Navajo
CH 2 Hodgepodge
100 Examples included not putting food in your mouth with a knife, shaking hands when meeting someone, and
getting to class on time
200 The 5 components of culture
300 A group that rejects the major values, norms, and practices o the larger society and replaces them with a new
set of cultural patterns; examples include anarchists, an organized crime family, and hippies
400 Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right, or wrong, desirable or undesirable
Social Structure
100 A socially defined position in a group or society
200 The behavior of someone occupying a particular status
300 Occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status
400 What a group is called when statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of
500 Basketball player, actor, and musician are all examples of this type of status
Social Interaction
100 Interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions; theory based on it that hold
people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
200 Interaction when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
300 Interaction in which a deliberate attempt is made to control another person by force, to oppose someone, or to
harm someone
400 Interaction when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than
one person
500 Interaction that is a state of balance between cooperation and conflict; 4 types
100 Preindustrial; the main form of food production is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild
200 Preindustrial; rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs
300 Preindustrial; grow produce in garden plots
400 Focus in on the machine production of goods
500 Focus is on providing information and services
CH 4 Hodegepodge
100 The socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
200 The status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity
300 Different roles attached to a single status
400 The specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
500 The idea that if you do something for someone then that person owes you something in return
100 Sum of total behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristics of an individual
200 The transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children
300 The capacity to learn a skill, a natural talent for music or art, learned as well as inherited
400 An unchanging, biologically inherited behavior pattern; most often applied to animal behavior
500 Effects personality traits through encouraging or discouraging competition, individualism, and/or assertiveness
600 Personality traits determine how we interact in and adjust to this
Social Self
100 The part of ourselves that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society
200 The unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of personality
300 People that include parents, sibling, relatives, and others who have a direct influence on our socialization
400 He developed the Tabula Rasa theory
500 He developed the looking-glass self theory
600 He developed the role-taking theory
Agents of Socialization
100 Specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place; In the U.S., the main ones
are family, peer groups, school, and mass media
200 The interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs and behavior patterns of a
300 Instruments of communication that reach large audiences with no personal contact between those sending the
information and those receiving it
400 A primary group composed on individuals of roughly equal age and similar social characteristics
500 A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a period of time and are subject to tight
600 Involves a break with past experiences and the learning of new values and norms
CH 5 Hodgepodge
100 Term used to describe wild or untamed children, who had few characteristics and who lacked reasoning ability,
manner, and the ability to control bodily functions
200 Theory that insists each of us is born without a personality and we acquire on through social experiences
300 Theory that refers to the interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we
imagine we appear to others
400 Theory that refers to seeing ourselves as others see us in addition to taking on or pretending to take on the
roles of others
500 The conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates you and your environment from other
members of society
Emergence of Adolescence
100 The physical maturing that makes people capable of sexual reproduction; include growth spurts and
development of sexual characteristics
200 The period between the normal onset of puberty and adulthood; NOT universal
300 Biological growth and development, undefined status, and increased decision making are all source of this for
400 Basic common feature to adolescents that distinguishes them from other social groups
500 Learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future; an
examples is playing house
Teen Sex
100 Social and economic factors, religious participation, and sub-cultural factors influence a teenager’s likelihood to
engage in this type of activity
200 3 word term STD stands for
300 Consequences of early sexual activity include STDs, pregnancy, and becoming less likely to finish this
400 Of increased, decreased, or neither, the change in level of occurrence of STDs in teens who are sexually active
500 Percentage of U.S. TV programs that include sexual references
Drugs and Suicide
100 Any substance that changes moods, behavior, or consciousness; includes alcohol, cigarettes, and medicine
200 Factors associated with teen drug use include having friends who use drugs and having either of these 2 types
of problems
300 Illegal drugs most commonly used by high school seniors
400 Factors influencing teen suicide include alcohol and drug use, age and gender, and this type of relations
500 The degree of attachment people have to social groups or to a society as a whole
100 The meeting of people as a romantic engagement
200 A social interaction common before 1900 that had the express purpose of eventual marriage
300 Type of dating patterns, typical of the 1950s, that include ritualized dating behavior, established designated
night for dates out, and leads to set of expectations and commitment
400 The tendency of individuals to marry people who have social characteristics similar to their own
500 Sociologist who studied Penn State students and concluded that casual dating was a form of entertainment that
had little to do with mate selection
CH 6 Hodgepodge
100 Education, exclusion of youth from the labor force, and the development of the juvenile justice system caused
this life stage to emerge in the U.S.
200 Functions of this activity include entertainment, mechanism for socialization, and meeting basic psychological
300 Principal cause of the significant rise of drug related violence since the 1980s
400 Suicide rates increase during periods of disorganization and low levels of this
500 In the year 2000, more than this percentage of people arrested for violent crimes were between the ages of 13
and 19

Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
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