HFSS - Antennas_ Arrays and FSSs

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HFSS - Antennas_ Arrays and  FSSs Powered By Docstoc
					HFSS - Antennas, Arrays and
              David Perry
         Applications Engineer
          Ansoft Corporation
 w   Some Excerpts from “What’s New”
     w   Enhancements to HFSS
 w   Wave Guide Simulator (WGS)
     w   What is it?
     w   Why you would use it?
 w   Analytical Simulator (AS)
     w   Good compliment to WGS
 w   Perfect Matched Layer (PML)
What’s New in Recent Versions
HFSS Graphics: Animation
              w   Animated Magnitude or
                  Vector Plots can be
                  exported as animated
                  *.gif files
              w   Macro wizard interfaces
                  walks user through
                  animation settings
              w   Animations are cross-
                  platform and can be
                  used in presentations
HFSS Graphics: Post-Processor

               w   Lighting Control Option
                   prevents 3D object
                   lighting or shadows from
                   washing out magnitude
                   field plots
               w   3D Polar Antenna
                   Patterns scale shape as
                   well as color to plot
                   min/max settings
Macro Language Enhancements
             w   User-customizable menu
                 structure via macro
             w   Bitmaps in Wizard graphical
                 w   “Splash” screens
                 w   Graphical diagrams to aid
                     macro data entry
             w   Local or private scoped
             w   Macro debugger executable
             w   …and MORE! Please refer
                 to separate Macro
                 presentation for additional
    Lumped RLC Circuit Elements

w   Additional boundary
    condition permits
    inclusion of lumped
    circuit elements in

    w   Model assumes                Z(f)       R   L   C
        parallel RLC circuit

    w   Build several in a       L
        row for serial circuit
RCS/Scattering Solution

                  w   Direct computation of
                      “Total” field, rather
                      than computation of
                      “Scattered” field only
                  w   Higher Accuracy,
                      Fewer Unknowns per
HFSS 8 Interpolative Sweep
w   Provides wide-band sweep results
    w   Calculator tool aids sweep setup if using FWS

w   Falls between ‘fast’ and
    ‘discrete’ in capabilities
    w   Multi-decade bandwidth
    w   Faster than Discrete
    w   No modal cutoff issues
    w   Fields only at mesh
HFSS 8 Interpolative Sweep Example

     Wide-band behavior including several sharp resonances was
 properly identified using very few frequency points (approximately 20).
    Internal Ports
w   Internal ports defined with a single sheet object
    at the end of the trace - no cap required.

w   2 options on how to define
    these ports:

     w   Traditional-style ports assume          Wave Port
         a perfect-H boundary on all
         edges that do not contact
         metal (wave ports)

     w   Gap source style (lumped
                                              Lumped Port
Gap Source - Dipole
 w   Utilizing a Gap Source
     at feed point can
     improve accuracy
Meshing Improvements

                                         w   Lambda Refinement
                                             now recognizes object
                                             material assignments
                                             w   Less need to seed simply
                                                 due to material conditions
                                             w   Improved convergence
                                         w   Improved mesh
                                             generation for high
                                             aspect ratios and true
  Initial Lambda-Refined Mesh on a           curved surfaces
   block of Vacuum and a block of
Alumina, displaying material-sensitive
Post3 - Moving the origin
              w   The origin can be moved
                  and far/near field results
                  computed without resolving
Enough Of What’s New - So
How Do I Use This Stuff?
Large Arrays Modeled as Infinite
w   So what is “large” anyway?
     w   How many adjacent
         elements cause most of the
     w   How much of the array sees
         edge affects?                                 NOT!

w   1948 Wheeler published “The radiation              Probably Still Not
    resistance of an antenna in an infinite array or
    waveguide”… A waveguide simulator
w   1960’s others followed
Waveguide Simulators
w   Approximation of large
    array with an infinite
w   No edge affects
w   Pairs of Perfect E’s or
    Perfect E’s and Perfect
Modes in a Waveguide Simulator
w   Waveguide modes
    correspond to plane
    waves at angles
w   Various sizes of cross
    sections result in
    different scan angles
Waveguide & Analytical Simulator
w   Waveguide simulators (WGS) solve for multiple
    scan angles
w   Analytical simulator (AS) solves for one scan
    angle. User SELECTS this angle!

* Spreadsheet
is available!
            HFSS Boundary Descriptions:
            Master/Slave Boundaries
Perfectly Matched Layer
                                             w    Parameters: Coordinate system,
                                                  master/slave pairing and phasing
                                                    w     Master and slave boundaries used to
                                                          model a unit cell of a repeating
    Master Boundary                                        w   Master and slave boundaries always paired:
                                      Slave Boundary
                                                               one master to one slave
                                                           w   The fields on the slave surface are
                                                               constrained to be identical to those on the
                                                               master surface, with phase shift
                                                    w     Constraints:
                                                           w   The master and slave surfaces must be of
          Origin                                               identical shapes and sizes
                                                           w   A coordinate system must be identified on
                                                               the master and slave boundary to identify
        WG Port
        (bottom)                         Ground Plane          point-to-point correspondence

            Unit Cell Model of End-Fire Waveguide Array
Periodic Boundaries in Ansoft

w   Periodic BC, Linked BC, Master/Slave Pairs
    w   Yeah they are all the same thing!
w   Adds to ability to model phased array antennas
    w   Useful for any large uniform or periodic structure
    w   Use to impose phase shift between two boundaries
w   Multiple pairs (two or more) of matching boundaries
    w   Can solve “staggered” antenna arrays
w   Arbitrary orientation of matching boundaries in
    model coordinate system
How Does a LBC Operate?
w   The LBC enforces a phase difference Φ between
    the two linked boundaries.

w   φ angle measured                   θ
    from X axis                            Φ

w   θ angle measured
    from Z axis
w   Eslave =   eiΦ   Emaster
    w   where Φ = d/λ sin θ cos(φ)
    w   here Φ depends on scan angles, θ and φ
Periodic Boundaries in Ansoft
HFSS (cont)
w   Boundary manager screen allows easy set-up
    of master and slave boundaries
    w   Checks that u-v coordinate choices for master and
        slave planes are consistent
    w   User provides scan angles θ and ϕ in model
        coordinate system
w   Automatic calculation of array parameters
    based on model geometry
    w   Only model coordinate system
w   Works with ABC, PML and impedance
    boundaries on “space port”
Unit Cell Boundary Conditions

    Space Port                 Matching Boundary

  Port Boundary                 Matching Boundary
  (should NOT touch                 (master)
  periodic boundary in HFSS)
Example of Skewed Array, Top

    MASTER 3                  MASTER 1                  SLAVE 3

                   MASTER 2

                                              SLAVE 2
           MASTER 4                 SLAVE 1                  SLAVE 4

               Wondering how to create this unit cell?
                A macro exists to help with this!
Skewed Array (2)

w   The triangular
    spaced array -
    other methods

                      App Note
                     is Available
Applications of Simulators
 w   Arrays of driven elements
     w   Excitation
          w   Traditional port
          w   Gap Source port
     w   Space ports
          w   WGS can use ports or PML’s
          w   AS must use appropriate termination

 w   Frequency Selective Surface (FSS)
     w   Excitation
          w   Traditional port or incident wave for WGS
          w   Incident wave for AS
               w   Transmission/Reflection characteristics computed using the POST 3
               w   Macro exists to aid in this effort (fsswiz4.mac)

     w   Space ports
          w   Same as above
PML and How to Approach the
w   Perfect Matched Layer (PML)
    w   fictitious material that fully absorbs the
        electromagnetic field impinging upon it
    w   independent of incident angle

w   PML requirement:
    w   both the permeability and the permittivity be
        complex anisotropic

            Use “pmlcoversetup” or “dpPML” macros
Solution Space Terminations
w                                 Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC)
                                   w       Most effective when incident waves normal
                                           to the absorbing surface
                                   w       ABC surface should be placed approx λ/4
                                           away from radiating surface z        r
                                                                     Reflection Coefficient (dB)
    Reflection Coefficient (dB)





                                           0   10   20   30     40    50      60      70      80   90

                                                              theta (deg)
Solution Space Terminations
w   PML
    w   Works well for steep angles of incidence (often occurs
        with wave guide simulators)
    w   PML does not suffer from λ/4 separation requirement
        (main concern is meshing)
    Integration Surface for Far-Field
w   Default: far-fields computed
    through an integration over the
    radiation boundary or inside of
    PML surface
w   User defined interior surface:
    alternate integration surface can
    be chosen
     w   “Custom Surface” must enclose all
         radiating surfaces
     w   Advantages: potential for better
          w   Useful for mesh manipulation
          w   Due to material discontinuity and meshing,
              integration on inside of PML surface is not
              typically the best choice
Alternate Interior
Surface (AIS)
w   AIS Defined in Post-
w   Far-Field computation only
    allowed by Post 3 if:
     w   Radiation boundary exists
     w   PML with objects names
         beginning with “PML…”
w   Suggestion - Define face
    list (customer surface) first
1) In the Post Processor, select radiation > compute > far field/near field
2) In the “Compute Far Field” menu, check box next to “Customer Surface” then click “Set”
3) This will direct you to define a set of faces from which the far fields will be calculated
Farfield Plots of FINITE arrays
w   Array calculations use unit cell farfield as element
So What about FSS’s?

             w   Use unit cell approximation
             w   Can use either WGS or AS
             w   Space port at both top and
             w   Transmission/Reflection
                 w   Ports + WGS - S-parameters
                 w   Incident Wave + AS -
                     integrate poynting vector
                     (*fsswiz.mac and app note
    Further Material Available
w   Docs
     w   AppNotePhasedArrays2.doc      App Note on infinite triangular array
     w   MicroJournPML.doc             Discussion of LBC's and PML's
     w   PeriodicBCsGuide8/28/00.doc   Discussion of infinite arrays in HFSS
     w   UnitCellWriteup2.doc          Discusses unit cell shapes
     w   PML-LBC pres.pdf              Further info on LBC's and PML's
     w   CalcCookBook.doc              Great writeup on Post3 Calculator WITH
     w   FSSTesting3.Doc               How to for FSS’s in HFSS (draft form)
w   References (Essential to understanding WGS/AS)
     w   Hansen, Microwave Scanning Antennas Vol 2 if they are separate
     w   IEEE AP 13 1965 page 342 Hannan Simulation of Phased Array Antenna in
     w   Proc IRE Vol 36 1948 Wheeler The Radiation Resistance of an Antenna in
         anInfinite Array or Waveguide
     w   IEEE AP 13 1965 page 475 Phased Array Simulators in WG for Triangular
         arranged elements
     w   IEEE AP 11 1963 page 377 A Technique to Simulate the Self and Mutual
         Impeadances of an Array
    Further Material Available Cont.
w   Macros (Only a partial list … Ask your favorite AE for further details)
     w   ArrayCalcWiz4.mac       Macro to calc array pattern based on Unit Cell solution
     w   UnitCellWiz2.mac        Macro to assist setting up unit cell for triangular array
     w   FSPatGen.mac            Generates many plots from a fast swept project
     w   Pmlcoverstepup          Built in macro in Draw that creates PML Objects
     w   Pmlmatsetup             Built in macro in Material Manager to set materials
     w   dpPMLWiz5.mac           Will create Rectangular as well as quasi Cylindrical or
                                            Sphereical PML’s
          w   Should be more accurate than pmlcoversetup
     w   dpPMLMat2.mac           Works with PMLGeom4.mac to set material parameters
     w   FarFieldFix.mac         Post3 will not allow computation of farfield without PML
                                            or radiation BC
     w   FSSWiz.mac              Calculates transmitted and reflected power from incident
w   Spreadsheets
     w   PMLWorksheet.xls        Aid to calc PML parameters for non rect
          w   Also available in formats for MapleV, Mathcad, EqnEval
     w   WvGdSim.xls             Aid to calc wg mode - scan angle
 w   HFSS V8 provides both evolutionary and
     revolutionary improvements to an already-
     powerful tool in the antenna engineer’s arsenal
     w   Usability Enhancements improve day to day
         interaction with the software
     w   Improvements to Existing Features speed solution
         times, improve accuracy, and expand the usage
     w   New Features permit analysis applications previously
         unavailable to antenna designers
 w   Please continue to request enhancements and
     added capabilities. Ansoft realizes this
     software is for YOUR use!

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