1. Define & give an example for: a) mixture b) pure substance c) mechanical mixture
d) heterogeneous e) homogeneous f) solution g) compound h) element
2. List the five parts of the Particle Theory of Matter.
3. Define: a) physical change b) chemical change c) physical property
d) chemical property e) quantitative f) qualitative
4. a) Give the formula for calculating density.
b) A sample of metal has a mass of 15 g and a volume of 2.0 cm3. Calculate the density of
the sample. Show all your work. Don't forget a therefore statement.
5. a) Use the periodic table to determine the names of the elements given by their atomic
i) Ca ii) Cl iii) Mg iv) Na
b) Which of the elements from a) above does not have a name that matches its atomic
6. Determine how many atoms are present in each of the following formulas:
a) Cl2 b) H2O c) Ca(OH)2 d) 3O2
7. a) List three physical properties of metals.
b) On which side of the Periodic table are metals found?
8. Name the following families of the Periodic table: a) IA c) IIA
c) VIIA d) VIIIA
9. a) Define: i) atomic number ii) atomic mass
b) Using the Periodic table explain how you would determine each of the
i) # of protons ii) # of electrons iii) # of neutrons
c) Complete the following chart:
Element Symbol Atomic Atomic # of # of # of
# Mass Protons Electrons Neutrons
10. Describe the following models of the atom: a) Dalton b) Thomson
c) Rutherford d) Bohr
11. Draw Bohr- Rutherford diagrams of sodium and chlorine atoms. Label and number all
the subatomic particles.
12. a) Define the term valence electrons.
b) How many electrons does an atom want to have in its outer shell to be stable?
c) How many electrons do elements in the following families gain or lose to become stable?
i) IA ii) IIA iii) VIIA iv) VIIIA
d) How many electrons do the following elements gain or lose to become stable?
i) Na ii) Mg iii) Cl iv) Ne
e) Write the symbols for the ion that each element in d) forms.
13. Define: a) ion b) molecular bonding c) ionic bonding d)
14. Describe the materials and tests used to determine the presence of each of the
a) oxygen b) hydrogen c) carbon dioxide
1. Define: a) static electricity. b) current electricity.
2. Define & give examples for: a) conductor b) insulator
3. a) When the following pairs of objects are brought together, how do they behave?
i) Like charges ii) Opposite charges iii) Charged objects & neutral
4. a) What is the electrostatic series?
b) Use the electrostatic series (in your notebook) to determine the charge on the objects
below after they have been rubbed together:
i) glass ____________ ii) rubber sheet ________________
5. Draw and label a diagram of an electroscope.
6. Explain what lightning is. Draw a diagram of a lightning cloud. Label the location of the
7. Define: a) current b) resistance c) power d) potential
e) What is an alternate name for potential difference?
8. a) Write the equation needed to solve Ohm’s Law problems.
b) Use the formula to solve the following problems:
i) If the heating element of a toaster uses 110 V and draws 15 A of electricity, what is the
resistance of the heating element?
ii) If a light bulb filament has a resistance of 85, and uses 110 V of electricity, how much
current is travelling through the circuit?
9. a) What is a "series" circuit?
b) Draw a schematic diagram of a circuit containing a three cell battery, a switch, & two
lights connected in series.
c) What happens if one of the lights is unscrewed?
d) Where should the ammeter be placed in this circuit? Why?
e) If the potential difference across the battery was 4.5 V and across the first light was
3.0 V, what would the potential difference be across the second light?
10. a) What is a "parallel" circuit?
b) Draw a schematic diagram of a circuit containing a three cell battery, a switch, and two
lights connected in parallel to one another.
c) What happens if one of the lights is unscrewed?
d) If the current coming from the battery is 20 amps, what is the current going through
each light (assuming they have equal resistance)?
e) What would the potential difference of each light be, compared to each other?
f) What would the potential difference of each light be, compared to the battery?
11. Define: a) electrode b) electrolyte c) voltaic cell d)
1. Define and give examples of the following: abiotic, biotic, ecosystem, population,
community, producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore, detritus, decomposer, habitat,
trophic level, food chain
2. Explain why there is more biodiversity in a meadow than in a park.
3. a) Give an example of a food chain from an aquatic ecosystem.
b) Give an example of a food chain from a terrestrial ecosystem.
4. a) Food webs show relationships within an ecosystem much better than food chains
do. Explain why.
b) At which trophic level of a food web would you expect to find the greatest numbers
of species? Why?
c) If all the primary consumers in a food web were removed, what would happen?
d) If all the top carnivores in a food web were removed, what would happen?
5. a) What is the original source of energy for all ecosystems?
b) In all food chains, what trophic level has the greatest amount of energy? Why?
c) Why does energy decrease as you move up the food chain?
d) A diagram showing energy loss in a food chain is called a _______________.
6. a) What role do plants play in the carbon cycle?
b) How does carbon re-enter the atmosphere? (4 ways)
c) List one reservoir for organic carbon, and one for inorganic carbon.
d) Name two human activities that impact the carbon cycle.
7. a) Explain why organisms at the top of the food chain are most at risk from pesticides.
b) Describe the evidence that led to the banning of DDT in Canada in 1969.
8. a) Define the following terms: natality, mortality, immigration, emigration.
b) Write an equation that can be used to calculate the change in population size.
9. Define: biotic potential, carrying capacity, limits of tolerance, density dependent and
10. Explain how to count populations of a) animals b) plants
11. A field study was done to determine the population of moose in Algonquin Park. First, a
sample of 40 moose were trapped, ear-tagged, and let go. Later, 30 moose were trapped. 5
of these moose had ear tags. Calculate the approximate number of moose in Algonquin
Park. Show all of your work.
12. List the components of soil, from the top down. Explain the importance of each layer.
13. Define the following terms: percolation, water table, leaching, soil pH, loam
14. List the 3 types of soil particles, in order from smallest to largest.
15. Why is it desirable to have a) organic matter b) spaces, in soil?
16. a) List the 4 major Canadian biomes.
b) Compare the following for each of the 4 biomes: temperature, precipitation, soil, typical
17. Explain the importance of each of the following abiotic factors of an aquatic
ecosystem: oxygen, temperature, velocity, depth, pH
18. What would lead to an increase in each of the following: a) nitrates b) phosphates
19. Define the following: a) littoral b)limnetic c) profundal d) eutrophic e)
20. a) Explain how the number and diversity of benthic organisms can be used to determine
the health of an aquatic ecosystem.
b) Name two organisms in each of the following categories: sensitive, moderately tolerant,
1. Define the following: a) planet b) star c) moon d) orbit
f) comet g) asteroid h) meteor i) meteorite j) galaxy k) nebula
2. Explain how you could recognize the following planets: a) Jupiter b) Mars c)
3. Explain what each of the following means and give an example of what type of distance
it could be used to measure: a) light year b) AU
4. Explain what happens to each of the following main sequence star types as they use up
a) massive stars b) medium mass stars c) low mass stars