Personal Safety and Protection- Day 1 Safety and Home and In Your Community-Day 2 Outdoor Safety- Day 3 Safety on the Road- Day 4 Review- Day 5 Test- Day 6 Personal Safety and Protection Learning basic safety precautions can help a person avoid threatening or harmful situations. personal safety self-defense cyberbullying The key to personal safety is learning how to recognize and avoid dangerous situations. Teens are the victims of more violent crimes than any other age group. Teens are more likely than children to go out at night, but they are less likely than adults to protect their personal safety. Personal safety The steps you take to prevent yourself from becoming the victim of crime. About half of all violent crime occurs within one mile of a victim’s home, and many victims know their attackers. If you carry a cell phone, make sure it’s easy to get to. Call 911 if you need emergency services. Avoid walking alone at night or in isolated areas, such as alleys or parks. Stick to brightly lit, well-traveled streets. Walk briskly and confidently. Wear comfortable shoes so that you can move quickly. Carry your wallet or purse in a place that makes it difficult to grab. Avoid openly displaying expensive jewelry, electronics, or anything that would attract a thief. If you drive, park your car in a well-lit area and lock it. Before getting in, check the inside of the car. Never hitchhike or give a ride to anyone you do not know well. Keep in mind that even someone you’ve met before could be dangerous. Get on and off public transportation in busy, well-lit areas. Sit near the driver or with a group of people. Know the locations of nearby public places where you can seek help if you need it. Let your family know where you’re going and when you’ll be back. Call them if your plans change. One way that you can protect yourself from crime is to avoid the places where it is likely to occur. Be aware of what’s happening around you, even when you are in familiar places. One self-defense strategy is to project a strong, confident image. Self-defense Any strategy for protecting yourself from harm If you think you are being followed in a public place Let the stalker Seek help from Try changing know that you someone nearby directions or are aware of or enter a crossing the his or her business that’s street. presence. open. If you are attacked or about to be attacked, do whatever is necessary to escape, such as running, yelling, or kicking. Shout “fire” instead of “help”—it’s more likely to get a response. Self-defense classes can boost your confidence and help you take charge of your own safety. physically protect yourself size up situation Self-defense classes can teach you how to figure out what to do catch your attacker off- guard Teens need to protect themselves online. The Internet is a useful resource, but it can also be a dangerous place. Tips for Staying Safe Online Keep your identity private. Keep online relationships online. Don’t respond to inappropriate messages. Let your parents or guardians know what you’re doing online. About 40 percent of teens say they have experienced cyberbullying. Cyberbullying Cruel or hurtful online contact Cyberbullies can be people you know or strangers. Cyberbullying can range from immature and annoying to threatening and scary. Tips for Coping with Cyberbullies Be careful how you communicate online. Follow Web site rules for postings. Be careful how you word your messages. Don’t respond to hurtful messages. Keep your identity private, and don’t agree to meet in person with someone you’ve met online. If you ever find yourself in an online conversation that makes you feel uncomfortable or threatened—for any reason—log off and let a trusted adult know about the incident. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. What steps can you take to protect yourself from an attack when entering or leaving a car? Park in a well-lit area, lock your car, check the car for intruders before getting in, and lock the doors as soon as you get in. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2. Name two threats you may encounter on the Internet. Cyberbullying and Internet predators After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3. How can you avoid becoming the target of a cyberbully? Sample answer: Be careful how you communicate online. Safety and Home and In Your Community Reducing the potential for accidents can help a person stay safe at home and at work. unintentional injuries accident chain fire extinguisher smoke alarm carbon monoxide peer mediation OSHA Many accidental injuries are preventable. Every year, more than 20 million children and teens require medical attention or face restricted activity due to unintentional injuries. Unintentional injuries Injuries resulting from an unexpected event You can prevent unintentional injuries by breaking the accident chain. Accident chain A sequence of events that leads to an unintentional injury Breaking any of the links in this chain can prevent the accident and the resulting injury. Safety precautions can prevent injuries at home. Accidents in the home are one of the top causes of injury and death in the United States. Common types of household accidents include fires, falls, and poisonings. You can reduce the risk of these accidents by taking safety precautions. Common causes of household fires include burning candles and incense, smoking, kitchen fires, and faulty electrical wiring. Fire Prevention Tips Keep matches, lighters, and candles away from children. Don’t leave burning candles unattended Make sure that smokers extinguish cigarettes completely, and that no one smokes in bed. Don’t leave cooking food unattended. Clean stoves and ovens to prevent grease buildup, which can catch fire. Follow the operating instructions for using space heaters. Keep an all-purpose fire extinguisher in your kitchen and make sure everyone in the house knows how to use it. Fire extinguisher A portable device for putting out small fires Every home should have a smoke alarm on each floor, near the kitchen and bedrooms. Smoke alarm A device that produces a loud warning noise in the presence of smoke Test your smoke alarm once a month, and change the batteries twice a year. More Fire Tips Plan an escape route with an escape path from every room of your home. Designate a spot to meet up with your family after you get out. When you are escaping from a fire, stay close to the ground so that you can crawl under the smoke. If your clothes catch fire, stop, drop, and roll to put out the flames. Avoid overloading your electrical system. Unplug and don’t use appliances with worn wiring. Make sure extension cords are properly rated for their intended use and have polarized (three-prong) plugs. Do not run electrical cords under rugs or behind baseboards. Don’t let furniture sit on cords. Don’t attach cords to walls using nails or staples. Avoid using an electrical appliance near water. Never reach into water to retrieve a dropped appliance without first unplugging it. In homes with small children, cover unused outlets with safety caps. On Stairs Keep stairways well lit, in good repair, and free of clutter. Staircases should have sturdy handrails. All stair coverings should be securely fastened down. Never put small rugs at the foot of a staircase. In Bathrooms Put nonskid mats or strips in the tub or shower. Keep a night-light in the bathroom. Windows If there are small children in the home, install window guards on the upper floors. Make sure the windows can be opened completely in case of a fire. In the Kitchen Keep the kitchen floor clean, and mop up spills promptly. Use a step stool to get things down from high places. In Living Areas Keep the floor clear of clutter. Use nonskid rugs or place nonskid mats under rugs. Keep phone and electrical cords out of the flow of traffic. Many common household items can be harmful or even fatal if swallowed. To prevent poisonings, store products safely and read and follow instructions on all labels. Setting up your computer workstation correctly will reduce eyestrain, fatigue, headache, and injury. Adjust your position from time to time. Stretch your hands, arms, and body. Stand up and walk around for a few minutes every hour. Sit in a “neutral body position,” a comfortable posture in which your joints are naturally aligned. Blink your eyes to moisten them and reduce eyestrain. Children need to know that guns are dangerous and can kill people. Instruct them never to touch a gun and to leave the area and tell an adult if they find one. When handling a gun, always assume that it is loaded. Never point a gun at anyone. Add a trigger lock, and keep your finger off the trigger except when firing. Store guns unloaded and in a locked cabinet, separate from ammunition, and safe from children. Keep your doors and windows locked. If doors or windows are damaged, repair them promptly. Don’t hide a spare key outside the house. Instead, give a key to a neighbor you trust. Use a peephole to identify people who come to the door. Don’t open the door to a stranger. Never tell people that you’re home alone. Make sure your answering machine does not tell callers you are away from home. Don’t go in your home if you see something suspicious. Call the police or go to a neighbors house. You can work with others to protect your safety at school, at work, and in your community. You have a right to be safe everywhere you go. How Communities are Making Neighborhoods Safer Increased police presence Neighborhood Watch programs After-school programs Improved lighting in public areas What School Staff Can Do Develop security procedures. Put disciplinary policies in place to deal with offenders. Adopt “zero-tolerance” policies. What Students Can Do Develop peer mediation programs to help settle conflicts. Report crimes or other suspicious activities to school staff. Clean up graffiti. Lead anti-violence groups. Get others involved in community service. What Parents Can Do Be aware of the conditions at the school. Join parent-teacher groups. Chaperone field trips. Help out in the classroom. Each year, about 70,000 teen workers suffer injuries or illnesses serious enough to send them to a hospital emergency room. The federal government has enacted laws to protect the health of young workers. All employers must meet standards set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) The agency within the federal government that is responsible for promoting safe and healthful conditions in the workplace Job Safety Tips Be aware of the risks of jobs. Follow safe work practices. Refuse to work in unsafe conditions. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. Define unintentional injuries. Injuries resulting from an unexpected event After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2. Identify two important pieces of fire safety equipment. Fire extinguishers and smoke alarms After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3. What are two steps you can take to prevent poisonings in your home? Store products safely, and pay attention to labels. Outdoor Safety Common sense and caution can minimize the risk of accidental injuries during outdoor activities. frostbite hypothermia personal flotation device (PFD) Planning ahead can protect you from injury during outdoor activities such as camping, hiking, and winter sports. The most important general rule for all outdoor activities is to plan ahead. Here are some specific ways to do just that: Know your limits. Tell people Bring your plans. Outdoor supplies. Recreation Tips Wear appropriate Plan for the clothing. weather. Camp with a group. Respect the Stick to well- environment. Camping marked trails. and Hiking Tips Take care Be cautious with fires. around wildlife. Wear warm, layered clothing to protect you from frostbite (skin and tissue damage) and hypothermia (dangerously low body temperature). Apply sunscreen with at least SPF 15 to all exposed skin. Make sure you have a buddy with you to help out in an emergency. Proper clothing and equipment are two of the keys to outdoor winter safety. Sledding Make sure your equipment is in good condition. Choose gently sloped hills with plenty of space and a level area to come to a stop at the bottom. Don’t sled on or near frozen lakes, because the ice may not be solid. Ice Skating Skate only in designated areas. Never skate where you don’t know the thickness of the ice. Wear skates that fit comfortably and support your ankles. Skiing, Snowboarding, and Snowmobiling Wear an approved, properly fitting ski helmet. Make sure that your other equipment, such as your snowmobile, boots, and bindings, are in good condition. Stick to marked trails that are appropriate for your level of ability. Skiing, Snowboarding, and Snowmobiling Look both ways and uphill before crossing or merging onto a trail. When heading downhill, give the people ahead of you the right of way. If you need to stop, get to the side of the trail, out of the path of others. Following safety precautions can prevent drowning and other water-related injuries. Although most drowning incidents involve young children, people of all age groups need to pay attention to water safety guidelines. Know how to swim. Know your limits as a swimmer. If you’re just learning, stick to shallow areas where your feet can touch the bottom. If you are a strong swimmer, keep an eye on friends who aren’t as skilled as you are. Never swim alone. Swim only in designated areas where a lifeguard is present. Obey “No Swimming” and “No Diving” signs. Dive only into water that you know is deep enough. Make sure the person handling the boat is experienced. Never get into a boat with an operator who has been using alcohol or other drugs. Always wear a personal flotation device (PFD) when you go out in a boat. Personal flotation device (PFD) Life jacket Plan ahead and check weather reports. If a storm is predicted, do not go out onto the water. If you are already on the boat, head back to shore immediately. Make sure someone on land knows where you are and when you expect to be back. Because the water is likely to be cold, dress in layers and choose synthetic fabrics that will wick moisture away from your body. Know your limits when canoeing or kayaking and don’t attempt rivers or rapids that are beyond your abilities. Make sure you know how to handle a boat properly and recognize river hazards before heading out on the water. The same safety rules that apply to boating also apply to personal watercraft. In some states there is an age limit for operating personal watercraft devices or a test you have to pass before you can use one. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. Identify three strategies for preventing accidental injuries while hiking or camping. Sample answer: Take plenty of safe water with you. Plan for the weather. Wear appropriate clothing. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2. List three general safety guidelines for participating in winter sports. Wear warm clothing, apply sunscreen, bring a friend along. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3. What is the main safety rule for diving? Dive only into water that you know is deep enough. Safety on the Road Drivers, pedestrians, and others on the road need to follow rules to stay safe. vehicular safety graduated licensing road rage defensive driving Paying attention and following the rules of the road are the keys to safe driving. Young drivers are more than twice as likely to be involved in a vehicle crash as the rest of the population. Vehicular safety is an important issue for teens because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for people between the ages of 15 and 20. Vehicular safety Obeying the rules of the road and exercising common sense and good judgment while driving The most important rule of driving safety is: Pay attention. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), at least 25 percent of car crashes happen when a driver is distracted. Position the seat and mirrors, fasten your safety belt, and adjust the radio and temperature controls before starting the engine. Pay attention to other drivers. Be aware of the cars around you and how they’re moving. Make sure other drivers can see you by switching on your headlights at night and in bad weather. Reduce your speed if the road is icy or wet. heavy snow or rain is limiting your vision. a lane narrows. there are sharp curves ahead. there is construction or heavy traffic. Pay attention to your physical state. Never drive when you’re tired. Drowsiness can impair your reaction time and your judgment. Passengers must also take responsibility for their own safety. Avoid getting into a vehicle with an impaired driver. Avoid doing anything that might distract the driver’s attention. Young drivers may be more likely to get into an accident for these reasons. They lack driving experience and skills. They are more likely to underestimate the hazards of the road. They may take more risks. To help protect young drivers and others on the road, most states have graduated licensing programs. Graduated licensing A system that gradually increases driving privileges over time Getting lessons from an experienced driver will help you improve your driving skills. Many graduated licensing programs have three stages. Learner Provisional Full driver’s license driver’s license driver’s license Never try to retaliate against drivers who exhibit road rage behaviors, or the conflict could turn deadly. Road rage Responding to a driving incident with violence Examples of Road Rage Honking, shouting, gesturing, or flashing lights Chasing or tailgating another vehicle Cutting off another car or forcing it off the road Deliberately hitting or bumping another car Threatening or physically attacking another driver Defensive driving will help you protect yourself from others. Defensive driving Being aware of potential hazards on the road and taking action to avoid them Everyone on the road shares a responsibility to follow traffic laws. You share the road with other motorists, pedestrians, cyclists, and people on skates, scooters, or small motor vehicles. When you’re driving, watch for other vehicles and pedestrians. When you’re on foot, on a bike, or skating, be aware of vehicles and follow the rules of the road. Always use the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, walk on the side of the road facing oncoming traffic. Before you cross a street, look left, then right, then left again. Cross only at marked crosswalks, or at a corner. Make sure the cars have seen you and stopped before you step into the street. Always wear a safety-approved helmet that fits properly. Follow the rules of the road, and obey traffic laws. Ride single file, and keep to the far right side of the road. Watch out for obstacles such as opening car doors, sewer gratings, soft shoulders, and cars pulling into traffic. Signal turns about half a block before reaching the intersection. Extend your left arm straight out to the side to signal a left turn. Bend your left arm upward at the elbow to signal a right turn. Do not tailgate motor vehicles or ride closely behind a moving vehicle. Look left, right, and left again before riding into the stream of traffic. Wear bright colors in the daytime and reflective clothing at night. Place reflectors on the front and rear of your bike. Wear a helmet, knee and elbow pads, wrist guards, and gloves. If you’re a beginner, avoid skating in high traffic areas. Watch out for pedestrians, cyclists, and others on the road. Avoid skating in the street, and cross streets safely when you come to them. If you lose your balance, crouch down so that you won’t have as far to fall. Try to keep your body loose and roll, rather than absorbing the force of the fall with your arms, which can cause wrist injuries. Small motor vehicles include motorcycles, mopeds, and all-terrain vehicles. Motorcyclists must have a special license in addition to their driver’s license. According to the NHTSA, motorcyclists and passengers are 32 times more likely to die in a crash than automobile drivers and passengers. Head injuries cause the most deaths in motorcycle accidents. In 20 states, all motorcyclists and passengers must wear protective helmets. In another 27 states, motorcyclists and passengers under the age of 18 are required to wear a helmet. Wearing sturdy clothing that covers the arms and legs provides some protection. Passengers should avoid riding with a motorcyclist who is impaired by drug or alcohol use. All-terrain vehicle (ATV) are off-road vehicles used for recreation, as well as for work on farms and ranches. About 46 percent of all injuries and deaths from ATV use occur among children and teens under age 16. ATVs are intended for off-road use. Only one person should ride on an ATV at a time. Avoid using attachments that will reduce the stability and braking of the ATV. Wear appropriate gear when riding an ATV. Wear a DOT-approved helmet, eye protection, a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, gloves, and boots that cover your ankles. Avoid taking an ATV out on paved roads. Avoid ATV drivers who have been using alcohol or drugs. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. What is the most important rule of driving safety? Pay attention to what you’re doing. After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2. Identify three behaviors associated with road rage. Sample answer: Chasing another vehicle, tailgating, and forcing a car off the road After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3. What piece of safety equipment is required for both cycling and in-line skating? Helmet Review! Test!
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