Excursion Namibia 2007

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					Excursion Namibia 2007
                            Namibia Excursion 2007

Main sponsors:

      Rio Tinto                                            Atlas Copco Oy.


                              Anglo American Plc.

Caterpillar Overseas S.A.                                     SMS Demag

Sub Sponsors:
    Corus B.V.                                                Lhoist
                              DSM Energie B.V

       TMS                                                 RWE Power
                      TUDelft         Universiteitsfonds

MTI Holland B.V.                                             Nyrstar
                                ABN AMRO

                                 Namibia Excursion 2007

Table of Contents

Sponsors                                                  2
Table of Contents                                         3
Introduction                                              5
Programme                                                 6
Participants                                              7
Windhoek                                                  8
Sesriem Canyon and Sossusvlei                             10
Swakopmund and Walvis Bay                                 12
Rössing Uranium Mine                                      14
Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine                              15
AngloGold Ashanti                                         18
Skeleton Coast Park and Twyfelfontein                     21
Etosha National Park                                      21
Ongopolo Tsumeb Smelter                                   23
Okorusu Fluorspar Mine                                    26
Ongopolo Otjihase Mine                                    29
De Beers-Namdeb                                           31
Namibia Geological Survey                                 35
Acknowledgements                                          37
References                                                38
List of Sponsors                                          39

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007


Each year the Resource Engineering Section of the Department of Applied Earth Sciences of
Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands is organising an excursion for their students
and staff members.

The aim is to get a clear impression of the mining, extractive metallurgy and recycling industry in
a particular country; its importance for Europe and the roll it plays world-wide. The focus is
always on the technological and economical aspects as well as on the cultural and geographical
specialties of the country which is visited.

The participating students are about to finish their B.Sc. and all continue to obtain their M.Sc.
title. After graduation most students intend to pursue an international career in mining and/or
mineral processing. They receive credit for participating in these excursions. Since students can
not get this experience solely by their own means, we are very happy that the Industry and the
University support the excursion financially.

The actual preparation and organisation of the excursion is carried out together with the board of
the joint Delft student chapter of SME/TMS.

This year Namibia was chosen as excursion target. This African country offers not only a varied
mining industry, but is also a country with many interesting natural and historical highlights. The
organisation of the two week event was greatly facilitated by the assistance of ir. Ger Kegge, one
of Applied Earth Sciences’ graduates, who has been living in Namibia since 1993. The logistical
and financial organisation was well taken care of by Peter Berkhout, Christa Meskers and Allert
Adema. Roeland Jan Dijkhuis and Willem Blaisse were instrumental in approaching the Industry
for sponsorship.

The following report summarizes the information which was collected during the visit.

Hans de Ruiter

                                  Namibia Excursion 2007

Friday July 6th       Departure Amsterdam Airport to Windhoek via London Gatwick
                      BA 8118 FR July 6th Amsterdam - London Gatwick 18.05 - 18.15
                      SW 386 FR July 6th London Gatwick - Windhoek 21.30 - 08.45

Saturday July 7th     Arrival at Windhoek. Stay at the Arebbusch Travel Lodge

Sunday July 8th       Departure towards Sesriem, Sesriem Canyon & the Sossusvlei
                      Overnight stay at the Namib Desert Lodge.

Monday July 9th       Visit Sesriem Canyon and Sossusvlei. Departure towards Swakopmund
                      through the Naukluft National Park via Walvis Bay. Overnight stay at the
                      Alte Brucke Resort (www.altebrucke.com)

Tuesday July 10th     Visit to the Rössing Uranium Mine and a salt extraction plant. Stay at
                      the Alte Brucke Resort (www.rossing.com)

Wednesday July 11th   Visit to the Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine. Stay at the Alte Brucke
                      Resort. (www.lhupl.com)

Thursday July 12th    Visit Navachab Gold Mine & the Cape Cross seal colonies. Overnight
                      stay at the Cape Cross Lodge (www.ashantigold.com)

Friday July 13th      Drive to Bambatsi Holiday Ranch through the Skeleton Coast National
                      Park & the engravings at Twyfelfontein. Overnight stay at the Bambatsi
                      Holiday Ranch. (www.natron.net/tour/bambatsi/ranche.htm)

Saturday July 14th    Visit Etosha National Park. Stay at the Sachsenheim Guest Farm

Sunday July 15th      Visit Etosha National Park. Stay at the Uris Safari Lodge.

Monday July 16th      Visit Ongopolo Tsumeb Smelter & Asis Far West Mine. Stay at the
                      Out of Africa B&B Guest House. (www.weatherlyplc.com)

Tuesday July 17th     Visit Okorusu Fluorspar Mine. Departure towards Windhoek & stay at
                      the Arebbusch Travel Lodge. (www.mme.gov.na/gsn/industmin.htm)

Wednesday July 18th   Visit Ongopolo Otjihase Mine & Namdeb (De Beers Marine Namibia)
                      Stay at Arebbusch Travel Lodge. (www.namdeb.com)

Thursday July 19th    Visit the Ministry Mines and Energy, Geological Survey of Namibia
                      & departure towards Amsterdam (www.mme.gov.na/gsn/default.htm)
                      SW 385 TH 19 July Windhoek - London Gatwick 19.40 - 04.55
                      BA 8113 FR 20 July London Gatwick - Amsterdam 09.25 - 11.40

Friday July 20th      Arrival Schiphol

Namibia Excursion 2007


  Roeland Jan Dijkhuis
   Kornelius Boersma
     Reyer Velema
    Bob Harskamp
    Danny Brouwer
    Gregory Bahlen
    Vincent Laging
   Guus van Schijndel
      Jeroen Sens
    Willem Blaisse

    Hans de Ruiter
    Peter Berkhout
     Allert Adema

        Wim Abels
Carla & Theo Ter Winkel
      Joos Huysinga


      Ger Kegge

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007


Some knowledge of a country’s history may be valuable when observing and assessing its
industrial development, especially in a country such as Namibia. In South Africa apartheid tore
the country apart both politically & economically, but such a revolution, fortunately, has thus far
remained absent in Namibia. Instead Namibia is enduring a much smoother transition towards its
independence from the West. Relatively low wages, a less strict environmental regulatory system
and the promise of prolonged peace in Namibia have increased the worldwide propensity to
invest in unearthing Namibia’s vast raw material resources. In turn, investing companies have
improved the infrastructure, schooling, healthcare and other aspects of the economy as a whole.
It should be noted that although Namibia is a very large country, the country is only lightly
populated and most of the population inhabit four major cities. Of these, the capital Windhoek is
largest and most important. Located in the Khomas Region with a population of 230.000, it is a
major trade centre of sheep skins. By examining the development of this major city, some of the
country’s recent history is unveiled.

The city of Windhoek is traditionally known by two names: Ai-Gams, from the Nama people,
and Otjomuise in the language of the Herero people. Both traditional names refer to the hot
springs. The early settlements near Windhoek came to be, due to the water flowing from the hot
springs in the area. In the mid-1800's Captain Jan Jonker Afrikaner settled near one of the main
hot springs, located in the present-day Klein-Windhoek. Wars between the Nama and Herero
eventually destroyed this town. By 1873 a Rhenish missionary, Hugo Hahn, was dismayed to see
that nothing remained of the town's former prosperity.
In 1878 Britain annexed Walvis Bay which was incorporated into the Cape of Good Hope in
1884, but was not interested in extending its influence into the interior of Africa. A request by
merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over
German West Africa in 1884. The German colony came into existence with the determination of
its borders in 1890. Germany sent a protective corps, called the Schutztruppe under Major Curt
von François. Von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, which was strategically situated
as a buffer between the Nama and Herero, while the twelve strong springs provided water for the
cultivation of food.
Present-day Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when Von François lay the foundation
stone of the fort, which is now known as the Alte Feste (Old Fortress). During the next fourteen
years Windhoek developed slowly, with only the most essential government and private buildings
being erected. In Klein-Windhoek, plots were allocated to settlers, who started farming on a small
scale with fruit, tobacco and dairy cattle. After 1907, development accelerated when more people
migrated to the city. This development was also stimulated by a larger influx of western settlers
arriving from Germany and South Africa. Businesses were erected on Kaiser Street, present
Independence Avenue, and along the dominant mountain ridge over the city.
The German colonial era came to an end during World War I when South African troops
occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of Great Britain. For the next five years, a military
government administered South West Africa. Development of the city of Windhoek and the
nation later to be known as Namibia came to a virtual standstill. After World War II, Windhoek's
development gradually gained momentum, as more capital became available to improve the area's
economic climate. After 1955, large public projects were undertaken, such as the building of new
schools and hospitals, hardening of the city's roads, and the building of dams and pipelines to
stabilize the water supply. With Namibia's independence from the South African administration
in 1990, the city experienced a wind of change that led to accelerated growth & development.
Windhoek became the seat of a first, democratically elected government of the Republic of
Namibia, under the guidance of its Head of State & President, Sam Nujoma.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                     Namibia Excursion 2007

                           Sesriem Canyon and Sossusvlei
Sesriem Canyon
At the entry to Sossusvlei is Sesriem Canyon, where centuries of erosion have incised a narrow
gorge about 1 km in length. At the foot of the gorge, which plunges down 30 to 40m, are pools
that become replenished after heavy rainfall. You can even have a dip in its murky pools amongst
little fish, if the water is high enough. It was an important source of water for early inhabitants
and during the dry season water remains in the upper reaches, where deep clefts in the rock
reduce evaporation.
Explorers, riders and early travellers used to lower a bucket down to collect the water, which
normally took 6 lengths of thong tied together, hence the name “Ses” meaning six, and “Riem”
meaning thong in Afrikaans. The Tsauchab River rising in the Naukluft and Zaris Mountains to
the east, and flowing through to Sossusvlei formed the canyon. Walking through the canyon
takes you on a journey back 10-20 million years, when sedimentary layers of gravel and sand were
deposited and cemented together by lime.
Pigeons now inhabit the ledges, as well as raucous pied crows and chattering starlings. But look a
little higher and you might see a lanner falcon or the soaring spread of a lappet-faced vulture with
a wingspan of 2.6m. At night listen out for the haunting cry of the spotted eagle owl. An amazing
variety of wildlife has adapted to live in this inhospitable place such as lizards (that only put 2 feet
down at a time) and the black toc tokkie beetle that leans forward to allow droplets of morning
mist run down its body into its mouth.

The sand dunes of Sossusvlei in the Namib Desert are often referred to as
the highest dunes in the world. Various arguments are laid out to support
this claim, but all miss the point, which is that Sossusvlei is surely one of
the most spectacular sights in Namibia. Located in the Namib
Naukluft park, the largest conservation area in Africa, and fourth largest in
the world - the sand dunes at Sossusvlei are just one excellent reason to
visit Namibia. The best time to view Sossusvlei is at sunrise; the colours
are strong and constantly changing. The midday heat is intense and best
spent in the shade while sunset also offers excellent photo opportunities at
Sossusvlei. 'Vlei' is Afrikaans for a shallow depression filled with water, and
the name 'Sossusvlei' should strictly be applied to the pan that lies at the place where the dunes
close in, preventing the waters of the Tsauchab River from flowing any further - that is, on the
rare occasions that the river does flow as far as this. During exceptionally rainy seasons, the
Sossusvlei may fill with water, causing Namibians to flock there to witness the grand sight, but
normally it is bone dry. This particular 'vlei' is actually a more-or-less circular, hard-surfaced
depression that is almost entirely surrounded by sharp-edged dunes, beyond which lies a
formidable sea of rolling sand, stretching in unbroken immensity all the way to the coast.
However, the name 'Sossusvlei' nowadays applies to the whole area - an area that encompasses
the great plain of the Tsauchab River together with the red dunes that march along like giant
sentinels to south and north of the plain.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                     Namibia Excursion 2007

                            Swakopmund and Walvis Bay
Swakopmund, Namibia’s second biggest town and traditional ‘summer capital’, is one of the most
surreal places in the country. You approach the town through the endless expanses of the Namib
Desert, one of the world’s largest wilderness areas. Then, through the mists (it is almost always
misty in the morning and late afternoon) Bavarian spires and elaborate Germanic architecture rise
through the fog banks.
The boom of the surf on the notorious Skeleton Coast is an ever-present reminder of the icy
Atlantic Ocean beyond. The town is an eclectic mixture of Bohemian and Bavarian, home to an
intriguing mix of artists, hippies, strait-laced descendants of German settlers, Herero women in
Victorian dress, game rangers, safari operators, fishermen and hard bitten miners.
Swakopmund exudes romance and history and is a rich cultural melting pot of old and new.

Once you’ve got over the shock of being in a little corner of old Bavaria wedged between one of
the world’s harshest deserts and even harsher coastlines, the bewitching desert beckons. Just
outside town is the extraordinary Moon Landscape, a seemingly never-ending series of bizarre
hills that look like pictures taken of Mars’ Sea of Tranquillity. A bit further a field, in the bed of
the Khan River, is the oasis of Goanikontes; a lush splash of water and vegetation in the barren
Namib. For botanists, there is the lure of the fields of what have been called “living fossils”, the
giant Welwitschia mirabilis. These extraordinary trees never grow more than two metres above
the ground, but the bigger specimens have underground stems that are up to four metres wide.
The tree has just two leaves, which droop in opposite directions. If one of the leaves dies, the
plant dies. The oldest living specimen has been dated over 2 000 years old, while the average age
of the youngsters is between 500 - 600 years old.

Just outside Swakopmund, a section of towering barchan dunes has been set-aside for
recreational purposes – sand boarding and skiing, quad-biking, camel rides and off-road driving.
Swakopmund also offers a host of other attractions, including excursions by boat to see dolphins
and seals, shore based angling (some of the best in Africa), skin diving, surfing or just simply
lazing on the beach. And, of course, the town is surrounded by the Namib Naukluft Park, one of
the most bewitching desert wilderness in Africa, for one-day trips or longer safaris for the
ultimate desert camping experience.

Walvis Bay
It was only in 1994 that Walvis Bay and its offshore islands were incorporated into the Republic
of Namibia after having belonged to the Republic of South Africa. This is now Namibia’s major
port and the town is dominated by its fishing industry. Although it is fairly industrial and can
smell a bit fishy at times, it is not an unpleasant place. The lagoon is Namibia’s most important
wetland with thousands of flamingos wading in the shallows like a pink mist, and rare white
pelicans working in formation to scoop up fish in their great bills. The Raft restaurant perched on
stilts at the edge of the lagoon is a superb vantage point from which to enjoy your own seafood
meal. On the outskirts of town towards Swakopmund is Dune 7 – the highest dune in the area –
which is nice to climb barefoot. Palm trees make the picnic and barbecue area look very tropical
and provide much needed shade.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

Rössing Uranium Mine
Name of Company:              Rössing Uranium (Rio Tinto)
Operation:                    Open pit uranium mine. (Commenced 1973)
Product:                      3,711 tonnes uranium oxide (U3O8) in 2005
Employees:                    860 (96% Namibian) in 2005
Profit:                       Made no profit in 2005

Rössing is the 6th largest uranium producer of the world and produces over 7.7 % of the world
total uranium demand. The open pit mine is located in Namibia close to the town of Arandis,
which is situated 65 kilometres away from the coastal town Swakopmund. Although the ore body
was already discovered in 1920, it wasn’t until the mid 60’s that a subsidiary of what is now Rio
Tinto, showed interest in the ore body and began surveying, drilling and evaluating the deposit.
Rössing showed to be an enormous low-grade uranium oxide (U3O8) deposit and in 1973 it was
decided to start mining it. The operations commenced in 1976, meaning that the mine has been
producing for three decades.

Tour of the facilities
The Rössing plant has all the necessary processing facilities on site. The production of the
uranium starts with the blasting of the rock in the mine. The open pit is a massive 3 km long, 1
km wide and 300 meters deep. After blasting the ore is loaded in 180 tonnes trucks, which pass
through a radiometric scanner. Depending on the amount of radioactivity sensed by the scanners,
the truck is directed towards the crushers, the low grade stockpile or the waste dump. The ore is
crushed and (wet) grinded until it forms
slurry. The slurry is fed in a combined
leaching and oxidation tank where the
uranium is oxidized by ferric sulphate into a
more soluble form and then leached with
sulphuric acid. The product of the leaching
step is a pulp containing the uranium slime
and sand. Via cyclones the two are separated
and the sand is transported to a tailings dam.

                                                             The Rössing processing facility
After passing through numerous thickeners the ‘pregnant’ solution is brought into contact with
beads of resin. Here ion exchange takes place, whereby the uranium is extracted from the
solution. Periodically these beads are removed and washed with acid. The new solution is more
pure and rich in uranium. This is brought in contact with an organic solvent to take up the
uranium components, where in a second stage the solvent with uranium is mixed with an
ammonium sulphate solution. By the addition of ammonium gas the pH is increased and uranium
will deposit as ammonium diurenate. Then the solution is again fed in a thickener and a rotating
drum filter to produce ‘yellow cake’. Finally, it is calcined to drive of the ammonia and get the
final product U3O8. The Uranium oxide produced is shipped to the USA, Canada, China and
France, where it goes to converters for further enrichment. After that it is sold to electricity
producers in Europe, China, USA and the Asian-Pacific. The majority of the shares are held by
Rio Tinto (69%), followed by the Iranian government (15%). The Namibian government holds
only 3% but has the majority in voting rights (51%).

                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine

Name of Company:              Langer Heinrich Uranium (A member Paladin Resource Ltd)
Operation:                    Open pit excavator-truck uranium mine.
Product:                      Uranium oxide (U3O8); an estimated 1,180 per annum
Started:                      1973 (discovering), March 2007 (official opening)
Employees:                    70 (December 2006)
Profit:                       Made no profit during 2006, Development stage
Contact persons:              Katrin Kärner & Wyatt Buck

The Langer Heinrich Uranium (LHU) mine is located about 80 km East of Swakopmund in the
Namib Desert and is the property of Paladin Resource Ltd, an Australian company.
In 1973 a surficial, calcrete type deposit was discovered by a government-supported airborne
radiometric survey. Initially owned by Gencor (a South-African mining company) and later by
Acclaim Uranium NL (Australian), both companies were forced to sell due to the downward
trend of the uranium price of the time. In August 2002 Paladin Resource Ltd became wholly-
owner of the LHU mine. Recently the price of uranium has nearly twelve folded.
In January 2004 the pre-feasibility study was completed, which confirmed the economic value of
the project. The mineralization is near-surface, between 1 and 30 metres thick, between 50 and
1,100 metres wide and the deposit extends 15km in length. The uranium is mined by means of
conventional open pit excavator-truck operation and is
proposed to produce 1,180t of U3O8 per annum from
1.5Mtpa raw, calcrete materials with a timeframe of 17
year project life. The official opening of the Langer
Heinrich mine was in March 2007 & presided over by the
president of Namibia. Because the LHU mine is just open
it is very interesting to see the Development stage (open
up ore deposit for production) instead of the
Exploitation stage (produce ore on large scale) that you
can observe in the Rössing uranium mine located about
40 kilometres North-West of Langer Heinrich mine.                    High grade ore

Tour of the facilities
At Wednesday the 11th of July we arrived at the Langer Heinrich Uranium mine, the second
uranium mine in Namibia. After a health & safety presentation, the geological history & orebody
positioning was presented by Katrin Kärner. The uranium mineralization occurs in the form of
carnotite [ K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O) ]. The ore resource study is completed, although more
boreholes are scheduled to be drilled in the Tertiar sedimentation to increase the measured
resources potential. The total Mineral resource is 80,5 Mt of uranium oxide ore at 600ppm of
U3O8 containing 47,900t U3O8 of which 46% is in the Measured and the Indicated Resource and
54% in the Inferred Resource category, at a 250ppm cut-off.

1. Mining operation
The mining operation will remain to be in the development stage for the coming 20 months. The
drilling pattern in the LHU mine is rectangular, 3.2 by 3.5 metres, with 115mm hole lengths and
ANFO is used as the explosive. The drilling operation is 24/7 while the load- and hauling is done
in 9 hours shifts, two times a day & 5 days per week. The loading and hauling operation consists
of an excavator with 4 Komatsu 100t trucks in operation. The ore is divided in four different
grades: superhigh (900+ppm), high, medium and low. Each loaded truck is scanned for

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007

radioactivity and directed towards the jaw crusher of the processing plant or one of several
specifically graded stockpiles. At this time only the super high grade ore is produced in an effort
to pay off investments made as soon as possible. The pit is backfilled with waste rock material
and the whole operation is continued in westward direction.

2. Processing plant
Before entering the processing area, Mr. Buck, the General Manager, gave a presentation detailing
the metallurgical processes of the plant. In one and a half years time LHU would like to repay all
construction costs made, approximately US$ 92 million. To achieve this estimation only the super
high grade ore, >900 ppm, is fed in the crushers, moreover the increasing Uranium price helps by
establishing this goal. Furthermore a constant graded feed optimizes the process. The 5000t raw
ore a day is dropped in the feed-bin with a grizzly on top drops in the jaw crusher with a <100
mm sized output and afterwards grinded in the wet-scrubbers. The >25mm ore is dropped on a
Barren stockpile, the >10mm to emergency stockpile and re-crushed in the cone crusher and
sufficient grinded ore, a slurry, (<10mm) is fed into the attritioner tanks. If the slurry is grinded
to a size smaller than 500µm in the attritioner (desliming) screens, it is fed to the pre-leaching
thickeners to provide a constant feed for the leaching tanks. In the leaching tank sodium (bi-)
carbonate powder is added to achieve a pH of 9 at 75°C (otherwise the uranium does not
dissolve). The heated slime is fed into 6 counter-current decantation thickeners, where the slimes
move from thickener #1 through all thickener stages. The washed slimes exist as underflow
thickener #6 to the tailings dam. Whereas the barren solution enters at thickener #6, overflows
counter-current through all six stages to thickener #1 into the clarifier as a concentrated uranium
solution, so called pregnant liquor. The pregnant liquor is brought into contact with fixed bed
ion-exchange resin to extract the uranium from the solution. After the resin loading the elution
phase takes place: it implies the removal of vanadium and uranium from the resin by respectively
sodium carbonate and sodium bi-carbonate. Subsequently the uranium-rich eluate is precipitated
in batched reactor tanks: Sulphuric acid is added to lower the pH and hydrogen peroxide is added
to let the uranium precipitate. The precipitate goes to the settler tank and is then pumped
through two stages of centrifuges, to remove impurities. Finally in the dewatering process the
precipitate is dried at 450°C and the final product of 88% pure UO4, the so called ‘yellow cake’, is
packed into drums, weighed and sealed and collected in sea-containers. The whole metallurgical
process is monitored in the control-room and from the final product is taken a sample for XRF
analysis to monitor the quality. The containers are transported to Walvis Bay seaport and
exported to the consumers of the Langer Heinrich Uranium mine. UO4 is produced instead of
U2O8 (that produced by Rössing), because this has a positive influence on the shipping costs.
Rössing is not yet able to make the production of UO4 profitable, which shows that despite the
Langer Heinrich Uranium mine is a relative young mining company; it has accomplished a lot
with a selective well qualified group of mining employees and engineers from all over the world.

                               Namibia Excursion 2007

A Company Worth Exploring

Anglo American is breaking new ground. Both literally and in its approach to the way we
do business. We make sustainable development an intuitive but conscious part of every
decision, whether made by a mine manager, a corporate finance adviser or someone
working with local communities. By operating in this way, we can meet the needs of
today’s society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs.

To explore our company and find out if you could break new ground with us, visit

                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

AngloGold Ashanti
                              Name of Company:               AngloGold Ashanti
                              Operation:                     Open pit mine & smelting facility
                              Product & capacity:            Gold; 86200 oz per annum (2006)
                              Employees:                     313
                              Profit:                        US$ 2.3 million

                              Average Gold Price per Kg N$ 131,942
                              Recovered grade 0.0053 oz/t
                              Total cash costs N$ 1794 N$/oz
                              Total production costs N$ 2356 N$/oz
                              Capital expenditure N$ 33 million
                              Current Ore reserves 5,315,000 t@ 1.08g/t
AngloGold Ashanti is one of the world's leading gold producers, with a varied portfolio of assets
and ore body types in key gold-producing regions around the world. At the end of 2006, the
company had 21 operations located in 10 countries (South Africa, Argentina, Australia, Brazil,
Ghana, the Republic of Guinea, Mali, Namibia, Tanzania and the United States) on four
continents, together with a substantial project pipeline and a focused global exploration program.
AngloGold Ashanti produced 5.6Moz of gold in 2006, of which 2.6Moz (46%) came from deep
level hard-rock operations in South Africa and the balance of 3Moz (54%) from the shallower
and surface operations around the world. Greenfields exploration is
under way in Western Australia, Colombia and the Democratic
Republic of Congo (DRC), and through exploration partnerships and
joint ventures in Alaska, Russia, China, the Philippines and Laos.
The first gold-bearing quartz veins discovered in Namibia were
found in the Rehoboth district, as early as 1899. Although many
prospects opened up and were exploited in 1933 and 1934, all were
forced to close, mainly due to the low and erratic grade of the
mineralization. The Navachab gold deposit was discovered as a result
of a geochemical exploration programme in 1984 (exploration for
carbonate-hosted gold deposits). Navachab has been in production
since 1989, and is the only gold mine in Namibia. AngloGold
Ashanti’s interest in Navachab dates back to 1998, when it bought a
70% stake in the mine. In 1999, it increased its stake from 70% to
100%.                                                                      Navachab open pit

Tour of the Facilities
The Navachab deposit is hosted by Damaran greenschist-amphibolite facies, calc-silicates,
marbles and volcano-clastics. The rocks have been intruded by granites, pegmatites and (quartz-
porphyry dykes) aplite and have also been deformed into a series of alternating dome and basin
structures. The mineralised zone forms a sheet-like body which plunges at an angle of
approximately 20° to the north-west. The mineralisation is predominantly hosted in a sheeted
vein set (±60%) and a replacement skarn body (±40%). The gold is very fine-grained and
associated with pyrrhotite, and minor trace amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite, maldonite and

The mine is situated 10km South-West of Karibib and 170km North-West of Windhoek on the
Southern West coast of Africa. Navachab is an open-pit mine. Its processing plant, with a

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007

production capacity of 110 000tpm, includes mills, carbon-in-pulp (CIP) and electro-winning

Approximately 80% of the gold allows for free milling. In 2006 gold production rose by 6% to
86 000oz as increased tonnage throughput offset the effect of a decline in grade from 2.05g/t to
1.81g/t. Total cash costs decreased by 17% to $265/oz as a result of the increase in gold
production, as well as the benefits associated with a stronger US dollar in the third and fourth
quarters of the year. Gross profit adjusted for the effect of unrealised non-hedge derivatives and
other commodity contracts more than doubled to $22 million as a result of increases in both
production and the price received. Capital expenditure remained steady at $5 million and was
incurred mainly on preparation for mining of the Grid A satellite orebody and treatment plant

Historical studies on a potential pit expansion, which was previously considered uneconomical,
are being reviewed given the current outlook for the gold price. Several brownfields prospects
situated within trucking distance are currently under investigation. With the lower expected
yields, total production at Navachab is estimated to decline slightly in 2007 to around 80,000oz.
Total cash costs are forecast to rise to approximately $359/oz, with capital expenditure
anticipated to increase to $5 million (N$33 million). This will be spent mainly on a plant upgrade
to accommodate higher tonnes in the future, as well as on brownfields exploration. Ore reserves
and mineral resources are reported in accordance with the minimum standard described by the
Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves
(the JORC Code, 2004 edition) and also conform to the standards set out in the South African
Code for the Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (the SAMREC 2000 Code).
Mineral resources are inclusive of the ore reserve component unless otherwise stated. AngloGold
Ashanti had mineral resources of 181.6Moz and ore reserves of 66.9Moz in December 2006. Of
these, Navachab accounted for mineral resources of 3.8Moz and ore reserves of 0.7Moz.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                     Namibia Excursion 2007

Skeleton Coast Park and Twyfelfontein
Skeleton Coast Park
The Skeleton Coast is so named for all the ghostly shipwrecks that are beached on these remote
and inaccessible white shores. This 2 million hectare park is one of the most inhospitable and
least visited places on earth. Only 4 wheel drive vehicles dare enter for fear of getting stuck in the
soft sand and running out of fresh water, and a fly-in safari is the only other alternative. The
attraction for visitors is its untouched and mysterious barren beauty, swept by cold sea breezes
and often enveloped in a dense fog. This fog accounts for the many shipwrecks and the unique
ecosystem that gives life to most unusual plants. The strange ‘Elephant’s Foot’ plant anchors
itself in rock crevices while desert succulents like Lithops, look exactly like pebbles until a tiny
yellow flower emerges. The windswept dunes and flat plains give way in places to rugged canyons
with walls of richly coloured volcanic rock and extensive mountain ranges. Elephants are animals
that you would least expect to find here, but they have become specially adapted to their desert
home and have even been filmed surfing down sand dunes. This strange land is worth a visit for
the intrepid explorer.

Some 90 kilometres west of Khorixas lies Twyfelfontein ("Doubtful Spring"), with one of the
most extensive galleries of rock engravings in the world. They aren't really paintings, but have
been done by cutting through the hard surface layer of sandstone. More than 2000 petroglyphes
have been counted here, and in 1952 the valley of Twyfelfontein was proclaimed a National
Monument. The rock engravings are found on a number of smooth rock surfaces and most of
them depict animals and their tracks. Scientists have estimated their ages to vary between 1000
and 10000 years: The majority agrees on an age of about 6000 years.

                                  Etosha National Park

The Etosha National Park is regarded by wildlife aficionados as one of Africa’s greatest and most
intriguing wildlife sanctuaries. It was once the biggest national park in the world, covering almost
100 000km2, but in 1967 under South African rule, the apartheid authorities reduced it in size to
its current 22 275km2 as part of a tribal resettlement scheme. That is not the only huge number
associated with Etosha - the vast, dried up white calcrete pan (seasonal lake) was once the biggest
lake in the world, until climate changes dried up the feeder channels and changed the vegetation
from lush jungle to savannah grassland and acacia & mopane woodland.
One’s first impression of the park is of a vast expanse of dazzling white pans, which in the harsh
light of midday, are painful to look at without sunglasses. But in the early morning and late
afternoons, the pans, through tricks of refracted light, glow and shimmer as they go through an
astonishing range of colour changes, from orange through pink and purple to inky, deep blue.
And despite being in a semi-arid area, the park is home to over 340 bird, 110 reptile and 100
mammal species, including close to 3 000 elephant, 300 black rhino – one of the biggest
populations in Africa – 27 000 wildebeest, 7 000 zebra and rare antelope species like black faced
impala, Damara dik dik, suni & roan antelope. Lion, cheetah and leopard are common sights.
An excellent network of good roads makes Etosha an ideal self-drive destination. Ordinary sedan
cars will cope well with the roads, although in the very short rainy season (irregular between
December and April) some tracks become very slippery. In good rain years, the pans fill with a
food-rich, soupy water that attracts thousands of wading birds, including huge flocks of
flamingo’s, turning the strongly alkaline water a deep pink in the mornings and evenings.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

Ongopolo Tsumeb Smelter

Name of Company:              Ongopolo Tsumeb Smelter
Operation:                    Smelting facility comprising of three furnaces
Product & capacity:           Blister copper (98,5% Cu); 6 000 tons / month
Employees:                    210
Profit:                       US$ 2.3 million (Dec 2006)

Weatherly International acquired the Ongopolo Mining & Processing Ltd of Namibia in July
2006. Ongopolo is the word for copper in Oshiwambo, an indigenous language of Namibia.
Ongopolo currently operates several copper mines in addition to three concentrating and a
smelting facility. The company further possesses extensive land holdings in the copper rich areas
of the country. The Otjihase and Matchless mines are located in central Namibia close to the
capital Windhoek, whereas the Kombat mine and nearby smelter at Tsumeb are located in the
north of the country. In addition to these assets a new underground mine is being developed to
in time replace the declining Kombat mine. This mine located at Asis Far West & lateral
development of the ore body is currently underway. Other projects in operation include the
Tsumeb West and Tschudi mines. To operate continually at maximum capacity, the smelter
currently imports a lot of ore from Mauritania, Zambia and the Republic of Congo.

Tour of the Facilities
The Tsumeb copper smelter, comprising three furnaces, is a key asset for Weatherly. The current
operating capacity of the smelter with only one of the furnaces in operation is 2 000 - 3 000 tons
per month. A second, larger copper furnace and the zinc furnace require refurbishment. The
Tsumeb smelter is currently processing concentrate using feedstock from Weatherly’s own mines
at Matchless, Tsumeb West & Otjihase, along with throughput from third-party supplies and
tolling agreements. Weatherly intends to examine the feasibility of expanding Ongopolo's
                            smelting capacity to 50 000 tons per annum by early 2008.
                            Furthermore, several projects are underway:

                            - The Ausmelt process will be restarted, greatly increasing capacity.

                            - The smelter is investigating reclamation of its extensive tailingsdam,
                            by employing a leaching and electrowinning process and introducing
                            a new electrochemical cell that is very efficient on low grade ore.

                            - The smelter is investigating whether it can extract the largest
                            proven Germanium deposit in the world located in its own

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007

In the past, the Tsumeb smelter was located near one of the richest copper deposits in the world.
Today, this deposit is all but spent, yet the smelter remains to be situated strategically. All of
Ongopolo's operations are located along a strategically important and efficient transport route in
southwest Africa, stretching from the port of Walvis Bay on the Atlantic coast to the major
copper producing areas of Zambia and DRC. These logistics provide the opportunity to develop
Ongopolo into an increasingly significant regional mining and smelting centre serving the nearby
mineral resource-rich countries of Botswana, Zambia, DCR and Angola as well as what remains
of production in Namibia. The smelter is specializes in the processing of low grade copper ore. If
the smelter were to process all copper ore itself it may vary well be a profitable undertaking well
into the 21th century

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007

          Okorusu Fluorspar Mine
Operation:                     Open pit mine & processing facility
Product & capacity:            Acid grade fluorspar of 97% purity; 130 wmt/year operation
Employees:                     400

Okorusu is exploiting Namibia’s largest fluorite deposit and is the country’s largest fluoride
producer. The Mine is owned by Okorusu Fluorspar
Ltd, a subsidiary of the Solvay S.A. Group. The mine is
located in the Northern-Central part of Namibia ca. 50
kilometres north of the town of Otjiwarongo. The old
volcano poses an impressive site in the surrounding
landscape. The mine produces acid grade fluorspar of
97% purity and has all the needed mineral processing
facilities on site. Furthermore, the deposit at the
Okorusu is the only carbonatite fluorite deposit that is
being mined in the world today. A reason for this is that carbonatite fluorite often has a high
phosphate content, causing a challenge in the production process due to a more complicated
separation. In the case of Okorusu this problem is overcome by the high to very high grade of
the reserves.

Tour of the facilities
There are three pits in production, located in the rim of the volcano. Ore in the pits consist of
marble replacement ores & carbonatite replacement rocks. The current cut-off grade is 20%
CaF2, but much of the ore has a grade of up to 50% CaF2 and it reaches a staggering maximum of
95% CaF2 in one of the pits. Currently the life of mine is about seven years, which is bound to
increase considering the mine’s potential. There is a possibility of going underground in one of
the pits and various new pits are being explored at the moment. Production capacity of the mine
and process plant is approximately 130 wmt (wet metric tonnes) per year (limited by the
processing plant).

In order to realize this production level, approximately 200 000 tons of rock has to be moved
every month. The rock is excavated with the drill and blasting method. Each blast liberates 25000
tons of material that will be removed from the site within three days. The rock strength at
Okorusu is exceptionally high, around 250 MPa. Due to the fact that the deposit dips steeply in
some places, the stripping ratio rises up to 10:1. After the ore is removed from the mine is fed to
the crushing plant through a grizzly. The crushing stage consists of three crushers: two jaw
crushers and a cone crusher. All the machinery in the processing plants of Okorusu is second
hand, bought from other mines and plants and refurbished, and is maintained in house. Every
morning the whole plant undergoes a visual inspection by the engineers: ‘The Stress Test’. After
the crushing stage, all material is smaller than 16 mm and is stocked on three different stockpiles
depending on the grade and type of the material. From the three stockpiles a blend is made
which is fed into the milling circuit. The stockpiling allows the mills to be fed with a
homogeneous blend, independent of the ore that is being mined.

The milling circuit is a wet circuit and consists of a ball mill and a rod mill which operate in
parallel. Presence of two mills prevents a total production standstill when one of the mills is
down for maintenance or because of failure. The milling plant operates with a feed of 55 tons per
hour and requires 20 m3 of water per hour. The output of the milling plant is a pulp that is

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007

classified with a cyclone. The overflow (fines) is transported to the flotation plant; the underflow
goes back to the mill. In the flotation plant fluorite is separated from the apatite and other
impurities. A major capital investment by Solvay has made it possible to increase the recovery of
the flotation process with a special chemical.

After flotation the end product is an acid grade fluorite
has to meet the following criteria:
        •       CaF2 > 97.0 %
        •       SiO2 < 1.00 %
        •       CaCO3 < 1.00 %
        •       P2O5 < 0.20 %

The tailings from the flotation plant contain 3% to 9% Fluor – apatite and several rare earth
elements. It is currently investigated whether these tailings can be processed economically to
recover these valuables.

No amount of effort was spared to in giving us access to both the open pit & processing facility.
The hospitality with which we were received was greatly appreciated by all. Okorusu Fluorspar,
for as far as we may assess, has a high future potential due to the management, proven and
indicated reserves, but also tailings dam potential.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                      Namibia Excursion 2007

Ongopolo Otjihase Mine

Operation:                      Underground mine & Processing facility
Product & capacity:             250μm Copper sludge, 50ktons/month
Employees:                      400

Otjihase mine, located about 30 km to the East of Windhoek, is one of the 5 mines belonging to
the Ongopolo Mining and Processing Limited. Weatherly International PLC gained 97% interest
in the company in 2006. The ore body at Otjihase stretches 250 m in width, is about 5 meters
thick and dips to a depth of approximately 1 km. It mainly consists of chalcopyrite and pyrite
(picture) and the reserves (proven & probable) are estimated at 11 Mt of 1,9% copper. Because
of its allocation and size, the ore body is produced by means of room & pillar mining. Currently
the mine is investigating a raise in production by backfilling the rooms with cement and allowing
for 90% recovery of the pillars. In 2006 the life of mine estimate was 5 years.

Tour of the facilities
    I.       Otjihase Mine.
The backfilling of former rooms is started at the Karuma chamber at a depth of about 800 m. In
order to backfill a room, a wall is constructed at both sides. Subsequently the room is backfilled
on both sides of the pillar. In order to improve the roofing of the ramps, it is strengthened using
extra cables and rock bolts. Recovery starts with the most center
part of the pillar. The roof of the created opening is then
strengthened with rock bolts after which the remaining parts of
the pillar can be recovered. All of the recovery is done by
blasting. Ore is transported by LHD’s to an underground primary
crusher and subsequently transported by conveyor belts to the
surface. The mine produces about 50.000 tons/month.

                                                                           Otjihase Orebody
    II.      Tailingsdam & Tailingsplant
All tailings are deposited on the tailingsdam. Prior to the re-use of these tailings as backfill in the
mining operation, it is mixed with cement imported from RSA and Argentina. Because the
cement represents a relatively large portion of the operating costs, the mine is experimenting to
reduce the percentage of cement from 3% to 2% by mixing in ash and slack from the Tsumeb
smelter. Although the process of backfilling requires a lot of water, the process has a 70% water
recovery. Upon taking into account the entire operation the mine water neutral, a remarkable
achievement in such a dry region as Namibia.

     III.    Processing Plant
The ore enters the processing plant as with a particle size <10 mm. First the ore is led through a
ball mill, which grinds it to a fraction of about 250μm. Flotation is than used to upgrade the
copper content. The product is dried and shipped off by train to the Tsumeb smelter where it is
converted into blister copper. The product contains about 25% copper and the total recovery of
the mine is estimated at 93%. Because the processing plant at Otjihase can process 110.000
tons/month and the mine only produces 50.000 tons/month, extra ore from the Matchless Mine
is also processed at Otjihase.

                       Namibia Excursion 2007

Lhoist is the worlds leading producer of lime and dolomite. Over
the course of the last century, the Lhoist Group, which began in
Belgium and then expanded into France, has progressively
acquired genuine international status. Most of the Group's
international growth has occurred in Europe and America. Today,
the company totals more than 7,000 employees. Lhoist also
employs graduates of the European Mineral Programs.

Lhoist SA
St Jean de Bois
B - 1342 Limelette


                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

Company:                      Namdeb
Operation:                    Open pit and marine mining
Product:                      Diamonds, 2 million carats per year
Started:                      1994
Profit:                       336 million N$
Contact persons:              Paulo Shipoke from Namdeb;
                              Leaonard Apollus from De Beers-Marine;
                              Fabian Shaanika fromDe Beers Marine

On the 17th of July 2007 students and graduates from the department of Geotechnology of the
TU-Delft visited the main office of Namdeb in Windhoek. Our visit was spread over two days.
The first day some presentations about the activities of Namdeb were given. The second day we
were allowed into the sorting room. Fortunately a shipment of diamonds had just arrived & there
was a lot to see. Namdeb is a joint venture between the government of Namibia and De Beers
Marine. The company is specialized in finding, mining and selling diamonds. The diamond
market is a thrilling business, on which the company motto is based: Namdeb is EXCITED
which stands for: Excellence; Care; Intelligent solutions; Teamwork and Diversity. The company
constantly evaluates the efficiency of mining and invests in new techniques and exploration to
ensure a steady production for the coming 10-25 years. One of the results of this philosophy is
that since 1908 80 million carats have been mined. At presently, it is estimated that 75% of the
diamond content is extracted.

Tour of the facilities
The onshore mining area stretches from the Oranje River to a 100km land inwards and to the
North. Including the offshore operations the total mining area comes to a total of about
26000km2, of which the larger part is designated Sperrgebiet. All diamonds mined originate from
kimberlites in South Africa. These were in time transported and deposited in river beds and to
the sea by the the Oranje River. The diamonds are found by tracing the characteristic
sedimentary deposits onshore as well as offshore. To accomplish this, field data is obtained by
using different exploratory techniques such as seismics (on- and offshore) and side scan sonar
(marine) & conventional sampling (on- and offshore). This data is used to make a geological
reconstruction of the flow path of the Oranje River and incorporated into a model of the
offshore currents which carry the sediments of the river towards the North.

When the current of a river is strong large sediments can be transported over long distances, but
as the velocity of the water decreases the large fragments are deposited and only the finer
sediments can remain is suspension. This is the reason that the larger diamonds are generally
found close to their origin (inland mining operation). The smaller diamonds however, may be
transported over great distances (offshore mining operation). River erosion & sedimentary
processes have sorted these offshore diamonds to up to 98% gem quality; they are retrieved from
the marine gravel beds just off the coast of Namibia.

Unfortunately, although we received permission to enter the Sperrgebiet, the isolated mining area
was allocated too far away to be incorporated in our 2 week visit of Namibia.

Namibia Excursion 2007

                                   Namibia Excursion 2007

The onshore deposits for the larger part comprise of excavation of the sand & gravel located near
the surface. Further inland, diamonds are occasionally liberated from their host rock by means of
drilling & blasting. The mined material is then processed. Processing involve the use of jigs,
cyclones, sieve beds and x-ray sorters to separate the diamonds from the rocks. After that the
product is hand sorted to optimize the grade. Land reclamation is carried out by landscaping the
former mining area and creating dunes or other environmentally & geographically acceptable

The offshore deposits are mined by large means of large dredging operations. The vessels that are
used for the dredging may differ in the exact method of mining, but effectively they all transport
sediment from the ocean floor to the surface and then transport the mined material to shore,
where it is processed in the same way as the onshore ore is done. The concentrate from the mine,
the product after processing, is transported to Windhoek where the diamonds are checked,
cleaned and sorted.

The process of cleaning and (hand) sorting at the Namdeb headquarters in Windhoek is strictly
regulated. Security is tight getting in, yet even more so upon departure. Any discomfort caused by
this however, is worth enduring. The diamonds are cleaned by submerging them in strong acid
bath. This removes a greasy look. Subsequently the diamonds are sorted in different ways. They
are mainly sorted by hand but also by a sorting machine. When all the diamonds are sorted,
bagged and labeled they are sold to a London based diamond trading company. Overall it takes
about two months for a diamond to get from the deposit to the market.

Namibia Excursion 2007


                                          Namibia Excursion 2007

                  Namibia Geological Survey

Housed at the Ministry of Mines & Energy Building in the capital Windhoek, together with the
sister Directorates of Mining, Energy, Diamond Affairs and Administration & Finance, the
Geological Survey of Namibia plays an important role in the development of Namibia's mineral
and geological resources and in fostering sustainable development with due regard to the

The organisation comprises of six divisions:
       - Regional Geoscience
       - Geophysics
       - Economic Geology
       - Geochemistry and Laboratory
       - Engineering and Environment
       - Geological and Exploration Information

Mission Statement
Enhance knowledge and awareness of Namibia's geological resources through scientific
investigation as well as application and dissemination of quality research data. Facilitating the
search for and the assessment of mineral resources, geological engineering and land use planning
through sustainable development with due regard to the environment.

The Geological Survey of Namibia, as custodian of Namibia's rich endowment of geological
resources, attempts to facilitate the responsible development and sustainable utilisation of these
resources to the benefit of all Namibians.

Core Business
         Provide geoscientific information through research to promote sustainable development
         and investment in Namibia.
         Guide land-use decisions to ensure the availability and sustainability of resources for the
         current and future welfare of our society.
         Stimulate investment in Namibia's Mining Sector in order to contribute to the
         development of Namibia's economy.
         Create awareness of the earth sciences in order to enhance the understanding of the
         geo-environment and its interaction with the life-supporting system of the Namibian

A special thanks to the geological survey for the clarifying presentation that was given on the geology of Namibia. It
helped us, in a fundamental way, understand the allocation of the mining activities.

          Namibia Excursion 2007

              DSM Energy

We create new products, applications, processes and services that create
sustainable value for both our stakeholders and our company. More ...

We have the vision and commitment to achieve and maintain leadership positions
in all our key businesses. More ...

The ability to change
We continually develop and improve in order to meet the ever-changing needs of
our customers and the world around us. More ...

We have the responsibility to our customers, shareholders, business partners,
employees and local communities, as well as the world around us, to conduct our
business in an ethical, accountable and sustainable manner. This is based on our
core values; Respect for People, Valuable Partnerships and Good Corporate
Citizenship. More ...

                                    Namibia Excursion 2007


On behalf of the faculty & all the students the excursion was a great success. The companies we
have visited seemed to feel the same way. It should not be overlooked to thank those who made
the trip both possible and fruitful.

First a special thanks to our sponsors. Without your participation we are unable to take part in
these educational, meaningful, but also very enjoyable events.

Moreover, we were honoured by the presence of the Permanent Secretary of the Namibia
Ministry of Mines and Energy, Mr. Joseph Lita, on the last day of the excursion. In the course of
the day both the General Manager of the Chamber of Mines, Veston Malango, and the
Geological Survey of Namibia took the time to comment on our experiences and tell of
Namibia’s future. The hospitality and candour with which we were received was much

Many thanks to all companies that were visited, which spared no expense in giving us more
insight in the way they ran their operations. The on-site experience at the mines and processing
facilities we consider invaluable in our efforts to become well rounded mining engineers. In most
cases we were able to visit the pit and processing plants, go underground, and in one instance a
mine went as far as making a path of rubble in order to provide us with access to a newly
excavated portion of the mine.

Also a word of gratitude with respect to the mining branch of KIVI, the Royal Dutch Institute of
Engineers, of whom several members accompanied us on our trip to Namibia on their own
behalf. Their experience and guidance made the trip more meaningful.

Thanks to Hans de Ruiter, Peter Berkhout, Christa Meskers and Allert Adema who organised the

Last, but most certainly not least, a word of thanks to Ger Kegge. He travelled with us for the
two weeks that we were in Namibia, was acquainted with many people in the Industry, told much
of what goes on in the country, showed us many beautiful spots, but most important of all was
great company.

In retrospective, the excursion was invaluable. The on site experience provides the students with
a deeper understanding of the Industry. In most cases it has a direct influence on the course of
study that each of the students will pursue. Aside from being educational, such a trip also acts
motivational and presents us with a more clear view of the opportunities that await us & the
projects we want to be involved in,

Yours sincerely,

Willem Blaisse
President SME-TMS TUDelft Netherlands
October 2007

                               Namibia Excursion 2007


    •    Rössing Uranium:              (www.rossing.com)

    •    Langer Heinrich Uranium:      (www.lhupl.com)

    •    Anglo Ashanti:                (www.anglogold.com)

    •    Ongopolo Smelter:             (www.weatherlyplc.com)

    •    Namdeb:                       (www.namdeb.com/namdeb.web)

    •    Okorusu:         (www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0004/Hagni0004.html)
                                     & www.mindat.org/loc-5842.html

    •    Namibia Geological Survey:    (www.mme.gov.na/gsn/default.htm)

    •    Chamber of Mines Namibia: (http://www.chamberofmines.org.na/)

    •    Wikitravel:                   (www.wikitravel.org)

    •    Go 2 Africa Travel:           (www.go2africa.com)

                   Namibia Excursion 2007

List of Sponsors

                       Main sponsors
                     Anglo American
                       Atlas Copco
                         Rio Tinto
                        SMS Demag

                        Sub sponsors

                       DSM Energy
                         TU Delft
                     RWE Power AG

                       ABN AMRO
                       MTI Holland


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