c3Economic Systems

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                                                                                                                     POLITICAL ECONOMY – The Ownership/Control Matrix
                                                                                                                                  Common        Mixed
                     ECONOMIC SYSTEMS *                                                                                           Ownership    Economy
                                                                                                                                                              Private
                                                                                                                                                            Ownership
                                                                                                                      Consensus  Egalitarian   Egalitarian Egalitarian
  A. Allen Butcher, Fourth World Services, 1999, PO Box 1666, Denver, CO 80201-1666
           Exchange systems material from:                                                                             Control  Communalism  Commonwealth  Collectivism
  Tomas H. Greco, New Money for Healthy Communities, 1994, PO Box 42663, Tucson, AZ 85733
                                                                                                                      Democratic    Democratic        Democratic           Economic
                                                                                                                       Control     Communalism       Commonwealth          Democracy

         *This diagram presents only systems that include production and consumption (business and                  Authoritarian Totalitarianism     Various Elitist
domestics), excluding consumption-only distribution systems such as the balance-of-preferences system                                                                      Plutocracy
                                                                                                                      Control                            Systems
of the double-blind matrix, rationing, gifting, etc. Also, see right for different political/economic systems.
Note that three forms of control (in Political Economy) correspond with three Economic Systems, below.

                     SHARING SYSTEMS                                                                             Quota –              Variable         System-Wide Labor
  Decentralized, Locally-Based Economies (Egalitarian)                      Labor Credit Accounting              minimum work         Credit           Budgeting (Twin Oaks)
  • Communalism (shared common property)                                    (These time-based econo-             requirement
                                                                                                                                                       Work-area requirements w/
  • Anarchism (mix of private and common property)                          mies are tax-exempt.)                                      Hour Per
                                                                                                                                                       sub-quotas, no budgeting
  • Collectivism (shared private property)                                                                       Anti-Quota –          Credit
                                                                                                                                                       (East Wind, Acorn)
                                                                            Managerial and Commit-               hour per credit
  Exchange systems are used for trade among communities using               tee Structures – without             labor reporting
  sharing systems (labor exchange and commodities trades).                  labor credit accounting              with no
  However, joint income-generating businesses among communi-                                                                           Scrip – Certificates of Indebtedness (tax
                                                                            (Israeli Kibbutz, some               minimum
  ties are sharing systems.                                                                                                            anticipation notes, credit vouchers, trade scrip,
                                                                            monasteries)                         requirement           payroll warrants, moratorium certificates,
                                                                                                                                       clearing house certificates, merchandise bonds)
                                                                       Indirect Barter – Commodities as mediums of exchange
               EXCHANGE SYSTEMS
                                                                       (tobacco, chocolate, wampum, precious metals & stones)                                       Demurrage Currency
 Market Economies (Libertarian)
                                                                                                                                       Monetary Currencies          – negative interest
 • Barter (exchange of private property)
                                                                       Commercial Barter (International Reciprocal Trade               (specie or coin, paper,      money (stamp scrip)
 • Capitalism (Keynesian vs. liberalism)
                                                                       Assoc., National Assoc. of Trade Exchanges)                     electronic funds)
 • Cooperatives (economic democracy)
                                                                       Local Currencies (Ithaca Hours, Berkshire Farm Preserve
 Sharing systems are used within market economies for                                                                                                            Non-Funded Currencies
                                                                       Notes, Railway Notes, tokens, chits, etc.)
 governmental programs (“corporate welfare” and other                                                                                    Funded Curren-          – no (or minimal) assets
 transfer payments) and in tax-exempt organizations                    Local Exchange Trading System (LETS) – Credit and debit           cies – assets in        are held in reserve,
 (charities).                                                          accounts within the system equal zero (Green Dollars)             reserve are             currency is redeemable
                                                                                                                                         exchanged for           only in market (IOUs,
 Some local currencies, LETS and Time Dollar programs,                 Labor Exchange – Ruled tax-exempt by the IRS as these             the currency            Federal Reserve Notes)
 although decentralized, are moving toward trade between               time-based economies are not considered to be commercial          (constant
 programs (Community Way, etc.).                                       exchanges. (Time Dollars, Service Credits)                        currency, gold          Fractional Reserve
                                                                                                                                         standard)               Banking and Multiple
                                                                                                                                                                 Deposit Creation
                   ELITIST SYSTEMS
       Centrally Planned Economies (Authoritarian)                  Absolutism, Aristocracy, Autocracy, Communism, Despotism, Dictatorship, Fascism, Feudalism, Gerontocracy,
                                                                    Kleptocracy, Matriarchy, Monarchy, Oligarchy, Patriarchy, Plutocracy, Slavery, Theocracy, Totalitarianism

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