The Monster

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					                                                                                                                   U8-B4
                                                         U8-B4
                                                                                               OBJECTIVES



     The Monster
                                                                        • Learning 102 new words and expressions;
                                                                        • Grasping the main idea and structure of the
                                                                          texts and understand difficult language
                                                                          points;
                                                                                     Wagner’
                                                                        • Discussing Wagner’s personality and how to
                                                                                        genius’
                                                                          understand a genius’s odd behavior
                                                                        • Reading, writing, and grammar and
                           制作人:张少林                                        vocabulary training




Procedures                                               U8-B4

       Warming up                  Text Analysis
       Memorable quotes           Structure and topics
       Pre-reading questions      New words
       Background information     Sentence analysis
       Watch & Discuss            Rhetorical devices
                                                                                                 Memorable quotes
       Rhetoric Feature             Writing
       Suspense creating
                                                                                                 Pre-reading questions
                                   An eccentric person I know
                                                                                                 Background information
                                                                                                 Watch & Discuss
       Speaking & Listening        After-class tasks
       All the exercises          Reading Text II;
       for Text 1                 Finishing exercises




I. Warming up- Memorable quotes                           U8-B4   I. Warming up _ Pre-reading questions           U8-B4


                   Memorable Quotes                                                  • What is a monster?

   • There is no great genius without a mixture
     of madness.                                                    • Word suggested:
                             — Aristotle                            • large, strange, frightening, imaginary

     • Genius is a promontory(海角) jutting(伸出)                        • For your reference:
       out of the infinite.                                          • A monster is a large, strange,
                    — Victor Hugo                                      frightening animal , that is typically
                                                                       imaginary.




                                                                                                                           1
I. Warming up _ Pre-reading questions            U8-B4      I. Warming up _ Background                           U8-B4

                 • What kind of man is                                                       Richard Wagner
                   comparable to a monster?                                              • Wilhelm Richard Wagner
                                                                                           (1813–1883) was a
                                                                                           German composer,
                                                                                           conductor, theatre
                                                                                           director and essayist,
                                                                primarily known for his operas (or "music
                                                                dramas", as they were later called).
                                                                Unlike most other great opera composers,
                                                                Wagner wrote both the scenario and
                                                                Libretto (歌剧、音乐剧等的歌词) for his works.




I. Warming up _ Background                        U8-B4     I. Warming up _ Background                           U8-B4

 Biography of Richard Wagner                                  • Wagner's musical training was
 • Wagner was born on May 22,                                   largely left to chance until he
   1813, in Leipzig, Germany, into                              was eighteen. He enrolled at the
   a middle-class family. Raised                                University of Leipzig in 1831.
   along with eight siblings, his                               One of his early musical
   father, Friedrich, died six
   months after Richard's birth,                                influences was Ludwig van
                                                                                                          His first wife
   and within the year his mother                               Beethoven.
   married Ludwig Geyer. There is still some                  • Between the years of 1833-1846,
   controversy as to whether or not Geyer, a                    Wagner wrote 8 musical dramas.
   traveling actor, was Wagner's real father. As a
   child, Wagner showed little talent or interest
   in anything except for writing poetry.




I. Warming up _ Background                        U8-B4     I. Warming up _ Background                           U8-B4

  • Years between 1849-1865 was                             • In 1860 Wagner received
    his years of exile. Wagner had                            permission to reenter Germany.
    to flee Dresden in 1849 in the                            He was granted full amnesty
    aftermath of the Revolution of                            (political freedom) in 1862.
    1848. He settled in Switzerland                           Wagner's fortunes took a
    for the most part for the next                            dramatic upturn in 1864, when
    fifteen years without steady                              King Ludwig II assumed the          His second wife
    employment, banished (驱逐)                                 throne of Bavaria at the age of 18. He
    from Germany and forbidden A woman involved               received patronage from the king and in the
    access to German theatrical life. in his love affairs     following years, he produced many
    During this time he worked on                             masterpieces of opera.
    the Ring —this dominated his
                                                            • Wagner died on February 13, 1883, in Venice,
    creative life over the next two
                                                              Italy, and was buried at Bayreuth.
    decades.




                                                                                                                           2
                                                          New words and expressions in the context   U8_1.1, B4
                                                          •   an undersized little man               • 身材矮小的人
                                                          •   unendurable agony                      • 不堪忍受的疼痛/苦恼
                                                          •   to suffer from delusions               • 患有妄想症
                      New Words                           •   the grandeur of nature                 • 大自然的宏伟

                     And Expressions                      •   to have delusions of                   • 自以为很了不起
                                                              grandeur
                     Unit 8, Book 2                       •   a monster of conceit                   • 自负的怪物
                                                          •   an exhausting                          • 令人疲乏不堪的健谈
                                                              conversationalist                        者
                                                          •   to be maddening tiresome               • 令人厌烦不已
                                                          •   to have a mania for being              • 狂热坚信自己总是对
                                                              in the right                             的
                                                          •   to set sb off on a                     • 使某人大发议论
                                                              harangue




New words and expressions in the context   U8_1.2, B4     New words and expressions in the context   U8_1.3, B4

• a trivial point                           • 微不足道的观点     •   to grovel without shame                • 不知羞耻地低声下气
• a trivial thing                           • 琐事          •   sb’s lofty manner                      • 傲慢的举止
• exhausting volubility                     • 让人吃不消的健谈    •   lofty political goals.                 • 崇高的政治目标
• to preach vegetarianism                   • 鼓吹素食主义      •   my benefactor                          • 我的恩人
• to write pamphlets                        • 写小册子        •   the recipient of an award              • 受奖者
• to rave and stamp                         • 又是咆哮又是顿足    •   an Indian rajah                        • 印度国王/王子
• to sink into suicidal gloom               • 陷入自杀的忧伤中    •   an unscrupulous social                 • 不择手段向上爬的人
• to be grief-stricken over sth             • 为……悲伤不已         climber
• to be callous and heartless               • 冷漠无情        •   a scrupulous worker                    • 小心谨慎的工作人员

• to make a Roman emperor                   • 使罗马皇帝战栗     •   a ceremonial procession                • 庆祝游行
  shudder                                                 •   to forgive one’s infidelities          • 原谅某人用情不专
• to write letters by the score             • 一写信就是二十几    •   fidelity to one's spouse               • 忠实于自己配偶
                                              封           •   to make a mortal enemy                 • 树死敌




New words and expressions in the context   U8_1.4, B4     New words and expressions in the context       U8_1.5, B4
•   idiotic suggestions                     • 愚蠢的建议       • to conceive a plan                       • 构想出一个计划
•   a champion idiot                        • 大傻瓜         • to be downright bad                      • 糟糕透顶
•   exhibition of arrogance                 • 傲慢的表现       • under the torment of the                 • 在玩命工件的折磨下
•   a caricature of a music                 • 对音乐评论家的讽刺     demon
    critics                                               • to have bad nerves                       • 神经脆弱
•   to be content with                      • 满足于嘲弄某人     • to be stunned and                        • 被弄得不知所措耳朵
    burlesquing sb                                          deafened                                   发聋
•   to read sb. the libretto                • 把剧本读给某人听    • It never occurred to him                 • 他从未想过……
•   in the testimony of people              • 在人们的证词里       that …
•   a stupendous musical                    • 卓越的音乐天才     • intense concentration                    • 高度的集中注意力
    genius                                                • intense emotion                          • 深情
•   to compromise with sb                   • 与某人妥协       • to be extravagant in living              • 生活奢侈
•   to have a mistress                      • 有一个情妇       • an extravagant price                     • 过高的价格




                                                                                                                      3
New words and expressions in the context                U8_1.6, B4           New words and expressions in the context                U8_1.7, B4
• to conceive a plan                              • 构想出一个计划                  • a voluble conversation                          • 滔滔不绝的交谈
• to be downright bad                             • 糟糕透顶
• under the torment of the                        • 在玩命工件的折磨下
  demon
• to have bad nerves                              • 神经脆弱
• to be stunned and                               • 被弄得不知所措耳朵
  deafened                                          发聋
• It never occurred to him                        • 他从未想过……
  that …
• intense concentration                           • 高度的集中注意力
• intense emotion                                 • 深情
• to be extravagant in living                     • 生活奢侈
• an extravagant price                            • 过高的价格




New words and expressions in the context                      U8_2.1, B4     New words and expressions in the context                      U8_2.1, B4
• to electrify automobiles                          • 给汽车充电                  • interchangeable                                      • 可互换的汽车零件
• to electrify audiences                            • 令观众兴奋不已                  automotive parts
• baggy trousers                                    • 肥大的裤子                  • atomic fission                                       • 核裂变
• a stiff mustache                                  • 坚硬的胡髭                  • to heap honours upon sb                              • 授予某人很多荣誉
• to wear slippers                                  • 穿着拖鞋                   • to heap a plate with                                 • 把盘子堆满蔬菜
• to be like a spirit                               • 像一个幽灵
                                                                               vegetables
• the theory of relativity                          • 相对论
                                                                             • an honorary citizen                                  • 荣誉公民
• to have an immense effect                         • 对…有极大影响                • a railway freight car                                • 铁路货运车厢
  on sth                                                                     • equality of all citizens                             • 所有公民的平等
• the intellectual world                            • 知识界
• to set forth far-reaching                         • 提出意义深远的结论
  conclusions
• the energy and mass                               • 能量与质量




II. Text learning _New words and expressions in the context       U8.6, B4   II. Text learning _New words and expressions in the context       U8.7, B4

• of less than the usual size                             •   undersized     • an excessive enthusiasm or                              • mania
• an anxious or nervous state                                                  desire                                                  • harangue
                                                          •   nerve
                                                                             • a speech addressed to a public
• a false belief                                          •   delusion         assembly
• high rank of social importance                                                                                                       •   voluble
                                                          •   grandeur       • speaking fluently
• excessive pride in oneself                                                                                                           •   pamphlet
                                                          •   conceit        • a small booklet
                                                                                                                                       •   rave
• extreme physical or mental                              •   agony          • talk wildly
  suffering                                                                                                                            •   gloom
                                                                             • a state of depression
• drain resources                                                                                                                      •   callous
                                                          • exhaust          • insensitive and cruel
• completely tiresome                                                        • tremble violently; quiver                               •   shudder
                                                          • exhausting
                                                                             • behave in a servile manner                              •   grovel
• causing one to feel bored or                            • tiresome
  annoyed                                                                    • self-importantly                                        •   loftily




                                                                                                                                                          4
II. Text learning _New words and expressions in the context     U8.8, B4   II. Text learning _ Structure of the text                 U8-B4
• showing no moral principles                          •   unscrupulous
• a persistent succession of …                         •   procession
• state of being unfaithful to                         •   infidelity                                        Structure of the text
  spouse                                               •   idiotic
• stupid                                               •   arrogance
• a feeling of superiority                             •   libretto                                  • Part 1: Paragraphs 1-9
• the text of an opera                                 •   testimony                                 • Part 2: Paragraph 10
• a formal spoken given in a
  court of law                                                                                        • Part 3: Paragraphs 11-13
• extremely impressive                                 •   stupendous
• form or devise sth. in the mind                      •   conceive
• thoroughly                                           •   downright
• severe suffering                                     •   torment




II. Text learning _ Structure of the text                        U8-B4     II. Text learning _ Text comprehension                U8-B4


 • Paragraphs 1-9 describe a man who seems                                        In what way was Wagner physically odd?
   to have rolled all kinds of demerits into one,                                 (Para. 1)
   a real monster.
 • Paragraph 10 serves as a transitional                                             He had a short stature with a
   paragraph, which clarifies who this monster
   really is, i.e. a famous musician by the name                                     disproportionately large head. And he
   of Richard Wagner.                                                                had skin diseases.
 • And Paragraphs 11-13 justify all the peculiar
   behaviors of Richard Wagner. He, as "one of
   the worlds' greatest dramatists ... a great
   thinker ... one of the most stupendous
   musical geniuses", has every reason to be a
   monster.




II. Text learning _ Text comprehension                          U8-B4      II. Text learning _ Text comprehension                U8-B4

       Why did he always take himself as the                                       How would he respond to disagreement?
       center of his conversations? (Para. 2)                                      (Para. 3)
    • He believed he was one of the greatest
      men in the world, a great composer, a                                    • If anyone showed slight disagreement with
      great thinker and a great dramatist                                        him, he would make a lengthy and
      combined into one. A man of such                                           aggressive speech for hours to prove himself
      arrogance cannot help but take himself as                                  to be in the right. This would force his dazed
      the center of conversations.                                               and deafened hearers to surrender.




                                                                                                                                             5
II. Text learning _ Text comprehension       U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Text comprehension       U8-B4


       What emotional features did he possess?               How does the author justify Wagner’s
        (Para. 5 )                                           arrogance and extravagance? (Paras.
      • He was emotionally capricious like a child.          11-12 )
        Rapture in him could easily turn into             • The author says that Wagner was among
        extreme melancholy. Heartlessness and               the greatest dramatists, the greatest
        callousness were witnessed on different             thinkers and the most tremendous musical
        occasions. Moreover, his emotional states           geniuses in our world.
        always found outward expressions.                 • His immortal works far exceeded in value
                                                            the tortures his arrogance inflicted upon
                                                            others and the debts he owed.




II. Text learning _ Text comprehension       U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Part 1                   U8-B4

        In what sense may Wagner be said to
                                                                                   Part 1
        be a monster? (Para. 13 )
    • The tremendous creative power, which
      propelled him to produce so many
      memorable works in his little span of life,
      could have crushed his poor brain and body.          Let’s listen to and read
      However, he miraculously survived and                   Part 1 of the text
      made all the immortal accomplishments.
    • In this sense he was a monster rather than
                                                                  (Paras.1-9)
      a human being.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                   U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Part 1                   U8-B4

                                                      • In this first part, the author regards Richard
     Main Idea of Part 1                                Wagner as a monster of conceit, making a
                                                        long list of his intolerable behaviour.
                                                      • We can find the following words and
                                                        expressions used by the author:
       This part gives an account of the peculiar     • delusions of grandeur / monster of conceit /
                                                        believed himself to be one the of greatest
      features of a monster in his appearance           dramatists /one of the greatest thinkers / one of
      and personality.                                  the greatest composers / most exhausting
                                                        conversationalist / right in so many ways / had
                                                        theories about almost any subject under the sun
                                                        / almost innocent of any sense of responsibility /
                                                        an endless procession of women ...




                                                                                                             6
II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

      Discuss and Answer the Questions-1                     Discuss and Answer the Questions-2
  • 1. Does the man's appearance,
                                                          • 5. How does the writer describe him as
    described in the first paragraph, give
                                                            an emotional person?
    one any impression of "grandeur" ?
                                                          • 6. How was he financially supported?
  • 2. What are the further evidences of the
                                                            Did he earn himself a good living with
    monster's conceit?
                                                            his great talents?
  • 3. What kinds of grammatical devices
                                                          • 7. What is his attitude toward love?
    are used to emphasize the extreme
    extent of his peculiar conceit?                       • 8. Why do you think Wagner made so
                                                            many enemies?
  • 4. How does the writer describe Wagner
    as a versatile man?




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

           Does the man's appearance,                            What are the further evidences
           described in the first paragraph, give                of the monster's conceit?
           one any impression of "grandeur" ?
                                                              To prove his conceit, the second
        No. He is a little man with the sign of            paragraph describes him as so egocentric
    illness, sick in both body and nerves. This            that he cared about nothing but himself;
    is by no means an appearance that may                  he had such a strong sense of self-
    bring one a sense of grandeur. Then what               appreciation that he saw himself not just
    makes the man with such a poor look have               as the greatest musician, polemist(善辩论者)
    "delusions of grandeur"? The only                      and philosopher, but also as the world's
    explanation is that he is "a monster of                finest living poet and playwright. He never
    conceit".                                              expected criticism or allowed disagreement.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4


           What kinds of grammatical devices
           are used to emphasize the extreme                     (2) The superlative forms of adjectives:
           extent of his peculiar conceit?                  one of the greatest dramatists in the world;
                                                            one of the greatest thinkers, and one of
     Two kinds of grammatical devices are
                                                            the greatest composers ; one of the most
     used.(1) Inverted sentence. Never for one
                                                            exhausting conversationalists that ever
     minute did he look at the world or at
                                                            lived; the slightest hint of disagreement;
     people, except in relation to himself.
                                                            on the most trivial point.




                                                                                                             7
II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                  U8-B4


             How does the writer describe
             Wagner as a versatile man?                    He has been classified as an anarchist and
                                                           a socialist and, simultaneously, as a proto-
     The writer tells the reader that besides his          fascist and nationalist, as a vegetarian and
     activity as a composer and a librettist               an anti-Semite ... In fact, his name has
     Wagner wrote an astonishing number of                 appeared in connection with almost all
     books and articles, in fact about 230 titles.         major trends in German history of the 19th
     His literary spectrum ranges from theories            and 20th centuries.
     of opera to political programs.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                  U8-B4


              How does the writer describe                        How was he financially supported?
              him as an emotional person?                         Did he earn himself a good living
                                                                  with his great talents?
     He had a mood as changeable as a six-
     year-old child. For example, he would get                  He lived on others' money. Through his
     mad when something was against his                    life, he found many benefactors, among
     desire, and forget all about it when                  whom King Ludwig II and Otto
     something pleasant happened. And                      Wesendonck were two of the most
      he would be grieved on one occasion but              generous ones.
     become merciless on another.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                  U8-B4


     In 1864 King Ludwig II, his greatest
     benefactor, invited him to settle in Bavaria,
     near Munich, discharging all his debts and            Although these benefactors had provided
     providing him with money.                             him with a great sum of money and never
     Another generous patron Otto Wesendonck,              got any repayment, Wagner kept living in
     whose wife was stolen away by Wagner,                 debts and in a narrow escape from being
     supported him economically by buying the              thrown into jail for debts because he was a
     publishing rights of his works. However,              lavish spender.
     later it turned out that he had to give up his
     publishing rights because Wagner had sold
     them again to others.




                                                                                                          8
II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

           What is his attitude toward love?                        Why do you think Wagner made
                                                                    so many enemies?

         It seems that he was a playboy. He               The reason for Wagner to have made
     divorced his first wife Minna Planer after 26        many enemies is also his conceit, because
     years' marriage (1836-1862) and stole                he could not tolerate anyone who
     away other people's wives, e.g. Jessie               disagreed with him, even over some trivial
     Laussot, Mathilde Wesendonck, Cosima                 points like weather. He was under
                                                          such a delusion of grandeur that he would
     von BÜlow, the last one was the wife of              do anything to defeat them in order to
     the conductor Hans von BÜlow, and Liszt's            defend his image as a perfect genius rather
     daughter.                                            than keep them as friends.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

      • And he had delusion of grandeur (L3,                 Never for one minute did he look at the
        Para.1)                                              world or at people, except in relation to
                                                             himself. (L1, Para.2)
             And he had a false belief that he was a
             man of importance.                                 He had never cared about other
                                                                people and things in this world if they
       delusion: a false belief or opinion                      had nothing to do with him.
       e.g. that sick man is under the delusion
       that he is Napoleon.                                    in relation to: concerning; with regard to
                                                               e.g. I have a lot to say in relation to your
       Delusion of grandeur: a false belief in
                                                               new project.
       oneself as a person with great beauty,
       power, or intelligence, etc.                               His field is in the study of language in
                                                               relation to its sociocultural context.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

     To hear him talk, he was Shakespeare, and                      • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 –
     Beethoven, and Plato, rolled into one. (L4,                      1827) was a German composer
     Para.2)                                                          and pianist. He was a crucial figure
         He was often heard to boast of being a                       in the transitional period between
         genius with a combined quality of                            the Classical and Romantic eras in
         Shakespeare, the greatest dramatist,                         Western classical music, and
         Beethoven, the greatest composer and
         Plato, the greatest philosopher.              remains one of the most acclaimed and influential
                                                       composers of all time. Beethoven's hearing
          roll into one: integrate several things or   gradually deteriorated beginning in his twenties,
          features into one                            yet he continued to compose, and to conduct and
           e.g. She has become his assistant and       perform, even after he was completely deaf.
          secretary rolled into one.




                                                                                                              9
II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4

                      Plato                                William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
• Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 ),                            An English poet and playwright,
  was a Classical Greek philosopher,                       widely regarded as the greatest
  mathematician, writer of                                 writer in the English language and
  philosophical dialogues, and                             the world's preeminent dramatist.
  founder of the Academy in                                He is often called England's national poet and
  Athens, the first institution of higher learning         the "Bard(poet) of Avon" . His surviving works
  in the western world. Along with his mentor,             consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long
                                                           narrative poems, and several other poems. His
  Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato
                                                           plays have been translated into every major
  helped to lay the foundations of Western                 living language, and are performed more often
  philosophy.                                              than those of any other playwright.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4


     He had a mania for being in the right. (L4,                 The slightest hint of disagreement, from
     Para.2)                                                     anyone, on the most trivial point, was
                                                                 enough to set him off on a harangue that
           He had an extremely strong desire of                  might last for hours, … (L1, para.3)
           being right.
                                                                     If anyone disagreed with him, no
         mania: a desire so strong that it seems                     matter how small the sign of
         mad                                                         disagreement was and how trivial the
          e.g. She has a mania for driving fast cars.                point was, he would make a lengthy
              Football mania is sweeping the                         speech for house to prove himself right.
         country. 足球狂热正风靡全国。




II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4

          Analyze the structure of the sentence                …that might last for hours, in which he
                                                               proved himself right in so many ways,
     The slightest hint of disagreement, from                  and with such exhausting volubility, that
     anyone, on the most trivial point, was                    in the end his hearer, stunned and
     enough to set him off on a harangue that                  deafened, would agree with him, for the
     might last for hours, in which he proved
     himself right in so many ways, and with                           peace.
                                                               sake of peace.                     Relative clause

     such exhausting volubility, that in the                   … in which he proved himself right in so
     end his hearer, stunned and deafened,                     many ways, and with such exhausting
     would agree with him, for the sake of                     volubility, that in the end his hearer,
                                  Relative clause
     peace.                                                    stunned and deafened, would agree with
                                                               him, for the sake of peace.




                                                                                                                    10
II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4

                                                               It never occurred to him that he and his
         for the sake of: (1) for the good or                  doing were not of the most intense and
         advantage of; (2) for the purpose of                  fascinating interest to anyone with
         (para.3)                                              whom he came in contact. (L1, Para.4)
          e.g. If you won’t do it for your own sake,
                                                                    He had never thought whether other
         then do it for mine.
                                                                    people around him would have as great
               My art does not try to serve society,                interest in him and his doing as he
         it’s just art for art’s sake.                              himself did.
              I’ll give up smoking for the sake of
         health.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4




        at someone’s expense: with someone                       out of sorts: in a bad temper; feeling
        paying the cost (L.6, Para.4)                            unwell or annoyed (L.1, Para.5)
         e.g. He had his book printed at his own                  e.g. John's feeling is thoroughly out of
        expense.                                                 sorts this morning.
        cf: at the expense of: causing the loss of                    They were all tired and out of sorts the
        e.g. He finished the job at the expense of               next day because of lack of sleep.
        his health.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                        U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 1                      U8-B4

       • … sink into suicidal gloom and talk                     • … and could be callous and heartless
                                                                   to a degree that would have made a
         darkly of going to the East to end his                    Roman emperor shudder. (L6, Para.5)
         days as a Buddhist monk. (L2, Para.5)
                                                                      ... and could be so merciless that even
         fall into a gloomy state which makes                         the cruel Roman emperor would have
         one wish to kill himself.                                    felt fearful.
        darkly: in a vaguely threatening or                  to a degree that: to a extent or measure that
        menacing manner cf: dark                              e.g. She was worried to such a degree that she
         e.g. He looked darkly at me.                        could not sleep.
             He spoke darkly of possible future                  The TV station built up the drug pill to
        disaster.                                            such a degree that it seems to have magical
                                                             effects.




                                                                                                                  11
II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4


       He was almost innocent of any sense of
      responsibility. (L1, para.6)                            He was convinced that the world owed
                                                             him a living. (L1, para.6)
           He almost had no sense of responsibility.
                                                                    He firmly believed that the world had
                                                                    to support him for a living.
   innocent (of): ignorant; unaware; sinless;
    e.g. These American tourists are wholly
   innocent of Chinese.
       She remained innocent of the complications
   she had caused.
       He was innocent of the crime.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

     He wrote begging letters by the score,
    sometimes groveling without shame, at                  • What money he could lay his hands on he
    others loftily offering his intended                     spent like an Indian rajah. (L1, Para.7)
    benefactor the privilege of contributing
    to his support, and being mortally
    offended if the recipient declined the                          Whatever money coming into his
    honor. (L3, Para.6)                                             hands he spent lavishly like an Indian
          He wrote large numbers of letters to his                  ruler did.
          patron begging shamelessly for money,
          but in a manner that it seemed to be an
          honor for the patron to be offered the
          chance to provide his support to him.
          That's why he would be greatly offended
          if the patron refused to take this honor.




II. Text learning _ Part 1                    U8-B4    II. Text learning _ Part 1                     U8-B4

       An endless procession of women                          He would pull endless wires in order to
       marched through his life. (L1, Para.8)                 meet some man who admired his work
                                                              and was able and anxious to be of use to
                                                              him. (L2, Para.9)
             In his whole life, he had never stopped
             having affairs with women, who had                 He would use influence from as many
             come and gone like the marching of an              people as possible in order to meet
             army.                                              some admirer of his who was readily
                                                                useful to him.
                                                          pull wires: use influence
                                                           e.g. He had to pull a few wires to get that job.
                                                               The mayor pulled the wires of local
                                                          legislators and get votes for their programmes.




                                                                                                              12
II. Text learning _ Part 2                 U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 2                   U8-B4


                        Part 2
                                                         Main Idea of Part 2
        Let’s listen to and read
           Part 2 of the text                           This paragraph serves as a transitional part,
                (Para.10)                               which clarifies who this monster really is.




II. Text learning _ Part 2                 U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 2                   U8-B4

          Why do you think the writer
          postpones the presentation of this
          monster's name till the 10th                Presenting Richard Wagner's name first may
          paragraph?                                  interfere with their objective conclusion on
                                                      what kind of person Wagner really was.
  Describing the features of this monster first       Postponed appearance of Wagner's name not
  without introducing his name helps the              only holds the reader in suspense, but, more
  readers draw a picture of Richard Wagner            important-
  faithful to the reality.                            ly, inspires the reader to find excuses for all
                                                      the monster's demerits illustrated previously.




II. Text learning _ Part 2                 U8-B4   II. Text learning _ Part 2                   U8-B4


           Has your attitude towards this
           monster changed a little when you            However, after knowing that he is Richard
           finally find out who this monster is?        Wagner, they would, though being aware
                                                        that the descriptions are all facts on record,
                                                        still hold that Wagner's outstanding
     Yes. Before knowing who this monster is,           contributions to the world justify all his
    the readers may feel annoyed at his                 behavior. He deserved what he had
    personality and behavior.                           obtained in his life, no matter how
                                                        unacceptably he behaved.




                                                                                                         13
II. Text learning _ Part 2                 U8-B4     II. Text learning_ Part 3                    U8-B4


     And the curious thing about this record is
                                                                             Part 3
    that it doesn't matter in the least. (L.4,
    Para.10)
        Although the monster's peculiar                     Let’s listen to and read
        personality and behavior described
        previously are all facts on record,                    Part 3 of the text
        people just care nothing about them at
        all.                                                     (Paras.11-13)




II. Text learning_ Part 3                    U8-B4   II. Text learning_ Part 3                    U8-B4

                                                                How does the writer justify every
       Main Idea of Part 3                                      piece of evidence of the monster,
                                                                which he has presented previously?

     This part justifies all the peculiar
                                                          The writer tries to provide a reasonable
     behaviors of the monster. Richard
                                                          explanation for each of the monster’s
     Wagner, as one of the world's greatest
                                                          characteristics in both his personality and
     dramatists ... a great thinker ... one of
                                                          behavior.
     the most stupendous musical geniuses",
                                                          (1) As regards his conceit of being right, he
     has every reason to be a monster.
                                                          argues that Wagner did so because he was
                                                          really right all the time.




II. Text learning_ Part 3                    U8-B4   II. Text learning_ Part 3                    U8-B4




      (2) And though Wagner had been talking
                                                           (4) He certainly had had so many love
      about himself twenty-four hours a day, he
                                                           affairs with different women, however, he
      still had so much unsaid concerning all
                                                           had never been unfaithful to music through
      kinds of disputes over him.
                                                           his life.
      (3) Wagner's great contribution to the
                                                              In short, the writer concludes that it is
      world could repay any debts and release all
                                                           reasonable for Wagner to "act in a
      kinds of heartaches he had brought to
                                                           monster's way since he was such a great
      people.
                                                           genius who had done a miracle in music.




                                                                                                          14
II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4   II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4



           What is the writer's real intention                         What is your final conclusion
           of writing this article?                                    about Richard Wagner?


     By writing this article the writer tries to
                                                             He is a genius as well as a monster.
     justify the peculiar behavior of Wagner.




II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4   II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4


     • ... when you listen to what he wrote,                  • Not for a single moment did he ever
       the debts and heartaches that people                     compromise with what he believed,
       had to endure from him don't seem
                                                                with what he dreamed. (L.2, Para.13)
       much of a price. (L.3, Para.12)
                                                                   As for his belief and dream, he had
          … when you listen to his music, all his                  never lowered his aim and ceased his
          debts seem to be repaid and the                          persistent effort to make them come
          heartaches be brought to people seem                     true.
          to be relieved.




II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4   II. Text learning_ Part 3                       U8-B4
                                                          • It is a matter of being dumb with wonder
       • Listening to his music, one does not               that his poor brain and body didn't burst
         forgive him for what he may or may                 under the torment of the demon of
         not have been. It is not a matter of               creative energy that lived inside him,
         forgiveness. (L.5, Para.13)                        struggling, clawing, scratching to be
                                                            released; tearing, shrieking at him to write
          His music was so great that people                the music that was in him. (L.7, Para.13)
          would forgive him for all the misdeeds
          that he had done and the good deeds                      It must be a surprise that inside his
          that he failed to do. As a matter of fact,               sickly little body, there lived a strong
          what his music arouses in people's                       force of creativity, which was so eager
          mind is not anything like forgiveness at                 to burst out of his body that it would
          all but admiration.                                      have been a torture for him not to
                                                                   write music.




                                                                                                                15
II. Text learning_ Part 3                               U8-B4   II. Text learning _ New words and expressions             U8-B4


  • Is it any wonder he had no time to be a                          1. delusion n. (delude v.) (cl. illusion)
    man? (L.11, Para.13)                                                a false belief or opinion, deceiving

                                                                          Examples
                                                                                            那人产生错觉,自以为是拿破仑。
           It is reasonable for him to act like a
           monster in other respects when he                         That man is under the delusion that he is
           was wholly engaged in composing                           Napoleon.
           music.
                                                                      他的论据听起来似乎有理,但都是以欺骗为基础的。

                                                                    His arguments sound convincing but they're
                                                                    based on delusion.




II. Text learning _ New words and expressions         U8-B4     II. Text learning _ New words and expressions             U8-B4

      2. harangue              n. & v.                              3. voluble a. (volubility                   n. )
        a speech addressed to a public assembly
                                                                       (often derogatory) marked by a ready flow of speech;
                                                                    fluent
       Examples
                      他对他的同学慷慨陈词,说服他们当自愿者。
                                                                       Examples
                                                                                       王是最健谈的中国官员,推广这样一种信
     He harangued his fellow students and                                              息,即奥林匹克将使中国向好的方向转变。
     persuaded them to work as volunteers.                          Wang has been the most voluble Chinese
    他们在听总统的高谈阔论。                                                    official promoting the message that the
                                                                    Olympics will change China for the better
    They are listening to the harangue of the
    president.                                                     Ted's a voluble speaker at meetings; he doesn't
                                                                   give much chance to others to say anything.




II. Text learning _ New words and expressions         U8-B4     II. Text learning _ New words and expressions             U8-B4

    4. darkly a. (cl. dark a. )                                     5. callous a.
                                                                        unkind; without feelings for the sufferings of other people
        in a vaguely threatening or menacing manner

       Examples
                            他阴沉地注视着我。                                  Examples            老板对听到雇员冷酷无情。

      He looked darkly at me.                                         The boss was callous to his employees.
      他带着威胁的口吻暗示我们的事情还没完。                                             他对别人之痛苦漠不关心。

    He hinted darkly that we had not heard the                       He showed a callous indifference to the
    last of the matter.                                              suffering of others.




                                                                                                                                      16
II. Text learning _ New words and expressions       U8-B4   II. Text learning _ New words and expressions   U8-B4

    6. grovel v.                                                7. unscrupulous a.
        be shamefully humble and eager to please                    having or showing no moral principles

       Examples                                                    Examples
                         你只得低声下气地向银行经理借贷。                                            无耻的骗子榨干了受骗者的血汗。

      You will just have to grovel to the bank                    The unscrupulous swindlers bled his victims
      manager for a loan.                                         white.
      如果我真的去说说好话,也许老师会让我及格。                                       他寡廉鲜耻地剥削人民。

     Maybe if I really grovel, the teacher will pass             He is unscrupulous in his exploitation of
     me.                                                         people.




II. Text learning _ New words and expressions       U8-B4   II. Text learning _ New words and expressions   U8-B4

    8. infidelity a.                                              9. read between the lines v.
        disloyalty; unfaithfulness                                   find hidden meanings

                                                                    Examples
       Examples
                      他多年来对妻子不忠,妻子也只装作不知情。                                          有些诗要读者从字里行间里体会其意思。

                                                                 Some kinds of poetry make you read
      His wife has winked at his infidelity for years.           between the lines.
      他偶然对苏珊不忠,所以苏珊报复了他。                                         他从字里行间看出这是一封绝交信。

     Susan paid him back for his casual infidelity.             4.Read between the lines, he knows it is a dear
                                                                John letter.




II. Text learning _ New words and expressions       U8-B4   II. Text learning _ New words and expressions   U8-B4


      10. hold the stage v.                                       11. downright ad.
         be performed; be the center of attention                    thoroughly

       Examples                                                    Examples
                          乔在任何宴会或会议上都喜欢出风
                          头,因此他手脚不停,嘴巴也不停。                                            这是不折不扣的损人利己的帝国主义政策。

    Joe likes to hold the stage at any party or                  It was a downright imperialist policy of
    meeting, so he does and says anything.                       profiting at others' expense.
    Peter Pan holds the stage year after year at its            It makes me downright angry to see food
    annual Christmas showing in London.                         thrown away.
    《彼得·潘》一剧每年圣诞节在伦敦演出,年年如此。




                                                                                                                    17
                                                          III. Rhetorical features of the text         U8-B4


                                         Rhetoric                      Rhetorical features of the text
                                         Features               • In this text, the author does not
                                                                  mention the name of the person he is
                                       of Discourse               talking about until the 10th paragraph.
                                                                  The pronoun he is used again and again
                                                                  to refer forward to Richard Wagner.
                                                                • Can you discuss its stylistic effect?




III. Rhetorical features of the text            U8-B4

    • The repetitious use of the third person
      pronoun he creates suspense in the
      reader‘s mind. This is one of the effective
      ways to hold the reader’s attention and
      make him move on. To use the                             An eccentric
      terminology of functional linguistics and                person I know
      discourse analysis, this use of he is
      cataphoric (后指) in nature.
    • The anaphoric use of he can be found in
      sentences such as "I have a friend and he
      is working in New York", in which he refers
      back to "my friend".




 IV. Writing                                      U8-B4    IV. Writing                                    U8-B4


                        Writing Directions                                      An Eccentric Guy
      • Write a 250-word composition about an
        eccentric person you know.                              •        He is a tall and strong man, walking
      • In the first part, say something general                    as if he was a great commander. At the
        about this person.                                          first sight, he is really a handsome
      • In the second part, describe his or her                     young man and always imposes a deep
        eccentricity by giving two or three specific                impression on the people around him.
        examples.
      • And in the third part, make your
        comments.




                                                                                                                  18
 IV. Writing                                   U8-B4    IV. Writing                                     U8-B4


     •       He is talkative. It seems that he has a       •          He is a skeptic and likes to find fault
         lot of words in him and has to pour them               with other people's viewpoints. When we
         out. Every evening he comes to his                     have a discussion of linguistic theories, he
         classmates' room. He doesn't care                      always makes a hard hitting speech with
         whether they are busy with their own
         reading or not, and always finds a sitting             some trenchant comments on the
         place to seat himself and then starts to               linguistic researchers, even the world-
         talk. When they are tired of his talk and              renowned linguists. But when he is
         hint that he should leave, he doesn't                  expected to put forward his own view
         understand or pretends not to understand               after he finishes his criticism, to our
         the hint and goes on talking, not caring               disappointment always silences himself.
         whether they are really listening to him.




 IV. Writing                                   U8-B4



     • We are deeply impressed with his great                                      Speaking
       figure, but we don't like his
       eccentricities like talkativeness and                                          and
       skepticism. It is our hope that we can
       find some other merits in him, establish
                                                                                   Listening
       a friendly relationship between us and
       gain mutual benefits from our co-
       operation.




V. Speaking and Listening                     U8-B4    V. Speaking and Listening                        U8-B4

                            Oral activities                           Listening comprehension
      • Topic for discussion:
      • What kind of people do you think can be                • Listen to “Business Revolutionary ― Bill
        called a monster? Should they be judged                  Gates” and do the excises on Pp 126-
        by their appearance or behaviour or                      127.
        both?




                                                                                                                19
VI. After-class tasks                          U8-B4




      • Do the dictation exercises.
     Free from Debt Trouble
      • Read Text II and write a summary.
     Collection of Sayings
       • Finish all the exercises in Unit 8.

       • Remember new words in Unit 9.




                                                       20

				
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