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Reflection & Refraction The Phase Difference 1 kx1 t 10 2 kx2 t 20 1 2 (kx1 t 10 ) ( kx2 t 20 ) x k ( x1 x2 ) (10 20 ) 2 0 Path-length difference Inherent phase difference If the waves are initially in-phase 2 2 x n x k0 0 n x nx1 x2 The optical path difference (OPD) If 0 is constant waves are said to be coherent. The Phase Difference The condition of being in phase, where crests are aligned with crests and troughs with troughs, is that = 0, 2, 4, or any integer multiple of 2. For constructive interference: x x 0 2 0 2m or m 2 2 For identical sources, 0 = 0 rad , maximum constructive interference occurs when x = m , Two identical sources produce maximum constructive interference when the path-length difference is an integer number of wavelengths. The Phase Difference The condition of being out of phase, where crests are aligned with troughs of other, that is, =, 3, 5 or any odd multiple of . For destructive interference: x 2 0 2(m 1 ) or 2 x 0 m 1 2 2 2 For identical sources, 0 = 0 rad , maximum constructive interference occurs when x = (m+ ½ ) , Two identical sources produce perfect destructive interference when the path-length difference is half-integer number of wavelengths. We’ll check the interference one direction at a time, usually far away. This way we can approximate spherical waves by plane waves in that direction, vastly simplifying the math. Far away, spherical wave- fronts are almost flat… Usually, coherent constructive interference will occur in one direction, and destructive interference will occur in all others. If incoherent interference occurs, it is usually omni-directional. To understand scattering in a given situation, we compute phase delays. Wave-fronts Because the phase is constant along a L1 wave-front, we compute the phase L2 delay from one wave- L3 Potential front to another wave-front potential wave-front. L4 i k Li Scatterer If the phase delay for all scattered waves is the same (modulo 2), then the scattering is constructive and coherent. If it varies continuously from 0 to 2, then it’s destructive and coherent. If it’s random (perhaps due to random motion), then it’s incoherent. Scattered spherical waves often combine to form plane waves. A plane wave impinging on a surface (that is, lots of very small closely spaced scatterers!) will produce a reflected plane wave because all the spherical wavelets interfere constructively along a flat surface. Coherent constructive scattering: Reflection from a smooth surface when angle of incidence equals angle of reflection A beam can only remain a plane wave if there’s a direction for which coherent constructive interference occurs. The wave-fronts are perpendicular to the k-vectors. qi qr Consider the different phase delays for different paths. Coherent constructive interference occurs for a reflected beam if the angle of incidence = the angle of reflection: qi = qr. Coherent destructive scattering: Reflection from a smooth surface when the angle of incidence is not the angle of reflection Imagine that the reflection angle is too big. The symmetry is now gone, and the phases are now all different. = ka sin(qtoo big) qi qtoo big = ka sin(qi) Potential wave front a Coherent destructive interference occurs for a reflected beam direction if the angle of incidence ≠ the angle of reflection: qi ≠ qr. Coherent scattering usually occurs in one (or a few) directions, with coherent destructive scattering occurring in all others. A smooth surface scatters light coherently and constructively only in the direction whose angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. Looking from any other direction, you’ll see no light at all due to coherent destructive interference. Incoherent scattering: reflection from a rough surface No matter which direction we look at it, each scattered wave from a rough surface has a different phase. So scattering is incoherent, and we’ll see weak light in all directions. Coherent scattering typically occurs in only one or a few directions; incoherent scattering occurs in all directions. Why can’t we see a light beam? Unless the light beam is propagating right into your eye or is scattered into it, you won’t see it. This is true for laser light and flashlights. This is due to the facts that air is very sparse (N is relatively small), air is also not a strong scatterer, and the scattering is incoherent. This eye sees almost no light. This eye is blinded (don’t try this at home…) To photograph light beams in laser labs, you need to blow some smoke into the beam… What about light that scatters on transmission through a surface? Again, a beam can remain a plane wave if there is a direction for which constructive interference occurs. Constructive interference will occur for a transmitted beam if Snell's Law is obeyed. ni sin q i nt sin q t Snell’s Law On-axis vs. off-axis light scattering Forward (on-axis) light Off-axis light scattering: scattered scattering: scattered wavelets have random relative wavelets have nonrandom phases in the direction of interest (equal!) relative phases in due to the often random place- the forward direction. ment of molecular scatterers. Forward scattering is coherent— Off-axis scattering is incoherent even if the scatterers are randomly when the scatterers are randomly arranged in space. arranged in space. Path lengths are equal. Path lengths are random. Scattering from a crystal vs. scattering from amorphous material (e.g., glass) A perfect crystal has perfectly regularly spaced scatterers in space. So the scattering from inside the crystal cancels out perfectly in all directions (except for the forward and perhaps a few other preferred directions). Of course, no crystal is perfect, so there is still some scattering, but usually less than in a material with random structure, like glass. There will still be scattering from the surfaces because the air nearby is different and breaks the symmetry! Scattering from large particles For large particles, we must first consider the fine-scale scattering from the surface microstructure and then integrate over the larger scale structure. If the surface isn’t smooth, the scattering is incoherent. If the surfaces are smooth, then we use Snell’s Law and angle-of- incidence-equals-angle-of-reflection. Then we add up all the waves resulting from all the input waves, taking into account their coherence, too. Diffraction Gratings If light impinges on a periodic array of grooves, scattering ideas tell us what happens. There will be constructive interference if the delay between adjacent beamlets is an integral number of wavelengths. a sin(q m ) sin(qi ) m where m is any integer. Path difference A grating can have solutions for AB – CD = AB = a sin(qm) m CD = a sin(qi) zero, one, or many values of m, or “orders.” Remember that m and the dif- fracted angle can be negative, too. Diffraction orders Because the Diffraction angle, qm diffraction angle depends First order on , different wavelengths Zeroth order are separated in the +1 (and Minus -1) orders. first order No wavelength dependence in zero order. The longer the wavelength, the larger its diffraction angle in nonzero orders. Diffraction-grating dispersion It’s helpful to know the variation of the diffracted angle vs. wavelength. Differentiating the grating equation, a sin(qm ) sin(qi ) m with respect to wavelength: dq m a cos(q m ) m [qi is a constant] d Rearranging: dq m m Gratings typically have an order of magnitude more d a cos(q m ) dispersion than prisms. Thus, to separate different colors maximally, make a small, work in high order (make m large), and use a diffraction angle near 90 degrees. Wavelength-dependent incoherent molecular scat- tering: Why the sky is blue Light from the sun Air molecules scatter light, and the Air scattering is proportional to 4. Shorter-wavelength light is scattered out of the beam, leaving longer- wavelength light behind, so the sun appears yellow. In space, the sun is white, and the sky is black. Sunsets involve longer path lengths and hence more scattering. Note the cool sunset. Noon ray Sunset ray Earth Atmosphere As you know, the sun and clouds can appear red. Edvard Munch’s “The Scream” was also affected by the eruption of Krakatoa, which poured ash into the sky worldwide. Munch Museum/Munch Ellingsen Group/VBK, Vienna

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angle of reflection, angle of incidence, reflection of light, Reflection API, internal reflection, definition of reflection, The Reflection, incident ray, law of reflection, static void main

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posted: | 7/9/2011 |

language: | English |

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