Docstoc

disaster notebook

Document Sample
disaster notebook Powered By Docstoc
					 Y O U R   G U I D E   T O


 Preparing
    for
Emergencies




                 www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster
             Emergency Telephone Numbers

This Address ________________________________________________________

This Telephone Number _______________________________________________

Statewide Emergency Number __________________________________________

Operator ___________________________________________________________

Fire Department _____________________________________________________

Police _____________________________________________________________

Highway Patrol ______________________________________________________

Sheriff _____________________________________________________________

Poison Control Center _________________________________________________

Family Doctor _______________________________________________________

Pediatrician _________________________________________________________

Dentist _____________________________________________________________

Father’s Work _______________________________________________________

Mother’s Work _______________________________________________________

Electric Company ____________________________________________________

Gas Company _______________________________________________________

Oil Company ________________________________________________________

Water Department ____________________________________________________

Rescue Squad ______________________________________________________

Ambulance _________________________________________________________

Hospital Emergency __________________________________________________

Neighbors:

Name___________________________     Phone ___________________________

Name___________________________     Phone ___________________________

Name___________________________     Phone ___________________________
                                  Table of Contents

Be Prepared ..............................................................................................................4
                   Help Your Family Prepare Before a Disaster
                   Your Family’s Disaster Plan
                   A Disaster Kit for Staying at Home
                   Protecting Valuable Records


What Will You Eat? .................................................................................................13
                   Meal Preparation and Food Safety After a Power Failure
                   When the Power Is Out –When to Save Refrigerated Food and When to Throw It Out
                   When the Power Is Out – When to Refreeze Frozen Food and When to Throw It Out
                   Foods That Require No Cooking


What About Water? ..................................................................................................8
                   See information on water in “A Disaster Kit for Staying at Home,” page 8.


Helping Children Cope ...........................................................................................21
                   Helping Your Child Through the Crisis
                   Entertainment Ideas


Remember Your Pets/Animals...............................................................................24
                   Caring for Pets in an Emergency
                   Hurricane Preparations for Horse Farms


Tree Damage ...........................................................................................................30
                   Use Chainsaws Safely
                   How to Care for Ice-Damaged Trees
                   Take Steps Now to Minimize Problems with Damaged Shade Trees, Timber Stands
                   Hiring an Arborist


Household Considerations ....................................................................................35
                   Preventing Frozen Pipes
                   Alternative Heating: Proper Care with Generators Can Protect Life, Property
                   Alternative Heating: Kerosene Heater Safety
                   Mildew Prevention in the Home
                   Moisture Control and Prevention Guide


How to Contact Cooperative Extension in Your County .....................................47
                                         Helping Your Family
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Prepare Before a Disaster
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Don’t be reluctant to talk with your family about the possi-
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         bility of a hurricane, fire, tornado, or flood. Thought and
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         action before the disaster hits
                                     ○




                                         usually helps family members
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         react wisely. Families that
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         work together to prepare for
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         the problem will cope better
                                     ○




                                         than those who do not take
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         pre-cautions. Consider how
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         your children might react in a
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         disaster, how you might react,
                                     ○




                                         and how the crisis could affect
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         each person’s emotional and
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         physical well-being. Plan in
                                     ○




                                         advance for how to deal with
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         a crisis situation.
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         For the Entire Family...                       For Children...
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         • Make emergency plans as outlined             • Give children exact steps to
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                           by the Civil Service, Red Cross, or            follow. Talking, practicing, and
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                     ○




                                           other disaster team.                           actively preparing together will
                                                                                    ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




      and June 30, 1914. North                                                            help children understand
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




 Carolina State University and           • Discuss and practice these plans with
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                          strange occurrences like a hurri-
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                           your family before a disaster strikes.
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                          cane.
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                                                                    ○




                                         • Work together to help your children
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        • Help children practice dialing
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                                                                    ○




                                           or other dependents understand the
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                                                                    ○




                                                                                          the telephone operator, fire
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two         procedures.
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all                                                           station, and ambulance. (Keep
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     persons without regard to
                                     ○




                                                                                          the phone on the hook!)
                                                                                    ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                            These steps will allow each family
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




      Carolina State University,
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     North Carolina A&T State            member to think through a potential
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




        of Agriculture, and local        crisis situation without the tension
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                         of a real emergency.
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
• Read news stories of family          for sitting out emergencies.         • If a relative lives in a nursing
  or community problems and            Make sure emergency sup-               home, discuss evacuation
  emergencies. Talk about how          plies of food, diapers, and            procedures with the staff
  your family would handle             drinks are available, as               and make needed plans.
  the situation. This gives your       recommended by disaster
                                                                              Involve children in pre-
  children the time to think           teams.
                                                                            paring for and carrying out
  through and plan actions for
                                                                            emergency plans. All children
  real life crises.                   For Older Adults...                   need and want to carry out
• Play “Let’s Pretend” with                                                 important roles. This helps
                                      • If you have older or disabled
  preschoolers. Discuss a                                                   them feel a part of the family
                                        relatives living at home,
  situation that might arise                                                and prepares them to cope
                                        review emergency proce-
  in your area and then ask,                                                with later situations.
                                        dures with them.
  “What would you do?”
                                      • If special transportation or
• Provide basic supplies for a
                                        assistance is necessary in an
  variety of possible situations.
                                        emergency, arrange this in
  Stock a box with games,
                                        advance.
  books, and hobby materials




Adapted by Dr. Karen DeBord, Extension Child Development Specialist, Family and Consumer Sciences, North
Carolina Cooperative Extension Service from Stress and Coping with Disaster by Karen DeBord, Marty Baker, Ami
O’Neill, University of Missouri.
9/00—JMG
                                         Your Family’s Disaster Plan
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         To prepare your family for a disaster        electricity at main switches. Make
                                     ○




                                         situation, follow these steps.               sure they know when they should
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      shut off utilities.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Gather information                         • Instruct household members to turn
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      on the radio for emergency infor-
                                     ○




                                         • Be aware of what disasters are most        mation.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           likely in your community.                • Practice what you have discussed.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         • Find out how you would be warned         • Post emergency telephone numbers
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           about an emergency.                        by every telephone.
                                     ○




                                         • Know your community’s evacuation         • Install a smoke detector on each
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           routes.                                    level of your home, especially near
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         • Learn how you should prepare for           bedrooms; test monthly and change
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           each disaster.                             the batteries twice each year.
                                     ○




                                         • Find out if special assistance is        • Draw a floor plan of your home.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           available for elderly or disabled          Mark escape routes from each room.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           persons.                                   (two if possible).
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         • Learn about emergency plans at your      • Learn first aid and CPR.
                                     ○




                                           work place.                              • Post your Emergency Plan on the
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         • Ask about emergency plans for your         refrigerator.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           children’s school or daycare center.
                                     ○




                                                                                    Plan How Your Family Will Stay
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Share Information With                     in Contact if Separated by
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Your Family                                Disaster
                                     ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                         • Discuss the types of disasters that      In an emergency, normal communica-
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and             could occur in your area.                tions may not be possible, so choose
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




University commit themselves             • Explain what everyone has to do to       two meeting places:
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                     ○




                                           prepare for and respond to a disaster.
                                                                                    —A place near your home in case of a
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                         • Discuss what each person is to do if
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                                                                     fire, and
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                           you must evacuate.
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                                                                    —A place outside your neighborhood
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         • Teach your children how to make
                                     ○




     persons without regard to                                                       in case you cannot return home
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North           long distance calls, and explain how
                                                                                     after a disaster.
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State              and when they should call 911.
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                         • Show responsible family members
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local                                                   Have one out-of-state and one local
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.              how to shut off water, gas, and
                                     ○




                                                                                    friend or relative as a check-in contact
for everyone to call. (Some-          Meet With Your Neighbors              • Determine how you could
times it is easier to make long-                                              help neighbors who have
distance calls than to make           • Plan how the neighborhood             special needs, such as elderly
local calls in a disaster situa-        could work together after a           or disabled persons.
tion.)                                  disaster.                           • Make plans for childcare
                                      • Know your neighbors’ skills           in case parents cannot
                                        (technical, medical).                 get home.




                                         Emergency Plan
Out-of-state contact                                   Emergency Telephone Numbers
Name                                                   In a life threatening emergency, dial 911 or the local
                                                       emergency medical services system number.
City
                                                       Police Department
Phone (Day)               (Evening)
                                                       Fire Department
                                                       Hospital
Local contact
Name
                                                       Family Physicians
Phone (Day)               (Evening)
                                                       Name                                  Phone
Mobile                    (Pager)
                                                       Name                                  Phone

                                                       Name                                  Phone
Family Work Phone Numbers
Father
                                                       Reunion Locations
Mother
                                                       Right outside your home
Other

Father’s                  Mobile/Pager
                                                       Away from the neighborhood, in case you cannot
Mother’s                  Mobile/Pager                 return home

                                                       Phone

                                                       Route to try first




            Adapted by Dr. Wilma S. Hammett and Dr. Sarah Kirby, Extension Housing Specialist,
  from Emergency Preparedness Checklist, American Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management, 1991

8/01—JMG
                                         A Disaster Kit for Staying at Home
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Disasters happen anytime and any-
                                     ○




                                         where. Is your family prepared to cope
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         with an emergency until help arrives?
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         You need to prepare now, before a
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         disaster strikes. Put together a disaster
                                     ○




                                         supplies kit. When you’ve gathered
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         supplies, discuss an emergency plan.
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Then you will be better able to stay at
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         home with no water or electricity.
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Preparing the Kit
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Use the following checklist, as a guide to
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         see what supplies your family will need.
                                     ○




                                                                                           nursing mothers. and sick people will
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         To be ready for a disaster, you will need
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                           need more.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         to stock the basics: water, food, first aid
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○




                                         supplies, clothing and bedding, emer-             • Store at least 1 gallon of water per
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         gency supplies and tools, and special               person per day (2 quarts for drink-
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         items. You will need these items if your            ing and 2 quarts for food prepara-
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         family is confined at home.                         tion, washing dishes, and bathing)
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○




                                                                                             Two gallons per person is better.
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                           • Keep at least a 3-day supply of
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         Water
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                             water for each person in your
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                         Water is the most important item. Store             household, more if you have a place
                                                                                       ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○




      and June 30, 1914. North           water in a plastic container, such as               to store it.
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○




 Carolina State University and
                                     ○




                                         clean soft drink bottles, and avoid               • Include bleach for purifying addi-
                                                                                       ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○




University commit themselves
                                     ○




                                         using containers that could contami-                tional water if supplies run out.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                                                                       ○




                                                                                           • Coffee filters may be used to remove
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless           nate the water, decompose, or break.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                                                                             sediment before purifying water.
                                                                                       ○




                                         To keep stored water fresh, change it
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                         every 6 months.                                   • You will need extra fuel for boiling
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to              A normally active person needs to                water if stored supply runs out.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,         drink at least 2 quarts of water each             • Include a medicine dropper or 1/8
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                             tsp. and 1/4 tsp. measuring spoons
                                                                                       ○




                                         day. If it’s hot and you are very active,
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local        you need twice as much. Children,                   for measuring bleach.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.
                                                                                       ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       ○
                                     ○
   If the main water line was         • Canned juices, milk, soup (if      • Sterile adhesive bandages in
turned off before the emer-             powdered or concentrated             assorted sizes
gency, the water in pipes will          store extra water), cheese         • Tongue depressors for small
be safe to use. Water in the hot        spreads                              splints
water heater and toilet tank          • Staples, (sugar, salt, and         • Gauze pads (2-inch and 4-
(not the bowl) also should be           pepper)                              inch)
safe. When purifying water, use       • High-energy foods (peanut          • Roller bandages (3-5 rolls)
16 drops from a medicine                butter, jelly, crackers, granola   • Tube of petroleum jelly or
dropper or 1/4 teaspoon of              bars, trail mix, dried fruit         other lubricant
chlorine bleach for each gallon         and nuts)                          • Hypoallergenic adhesive
of water. If the water is not         • Vitamins                             tape
clear even after filtering,           • Foods for infants, elderly         • Assorted sizes of safety pins
double the amount of purifying          persons, or those on special       • Scissors
agent. If a slight bleach odor does     diets                              • Cleaning agent or soap
not remian after 30 minutes, do       • Comfort foods, such as             • Tweezers
not use the water.                      cookies, hard candy, sweet-        • Latex gloves
                                        ened cereals, lollipops,           • Needle
Food                                    instant coffee and tea bags        • Sunscreen
                                      • Canned meats such as tuna          • Moist towelettes
Keep a 2-week supply of non-            and Vienna sausage                 • Antiseptic (alcohol and anti-
perishable food at home in                                                   biotic ointment)
case of a disaster. Since gas or      To prepare food, include the         • Thermometer
electricity could be off during       following:
an emergency, select foods that                                            Non-prescription drugs
                                      • Charcoal
require no refrigeration,
                                      • Wood for the fireplace
preparation or cooking, and little                                         •Aspirin or other pain reliever
                                      • Fuel cups—Sterno
or no water. Rotate the food with                                          • Anti-diarrhea medication
                                      • Gas for gas grill
newly purchased food supplies                                              • Antacid (for stomach upset)
to ensure freshness. You may                                               • Syrup of Ipecac ( used to
need some fuel source, if you
                                      Clothing and Bedding                   induce vomiting if advised
want to heat food.                    Remember that your air                 by Poison Control Center)
                                      conditioner or furnace might
Buy the size container that           be out. Be sure you can get to       Emergency Supplies
can be used in one meal.              your clothing that is appropri-
                                                                           and Tools
Make sure you purchase foods          ate for very high or very low
that you and your family like,        temperatures.                        • Cash and/or traveler’s
as well as foods that have a                                                 checks
long shelf-life. Because they         First Aid Kit                        • Pliers
contain liquids, canned fruit,                                             • Battery-operated radio and
vegetables, and fruit juices are      Store your kit in a convenient         extra batteries
excellent choices.                    place, and make sure everyone        • Tape
                                      knows where it is. Ask your          • Cellular phone (fully
Consider the following for            doctor or pharmacist about             charged)
your Disaster Supply Kit              storing prescription medicines.
                                      Keep a first aid kit at home
• Ready-to-eat canned fruits          and another in each car. Store
  and vegetables                      items in airtight plastic bags. A
                                      first aid kit should include:
• Matches in a waterproof            Special Items                        Records are difficult to replace
  container                                                               and may delay insurance claim
• Compass                            For Baby                             or other important matters.
• Cameras to document                • Formula                            You will need information
  damage                             • Diapers                            about income, debts, insur-
• Aluminum foil                      • Bottles                            ance, and other financial data
• Paper cups, plates, and            • Powdered milk                      to apply for certain kinds of
  plastic utensils                   • Medications                        assistance. Keep these records
• Plastic storage containers         • Baby food                          in a waterproof, fireproof,
• Flashlight and extra                                                    portable container, and store
  batteries                          For Adults                           copies of each in a separate,
• Signal flare                       • Heart and high blood pres-         safe location.
• Non-electric can opener              sure medication
                                                                          • Will, insurance policies,
• Plastic trash bags                 • Insulin
                                                                            contracts, deeds, stocks and
• Utility knife                      • Prescription drugs
                                                                            bonds
• Needle, thread                     • Denture needs
                                                                          • Passports, social security
• Fire extinguisher, ABC-type        • Contact lenses and supplies
                                                                            cards, and immunization
• Wrench to turn off house-          • Extra eyeglasses
                                                                            records
  hold gas and water                 • Incontinence products
                                                                          • Bank account numbers
• Tube tent
                                                                          • Credit card account numbers
• Medicine dropper/measur-           For Pets
                                                                            and companies
  ing spoons                         • Food
                                                                          • Inventory of valuable house-
• Whistle                            • Water
                                                                            hold goods, important
• Plastic sheeting/tarpaulin         • Litter
                                                                            telephone numbers
• Paper and pencil                   • Medications
                                                                          • Family records (birth, mar-
                                                                            riage, death certificates)
                                     Entertainment
Sanitation
                                     • Games and books
• Toilet paper                                                            Summary
• Towelettes                         Important Family
• Soap, liquid detergent                                                  Remember the six basics you
• Feminine supplies
                                     Documents                            need to include – water, food,
• Personal hygiene items             Even if you do not need family       first aid supplies, clothing and
• Household chlorine bleach          records during an evacuation,        bedding, tools and emergency
  (without scent)                    they must be protected.              supplies, and special items.
• Coffee filters (for water
  sanitation)




Adapted by Wilma Hammett and Dorothy Miner from Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit, American Red Cross and
FEMA, 1992
6/01—JMG
                                         Protecting Valuable Records
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Many people assume that floods,                  • List of insurance policies




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         storms, hurricanes, and other disasters




                                                                                      ○
                                                                                          • Automobile bill of sale
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         happen to someone else, and many
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                          • Household inventory




                                                                                      ○
                                         people postpone taking care of family
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         papers. But protecting family papers




                                                                                      ○
                                                                                          • Military service records
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         prepares you to deal with natural




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                          • Contracts (including promissory




                                                                                      ○
                                         disasters.
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                            notes)




                                                                                      ○
                                            An up-to-date household inventory
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         is very valuable. When making the



                                                                                      ○
                                                                                          • Copyrights and patents
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         inventory, do not overlook tools stored

                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                          • Adoption papers

                                                                                      ○
                                         in the garage, lawn furniture, or food
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         in the freezer. You may want to include          • A copy of your will (his and hers)
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         a video or photographs of your inven-
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         tory. An accurate inventory will help                                               ords
                                                                                      ○




                                                                                                                        n Rec
                                     ○




                                                                                                                   optio
                                                                                      ○




                                         you determine if you have enough
                                     ○




                                                                                                                 Ad
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                         insurance to cover the contents of your
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         home. Keep the inventory current.
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                            Give additional copies of lists of
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                                                  Death certificates
                                                                                      ○




                                         valuables to your lawyer, the adminis-
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                         trator of your will, a business associate,
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         or trusted family member who doesn’t
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         live in your home.
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                            Here’s a list of the valuable papers
                                     ○




                                                                                                          Retirement Papers
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         that you should keep in your safe
                                                                                      ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                     ○




                                         deposit box:                                                            policies
                                                                                      ○




                                                                                                         surance
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                                                                               List of in
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves             • Stocks, financial records, and bond
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                           certificates
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or        • Important receipts and bills of sale
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         • Property records, deeds, titles, and/
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North           or leases
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
• Passports                             These valuable papers may be             • Appliance manuals
• Custody papers                        kept at home in a waterproof,
                                                                                 • Health records
                                        fireproof, locked box:
• Auto title                                                                     • Current bank statements
• Citizenship papers                    • Advisers’ names and ad-                • Insurance policies
                                          dresses
• Birth certificates                                                             • Rental property records
                                        • Copies of birth and marriage
• Religious records                       certificates                           • Loan payment books
• Death certificates                    • Guarantees and warranties              • Safe deposit records and
• Income tax returns that                                                          inventory of items
                                        • Driver’s license numbers
  document large transactions,                                                   • Credit card numbers
  unusual losses, or deduc-             • Educational records
                                                                                 • Bank account numbers
  tions                                 • Income tax returns for past 3
• Marriage certificates                   years

• Divorce decrees                       • Employee benefits

• Social Security cards
• Government savings bonds
• Retirement papers




Adapted by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Specialists, NC State University, from University of Florida/
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences’ Disaster Notebook.
8/00—JMG
                                         Meal Preparation and Food Safety
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         After a Power Failure
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         After a power failure, you might not
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         have heat, refrigeration, or water. To
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         prepare food when you have no
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         power, follow these guidelines:
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         • If you have limited heat for cooking,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                           choose foods that cook quickly.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                           Prepare casseroles and one-dish
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                           meals, or serve no-cook foods.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         • If you can’t use your stove, you can
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○

                                           use a:
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                          – Fireplace.                                 • Substitute liquids from canned
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                         vegetables for water in unsweet-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                          – Candle warmer, such as a fondue
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                         ened cooked dishes.
                                     ○




                                            pot. Do not use a candle warmer to
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            cook raw meats, fish, poultry, and         • Substitute juice from canned fruits
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            eggs.                                        for water in salads and beverages.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                          – Camp stove and charcoal burner.            • All water from questionable sources
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            Never use a fuel-burning camp                that will be used in food prepara-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            stove or charcoal burner inside              tion must be boiled for at least 10
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            your home, even in a fireplace.              minutes before use.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   Distributed in furtherance of            Fumes from these stoves can be
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




the acts of Congress of May 8                                                          • If you are without refrigeration,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




      and June 30, 1914. North              deadly.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                         open only enough cans or jars of
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                         food for one meal. Leftover food in
                                                                                   ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                         • Do not cook frozen foods because
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




University commit themselves
                                           they require much more cooking                jars and cans cannot be saved.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




    to positive action to secure
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                           time and heat than canned goods.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




 of race, color, creed, national                                                       • If necessary, substitute canned and
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




  disability. In addition, the two       • Eat commercially canned foods                 powdered milk for fresh milk.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




       Universities welcome all
                                           straight from the can. Do not eat
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     persons without regard to
                                                                                       • Prepare and eat foods in their
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                           home canned meats and vegetables
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




      Carolina State University,                                                         original containers, if possible.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     North Carolina A&T State              unless you can boil them for 10
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




        of Agriculture, and local          minutes before eating.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
With the door closed, food in          • The kind of food.                     You may safely re-freeze foods
most freezers will stay below                                                  that still contain ice crystals or
                                       • The temperature of the food.
40° F for up to 3 days, even                                                   that have been kept at 40° F
in summer. Thawing rate                • The freezer.                          or below.
depends on:                            • The size of freezer.
• The amount of food in the
  freezer.




Adapted by Dr. Angela Fraser, Extension Food Safety Specialist, Family and Consumer Services, North Carolina
Cooperative Extension Service, NC State University, from University of Florida and Agricultural Sciences’ Disaster
Handbook
8/00—JMG
                                         When the Power Is Out—When to Save
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Refrigerated Food and When to Throw It
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Out
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                     Still Cold;
                                     ○




                                                                     Held at 40° F or      Held Above 40° F
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Food                        Above Under 2 Hours   Over 2 Hours
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Dairy
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Milk, cream, sour cream,     Safe                 Discard
                                     ○




                                         buttermilk, evaporated milk,
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         yogurt
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Butter, margarine           Safe                  Safe
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Baby Formula, opened        Safe                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Eggs
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Eggs, fresh                 Safe                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Hard-cooked in shell        Safe                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Egg dishes                  Safe                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Custards and Puddings       Safe                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Cheese
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Hard cheese, unopened       Safe                  Safe
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         processed cheese
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                         Soft cheese, cottage cheese, Safe                 Discard
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                         opened processed cheese
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




University commit themselves             Fruits
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless           Fruit juice, opened         Safe                  Safe
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or        Canned fruits, opened       Safe                  Safe
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         Fresh fruits, coconut,      Safe                  Safe
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North         raisins, dried fruits,
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,         candied fruits, dates
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                Still Cold;
                                Held at 40° F or      Held Above 40° F
Food                            Above Under 2 Hours   Over 2 Hours
Vegetables
Vegetables, cooked              Safe                  Discard after 6 hours
Vegetable juice, opened         Safe                  Discard after 6 hours
Baked potatoes                  Safe                  Discard
Fresh mushrooms, herbs,         Safe                  Safe
spices, not in oil
Garlic, chopped in oil          Safe                  Discard
or butter
Casseroles, soups, stews        Safe                  Discard
Meat, Poultry, Seafood
Fresh or leftover meat,         Safe                  Discard
poultry, fish, seafood
Thawing meat or poultry         Safe                  Discard if no ice crystals
                                                      present
Meat, tuna, shrimp, chicken Safe                      Discard
egg salad
Gravy, stuffing                 Safe                  Discard
Luncheon meats, hot dogs, Safe                        Discard
bacon, sausage, dried beef
Pizza, meat topped              Safe                  Discard
Canned meats (NOT labeled Safe                        Discard
“Keep Refrigerated”) but
refrigerated after opening
Pies, Pastry
Pastries, cream filled          Safe                  Discard
Pies, custard, cheese
filled or chiffons              Safe                  Discard
Pies, fruit                     Safe                  Safe
Bread, Cakes, Cookies, Pasta
Bread, rolls, cakes,            Safe                  Safe
muffins, quick bread
Refrigerator biscuits, rolls,   Safe                  Discard
cookie dough
Cooked pasta, spaghetti         Safe                  Discard
Pasta salad with                Safe                  Discard
mayonnaise or vinegar
base
                                         Still Cold;
                                         Held at 40° F or        Held Above 40° F
             Food                        Above Under 2 Hours     Over 2 Hours

             Sauces, Spreads, Jams
             Mayonnaise, tartar sauce,   Safe                    Discard if above 40° F
             horseradish                                         for over 8 hours
             Peanut butter               Safe                    Safe
             Opened salad dressing,      Safe                    Safe
             jelly, relish, taco and
             barbecue sauce, mustard,
             catsup, olives




Prepared by Extension Food Safety Specialists, Family and Consumer Services, North Carolina Cooperative
Extension Service

9/01—JMG
                                         When the Power Is Out—When to
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Refreeze Frozen Food and When to
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Throw It Out
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                        Still Contains Ice        Thawed and Held at
                                     ○




                                                                        Crystals and Feels as     Over 40°F for Over
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Food                           Cold as if Refrigerated   2 Hours
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Meat, Poultry, Seafood
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Beef, veal, lamb, pork,        Refreeze                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         ground meats
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Poultry, ground poultry        Refreeze                  Discard
                                     ○




                                         Variety meats (liver,
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         kidney, heart, chitterlings)
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Casseroles, stews, soups, Refreeze                       Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         convenience foods, pizza
                                     ○




                                         with meat, poultry, or seafood
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Fish, shellfish, breaded       Refreeze; will be some Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         seafood products               loss of texture and flavor
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Dairy
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Milk                           Refreeze; may lose        Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                        some texture
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Eggs (out of shell),           Refreeze                  Discard
                                     ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of         egg products
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North           Ice cream, frozen yogurt       Discard, significant      Discard
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and                                          loss of quality
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                         Cheese (soft and semi-soft), Refreeze; may lose          Discard
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless           cream cheese, Ricotta        some texture
                                     ○
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                         Hard cheeses (cheddar,         Refreeze                  Discard
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                         Swiss, Parmesan)
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         Cheesecake
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,         Fruits
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
             Food                         Still Contains Ice        Thawed; Held Over 40° F
                                          Crystals and Feels as     for Over 2 Hours
                                          Cold as if Refrigerated


             Juice, opened                Refreeze                  Refreeze; discard if mold,
                                                                    yeasty smell, or sliminess
                                                                    develops
             Home or commercially         Refreeze; will change     Discard after held at 40° F
             packaged fruit               texture and flavor.       for 6 hours
             Vegetables
             Juice, opened                Refreeze                  Discard after held at 40° F
                                                                    for 6 hours
             Home or commercially         Refreeze; may lose        Discard after held at 40° F
             packaged or blanched         texture and flavor        for 6 hours
             Breads, Pastries
             Breads, rolls, muffins,      Refreeze                  Refreeze
             cakes without custard
             fillings
             Cakes, pies, pastries with   Refreeze                  Discard
             custard or cheese fillings
             Pie crusts                   Refreeze                  Refreeze
             Commercial and homemade Refreeze; may lose             Refreeze; considerable loss
             bread dough             some quality                   of quality
             Other
             Casseroles, pasta- and       Refreeze                  Discard
             rice-based
             Flour, cornmeal, nuts        Refreeze                  Refreeze




Prepared by Extension Food Safety Specialists, Family and Consumer Services, North Carolina Cooperative
Extension Service

9/01—JMG
                                         Foods That Require No Cooking
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         “I’m hungry.” But what do you do               • Canned meats, fish, poultry*




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         when there’s no power for cooking?
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                                                                        • Canned beans (baked beans, kidney
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         You may be surprised at the variety of
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                                                                          beans, garbanzo beans, etc.)*
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         foods that can be prepared even if
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                                                                        • Raw vegetables, such as carrots,
                                     ○




                                         there is no gas or electricity for cook-




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         ing. Here’s a list of foods that require         celery, etc.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         no cooking.
                                     ○




                                                                                        • Fruits (canned or fresh)




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                                                                        • Bread, crackers, cookies
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         Breakfast
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        • Canned puddings*

                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         • Fruit or
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                           canned juice
                                                                                        Snacks
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○


                                         • Ready-to-eat cereals or breakfast bars
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        Fruits (fresh, canned, dried), milk,*
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         • Breads or crackers with jams, jellies,       juices, cheeses,* ready-to-eat cereals,
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                           margarine, peanut butter, cheese, or
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        nuts and seeds, fruit leathers, crack-
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                           cheese spreads
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        ers, cookies, raw vegetables, raisins,
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        hard candy, granola bars, beef jerky
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         • Milk (canned, evaporated or recon-
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                           stituted powdered milk, which may
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                           also be used in coffee or tea)*
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                         • Instant coffee, tea, or cocoa (if tap
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                           water is hot enough)
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                         Lunch or Supper
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                         • Processed cheese or cheese spreads*
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        *These foods must be refrigerated after
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless           • Canned vegetables*
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national                                                        opening. You will have to eat it all in one
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                         • Peanut butter                                sitting.
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State            Prepared by Cooperative Extension Specialists, NC State University
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.            8/00-JMG
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                         Helping Your Child Through the Crisis
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                           A disaster can make a child afraid,




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         more afraid than you. A child can mix
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         up real fear and make-believe fear.




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         This is okay. You can help.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         • Don’t leave.your child alone in a
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                           new place.




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         • Stay together to show you won’t




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                           go away.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         • Tell the child about the disaster.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         • Tell the child you were afraid.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         Talk with your child.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         • Encourage your child to talk.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       Bedtime may be bad.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         • Listen to the child.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       • Your child may not want to sleep
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         • Say it’s okay to be afraid.                   away from you.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         • Hold and hug the child.                     • Your child may be afraid of the dark.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         • Explain. Talk. Listen. Over and over.       • Your child may have bad dreams
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                         or begin to wet the bed again.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         Keep working to make
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         things better.                                You can help.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                         • As long as it can be done safely,           • Explain why it gets dark.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and             let him or her help clean up.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                       • Talk about dreams.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




University commit themselves
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




    to positive action to secure         • Don’t stop doing things.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                       • Praise the child for good things.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or        • Put order in your day as best
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




  disability. In addition, the two         as you can.                                 • Don’t yell.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




       Universities welcome all
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     persons without regard to
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




       sexual orientation. North         • Tell the child about your plans             • Don’t spank.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




      Carolina State University,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     North Carolina A&T State              each day.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   University, U.S. Department                                                         • Agree on a time for your child
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                         • Stay close together.                          to go to bed.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
• Leave the door open a little.      If you do not already have       • Expect to have greater
                                     regular childcare arrange-         difficulty at times of separa-
• Leave the light on.                ments, check with churches,        tion (leaving for school,
                                     clergy, church members,            bedtime) and provide extra
• Read to your child.                childcare facilities, relatives,   reassurance. Let your child
                                     sitters, or neighbors. After-      know where you are. Day-
• Tell a story about some-           school or summer school            time phone calls can help
  thing good that happened           activities would give the child    reassure your child.
  that day.                          a meaningful place to be and
                                     would free you to deal with      • Monitor your child’s
If you stay worried about            the crisis. Library programs,      viewing of the disaster on
the child, seek help. Schools        foster grandparent agencies,       television and other media.
can help you find professional       4-H clubs, and church youth        Repeated viewing of disas-
help. Remember, this is a hard       groups are other alternatives.     ter scenes can be traumatic.
time for you, too.                   There may be money available       If possible, watch with your
                                     to help you pay for the care.      child and discuss the pro-
Childcare During and                                                    grams you see.
After a Disaster                     General Guidelines
                                                                       • Allow your child to discuss
Immediately after a disaster         • Spend more time with              the disaster, but do not
and during the recovery                your child. Use part              force it. When discussing
period, you may worry about            of that time to talk.             it, emphasize that he or
your childcare. Where will           • Your child will be                she is now safe.
your children be safe? Who             comforted by familiar
can watch them while you are           surroundings.
busy dealing with agencies,            Get copies of photos from
cleaning, and repairs?                 family and friends and
                                       allow your child to replace
                                       lost stuffed animals.




Adapted by Dr. Karen DeBord, Extension Child Development Specialist, Family and Consumer Sciences, North
Carolina Cooperative Extension Service for Stress and Coping with Disaster by Karen DeBord, Marty Baker, Ami
O’Neill, University of Missouri.

6/00-JMG
Entertainment Ideas
Include entertainment items such as games for children and books for adults
in your disaster supply kit. Below are some ideas for times when children are bored. If
space permits, include some old magazines, tape or glue, writing paper, coloring books,
crayons, pens, pencils, old socks and pieces of fabric in the kit for an “I’m Bored” bag.

The following activities can be used to relieve tension, provide comfort, contact and reassurance.
They may also help children to express their feelings about what is happening:

•       Read a chapter in a favorite book or an interesting article in a magazine
•       Play a game - charades, cards or sports
•       Make a timeline of your life. Add 2-3 important things that happened each year
•       Make a tape of sounds you hear in your house
•       Make a scrapbook of souvenirs, postcards or pictures
•       Write to a friend or send for a pen pal name. Around the World Friends, 550 Fifth Avenue,
        New York, NY, 10036
•       Make up a funny song using a familiar tune
•       Plan a dinner for a president
•       Write a TV script using the characters from your favorite TV show
•       Make a puppet from a bag, sock, glove or scraps of fabric
•       Make a puzzle, word search or crossword puzzle
•       Make up your own greeting cards
•       Start a diary
•       Write a note in secret code, Morse code or your own code
•       Design a futuristic house for the year 2050
•       Pretend you are a radio disc jockey and make up your own commercials
•       Make a simple snack or appetizer for dinner
•       Plan a vacation to the place of your dreams
•       Have each person write a sentence and then put them all together to make a story
                                         Caring for Your Pets in an
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         Emergency
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         Making arrangements for your pets
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         should be part of your household
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         disaster planning. If you must evacu-
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         ate your home, it’s always wise to take
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         your pets with you. Although trained
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         service dogs are allowed in emergency
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         shelters, other pets are not allowed due
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         to public health and safety reasons.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                         You need to have other plans for your
                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         pets. Advance planning is essential; it
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                         could save a pet’s life.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         Is Your Pet Prepared for
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         an Emergency?
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        at all times. Take a leash with you
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         If your pets will be traveling, make
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         sure you have a pet carrier (portable          when you travel.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         kennel) or crate for each pet. Be sure            Keep an ample supply of pet food
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        and other essentials, like kitty litter,
                                                                                    ○




                                         the carrier is large enough; your pet
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                                                                        with other hurricane supplies. Don’t
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         should be able to stand up and turn
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         around in it. Take time to familiarize         forget about newspaper, plastic bags,
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         your pet with the portable kennel.             cleaner and disinfectant to properly
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        handle pet wastes.
                                                                                    ○




                                         Initially confine your pet for short
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                                                                           Plan ahead. Make some phone calls
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




the acts of Congress of May 8            periods; then lengthen the time.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                            Be sure your pet’s vaccinations are         to determine options for pet place-
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




 Carolina State University and
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                         up to date. This is especially important       ment and care if you have to evacuate.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                        Consider all the possibilities:
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




    to positive action to secure         for pets that will be boarded. Most
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                        • Your Home – It may be necessary
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




 of race, color, creed, national         boarding facilities require proof
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                         of current rabies and distemper                  for your pet to remain at home if
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




       Universities welcome all          vaccinations.                                    you have to leave. Survey your
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     persons without regard to
                                                                                          home and determine the best
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




       sexual orientation. North            Be sure your cat or dog wears a
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




      Carolina State University,                                                          location away from windows to
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                         properly fitted collar with a current
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




                                         license (identification) and rabies tag          place the pet during a storm emer-
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                                                                          gency, such as a utility room,
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                                                                    ○
  bathroom, kitchen, or other            bathroom, or other tiled area         If Your Pet Goes
  tiled areas which can be               which can be easily cleaned.          with You…
  cleaned easily.                      • Bring the pet indoors well
                                                                               If the pet will be taken along
• Kennels – Survey boarding              ahead of the storm.
                                                                               during evacuation, prepare
  kennels to determine which           • Do not leave any pet outside
                                                                               the following items:
  will take pets during an               or tied up during a hurricane.
                                                                               • License or identification
  emergency. Find out who              • Leave only dry-type foods
                                                                                  and rabies tags
  stays on the premises with             that are relatively unpalat-
                                                                               • Steel or fiberglass crate,
  the animals in the event of a          able to prevent overeating.
                                                                                  properly pet-sized
  storm and what provisions              Use sturdy food containers.
                                                                               • Non-spill water and food
  would be made if the kennel          • Do not leave any treat-type
                                                                                  bowls
  should have to evacuate                vitamins or minerals supple-
                                                                               • Newspaper and/or paper
  from a hurricane or a flood.           ments. Your pet may get salt
                                                                                  towels, litter, scooper, plastic
• Veterinarians – Check with             poisoning if it overeats the
                                                                                  bags for waste
  veterinary clinics to locate           treats.
                                                                               • Leashes and collar
  those with boarding facilities.      • Birds must eat daily to
                                                                               • Water in sanitized non-
• Friends – Ask dependable               survive. Use special food
                                                                                  breakable containers
  friends or relatives who live          dispensers if you must leave
                                                                               • Dried and packaged
  farther inland, away from              them behind.
                                                                                  semi-moist foods
  the coast or river areas, for        • Water for pets should be left
                                                                               • Special medications
  shelter during the storm               in a bathtub or other sturdy
                                                                               • Toys, blankets, and special
  emergency.                             containers that will not spill.
                                                                                  comfort items
• Motels – Call motels to              • If animals are on special
  determine if they allow pets.          diets and medications,
  Be sure to check on restric-           consult a veterinarian.               After Your Pet
  tions on the size and number         • Never leave a cat with a dog,         Returns Home…
  of pets allowed.                       even if the two are normally          Be careful in allowing a pet
                                         friendly.                             outdoors after the storm has
If Your Pet Stays                      • Confine and keep small pets           passed. Familiar scents and
at Home…                                 (birds, hamsters, etc.) away          landmarks may be altered,
                                         from cats and dogs.                   and a pet could easily be
If the pet must be left behind         • Provide access to high                confused and become lost.
when the home is evacuated               places, such as countertops,          Downed power lines can
during the storm, remember:              in case flooding occurs.              present a real danger to a pet.
• Prepare an area for the pet          • Difficult or dangerous animals
   to use inside the house away          should be left in special crates
   from the windows, such as             or cages to reduce the possi-
   a utility room, garage,               bility of escape.




                  Adapted by Dr., Wilma S. Hammett, Extension Home Environment Specialist,
 from Guidelines for Emergency Pet Care, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 1997

8/01-JMG
                                         Hurricane Preparations
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         For Horse Farms
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         With the possibility of a hurricane
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         once again hitting the North Carolina
                                     ○




                                         coast, horse farm owners need to be
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         prepared.
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         1. Get the name(s) of the REINS
                                     ○




                                             (Regional Equine Information
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                             Network System) Coordinating
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                             Agents and volunteers serving as
                                     ○




                                             Equine Disaster and Emergency
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       • Extra halters
                                                                                   ○
                                             Management Coordinators from
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                                                                       • Clean towels
                                     ○




                                             your county Extension center.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                             Ask if a disaster/emergency               • Antiseptic and soap
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       • Leg wraps
                                                                                   ○




                                             equine management plan exists
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                       • Topical antibiotic ointments
                                     ○




                                             for your area. REINS organiza-
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                             tions will serve as the lead equine       • Tranquilizers
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       • Pain relievers
                                                                                   ○




                                             contact during an emergency/
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                       • Bandages
                                     ○




                                             disaster within an area.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       •Bee sting kit
                                                                                   ○




                                           For more background information,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         visit the REINS Web site (http://             • Insect repellent
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                       • Flash light and batteries
                                     ○




                                         www.cals.ncsu.edu/an_sci/exten-
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         sion/horse/hhreins.htm) and the
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                                                                       3. Consider how you will protect
                                     ○




                                         Extension Horse Husbandry Web site
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                       your horses if a hurricane were
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of         (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/an_sci/
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8                                                          to hit your area. Are your barns
                                                                                   ○




                                         extension/horse/hhmain.html).
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                                                                   ○




                                                                                       and buildings in good repair
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State                                                          and located on high ground?
                                                                                   ○




                                         2. Put together an emergency
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure            stable first aid kit that includes         If the barn might be damaged
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




  equal opportunity regardless                                                         by high winds or flooded, your
                                     ○




                                            the following:
                                                                                   ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                     ○




                                            • Knife                                    horses might be better off on
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                            • Adhesive tape                            high ground in a pasture. Or
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                                                                       will you evacuate your horses?
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to              • Scissors
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                            • Duct tape                                More detailed information on
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




      Carolina State University,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                            • Nylon or cotton rope                     evacuation is included on pages
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                                                                       2 and 3.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
If a Hurricane                     Store a large supply of                  It also may be helpful to
May Be Coming                      gasoline.                              have pictures, identification
                                                                          and/or registration papers on
1. Secure structures on your
                                   Identify your horses                   your animals should you need
   farm:
                                                                          to verify ownership. Be sure
   • Move loose objects            Most feed stores carry blank
                                                                          to store these items in an area
     indoors.                      cattle ear tags. Using a perma-
                                                                          that will remain dry.
   • Tie jumps and poles           nent marker, write your name,
                                                                            If practical, evacuate yourself
     together.                     delivery address, phone
                                                                          and your horses well in ad-
2. Fill all water tubs, and        number(s), and horse’s name
                                                                          vance of the storm to a safe
   store drinking water.           on a tag. Braid the tag into
                                                                          holding area. Get a list of
                                   each animal’s mane or tail.
   If possible, you need a 7-day                                          approved sites from your
                                     Consider spray painting
supply. Allow 20 gallons of                                               REINS coordinating agent
                                   your phone number in white
water per horse per day. Line                                             within 48 hours before any
                                   or blaze orange paint on both
garbage cans with plastic bags                                            intense weather. It is extremely
                                   sides of the barrel or hip of
and fill with water. Note: After                                          difficult to pull a horse trailer
                                   your horse.
a hurricane has hit, finding                                              during gale-force winds! Also,
                                     Microchips inserted in the
clean drinking water is one                                               your normally docile mount
                                   neck muscle are also an excel-
of the most difficult dilemmas                                            may become safe holding area.
                                   lent way to identify an animal.
as water sources tend to be
contaminated.

3. You should have a 7-day           Four permanent sites are available for the evacuation of
   supply of feed and hay on         horses. All require a current negative Coggins. Please
   hand. Place feed bags on          do not reserve accommodations unless you will be able
   pallets and cover them            to use it.
   withwater-repellent tarps         • Pioneer’s Harness Track, Southern Pines, (910) 692-8640. Stall is
                                     free; owner to supply feed, bedding, and water. Feed store located
   to reduce the likelihood
                                     in town. Must sign release form.
   of water damage.
                                     • NCSU Veterinary Equine Research Center (VERC), Southern Pines,
4. Bed all stalls including          contact Dr. Jim Hamilton at (910) 692-8640. Use of stalls or paddocks
   aisleways where pastured          is free; owner to supply feed, bedding, and water. Feed store
                                     located in town. Must sign release form.
   horses will be tied during
   the storm. Store additional       • Senator Bob Martin Eastern Agricultural Center, Williamston,
                                     contact Brian Dygert at (252) 792-5802. Stall is free if a mandatory
   bedding in plastic bags
                                     evacuation is declared. If horse owner evacuates voluntarily, there
   indoors.                          is a $3 daily stall charge. Owner must supply feed, bedding, and
5. Place fly masks on pastured       water; limited bedding available ($3.50 to $5.00 per bale). Feed
   horses to reduce the inci-        store located in town. MUST CALL FOR RESERVATIONS. If the
   dence of eye injuries from        facility is not in use, 296 stalls are available.
   flying debris.                    • Governor James B. Hunt Horse Complex, Raleigh, contact Wesley
6. Secure a generator                Watt, NC State Fair manager or Sherri Bridges, Horse Complex
   (4 horsepower or greater)         secretary, at (919) 821-7400 or (919) 733-2145. Four hundred and
                                     eighty-five stalls are available to horse owners at no charge during
   for use as an electrical
                                     declared emergency situations. Horse owners must supply feed,
   reserve unit. Make certain        bedding, and water. MUST CALL IN RESERVATIONS TO CONFIRM
   the generator is large            STALL AVAILABILTY. Please be aware that the Hunt Horse
   enough to run your water          Complex typically serves as a National Guard/Emergency Prepara-
   pump while providing              tion site. On occasion, the governor has closed the facility to the
   electrical outlets for a          general public so that it can be used by emergency workers. If the
                                     facility has been closed, it will not be available to horse owners.
   refrigerator and lights.
Get a list of approved sites from     • select a low area protected    1. After the storm has sub
your REINS coordinating agent            by rises; make certain the       sided, immediately check
within 48 hours before any               area will not by subject         your horse’s welfare.
intense weather. It is extremely         to flash flooding; avoid
                                                                       2. Take pictures of storm
difficult to pull a horse trailer        streams, ponds, etc.
                                                                          damage to facilities, fences,
during gale-force winds! Also,        • keep horses away from
                                                                          and roadways.
your normally docile mount               shallow rooted trees or
may become upset and difficult           trees damaged in previous     3. Be aware of the possibility
to handle with the environmen-           storms.                          of cyanide poisoning due to
tal changes. Loading a horse          • keep horses away from             the ingestion of wilted wild
during extreme weather may               dilapidated structures to        cherry (Prunus species)
be impossible.                           minimize injuries from           leaves, twigs, bark, or seeds
  Be aware of rapidly rising             flying debris.                   and/or red maple leaves
water. If you are located in an       If you halter your animals,         (Acer rubrum). Symptoms
area prone to looding, evacuate     make certain that the halter          include: weakness, excitabil
your animals with 7 days of         will break if caught on an            ity, gasping for breath, poor
feed and bedding before the         object.                               coordination, collapse,
storm. If you are unable to            Secure and store temporary         convulsions, constipation
evacuate, remove horses from        fencing materials to permit           or diarrhea, bloody urine,
flood-prone stalls and barns,       quick, temporary fence repairs.       and death. Symptoms may
and move them to higher             Select fence systems that do not      result if as little as 1 or 2
ground prior to the threat of       require electricity. Permanent        cups of leaves are consumed
rising water. Horses trapped in     repairs can be made later.            on an empty stomach.
stalls or barns with hinged           Obtain film for your camera      4. If your power is out, persis
doors is a leading killer of        and camcorder to document             tently notify the power
animals immediately following       storm damage. If time permits,        company. Tell them how
a major storm. If you cannot        take pictures of your structures      many horses you have, and
move them to higher ground,         before the storm. Review your         explain the importance of
leave your animals in a pas-        insurance policy to determine         electricity to their wellbeing.
tured area. Place fly masks on      storm coverage; then document         If possible, make a personal
them to reduce the incidence of     damage accordingly.                   visit.
eye injuries from flying debris.
  If your barn is well con-         Recovering After the Storm         5. Contact the local fire
structed, leave your horses                                               department and request
                                      In many cases, wind and             water delivery. Most fire
inside to minimize injury from
                                    rainfall from the storm does          departments will accommo-
flying debris. For example, pole
                                    not create as many problems           date, if you have a large
barns with post cemented in
                                    as the aftereffect of the storm.      number of horses and you
the ground and block barns
                                    You may face prolonged power          are experiencing a prolonged
and roofs with a history of
                                    interruptions, blocked road-          power outage. Make certain
routine maintenance that were
                                    ways, downed trees (often             you have several tubs avail
built according to code do well
                                    across fencing and structures),       able to hold the water.
in storms.
                                    and increased populations of
  If your barn is poorly con-                                          6. Check your horse’s vaccina-
                                    biting insects. The following
structed or in poor repair,                                               tion schedule against dis-
                                    recommendations will help
leave your horses in a naturally                                          eases caused by biting
                                    you recover and protect your
protected well-fenced pasture                                             insects. Horses should be
                                    horse’s health.
area.                                                                     vaccinated annually for
  Eastern Equine Encephalo-            Contact your county exten-         animals second. The horse has
  myelitis (EEE). The increased     sion agent for information            demonstrated a remarkable
  mosquito population that          concerning storm-related agri-        survival ability in the face of
  occurs immediately after a        cultural assistance programs          natural disaster, one which
  storm has typically resulted      for livestock and horse owners.       far exceeds those of humans.
  in an increased incidence of         Emergency situations may           You may find additional
  encephalomyelitis. Horses         force you to make the difficult,      information at www.cals.ncsu.
  located in areas with high        but practical decision of put-        edu/an_sci/extension/horse/
  mosquito populations              ting human life above that            hhmain.html
  should be vaccinated twice        of your horse. You must care
  per year, 6 months apart.         for yourself first and your




         Prepared by Dr. Bob Mowrey, Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University

02/02-JMG
For immediate release


                                   Use Chainsaws Safely
   When a major storm scatters broken trees and other debris, cleanup can involve chain saws. But each year,
about 40,000 people die or are injured in chainsaw accidents. To protect your life and your property, you need
to know how to use the tool properly.
   North Carolina Cooperative Extension provides these chainsaw safety guidelines:

  • Review the owner’s manual carefully.

  • Make sure your saw is well-maintained, with sharp teeth, correct chain tension, proper lubrication, a
    properly tuned engine and functioning safety equipment. Your operator’s manual will contain specifics.

  • Make sure the saw you are using is right for the job: Mini- or lightweight saws, with guide bars up to
    14 inches, are right for light and occasional use in pruning, cutting small logs and cutting down small trees.
    Midweight saws, with guide bars from 14 to 20 inches, are best for cutting logs and cutting down small
    to medium trees. Heavyweight saws, with guide bars over 20 inches long, should be used only by a
    professional.

  • Wear well-fitted clothing free of dangling or ragged edges that could get entangled in the saw or the brush.
    Safety eyeglasses are essential for protecting against flying dust and other debris. Hardware and other
    supply stores sell protective chaps or leggings made of synthetic fabrics designed to prevent the running
    saw from coming in contact with your legs. A hard hat can protect your head from falling limbs and other
    debris. A good pair of ear plugs can protect your hearing. Be sure to wear sturdy gloves and shoes.

  • Have a first-aid kit nearby.

  • Before you get started, watch where limbs will fall and plan an escape route should a tree suddenly start to
    fall in your path.

  • Do not climb trees while operating a chainsaw.

  • Be careful when cutting material under tension, such as a leaning or strained tree.

  • Don’t cut anything other than wood.

  • While people and animals shouldn’t be in the area where you are working, there should be some one within
    calling distance who can help if you get in trouble.

  • Avoid using a chainsaw in wet, windy or dark conditions.

  • Wait a few minutes for the motor to cool before refueling.

For more information on disaster recovery, contact your county’s North Carolina Cooperative Extension center or
visit the Web site www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster/.
                                         How To Care For Ice-Damaged Trees
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                            One cannot appreciate the damage             should only be attempted if a major




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         ice causes to trees until they’ve experi-       portion of the tree is still intact and




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                         enced a heavy ice storm. Fortunately,           efforts can be made to maintain its
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                         major ice storms do not occur on a              attractiveness and value to the prop-
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         regular basis. The trees that normally          erty. If the whole side or top is gone,




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         take the brunt of the damage – Chinese          it’s questionable whether it’s worth




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                         and Siberian elms, poplars, silver              spending the time and money to
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                         maples, birches and willows – are the           salvage the tree. This is especially
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         predictable victims. All of these species       true if it’s one with brittle wood that


                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         have brittle wood and are easily                lends itself to similar problems in the
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                         damaged by ice and wind storms.                 future. While no one wants to remove
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                            Homeowners often plant fast-                 a large, mature tree, the prudent
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         growing species like the ones men-              decision may be to replace it with a
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         tioned above for rapid shade. Fast-             young tree possessing desirable
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         growing trees normally have brittle             qualities.
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         wood and develop weak, V-shaped                    The second question to consider is:
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         crotches that easily split apart under          “Can you handle the damage repair
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         added weight. Often, trees with ex-             yourself or should you seek profes-
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         tensive internal rot and decay that             sional help?” Small limbs can be
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         may not have been evident from the              removed easily with pruning shears
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         exterior receive severe damage.                 or a pole-lopper provided they are
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                            Many times these trees overhang the          within your reach. Do you feel com-
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                         house, driveway or power lines servic-          fortable climbing a ladder up into the
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of         ing the home. When large limbs or tree          tree? Power equipment should never
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North           tops are broken in an ice storm, they           be operated from a ladder or in the
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                         can cause major damage and expense.             tree where firm footing is question-
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves                For homeowners with trees with               able. Removing hanging limbs should
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless           major limb or top damage, two                   be left to professional tree services.
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                     ○




                                         questions should be addressed.                  Look for them under Tree Service
                                                                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                     ○




                                                                                     ○




                                            The first one is: “Does the condition        in the Yellow Pages. Make sure they
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         of the tree warrant efforts to save it or       carry proper liability and workmen’s
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                         should it be removed?” Major tree               compensation insurance before
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State            repair can be quite expensive and               allowing them to start the job.
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.
                                                                                     ○
                                     ○
What damage is repairable and what is not?                 should leave a wound shaped like an elongated




                                                       ○
                                                       ○
                                                           football with the pointed ends of the cut running




                                                       ○
    Broken limbs should be removed. Generally,




                                                       ○
                                                           vertically along the trunk or limb or as near




                                                       ○
if the branch has not split away from the trunk,




                                                       ○
                                                           parallel to the initial damage as possible.
the broken segment should be removed back to




                                                       ○
                                                              Trees with split trunks or major limb forks




                                                       ○
the next major adjacent branch. Do not leave




                                                       ○
                                                           may possibly be salvaged if the split is not too




                                                       ○
branch stubs. Stubs encourage rot and decay.




                                                       ○
                                                           extensive. Repairing this type of damage will




                                                       ○
    For trees with tops broken out, remove the




                                                       ○
                                                           involve a cable and brace technique that should
snags to the next major interior branch. Gener-




                                                       ○
                                                           be left to a professional tree service.




                                                       ○
ally, this will be a major fork. Avoid topping the




                                                       ○
                                                              Some small to medium-sized trees may have




                                                       ○
tree to allow small side branches to grow out and




                                                       ○
                                                           been uprooted. It may be possible to straighten




                                                       ○
continue the tree’s height growth. These




                                                       ○
                                                           these trees and brace them with guy wires. Do
branches will be weak and prone to breakage.




                                                       ○
                                                           not attempt this unless one-half to one-third of




                                                       ○
    To avoid stripping the healthy bark from the




                                                       ○
                                                           the tree’s original root system is still in the soil




                                                       ○
trunk when a heavy, broken limb is removed, the



                                                       ○
                                                           and the remaining exposed roots are relatively



                                                       ○
3-step procedure should be used. The first cut is


                                                       ○
                                                           compact and undisturbed. Before straightening
made on the underneath side of the branch

                                                       ○
                                                           the tree, remove some of the soil from beneath
                                                       ○
about 18 inches out from the trunk. The cut
                                                       ○
                                                       ○
                                                           the root mass so the roots will be placed below
should be approximately half-way through the           ○

                                                           the existing grade level. Attach two to three guy
                                                       ○


branch or until its weight first starts to bind the
                                                       ○




                                                           wires to the trunk and anchor the wires 10 to 12
saw. The next cut should be made on top of the
                                                       ○




                                                           feet away from the tree.
                                                       ○




branch about 1 to 2 inches in front (toward the
                                                       ○




                                                              Corrective pruning to help improve the shape
                                                       ○




end of the branch) of the bottom cut. Continue
                                                       ○




                                                           of damaged trees is best done now. The tree will
cutting until the branch drops free.
                                                       ○




                                                           respond quickly this spring if it has not been
                                                       ○




The last cut removes the remaining branch
                                                       ○




                                                           severely damaged. Take care not to remove more
                                                       ○




stub from the trunk. The cut should be made
                                                       ○




                                                           than one-third of original branches. This will
                                                       ○




from the top of the branch at the branch collar.
                                                       ○




                                                           severely retard the tree’s growth in the spring
The collar is the slight ridge where the branch
                                                       ○




                                                           and may damage it beyond recovery.
                                                       ○




attaches to the tree’s trunk or another major
                                                       ○




                                                              Treatment of the trunk and limb wounds with
                                                       ○




branch.
                                                       ○




                                                           tree paint is not necessary. In fact, research
                                                       ○




    In certain situations, a damaged limb may
                                                       ○




                                                           shows that painted areas can lead to increased
                                                       ○




strip healthy bark from the tree. To repair this
                                                       ○




                                                           rot and decay due to trapped moisture in areas
type of damage, cut any ragged edges of torn
                                                       ○




                                                           where the paint cracks open. You may want
                                                       ○




bark away from the damaged area. Take care
                                                       ○




                                                           to fertilize your tree this spring with a good
                                                       ○




to limit the amount of healthy, tight bark re-
                                                       ○




                                                           quality tree fertilizer. Check with your county
                                                       ○




moved. To speed the healing process, the repair
                                                       ○




                                                           Extension office for recommended rates.
cut made with a sharp knife into healthy bark
                                                       ○
                                                       ○
                                                       ○




           Developed by Ron Wolford, Extension Educator, Horticulture, University of Illinois Extension.
For immediate release


           Take steps now to minimize problems with
              damaged shade trees, timber stands
  If you have a storm-damaged shade tree or timber stand, there are steps you can take now to minimize problems.
   According to North Carolina Cooperative Extension, hanging branches are particularly hazardous in a home
landscape because a mild disturbance could cause them to fall. Fallen trees and broken or partially attached tree
branches should be removed by a bonded or insured professional. If you’re inexperienced and try to tackle this
chore yourself, you can put yourself and your property at risk, and you can seriously damage your trees.
   For moderate pruning jobs close to ground level, use sharp tools to cut back to a lateral side branch or bud, or
back to live, healthy wood. Make the cut at a slant next to a bud that can produce new growth. Don’t cut the
branch flush with the trunk. Instead, cut outside the collar at the base of the branch.
   In the past, some people recommended that tree wound dressings be applied to all cuts to prevent decay-
causing infection. However, research has shown that wound dressings don’t prevent decay and, in some cases, can
serve as food sources for microorganisms.
  For woodland owners with felled trees, rapid harvest and removal can prevent damage by fungi and insects.
   Salvage harvest of damaged timber can be dangerous and expensive. Also, because many timber owners may
be trying to market their damaged timber before it spoils, you may have a hard time finding a harvesting firm
available to handle your job. In that case, focus on salvaging timber that is the easiest to cut — for instance, stands
blown or felled in one direction — and timber that is the most perishable, has the highest potential product value
and is the most valuable.
   Sawtimber trees with broken tops may be unusable for lumber because of wood splintering and internal
tearing. Salvage of usable sawlogs from broken trees depends on the height of the standing stumps. To keep down
logging costs in storm-damaged stands of mixed sawtimber and pulpwood, all salvageable sawtimber and
pulpwood should be removed during the same operation.
   For more information, contact your county’s North Carolina Cooperative Extension center or visit the Web site
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster.
For immediate release


                                      Hiring an Arborist

   The following guidelines for selecting professional tree care professionals are offered cooperatively by
the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA), the USDA Forest Service, and the Arbor Day Foundation:

1.   Make sure they are part of an established business in the community or nearby area. There should
     be a phone listing, usually under Tree Service.

2.   Have them provide evidence they are actually working for the company, not moonighting.

3.   Ask for current certificates of insurance showing that they are fully insured for property damage,
     personal liability, and worker compensation.

4.   ldeally they should be members of a professional association such as the ISA, National Arborist
     Association (NAA), or the American Society of Consulting Arborists (ASCA).

5.   Arborists who have received certification from their professional associations, such as ISA Certified
     Arborists, will have received training and have access to current technical information on tree care,
     repair, and removal.

6.   lf possible, get more than one estimate to ensure that the price offered is competitive with that offered
     by others for the same services.

7.   ln case of tree removals, have a clear understanding about who removes the limbs and debris from the
        property, and whether or not the price includes stump removal and cleanup.

8.   Check to see if the estimate has considered the possible value your tree will have as firewood or chips,
     either to yourself or if sold to others.

   Some tree problems are critical and urgent now. Others can wait for competent service and should not be
regarded as an emergency. That allows you time to make informed decisions.
                                         Preventing Frozen Pipes
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                            When temperatures drop below              • Close foundation vents if the




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                         freezing–especially for a significant          temperature drops below freezing
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                         amount of time–the potential for               for a significant period of time.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                         frozen pipes increases dramatically.           Reopen when weather warms.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                         Before cold weather hits, here are
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                                                                      If pipes freeze:
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                         some precautionary steps you
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                                                                      • Shut off water valves. Stopping
                                     ○




                                         can take:


                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        the flow of water can minimize


                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                         • Know where and how to shut off

                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        the damage to your home.

                                                                                  ○
                                           your water from the main shut-
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                                                                      • Call a plumber to thaw your
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                           off valve.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                                                                        pipes. Thawing them yourself can
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○

                                         • Seal air leaks around pipes that
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○



                                                                                        lead to greater damage and can be
                                     ○




                                           allow cold air to seep in.
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        a hazard.
                                                                                  ○




                                         • Insulate pipes near outer walls,
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      • If your pipes burst, call a plumber
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                           in crawl spaces or in attics.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                        and your insurance agent.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                         • In exposed or problem areas, you
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                           may use heat tape or heat cables to
                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      Although NOT recommended,
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                           prevent freezing. Make certain they
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      if you do try to thaw:
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                           are UL approved and that you
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      • Don’t try to thaw the pipes with
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                           follow manufacturers instructions.
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                        an open flame or torch.
                                         • Disconnect garden hoses, shut off
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      • Don’t use ungrounded electrical
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                           and drain water from pipes leading
                                     ○




                                                                                  ○




                                                                                        appliances outdoors, or near
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                           outside.
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




                                                                                        grounded water pipes.
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of         • Turn your faucet on just enough
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8                                                         • Be careful of the potential
                                                                                  ○




                                           to have constant dripping.
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                                                                  ○




                                                                                        for electric shock in and
                                     ○




                                         • Open cabinet doors to allow heat
                                                                                  ○




 Carolina State University and
                                     ○




                                                                                        around water.
                                                                                  ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                     ○




                                           to circulate around pipes under
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                      • Never start a debris fire to
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                           a sink.
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                        warm pipes.
                                                                                  ○




                                         • Leave heat on and set no lower
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                                                                  ○




                                                                                      • When thawing pipes, always
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                           than 55 degrees.
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                                                                        work from the open faucet toward
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                         • If you plan to be away from home,
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to
                                                                                        the frozen area. This will keep
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North           have someone check on your
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,                                                        steam from being trapped by ice
                                                                                  ○




                                           house daily.
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                  ○
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department                                                          and bursting the pipe.
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.             Prepared by: Susan Condlin and Sarah Kirby, North Carolina Cooperative Extension
                                     ○
                                         Proper care with generators can
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                         protect life, property
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                            When electric power service is out         • a low oil shutdown feature




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         due to a major storm, many people               to prevent engine damage




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         turn to gasoline-powered generators to        • a wheel kit for easy transport.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         run household appliances. Knowing               It is also helpful to have a manual
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         how to use generators safely is impor-          or automatic switch to disconnect




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         tant to protect life and property.              the generator from the home’s
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                            North Carolina Cooperative Exten-            main power lines. Without this,
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         sion advises those using generators             use the main switch on your
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         to be sure to operate them in well-             electric service panel to cut the
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                         ventilated, covered, unheated areas.            power to your home.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○



                                            Generators should not be operated
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         in a basement, attached garage or other          Generators are usually used to run
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         closed area. Exhaust fumes contain            plug-in appliances such as refrigera-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         carbon monoxide, an odorless, color-          tors, freezers and lights. Any appli-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         less gas. Be aware of the effects that        ance not permanently wired to the
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         may be caused by carbon-monoxide,             electrical system can be operated
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         including drowsiness, headache and            with polarized extension cords from
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         disorientation.                               the generator. Overloaded extension
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                            When purchasing a portable genera-         cords can cause fire.
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         tor, keep in mind that they come                 If a generator is wired into a ser-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         in different sizes and have different         vice box for running 240-volt or hard-
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




                                         features. Have a licensed electrician         wire appliances like furnaces or air
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                         determine your power needs and                conditioners, it is important to have a
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                         match those with the power output             manual double-throw transfer switch
                                                                                   ○




      and June 30, 1914. North
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                         of the generator you select.                  on the service box or generator.
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                          The transfer switch prevents the
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                                                                   ○




                                         Here are some practical options:              generator from back-feeding electric-
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                         • an overhead valve engine for longer         ity into the power lines and possibly
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                           life and quieter operation                  causing injury or death to unsuspect-
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




     persons without regard to           • an automatic idle control to reduce         ing utility workers trying to restore
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                                                                   ○




                                           noise and fuel consumption                  power.
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State            • a large gas tank (A five-to-10 gallon
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local          tank may last only 5 to 10 hours.)
                                                                                   ○
                                     ○




                                                                                   ○




     governments cooperating.
                                     ○
   The switch also prevents costly damage                  For more information on disaster recovery,




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
to your generator when power is restored.               contact your county center of North Carolina




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
A licensed electrician should install the switch.       Cooperative Extension, or visit the Web site




                                                    ○
   Finally, remember fire safety in refueling and       http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster/.




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
storing generators. Let the generator engine cool




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
for at least two minutes before refueling




                                                    ○
to prevent fire. Fill tanks 1 inch from the top




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
to prevent fuel from spilling.




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
   Store generators in a safe place to prevent




                                                    ○
large fuel tanks from catching fire. Gasoline for




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
running generators should be stored where it




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
will not get contaminated with water, resulting




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
in poor performance.




                                                    ○
                                                    ○
                                         Kerosene Heater Safety
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○
                                     ○




                                            Portable kerosene heaters can




                                                                                      ○
                                                                                             of gasoline or other volatile fuels
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         supply homeowners with temporary                    or solvents mixed with kerosene
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         heat during a power outage or can be                can substantially increase the risk
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         used to warm a cool room without the                of a fire or an explosion.
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         expense of heating the entire house.
                                     ○




                                                                                          • Always store kerosene in a con-




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         Newer models are manufactured with                  tainer intended for kerosene, not
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         numerous safety features, but operator              in a gasoline can or a can that has
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         errors such as using gasoline instead of



                                                                                      ○
                                                                                          contained gasoline. This helps
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         kerosene, failure to provide adequate
                                     ○




                                                                                             avoid using contaminated fuel or


                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         ventilation, and fuel spills have re-               the wrong fuel by mistake. Kero-
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                         sulted in numerous home fires. Ac-                  sene containers are usually blue;
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         cording to the National Fire Protection             gasoline containers are red.
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                         Association, there is a “much higher”
                                     ○




                                                                                          • When purchasing kerosene at
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                         fatal fire risk associated with the use of          the pump, make sure to use the
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         wood stoves, portable kerosene heaters
                                                                                      ○




                                                                                             kerosene pump, not the gasoline
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         and space heaters as compared to                    pump. Some service stations have
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                         central heating.
                                     ○




                                                                                          separate islands for kerosene.
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                            The following list will help reduce           Some oil companies have also
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         the risk of a fire from using a portable
                                                                                      ○




                                                                                             established quality control pro-
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         kerosene heater:                                    grams to minimize the chances
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         • Use only water-clear 1-K grade                 of gasoline contamination of kero-
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○




                                            kerosene (see Figure 1). Never use            sene.
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




                                         gasoline. Gasoline is not the same
                                                                                      ○




                                                                                          • 1-K grade kerosene should be
                                     ○




                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




   Distributed in furtherance of
                                            as kerosene. Even small amounts                  purchased from a dealer who
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




the acts of Congress of May 8
                                                                                      ○
                                     ○




      and June 30, 1914. North                                                                              can certify that what
                                     ○




 Carolina State University and
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State                                                                               is being sold is 1-K.
                                     ○




University commit themselves
                                                                                                            State-operated and
                                     ○




    to positive action to secure
                                     ○




  equal opportunity regardless                                                                              private sector certi-
                                     ○




 of race, color, creed, national
                                     ○




   origin, religion, sex, age, or                                                                           fication programs
                                     ○




  disability. In addition, the two
                                     ○




       Universities welcome all                                                                             that ensure the
                                     ○




     persons without regard to                                                                              quality of kerosene
                                     ○




       sexual orientation. North
                                     ○




      Carolina State University,                                                                            are established in
                                     ○
                                     ○




     North Carolina A&T State
                                                                                                            some states. Grades
                                     ○




   University, U.S. Department
                                     ○




        of Agriculture, and local                                                                           other than 1-K can
                                     ○




     governments cooperating.
                                                                                                            lead to a release of
                                     ○
  more pollutants in your home, posing a                    individuals with chronic respiratory or




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  possible health risk. Different grades of                 circulatory health problems.




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  kerosene can look the same so it is impor-              • To assure you and family members are not




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  tant that the dealer certify that the product             exposed to significant levels of these pollut-




                                                      ○
  sold is 1-K grade kerosene.                               ants, you should follow carefully the follow




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
• Never refuel the heater inside the home. Fill             ing rules of safe operation:




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  the tank outdoors, away from combustible                     • Operate your heater in a room with




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  materials, and only after the heater has been                  a door open to the rest of the house.




                                                      ○
  turned off and allowed to cool. Do not refuel                • If you must operate your heater in a




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  the heater when it is hot or in operation. Do                  room with the door closed to the rest




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  not fill the fuel tank above the “full” mark.                  of the house, open an outside window




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  The space above the “full” mark is to allow                    approximately an inch to permit fresh




                                                      ○
  the fuel to expand without causing leakage                     air to effectively dilute the pollutants




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  when the heater is operated.                                   below a level of concern.




                                                      ○
                                                      ○
• In case of flare-up or if uncontrolled flaming               • Always operate your heater according



                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  occurs, do not attempt to move or carry the                    to the manufacturer’s instructions,

                                                      ○
  heater. This can make the fire worse. If the                   making sure that the wick is set at
                                                      ○
                                                      ○
  heater is equipped with a manual shut-off           ○
                                                      ○
                                                                 the proper level as instructed by the
  switch, activate the switch to turn off the                    manufacturer.
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  heater. If this does not extinguish the fire,                • Keep the wick in your heater clean
                                                      ○




  leave the house immediately and call the                       and in good operating condition by
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  fire department. As an added reminder and                      following the cleaning and mainten-
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  precaution, install at least one smoke detector                ance procedures recommended by
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  near each sleeping area or on each level of                    the manufacturer.
                                                      ○




  the house.                                                   • Keep an outside window opened ap-
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




• Reduce your exposure to indoor air pollut-                     proximately an inch to ensure adequate
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  ants by properly operating and maintaining                     fresh air infiltration. This is important
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  your portable kerosene heater. Although                        regardless of whether you use a kero-
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  portable kerosene heaters are very efficient                   sene heater or some other conventional
                                                      ○




  in the burning of fuel to produce heat, low                    method of heating if your home is re-
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  levels of certain pollutants such as carbon                    latively new and tight, or if it is older
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are pro-                         but has been winterized to reduce air
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




  duced. Exposure to low levels of these                         infiltration from the outside.
                                                      ○




  pollutants may be harmful, especially to
                                                      ○
                                                      ○




       By Howard J. Doss, Safety Leader, Agricultural Engineering Department, Michigan State University.


Reference: Consumer Produce Safety Alert - 009403.                                      NASD Review: 04/2002
                                                    Prevention in the Home
                                     North Carolinians are familiar with mildew, that thin growth of fungus that grows
                                     on many kinds of surfaces. Mildew grows when the spores of molds settle on a
                                     welcoming surface. It commonly develops on areas that are damp, warm poorly
                                     ventilated, and dark, and it thrives in warm, humid weather. Bathrooms, closets,
                                     basements, and crawl spaces are prime sites. A musty odor often indicates
                                     mildew.

                                     Mildew is a greater problem when the          Weigh the plastic down along the
                                     weather is warm and the relative humid-       foundation wall.
                                     ity is 60 percent or more for several days.
                                                                                      Ventilate the attic. Continuous soffit
                                     It is also a problem when moisture is
                                                                                   and ridge vents in combination are
                                     trapped in an area in your home. Take
                                                                                   recommended. Attic fans may also be
                                     special precautions to prevent mildew
                                                                                   used.
                                     growth if either of these conditions occur.
                                            Prevent mildew by keeping surfaces         Use ventilating fans in the kitchen and
                                     dry, clean, and well ventilated. To prevent   bathroom. Make sure these fans vent to
                                     excess moisture:                              the outdoors, not to the attic, crawl or
   Distributed in furtherance of
the acts of Congress of May 8                                                      living spaces. Run the fans while cooking
                                         Turn on air conditioners when relative
      and June 30, 1914. North                                                     and bathing, and 15 to 20 minutes after
 Carolina State University and       humidity is 50 percent or above. Humid-
     North Carolina A&T State                                                      bathing.
University commit themselves
                                     ity is given in the weather forecast. Air
    to positive action to secure     conditioning helps remove moisture from           Combustion appliances can contribute
  equal opportunity regardless       the air. Make sure air conditioner con-       to excess moisture in the home. Vent a gas
 of race, color, creed, national
   origin, religion, sex, age, or    densation drains outside and away from        heater or gas logs to the outside using an
  disability. In addition, the two   the foundation of the house.                  approved flue.
       Universities welcome all
     persons without regard to          Install sheets of polyethylene in crawl        Vent clothes dryers to the outside of
       sexual orientation. North
      Carolina State University,     spaces. Open vents in foundation walls.       the house, never to the attic, crawl or
     North Carolina A&T State        Cover 70 to 80 percent of the ground          living spaces.
   University, U.S. Department
                                     under the house with 6-mil plastic.
        of Agriculture, and local                                                     Do not let damp or wet clothes lie
     governments cooperating.
                                                                                   around the house.
   Clean or wash clothes before storing.                      Mildew Removal
Mildew begins on spots and stains.
                                                              How to Remove Mildew from Fabrics
   Stretch out a wet shower curtain after
every shower.                                                 Mildew most often appears on natural fibers, such
                                                              as cotton, linen, silk, and wool. It can actually rot the
    When necessary, use chemicals to control humidity         fabric. Remove mildew spots as soon as they are
by absorbing moisture. Silica gel, activated alumina,         discovered. To avoid scattering the mildew spores
and calcium chloride can be purchased in drug stores          in the house, take the fabric outdoors and brush off
and department stores. Put in an open box and place           all surface mildew. Then sun and air the fabric thor-
in the closet, but keep it out of reach of children.          oughly. If spots remain, non-washable articles should
   Keep closet lights on. A 40- to 60-watt bulb uses          be dry cleaned promptly. Washable fabrics should be
a very small amount of electricity.                           tested for color fastness by trying bleach on a seam or
                                                              hem. Use one of the following solutions:
    Use a dehumidifier. These are especially useful in
basements and other naturally cool areas of the house         1. Make a mixture of lemon juice and salt. Apply to
during humid summer months when you may need                  the stain and leave the fabric in the sun to bleach.
to run the unit continuously. Make certain that you           Rinse thoroughly and dry.
remove water and clean humidifier daily. Only use             2. Mix one tablespoon of non-chlorine bleach (sodium
a dehumidifier with an Underwriters Laboratories              perborate bleach) with one pint of water. Use hot
(UL) Seal.                                                    water if the fabric can take it; otherwise, use lukewarm
   Wax leather goods. Wax will protect leather from           water. Sponge and soak the stain with the solution.
mildew. Spray-on fungicides are also available for            Leave it on for one-half hour; then rinse well. Repeat
leathers and fabrics. Follow the label instructions.          the process if the stain is not removed the first time.
    Trim shrubs growing close to the house. They              3. Dilute household bleach as directed on the con-
often prevent good air circulation and hold dampness.         tainer. Dip stains in the solution; then rinse. Do not
                                                              use on silk or wool.
    Thoroughly remove any mildew from the exterior
of a house before repainting. If this is not done, the
                                                              How to Remove Mildew from Leather
mildew will grow through the new paint coat. Scrub
the painted surface with a bristle brush or sponge            Make a diluted alcohol solution by mixing one cup
using the following solution: 1/3 cup of household            of denatured alcohol with one cup of water. Using
detergent, 1 to 2 quarts of liquid household bleach (5        a cloth dampened with this solution, wipe mildew
percent sodium hypochlorite), and 2 to 3 quarts of            off leather. Dry it in a current of air. If mildew re-
warm water. This mixture can also be used to remove           mains, clean the article with thick suds of mild soap,
mildew from naturally finished or unfinished wood.            saddle soap or a soap containing a fungicide or
                                                              germicide. Wipe the suds off with a damp cloth and
WARNING: Do not mix liquid household bleach with
                                                              dry in an airy place. Polish the leather with a good
ammonia or with any detergents or cleansers containing
ammonia. Bleach and ammonia form a lethal gas. Many           wax dressing.
household cleaners contain ammonia, so be extremely careful
what type of cleaner is mixed with bleach.                    How to Remove Mildew and Mildew Odor
      If mildewed wood is refinished without cleaning
                                                              from a Rug
the surface, the mildew can grow through the new              A musty odor often indicates mildew in a rug. Brush
coating. Then it is usually impossible to control the         the rug thoroughly with a broom or use a vacuum
mildew. The entire paint coat should be stripped,             cleaner. Empty or change the vacuum cleaner bag
scrubbed with the above solution, rinsed, allowed to          immediately to prevent growth of the mold in the
dry, treated with a water-repellent preservative, and         cleaner. Sun and air the rug outdoors, if possible, or
refinished with mildew-resistant paint.                       use an electric heater and a fan to air and dry it. If
                                                              the mildew remains, sponge the rug with thick suds
                                                              of detergent or rug shampoo. Rinse with a sponge
                                                              dampened in clean water. Dry the rug thoroughly.
How to Remove Mildew from Upholstered                                             Use heat and improved ventilation to dry mil-
Furniture                                                                  dewed wood. Make a mixture of 4 to 6 tablespoons of
                                                                           a mild alkali, such as trisodium phosphate (TSP) or
The first step in removing mildew from upholstered                         washing soda, and 1 gallon of water. Scrub the mil-
furniture is to remove loose, old spores by brushing                       dewed surface with the solution. A solution of disin-
with a soft-bristled broom. This should be done                            fectant, made by mixing 1 ounce of the disinfectant
outdoors to prevent scattering the spores inside the                       with 1 gallon of water, may also be used. After thor-
house. Using an attachment, run a vacuum cleaner                           oughly cleaning the wood with one of these solutions,
over the surface of the furniture to draw out more of                      rinse well with water and allow wood to dry as
the mold. If the furniture piece is moist or damp, dry                     quickly as possible. Remember, however, that too
by using an electric fan and electric heater to heat and                   much water on a wood floor can cause shrinkage
carry away the moist air. If possible, place the article in                and swelling problems.
direct sunlight and air to stop mold growth. Then do                              If the mold has penetrated the wood under the
one of the following to remove stains:                                     paint or varnish, the entire coat of paint should be
1. Sponge with a commercial dry-cleaning solvent.*                         stripped, scrubbed with 1/3 cup household detergent,
Blot. Allow to dry. Sponge with water. Mix a Dry                           1 to 2 quarts of liquid household bleach (5 percent
Spotter (1 part coconut oil and 8 parts liquid dry-                        sodium hypochlorite), and 2 to 3 quarts of warm
cleaning solvent* plus a few drops of ammonia).                            water. Rinse the surface. Allowed it to dry thoroughly.
Apply with an absorbent pad. Sponge with water                             Treat it with a water-repellent preservative or paint it
                                                                           with mildew-resistant paint. If mildewed wood is
2. Wipe the stain using a cloth moistened with a                           refinished without cleaning the surface, the mildew
diluted alcohol solution made by combining 1 cup                           can grow through the new coating. In this situation,
denatured or rubbing alcohol and 1 cup water. Blot                         it is usually impossible to control the mildew.
thoroughly and allow to dry (in the sun and air, if                               Mildew-resistant paint is formulated to help
possible).                                                                 combat mildew. However, paint containing chlori-
For safety’s sake:                                                         nated phenol, phenyl mercuric compounds, and
                                                                           other fungicides should never be used on surfaces
   Read labels carefully and follow instructions;                          that could reach the mouths of small children, such
some products are highly toxic and many are                                as windowsills, playpens, or toys. It could be harmful.
flammable.
    Use products in well-ventilated areas.                                 How to Remove Mildew from Ceramic Tile
   Pretest products like bleach solutions on an                            Scrub tile with solution of detergent, Calgon, and
inconspicuous area.                                                        warm water. Use a brush for grout lines. A toothbrush
                                                                           or fingernail brush may be helpful. Rinse with water.
    Be careful with delicate fabrics like silk.
                                                                           Follow with a rinse made of a solution of 1 cup of
    Use rubber gloves.                                                     household bleach and 1 gallon of water. Dark spots in
                                                                           corners may need an application of pure bleach; apply
    Close containers tightly when not in use.
                                                                           with a cotton swab. Allow the bleach to remain on the
    Follow label instructions for storage and disposal.                    tile for 30 minutes. Rinse and dry the entire area.
                                                                                  To prevent mildew from reappearing, apply a
How to Remove Mildew From Wood Floors, Painted                             coat of silicone wax or a good liquid car wax to the
Walls or Wood Surfaces                                                     tile. Do not wax floors in shower or bathrooms as it
                                                                           may cause dangerous slipping. Transparent silicone
Mold can grow on damp, warm, poorly ventilated
                                                                           waterproofing intended for waterproofing masonry
wood floors, painted walls, and wood surfaces.
                                                                           walls may be applied to grout using an artist’s paint
Painted surfaces do resist mildew, but even enamel
                                                                           brush. This will prevent mildew from recurring in
or oil-resin paint can mildew under extreme circum-
stances.                                                                   the grout.


* Look for products containing petroleum distillates or hydrocarbon such   For more information visit:
as trichloroethane, xylene methylenechloride, methane, benzene and/or      http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/homecare2/data/hc2.html
naphtha. These chemicals may also be found in spot removers and
cleaners.                                                                  Originally prepared by
                                                                           Housing and Home Furnishings Specialists
                                                                           Revised by Sarah D. Kirby, Ph.D., Extension Specialist — Housing
                         Moisture Control and Prevention Guide
                                         Moisture can cause serious dam-        excess moisture, such as the areas
                                     age to the structure of your home.         around plumbing fixtures in kitchens,
                                     Moisture causes more than $1 billion       laundry rooms, and bathrooms; the
                                     in damage to homes annually, from          sills under sliding glass doors; and
                                     minor damage like peeling paint to         places where chimneys, porches,
                                     major damage, such as rotting,             garages, and patios attach to the
                                     crumbing floor joists.                     house. If you do not want to do the
                                         You can greatly reduce the cost        inspection yourself, you can hire a
                                     of moisture damage in your home and        building inspector to do the job for
                                     eliminate the risk of structural loss      you. If you have a moisture control
                                     if you learn how to control for mois-      contract with a pest control company,
                                     ture. This publication is designed to      make certain that they take periodic
                                     help avoid the costly problems asso-       moisture readings.
                                     ciated with excess moisture by help-          • Fungi will only decay wood with
                                     ing you to identify and correct mois-            a moisture content above the
                                                                                      fiber saturation point, which
                                     ture problems. The recommendations
                                                                                      is 30 percent by weight for most
                                     given are guidelines for homes in
                                                                                      species used in construction.
                                     North Carolina and may differ from
                                                                                   • Wood with a moisture content
                                     those in other climates.
                                                                                      of 20 percent and above is sus-
                                                                                      ceptible to decay.
                                     Wood Moisture Meter                           • If the moisture meter reads
                                     Readings                                         below 20 percent, the wood is
   Distributed in furtherance of         A wood moisture meter may                    unlikely to decay.
the acts of Congress of May 8
      and June 30, 1914. North
                                     prove a good investment. A meter              • A moisture meter reading of
 Carolina State University and       costs anywhere from $50 to a couple              20 to 24 percent is in the caution
     North Carolina A&T State
University commit themselves         hundred dollars. They are sold in                zone. Look for sources of the
    to positive action to secure
  equal opportunity regardless
                                     hardware and home improvement                    excess moisture and correct
 of race, color, creed, national     centers. They are simple to use. You             the problems.
   origin, religion, sex, age, or
  disability. In addition, the two   insert the probes into the wood and           • If the moisture meter reads 25
       Universities welcome all
     persons without regard to
                                     read the indicator. It will tell you the         to 30 percent, decay and damage
       sexual orientation. North     percent of moisture in the surface.              will most likely be present. Look
      Carolina State University,
     North Carolina A&T State            Make sure to take readings from              for sources of the excess mois-
   University, U.S. Department
        of Agriculture, and local
                                     every corner of a crawl space and                ture, correct problems, and
     governments cooperating.        from areas commonly prone to having              replace decayed wood.
Gutter Management                                        • Vent wells should be used if foundation vents
   A gutter system helps protect against excessive         are partially or fully below exterior grade.
moisture, but only if it is properly designed and
maintained.                                             Sump Pumps
  • Overhangs should be at least 18 inches wide.         • Install a sump pump only in extreme cases
     Drip edge flashing should be installed at the         where drainage is too difficult or would cost
     roof edge.                                            too much to correct.
  • Gutters should be cleaned, inspected, and            • Locate the sump pump at the lowest point in
     repaired regularly.                                   a basement or crawl space.
  • Downspout to drainpipe systems are preferred         • Sump water must be discharged into a storm
     for removing rain water from the gutters.             drain, dry well, or a surface outlet.
     Make certain they are clear of debris. Splash
     blocks are not recommended as they release         Insulating Heating and
     water too close to the home.                       Cooling Ducts
  • Clay tile or flexible pipe should be used to         • Insulate exposed heating and cooling ducts
     conduct gutter water underground to a suitable        (likewise hot and cold water pipes) to at least
     release outlet at least 10 feet downhill and          R-6. This will prevent condensation that could
     away from the house.                                  wet the surrounding insulation. Wet insulation
  • Suitable release sites from downspout drain-           holds water next to structural parts of a house,
     age systems are storm water drains, dry wells,        which over time promotes wood decay.
     or surface outlets.                                 • If you use central air conditioning over long
                                                           periods of time, check for air leaks at joints in
Landscape Planting                                         the duct work, which may cause ducts to
   Landscaping can add beauty and value to your            “sweat.” Repair any leaks.
home as long as you plan ahead to avoid moisture         • Properly sealed ducts should all be insulated
problems.                                                  to R-6. This amount can be doubled to R-11
  • Landscape plants should not block free air             if only the outer layer of insulation is backed
     flow through the crawl space vents.                   with a vapor barrier.
  • Plants should be placed beyond the drip edge
     of the roof, and foliage should be at least 5      Controlling Moisture in the
     feet from the foundation.                          Crawl Space*
  • Finished planting beds and mulches should be         • Leave foundation vents fully open year round
     lower than the ground level in the crawl space        unless they must be closed in winter to pre-
     and should slope away from the house.                 vent frozen water pipes. A better solution is
  • Keep any organic mulch or ground cover at              to insulate water pipes to prevent freezing.
     least 12 inches away from the foundation.           • CABO Building Code specifies ventilation
                                                           openings of not less than 1 square foot for
Crawl Space Grading                                        each 150 square feet of crawl space area.
  • Crawl space grade should be higher than out-           There are exceptions to this rule, however.
    side surface grade.                                    Ventilation openings may be reduced to 1/
  • Maintain an 18-inch minimum clearance from             1,500 of under-floor area where the ground
    the bottom of joists to the soil surface, prefer-      surface is treated with a vapor barrier and one
    ably 2 to 3 feet.                                      ventilation opening is within 3 feet of each
  • CABO (Council of American Building Offi-               corner of the building. Review the CABO
    cials) Building Code requires that outside sur-        Building Code for other exceptions. You can
    face grade away from the foundation will fall          get a copy of the building code from the North
    a minimum of 6 inches within the first 10 feet.        Carolina Department of Insurance.
   • Vents should not be obstructed by duct work,              • To control back splash, the ground surface
     items stored in the crawl space, or landscape               underneath the roof edge should be covered
     plants.                                                     with gravel or some other ground cover that
   • Cover the crawl space with 6 mil polyethylene               will absorb the runoff rain water and reduce
     to keep soil moisture from vaporizing and                   the splash.
     reaching the wood substructure.                           • Porches, patios, or decks should slope away
   • Floor insulation should be installed with the               from the house to promote good drainage.
     vapor barrier against the subfloor.
                                                            Flashing
*Currently, there is considerable debate in the building        Flashing is sheet metal or plastic that is used to
science community about the use of crawl space and attic    cover joints and openings and protect against water
ventilation. The guidelines presented in this publication
are 1998 recommended practices for crawl space and attic
                                                            seepage.
ventilation.                                                   • Drip edge flashing should be applied to all
                                                                 roof edges and the tops of all exposed win-
Other Sources of Moisture                                        dows and doors.
   • All dryer vent systems must be vented to                  • Flashing should be installed wherever roofing
     the outdoors. Do not vent clothes dryers                    meets siding. Siding should be cut short of
     into basements, crawl spaces, or attics.                    the roofing shingles by approximately 1 inch, and
   • Bathrooms, kitchens, and laundry rooms                      any cut wood edges sealed against water entry.
     should be fitted with exhaust fans that vent              • Joints in siding materials should be flashed,
     moisture-laden air to the outside, not into                 or the ends of the wood treated with a water
     attics or wall voids.                                       repellent preservative to prevent water entry.
   • Kerosene heaters, gas logs, and other combus-             • Include flashing underneath all exterior doors
     tible appliances should be vented to the out-               and windows.
     side, too, because they produce water vapor               • Flash the top of foundation walls to prevent
     as a byproduct of combustion.                               water from wicking up through the foundation
   • Plumbing, both in the living area of the house              block and wetting the wood in the substruc-
     and underneath in the crawl space or base-                  ture.
     ment, should be inspected regularly for leaks.            • Prefabricated chimneys should have a cap of
   • Pipe condensation from air conditioning units               flashing that extends several inches down on
     away from the foundation, and release it                    all sides.
     where it will run downhill away from the
     house.                                                 Attic Ventilation*
   • The moisture level in the home should fall                • Soffit vents should be installed in combination
     within 25 to 50 percent. A hygrometer may                   with at least one other vent at the top of the
     be used to help monitor the relative humidity               roof. A combination continuous soffit and
     in a home. Use ventilation to control relative              continuous ridge vent is preferred.
     humidity. If ventilation fails to reduce humid-           • Items stored in the attic should not interfere
     ity, a dehumidifier can be used.                            with cross-ventilation.
                                                               • Insulation must extend over the top plate of
Managing Rainwater Without                                       the wall and be fitted tightly to the top plate.
Gutters                                                          Make certain that attic insulation does not
   • Drip edge flashing should always be installed               block soffit vents. Use baffles to keep insula-
     at the roof edge, even when gutters are used.               tion from obstructing ventilation.
   • Overhangs should be at least 30 inches wide
     to protect siding from rainfall and to keep roof       *Currently, there is considerable debate in the building science
     water away from the foundation.                        community about the use of crawl space and attic ventilation.
                                                            The guidelines presented in this publication are 1998 recom-
                                                            mended practices for crawl space and attic ventilation.
Wood and Soil Contact                                                  Adapted from
    • Untreated wood siding should never be            Redmann, L.L. and Rowe, R. (1991). The Billion
      closer than 6 inches from the soil or mulch           Dollar Thief: Moisture, Cooperative
      surface.                                            Extension Service of Clemson University.
    • Untreated wood, such as sills, joists, plates,
      etc., should be no closer than 8 inches from                 Additional References
      the surface of the soil or mulch.                North Carolina Building Code Council and North
    • All pressure-treated wood is not the same.          Carolina Department of Insurance (1997).
      When pressure-treated wood is used, choose       North Carolina State Building Code, Volume VII
      the proper retention level or exposure condi-                    — Residential.
      tion: above ground, ground contact, wood         1995 CABO Model One and Two Family Code
      foundation, or salt water.                              with North Carolina Amendments.
    • Wooden stairs and decks and all other ex-
      posed wood should be built of the appropri-      North Carolina Department of Commerce (1992).
      ate pressure-treated wood and sealed with a       A Builder’s Guide to Energy Efficient Homes in
      water repellent preservative or semi-transpar-                   North Carolina.
      ent oil-based stain.




                                            Prepared by
                           Sarah D. Kirby, Extension Specialist — Housing
                 M. Cassandra Wiggins, Extension Associate — Environmental Housing



                                            Published by
                             North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service




8/98—5M—JMG                                                                                    FCS-486
E98-33673
                                  County Centers                               Phone                                    Fax




              HOW TO CONTACT US
Your Guide                        Alamance ......................... 336-570-6740 ........................ 336-570-6689
                                  Alexander ......................... 828-632-4451 ........................ 828-632-7533
                                  Alleghany ......................... 336-372-5597 ........................ 336-372-2279
     to the                       Anson ............................... 704-694-2415 ........................ 704-694-2248
                                  Ashe ................................. 336-219-2650 ........................ 336-219-2682
Cooperative                       Avery ................................ 828-733-8270 ........................ 828-733-8293
                                  Beaufort ............................ 252-946-0111 ........................ 252-975-5887
                                  Bertie ................................ 252-794-5317 ........................ 252-794-5327
 Extension                        Bladen .............................. 910-862-4591 ........................ 910-862-6939
                                  Brunswick ......................... 910-253-2610 ........................ 910-253-2612
    Faculty                       Buncombe ........................ 828-255-5522 ........................ 828-255-5202
                                  Burke ................................ 828-439-4460 ........................ 828-439-4468
                                  Cabarrus .......................... 704-920-3310 ........................ 704-920-3323
  and Staff                       Caldwell ............................ 828-757-1290 ........................ 828-757-1251
                                  Camden ............................ 252-338-1919 ........................ 252-338-0277
    in Your                       Carteret ............................ 252-222-6352 ........................ 252-222-6361
                                  Caswell ............................. 336-694-4158 ........................ 336-694-5930
                                  Catawba ........................... 828-465-8240 ........................ 828-465-8428
    County                        Chatham ........................... 919-542-8202 ........................ 919-542-8246
                                  Cherokee .......................... 828-837-2210 ........................ 828-837-2172
                                  Cherokee Res .................. 828-497-3521 ........................ 828-497-6811
                                  Chowan ............................ 252-482-6585 ........................ 252-482-6590
                                  Clay .................................. 828-389-6305 ........................ 828-389-8872
                                  Cleveland ......................... 704-482-4365 ........................ 704-480-6484
                                  Columbus ......................... 910-640-6605 ........................ 910-642-6315
                                  Craven .............................. 252-633-1477 ........................ 252-633-2120
                                  Cumberland ...................... 910-321-6860 ........................ 910-321-6883
                                  Currituck ........................... 252-232-2261 ........................ 252-232-3290
                                  Dare ................................. 252-473-4290 ........................ 252-473-3106
                                  Davidson .......................... 336 242-2080 ........................ 336 249-7300
                                  Davie ................................ 336-751-6297 ........................ 336-751-1184
                                  Duplin ............................... 910-296-2143 ........................ 910-296-2191
                                  Durham ............................ 919-560-0525 ........................ 919-560-0530
                                  Edgecombe ...................... 252-641-7815 ........................ 252-641-7831
                                  Forsyth ............................. 336-767-8213 ........................ 336-767-3557
                                  Franklin ............................ 919-496-3344 ........................ 919-496-0222
                                  Gaston .............................. 704-922-0301 ........................ 704-922-2140
                                  Gates ................................ 252-357-1400 ........................ 252-357-1167
                                  Graham ............................ 828-479-7979 ........................ 828-479-2000
                                  Granville ........................... 919-603-1350 ........................ 919-603-0268
                                  Greene ............................. 252-747-5831 ........................ 252-747-3884
                                  Guilford ............................. 336-375-5876 ........................ 336-375-2295
                                  County Centers                             Phone                                     Fax
                                  Halifax .............................. 252-583-5161 ........................ 252-583-1683



              HOW TO CONTACT US
Your Guide                        Harnett ............................. 910-893-7530 ........................ 910-893-7539
                                  Haywood .......................... 828-456-3575 ........................ 828-452-0289
     to the                       Henderson ........................ 828-697-4891 ........................ 828-697-4581
                                  Hertford ............................ 252-358-7822 ........................ 252-358-7880
                                  Hoke ................................. 910-875-3461 ........................ 910-875-9044
Cooperative                       Hyde ................................. 252-926-4486 ........................ 252-926-4490
                                  Iredell ............................... 704-873-0507 ........................ 704-878-3164
 Extension                        Jackson ............................ 828-586-4009 ........................ 828-586-5509
                                  Johnston ........................... 919-989-5380 ........................ 919-989-5475
                                  Jones ................................ 252-448-9621 ........................ 252-448-1243
    Faculty                       Lee ................................... 919-775-5624 ........................ 919-775-1302
                                  Lenoir ............................... 252-527-2191 ........................ 252-527-1290
  and Staff                       Lincoln .............................. 704-736-8452 ........................ 704-736-8466
                                  Macon .............................. 828-349-2046 ........................ 828-349-2405
                                  Madison ............................ 828-649-2411 ........................ 828-649-2020
    in Your                       Martin ............................... 252-792-1621 ........................ 252-792-2408
                                  McDowell .......................... 828-652-8104 ........................ 828-652-8104
    County                        Mecklenburg ..................... 704-336-2561 ........................ 704-336-6876
                                  Mitchell ............................. 828-688-4811 ........................ 828-688-2051
                                  Montgomery ..................... 910-576-6011 ........................ 910-576-2635
                                  Moore ............................... 910-947-3188 ........................ 910-947-1494
                                  Nash ................................. 252-459-9810 ........................ 252-459-9850
                                  New Hanover.................... 910-798-7660 ........................ 910-798-7678
                                  Northampton .................... 252-534-2711 ........................ 252-534-1827
                                  Onslow ............................. 910-455-5873 ........................ 910-455-0977
                                  Orange ............................. 919-245-2050 ........................ 919-644-3067
                                  Pamlico ............................ 252-745-4121 ........................ 252-745-5082
                                  Pasquotank ...................... 252-338-3954 ........................ 252-338-6442
                                  Pender .............................. 910-259-1235 ........................ 910-259-1291
                                  Perquimans ...................... 252-426-5428 ........................ 252-426-1646
                                  Person .............................. 336-599-1195 ........................ 336-598-0272
                                  Pitt .................................... 252-757-2800 ........................ 252-757-1456
                                  Polk .................................. 828-894-8218 ........................ 828-894-5693
                                  Randolph .......................... 336-318-6000 ........................ 336-318-6011
                                  Richmond ......................... 910-997-8255 ........................ 910-997-8257
                                  Robeson ........................... 910-671-3276 ........................ 910-671-6278
                                  Rockingham ..................... 336-342-8230 ........................ 336-342-8242
                                  Rowan .............................. 704-633-0571 ........................ 704-636-2840
                                  Rutherford ........................ 828-287-6010 ........................ 828-288-4036
                                  Sampson .......................... 910-592-7161 ........................ 910-592-9513
                                  Scotland ........................... 910-277-2422 ........................ 910-277-2426
                                  County Centers                               Phone                                    Fax
                                  Stanly ............................... 704-983-3987 ........................ 704-983-3303



              HOW TO CONTACT US
Your Guide                        Stokes .............................. 336-593-8179 ........................ 336-593-8790
                                  Surry ................................. 336-401-8025 ........................ 336-401-8048
     to the                       Swain ............................... 828-488-3848 ........................ 828-488-3575
                                  Transylvania ..................... 828-884-3109 ........................ 828-884-3142
                                  Tyrrell ............................... 252-796-1581 ........................ 252-796-2881
Cooperative                       Union ................................ 704-283-3801 ........................ 704-283-3734
                                  Vance ............................... 252-438-8188 ........................ 252-492-3830
 Extension                        Wake ................................ 919-250-1100 ........................ 919-250-1097
                                  Warren ............................. 252-257-3640 ........................ 252-257-5616
                                  Washington ...................... 252-793-2163 ........................ 252-793-1562
    Faculty                       Watauga ........................... 828-264-3061 ........................ 828-264-3067
                                  Wayne .............................. 919-731-1520 ........................ 919-731-1511
  and Staff                       Wilkes .............................. 336-651-7330 ........................ 336-651-7516
                                  Wilson .............................. 252-237-0111 ........................ 252-237-0114
                                  Yadkin............................... 336-679-2061 ........................ 336-679-3088
    in Your                       Yancey .............................. 828-682-6186 ........................ 828-682-7680

    County
North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Cooperative Extension is an educational outreach of North Carolina State University
and North Carolina A&T State University. Located in every county and the Cherokee
Reservation, Cooperative Extension uses research to develop educational programs
and to assist communities in addressing issues and needs. Learn more about
Cooperative Extension at www.ces.ncsu.edu. To reach Cooperative Extension
faculty in your county, find your county’s listing on page 47-49.


Our Mission
North Carolina Cooperative Extension is an educational partnership helping people put
research-based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship
and an improved quality of life.


Learn More
This handbook focuses on helping your family prepare for emergencies. For guidelines
on dealing with the aftermath of a disaster, such as dealing with creditors, filing
insurance claims and dealing with damage to property, contact your local Cooperative
Extension Center. See pages 47-49 or access www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster.



For Spanish Speakers
A version of this handbook is available in Spanish upon request or access it at the Web
site listed above.




The use of trade and brand names in this publication does not imply the endorsement of these products or criticism
of similar products not mentioned.


Distributed in furtherance of the acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. North Carolina State University and
North Carolina A&T State University commit themselves to positive action to secure equal opportunity regardless of
race, color, creed, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. In addition, the two Universities welcome all persons
without regard to sexual orientation. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.

				
DOCUMENT INFO