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Rise of Totalitarianism

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					Rise of Totalitarianism



     Isms & Dictators
Conservative Authoritarianism

   Traditional form of antidemocratic
    government in Europe
    (e.g., Metternich, Catherine the Great)
   Prevented major changes undermining
    existing social order
   Popular participation in government
    forbidden or severely limited
    Conservative Authoritarianism
   Limited in power and in objectives (usually sought status
    quo)
   Lacked modern technology and communications and
    could not control many aspects of their subjects’ lives.
   Usually limited demands to taxes, army recruits, and
    passive acceptance of the regime
   Conservative Authoritarianism revived after WWI,
    especially in less-developed Eastern Europe and Spain
    and Portugal; only Czechoslovakia remained democratic.
   Great Depression ended various levels of democracy in
    Austria, Bulgaria, Rumania, Greece, Estonia, and Latvia
vs. Totalitarianism
   Dictatorship that tried to control every aspect of
    the lives of the people.
   New technology made this possible: radio,
    automobile, telephone
   Tools of totalitarianism: censorship,
    indoctrination, terror
   Existed first in Russia, then Italy?, Japan and
    Germany (sought expansion, except Russia)
    Fascist Italy
   Causes for rise of fascism
   In early 20th century, Italy was a liberal state with
    civil rights and constitutional monarchy.
   Versailles Treaty: Italian nationalists angry that Italy
    did not receive any Austrian or Ottoman territory,
    (Italia Irredenta) or Germany’s African colonies as
    promised.
   Depression in 1919 caused nationwide strikes and
    class tension
Fascist Italy
   Causes for rise of fascism
   Wealthy classes fearful of communist revolution looked to
    strong anti-communist leader
   By 1921 revolutionary socialists and conservatives were
    all opposed to liberal parliamentary government.
   Fascism in Italy = a combo of conservative
    authoritarianism and modern totalitarianism (although not
    as extreme as Russia or Germany)
     Benito Mussolini
     (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
   Organized the Fascist party
   Combination of
    • socialism
    • nationalism: territorial expansion
    • benefits for workers,
    • land reform for peasants.
   Initially failed to succeed because of competition
    from well-organized Socialists.
   1920, Mussolini gained support of conservative
    classes and frightened middle class for anti-Socialist
    rhetoric; abandoned his socialist programs.
     Benito Mussolini
     (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
   Blackshirts (squadristi):
    Paramilitary forces
    attacked Communists,
    socialists, and other
    enemies of the fascist
    program
   Later, Hitler's "Brown
    Shirts" followed this
    example
       Benito Mussolini
       (1883-1945) ("Il Duce")
   March on Rome, October 1922: led to Mussolini taking power
   Mussolini demanded resignation of existing gov’t and his own
    appointment by the king.
   Fascists marched on Rome to threaten king to accept
    Mussolini's demands.
   Government collapsed; Mussolini received right to organize a
    new cabinet (government).
   Victor Emmanuel III gave him dictatorial powers for 1 year to
    end nation’s social unrest.
      Corporate State
   Was the economic basis for Italian fascism.
   ―Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing
    against the state.‖
   By 1928, all independent labor unions organized into
    government-controlled syndicates
   Established organizations of workers and employers and
    outlawed strikes and walkouts.
   Created corporations which coordinated activities between
    worker-employer syndicates.
   Authority from the top, unlike socialist corporate states
    where workers made decisions.
Corporate State
   Right to vote severely limited.
   All candidates for parliament selected by
    Fascist party.
   Gov’t ruled by decree.
   Fascists put in control of schools.
   Created fascist youth movement, labor unions,
    and other fascist organizations: Dopolavoro
    (After Work) and Balilla (Fascist Youth
    Organization) failed to regulate leisure time.
     Mussolini Never Became All-
     Powerful
   Failed in attempt to ―Fascistize‖ Italian society by controlling
    leisure time
   Old power structure of conservatives, military, and church
    remained intact.
     • Mussolini never attempted to purge conservative classes.
   He propagandized and controlled labor but left big business to
    regulate itself.
   No land reform occurred
   Did not establish ―ruthless‖ police state (only 23 political
    prisoners executed bet. 1926-1944)
   Racial laws not passed until 1938 and savage persecution of
    Jews not until late in WWII when Italy was under Nazi control.
Italian Women
   Divorce abolished and women told to
    stay home and procreate.
   Decreed a special tax on bachelors in
    1934.
   1938, women limited by law to a
    maximum of 10% of better-paying jobs in
    industry & gov't
Fascist Accomplishments
   Internal improvements made such as
    electrification and roadbuilding.
   More efficient municipal governing.
   Suppression of the Mafia
   Lateran Pact, 1929, resulted in reconciliation
    with the papacy
    •   Vatican recognized as a tiny independent state; received
        $92 mil for seized church lands
    •   In return, Pope Pius XII recognized legitimacy of the
        Italian state.
Fascist Failures
   Italian democracy destroyed
   Terrorism became a state policy.
   Poor industrial growth due to militarism
    and colonialism.
   Disastrous wars resulted from attempt to
    recapture imperialistic glories of Ancient
    Rome.
NAZI GERMANY
   Roots of Nazism: Extreme nationalism +
    racism = Nazism
Adolf Hitler
   Became leader of National German Workers
    Party (NAZI) after WWI
   S.A.: "Brown Shirts" terrorized political
    opponents on the streets
   Beer Hall Putsch, 1923: Hitler failed to
    overthrow Bavaria and sentenced to 1 year in
    jail
   Hitler realized he'd have to take control of
    Germany legally, not through revolution
Hitler’s SA
Mein Kampf
   1923 written while in jail: became the
    blueprint for Hitler's future plans
    • Lebensraum (―living space‖): Germans
        should expand east, liquidate the Jews and
        turn the Slavs into slave labor
    •   Anti-Semitism: Hitler blamed the Jews for
        Germany's political and economic problems
    •   Leader-dictator, Fuhrer, would have unlimited
        arbitrary power
       Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of
       the Great Depression
   Unemployment reached 43% by end of 1932

   Hitler began promising German voters economic, political, and
    military salvation.

   Hitler promised big business leaders he would restore the
    economybreak Germany’s strong labor movement + reducing
    workers’ wages if necessary.

   Hitler assured top army leaders that the Nazis would reject the
    Versailles Treaty and rearm Germany.

   Nazis also appealed to German youth: 40% of party under age 30 in
    1931; 67% under 40
                 The Ruhr Crisis


France occupies Germany’s key coal, iron and steel
     producing region in order to punish Germany for
     default on its reparation payments. And to extract
     payment in form of coal, etc.
German workers there go on strike.
Germany prints more money to support the workers
Hyperinflation explodes.
Dawes plan is enacted to give Germany relief
                Locarno Pact: 1925
                       Austin Chamberlain (Br.)




                                                     Gustave
                                                     Stresemann
        Aristide                                     (Ger.)
         Briand
            (Fr.)




 Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany
  as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. Germany member of
  LoN. France no longer occupies Germany.
 Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to
  change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only.
Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928




 15 nations committed to outlawing
  aggression and war for settling
  disputes.
 Problem  no way of enforcement.
                                Article 48

If a state (8) does not fulfill the obligations laid upon it by the Reich
constitution or the Reich laws, the Reich President may use armed
force to cause it to oblige.
In case public safety is seriously threatened or disturbed, the
Reich President may take the measures necessary to reestablish
law and order, if necessary using armed force. In the pursuit of this
aim he may suspend the civil rights described in articles 114, 115, 117,
118, 123, 124 and 154, partially or entirely.
The Reich President has to inform Reichstag immediately about all
measures undertaken which are based on paragraphs 1 and 2 of this
article. The measures have to be suspended immediately if Reichstag
demands so.
If danger is imminent, the state government may, for their specific
territory, implement steps as described in paragraph 2. These steps
have to be suspended if so demanded by the Reich President or the
Reichstag. Further details are provided by Reich law.
Fall of Weimar Republic the Result of
the Great Depression
   1930, Chancellor gained permission from
    President Hindenburg for emergency rule by
    decree
   Struggle between Social Democrats &
    Communists contributed to breakdown of gov't.
   Nazi's won largest percentage of votes in the
    Reichstag in 1933 elections
   Hitler becomes Chancellor on January 30,
    1933; appointed by Hindenburg.
Third Reich (1933-1945)
Hitler Consolidates Power
   Reichstag fire: occurred during violent
    electoral campaign: used by Nazis to crack
    down on communists
   Enabling Act: (March 1933) passed by
    Reichstag – Gleichschaltung (―coordination‖)
    •   Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years
    •   Only the Nazi party was legal
   Hitler outlawed strikes and abolished
    independent labor unions.
Third Reich (1933-1945)
Hitler Consolidates Power
   Publishers, universities, and writers brought
    into line
   Democratic, socialist, and Jewish literature put
    on blacklists.
   Students and professors burned forbidden
    books in public squares.
   Modern art and architecture was prohibited
    ("degenerate art")
   Joseph Goebbles: minister of propaganda
    effectively glorified Hitler and the Nazi state
     Third Reich (1933-1945)
     Hitler Consolidates Power
   “Night of Long Knives” (June 1934)
   Hitler realized the army and big business were suspicious of the
    S.A.
   Hitler’s elite personal guard—the SS—arrested and shot without
    trial about 1,000 SA leaders and other political enemies.
   S.S. grew dramatically in influence as Hitler's private army and
    secret police
   Led by Heinrich Himmler
   SS joined with the political police, the Gestapo, to expand its
    network of special courts and concentration camps.
Goebbles, Himmler, & SS
Persecution of Jews
   By the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers,
    doctors, professors, civil servants, and
    musicians had lost their jobs and the right to
    practice their professions.
   Nuremberg Laws of 1935 deprived Jews of all
    rights of citizenship.
   By 1938, 25% of German Jews had emigrated
    (many were the "cream of the crop")
Kristallnacht 1938
(“The Night of Broken Glass”)

   Using assassination of a German
    diplomat in Paris by young Jewish boy
    as pretense, Hitler ordered an attack on
    Jewish communities.
   Well-organized wave of violence
    destroyed homes, synagogues, and
    businesses.
   Thousands of Jews were arrested and
    made to pay for the damage.
Kristallnacht
   ―This people must disappear from the face
    of the earth.‖
    • Heinrich Himmler, ―Speech to the Leaders of the
        Nazi Party.‖
    •   Posen, October 6, 1943
Russia under Stalin
   Entire Politburo from Lenin's time was
    eventually purged leaving Stalin in
    absolute control.



                   Trotsky &
                     Stalin
Major Cause of Revolution
   WWI
   Massive Russian casualties
   Food shortages
    February Revolution

   Overthrew the Czar and instituted the Provisional
    Government
   Revolution started by women rioting for bread in
    Petrograd; workers and soldiers joined in
   Duma responded by declaring a provisional gov’t
    on March 12, 1917.
   Provisional gov't wanted to continue the war;
    Soviets control the army
    Alexander Kerensky

   Becomes leader of the Provisional Gov’t
   Implements liberal program: equality before
    the law; freedom of religion, speech, and
    assembly; right of unions to organize &
    strike; election of local officials; 8-hr work
    day
   Rejects social revolution: doesn't confiscate
    large landholdings and give them to
    peasants
    Army Order #1

   Stripped officers of their authority and placed
    power in the hands of elected committees of
    common soldiers (soldiers afraid in the future they
    might be liable for treason against the czar)
   Led to collapse of army discipline
   Anarchy in Russia by summer of 1917
   Kerensky's refusal to end the war and prevent
    anarchy leads to fall of Provisional Gov't
    Rise of Vladimir I. Lenin
   April 1917 Germany arranged for Lenin to be
    transported back to Russia; hoped to get Russia out
    of war
   "April Theses": Lenin rejected all cooperation with
    the ―bourgeois‖ provisional gov’t
   Called for a "Socialist revolution" and establishment of
    a Soviet republic
   Nationalization of banks and landed estates
   ―All Power to the Soviets‖; ―All Land to the Peasants‖
Lenin
    Kornilov Affair

   Military coup by
    General Kornilov
    failed. Kerensky
    lost all credit with
    army
October Revolution
                (Actually in November) results
                 in a communist dictatorship
                Politburo formed to organize
                 revolution: includes Lenin,
                 Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev,
                 Kamenev, Bukharin
                Leon Trotsky, leader of the
                 Petrograd Soviet (the Red
                 Army), led Soviet overthrow
                 and arrest of the provisional
                 gov’t
    October Revolution
   New elections: Bolshevik's lost (only 25% of vote) but
    overthrew new gov't with Red Army
   Lenin: "Peace, Land, Bread"
   Lenin gave land to peasants (although peasants already
    took it, like French Revolution)
   Lenin gave direct control of individual factories by local
    workers’ committees.
   Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 to take
    Russia out of WWI
   Bolsheviks renamed "communists"
   These actions lead to opposition to Bolsheviks and the
    Russian Civil War
    Russian Civil War
   Reds (Bolsheviks) vs ―Whites‖ (included
    officers of old army, and 18 groups proclaiming
    themselves the real gov't of Russia--had no
    leader to unify them)
   Allies sent troops to help "Whites" (Archangel
    Expedition; Siberia)
   By 1921, the communists had defeated their
    opponents
   Communists extremely well organized (Trotsky);
    Whites were poorly organized
    Russian Civil War

   “war communism”: Bolsheviks mobilized the
    home front for the civil war
   Earliest form of socialism in the Soviet Union
   Applied "total war" concept to a civil war
   Cheka: Secret police formed to hunt down and
    execute thousands of real or supposed opponents,
    such as the tsar and his family and other ―class
    enemies.‖
    Results of the Russian
    Revolution
   Costs: 15 million
    dead, economy
    ruined, international
    trade gone, millions of
    workers fled
   Creation of world's
    first communist
    society: one of the
    monumental events of
    20th century
             Economic Problems

   Though the Whites were put down, the
    Soviet internal situation remained critical in
    1921, with the economy being below pre-
    war levels.
   The anarchists and peasants began to
    revolt in the countryside in an attempt to do
    something about the starvation & suffering
    of the masses.
   The New Economic Policy
(NEP)

   This was Lenin’s stop-gap measure to retain
    control and provide temporary relief.
   Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to
    keep part of their produce, which they were
    allowed to sell for cash profit on newly-
    recreated local markets.
   The gov’t kept control of heavy industry &
    internat’l trade, but light manufacturing and
    internal trade was returned to private hands.
              NEP, continued

   The Kulaks (large peasant farmers) and
    other entrepreneurs made large profits by
    taking advantage of this liberalization.
    • As a result, some Bolsheviks, such as
      Trotsky, wanted to kill them
    • Some other people wanted to extend the
      NEP to include even more private business
    • Lenin believed both groups were wrong, and
      that the NEP was necessary until a full
      communist society could be realized in the
      future.
           The Power Struggle:
           Stalin vs. Trotsky

   Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922
    & 1924. He finally died in 1924.
   Trotsky & Stalin both wanted to be Lenin’s
    successor.
    • Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the Red
        Army and the Petrograd Soviet.
    •   Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental in
        forcing the minority republics to unite into the
        USSR. He also had control of the machinery of
        gov’t.
              Stalin vs. Trotsky

   Trotsky wanted to promote world revolution
    ASAP, while Stalin was willing to wait &
    instead concentrate on rebuilding the USSR,
    1st.
   When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalin’s
    foreign policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled
    to Siberia.
   Trotsky eventually escaped to the west &
    was assassinated by Stalin’s men in 1941.
Russia under Stalin
   Entire Politburo from Lenin's time was
    eventually purged leaving Stalin in
    absolute control.



                   Trotsky &
                     Stalin
             Lenin’s Testament


   In his will, Lenin stated that Stalin was
    too power-hungry and too brutal and
    uncouth to become his successor.
   Lenin believed Trotsky should be the
    next head of the USSR.
   Stalin, however, gained full control of the
    USSR, after the exile of Trotsky.
Stalin’s 5-Year Plans
   "Revolution from above" (1st Five Year
    Plan), 1928; marked end of NEP
   Objectives:
   Total industrial output to increase by 250%;
    steel by 300%; agriculture by 150%
   1/5 of peasants were scheduled to give up
    their private plots and join collective farms
   ―We are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced
    countries. We must make good this distance in
    10 years. Either we do it or we shall go under.‖
Stalin’s 5-Year Plans
   Results: steel up 400% (now 2nd largest
    steel producer in Europe); oil up 300%;
    massive urbanization (25 million people
    moved to cities)
   Costs: quality of goods suspect;
    standard of living did not rise
        Collectivization
   Was the greatest of all costs
   Purpose: bring peasantry under absolute control of the
    communist state
    •   Consolidation of individual peasant farms into large, state-controlled
        enterprises.
    •   Farmers paid according to amount of work; portion of harvest paid to
        gov't
   Goals:
    •   Use of machines in farm production, to free more people to work in
        industry
    •   Gov't control over production
    •   Extend socialism to countryside
Collectivization
   Opposed by farmers as it placed them in a
    bound situation like the mirs.
   Kulaks, wealthiest peasants, offered greatest
    resistance to collectivization
   Stalin ordered party workers to "liquidate them
    as a class."
   10 million dead due to collectivization (7 million
    in forced starvation in Ukraine)
Collectivization
   Agricultural output no greater than in 1913
   By 1933, 60% of peasant families were on
    collective farms; 93% by 1938.
   Eventually, the state was assured of grain for
    bread for urban workers who were more
    important politically than the peasants.
   Collective farmers first had to meet grain
    quotas before feeding themselves.
"Off to collective work," a Soviet
poster.
Russian Soldier on Communism

   ―They pretend to pay us, we pretend
    to work.‖
Structure of USSR Gov't
   Central Committee: was the apex of
    Soviet power (about 70 people in
    1930s)
   Politburo: About a dozen members;
    dominated discussions of policy and
    personnel
   General Secretary: highest position of
    power; created by Stalin
    Stalin’s Propaganda Campaign
   Purpose: To glorify work to soviet people--an
    at-tempt to encourage worker productivity
   Used technology for propaganda
    •   Newspapers (esp. Pravda), films, and radio broadcasts
        emphasized socialist achievements and capitalist plots.
    •   Sergei Eisenstein: patriotic Russian filmmaker
    •   Writers & artists expected to glorify Stalin and the state;
        work was closely monitored
   Religion was persecuted: Stalin hoped to turn
    churches into "museums of atheism"
“Long live the Great Stalin” 1938.
"Under the Leadership of the Great
Stalin." 1951
Benefits for Workers
   Old-age pensions, free medical services, free
    education, and day-care centers for children
   Education was key to improving one’s position:
    specialized skills and technical education.
   Many Russians saw themselves building
    world’s first socialist society while capitalism
    crumbled during the Great Depression
   USSR attracted many disillusioned Westerners
    to communism in the 1930s.
    Women
   Russian Revolution immediately proclaimed complete equality
    of rights for women.
   In 1920s divorce and abortion made easily available.
   Women urged to work outside the home and liberate
    themselves sexually.
   Many women worked as professionals and in universities.
   Women still expected to do household chores in off hours as
    Soviet men considered home and children women’s
    responsibility.
   Men continued to monopolize the best jobs.
   Rapid change and economic hardship led to many broken
    families.
Great Terror (1934-38)
   First directed against peasants after 1929, terror used
    increasingly on leading Communists, powerful
    administrators, and ordinary people, often for no apparent
    reason.
   The "Great Terror" resulted in 8 million arrests
   Show trials used eradicate "enemies of the people"
    (usually ex-party members)
   Late 1930s, dozens of Old Bolsheviks tried and
    executed (Lenin's closest followers)
   Purges: 40,000 army officers were expelled or liquidated
    (weakened USSR in WWII)
    •   Millions of citizens were killed, died in labor camps, or simply
        disappeared
    Gulags
   Prison camps
   Located in isolated
    areas such as Siberia
   Many sentenced to 20-
    25 yrs
   Many died in the
    camps due to
    malnutrition & worked
    to death
Spanish Civil War
   1936: Mussolini and Hitler use conflict as a
    testing ground for their military forces: Italy's
    army; Germany's airforce -- Luftwaffe
   Fascism prevails under Francisco Franco;
    also known as Falangists (or Royalists)
   League ineffective in helping republicans
    (Loyalists) against Franco.
   Rome-Berlin Axis formed ("Fascintern"): an
    alliance between fascist Italy and Germany

				
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