RISE OF CAESAR by shuifanglj


     58-51 BC
    –   Tribes living in northern Gaul (France) on the west
        bank of the Rhine, in the 3rd century BC, and later
        also in Britain
    –   Lived in what is now Aquitaine, France the region
        between the Pyrenees Mountains, the Atlantic Ocean
        and the Garonne River
    –   Lived in southeast corner of modern day France
    –   Group that would be divided eventually between
        the region which is today France and north of GB
   Caesar’s entry into the territory that was Gaul
   Gaul is modern day France as well as parts of
   Tribes of the region were considered ferocious
    fighters who were often unorganized in their
    methods and relied on guerilla warfare most of
    the time
   Their weapons (if they had any) were crude in
    comparison to Rome’s as was the armor (if any)
    that they wore
   58-52 B.C. Caesar has spent longer than he had
    hoped in Gaul
   The Gauls in the meantime have been attacking
    as separate tribes
   The Gauls will united under the “inspirational”
    leadership of Vercingetrorix
   The Gauls adopt a scorched-earth policy
   RESULT: Caesar is pressed for supplies
   Lays siege to Avaricum
       Gallic city on a hilltop surrounded by marshes
       Caesar raised an agger (earthwork) of 80 feet to get
   Uses his army of 65,000 to build
   Of the 40,000 Gauls involved, 800 survive
   From the Arveni tribe
    of south-central
   After failed attempts
    at guerilla warfare, V
    sets up his 80,000
    troops at the fortress
    of ALESIA
   From the Latin : sedere which means ”to sit”
   A siege is a military blockade of a city or
    fortress with the intent of conquering by
    attrition or assault
   Later siege weapons will include:
     battering ram
     siege hook
     catapult
     ballista
     Chinese repeating crossbow
   Alesia is a fortress by its own geography
   Steep cliffs surround it, three mile wide plain
    lies before it
   Caesar decides to starve the Gauls by
    surrounding the fortress
   Sets up eight separate camps around Alesia
    which are joined together by 10 miles of trench,
    ramparts and palisades
   This is known as CONTRAVALLATION
   Relief armies requested by Vercingetorix
   Caesar has the lines around Alesia arranged so
    that both the front of the lines and the backs of
    the lines are protected
   The Gallic relief troops arrive but make not
    significant entry because of Caesar’s ingenuity
 Paul K. Davis wrote :
Caesar’s defeat of the combined Gallic forces
  established Roman dominance in Gaul for the next
  500 years. Caesar’s victory also created a rivalry
  with the Roman government, leading to his
  invasion of the Italian peninsula.
   After his surrender in “magnificent fashion”
    according to Plutarch:
   Vercingetorix is brought to Rome by Caesar
   Imprisoned for five years
   45 B.C. put to death likely by garrote
    (strangulation )as was custom
   Became a symbol of FRANCE
United Gaul forming a single nation animated by a
  common spirit can defy the universe.
   3 legions (20,000 soldiers) and 10,000 women
    and children led by Varus cross the Teutoburg
    forest to get to the group’s winter camp
   German mercenaries in leadership positions
    began to leave rank
   Met up with their own troops in the forest and
    ambushed the Roman soldiers and their group
   Two day assault = less than 2,000 Roman
    survivors – Roman standard is captured
   Legions # 17-18-19 are never used again as
    numbers in the Roman army
             Octavian Augustus
after hearing about the Teutoburg Massacre
   Sextus Quintilius Varus – father of
    our unfortunate Quintilius Varus
    was one of Caesar’s assassin

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