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					                Middle East
 Background
  – location in area of great physical and human
    interaction with diffusion of ideas and peoples
  – importance of outside influences impinging of
    established cultures
  – dominance of Islam and Arabic language except
    for Turkey, Iran, and Israel
  – presence of 2/3’s of world’s oil resources
  – rapid economic and geographical changes after
– impact of the establishment of the state of Israel in
– existence of strategic“choke points” like Strait of
  Gibraltar, Dardanelles and Bosporous, Suez
  Canal, and Strait of Hormuz
– revival of Islamic fundamentalism
– cohesion of a distinctive physical environment
  dominated by arid conditions
– most people live on desert margins where water is
  available, ie. Mediterranean coast, Nile/Tigris-
  Ephrates, or highlands of Turkey/Iran
– North African and Southwest Asian countries
  occupy 11% of world’s land but only 7% of the
  world’s people.
– one of world’s most strategic areas, cockpit of
  international conflict and political instability
– five sub-regions: (1) North Africa, west of Egypt;
  (2) Nile Valley; (3) Heartland of Arab world from
  Syria to Oman; (4) Israel, Gaza, and West Bank;
  (5) Iran and Turkey
 Islamic    Religion and Arabic Language
  – Islam is most basic and influential element of the
  – Islam established by Mohammed in Arabian
    peninsula, spread from Arabia to North Africa
    and Spain in west and Central Asia in east
  – Five pillars of Islam
      (1) profession of faith, shahada
      (2) daily prayer

      (3) giving alms, zakat

      (4) fasting in the month of Ramadan

      (5) making the pilgrimage to Mecca, hajj
– divisions within Islam between Sunni and Shia
  (90% of Iranian population are Shiites)
– gender inequalities in Muslim countries
– importance of Arabic language as unifying cultural
  force with regional variations
– language of Holy Koran
– Muslim mosques distinctive feature of cities/towns
– Berber language in North Africa; Persian (Farsi)
  in Iran; Turkish language in Turkey; Kurdish
  language in parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria;
  and Hebrew in Israel
– Islamic art, architecture, and calligraphy
Sacred Mosque at Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Mosque of the Prophet at Medina, Saudi Arabia
 Natural   Environment
  – dry climate and desert vegetation
      whole  region dominated by arid conditions, high
       evaporation, high temperatures
      some marginal areas receive more rain like coasts of
       western North Africa, eastern Mediterranean, mountains
       of Turkey and Iran
      coastal locations and guaranteed sunshine attract tourists

      advantage of growing citrus fruits, olives, grapes and
       early vegetables for domestic and foreign markets
– scarcity of water
    water available from melting snows in mountains of
     Maghrib, Turkey, Iran, from underground stores
     (oases), from external sources like equatorial rains that
     feed the Nile
    growth of oil industry, urbanization, and
     industrialization have major impacts on limited water
    desalination plants

    desertifiction began thousands of years ago- North
     Africa was breadbasket of Roman empire, cave
     paintings reveal a more moist environment
Middle East Climates
– oil resources
    discovery  of oil in Saudi Arabia and Gulf fundamental
     altered region
    Saudi Arabia and Gulf contain 2/3’s of world’s proven
     reserves of oil
    rest of region either has no oil or relatively little oil.
     Libya has significant oil resources; Tunisia, Egypt, and
     Syria produce limited quantities of oil
    tremendous impact of oil on domestic economies and the
     world economy
    period of 1973-80 one of high oil prices and
     accumulation of large capital reserves
 establishment  of OPEC in 1960, oil cartel of major
  producers to keep supply and demand favorable
 use of the oil weapon in 1973 punish West for support
  of Israel in Yom Kipper War
 fourfold increase in price of oil leading to massive oil
  revenues for OPEC countries
 major investments in new roads, hospitals, government
  buildings, airports, and military hardware
 influx of immigrant labor in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Gulf
 impact of falling oil prices in 80’s and 90’s on domestic
 Gulf  War 1991 fought to prevent Saddam Hussein
  from controlling vast petroleum reserves of region
 ecological consequences of the war, retreating Iraqi
  soldiers set 700 oil wells on fire, impact of fires on
  air pollution, and pollution of Persian Gulf
 threat of continuing instability in the region

 American intervention and occupation of Iraq

 Rise of militant Islam

 Prospects for stability very uncertain
North Africa; Physical Map
North Africa
Physical Map
 – Background
    composed   of Algeria, Libya, Morocco (Western Sahara),
     and Tunisia
    region also known as the Maghrib

    westernmost sector of the Arab world

    diverse historical influences- Phoenicians, Romans,
     Vandals, Ottomans, and French
    Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia retain close ties with
    strong link to markets in Europe for selling products,
     buying goods,
 share  an adherence to Islam as the dominant religion and
  Arabic as the official language (educated classes still
  speak French)
 link with other Muslim Arab countries strengthened
  when Arab League headquarters from Cairo (Egypt) to
 countries exist in a harsh, largely arid environment that
  restricts agriculture
 most human settlement confined to a small percentage of
  their territory,
 increasing problems of water supply as the population
  continues to increase rapidly
 Algeria,  Libya, and, to a smaller extent, Tunisia are now
  oil producers with income from this source has been
  invested in broadening the economic base into
 the four countries of North Africa have population
  around 28 million
 Libya and Tunisia have natural environments that
  include cultivated coastal areas in the north, desert
  interiors, and the high Atlas Mountain ranges with their
  interior plateaus
 Algeria and Libya have 80% of territory in the desert

 northern parts of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia
  dominated by Atlas Mountains
 Algeria and Libya are major oil and gas producers
 Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia mine and export
  phosphate for fertilizer
 Algeria is one of the most prosperous countries in the
  African continent, but has a tumultuous recent history
 bloody war of independence with France until 1962

 experienced democratic and military rule

 curtailment of elections by the army in 1992 led to a
  civil war with the dispossessed Islamic militants
 terrorist   activity is now devastating Algeria's economy and
 Morocco has political stability under its moderate king,
  King Hassan II who gained international Muslim
  credibility following his mediating role in Arab issues and
  the construction of a massive new mosque in Casablanca.
 Tunisia is modernizing under democratic rule. President
  Bourguiba replaced by Ben Ali in 1987
 Libya remains under the strong direction of Colonel al
  Gadhafi who seized power in 1969 and runs the country
  as a military republic.
 The former Spanish Sahara was annexed by Morocco in
  1976, leading to an internal war with the Polasario Front
– Population and Culture
     populations of all the North African countries continue
     to grow rapidly,
    lower population growth in Tunisia because of several
     governmental policies, i.e. forbidding of polygamy,
     minimum age for marriage, and instituting a successful
     family planning program.
    Morocco has set up a program to empower women,
     including family planning, maternal, and child services.
    despite the reduction of fertility in the most populous
     countries, the total population of these five countries
     rose from just under 50 million in 1980 to almost 70
     million in 1993, and could be over 110 million by A.D.
 growth  of population in North African countries occurs
  in urban areas, which now contain over half the total
 largest cities include Algiers (Algeria, nearly 4 million),
  Casablanca (Morocco, 3.5 million), Tripoli (Libya,
  around 3 million), and Tunis (Tunisia, just over 2
 rapid population growth creates problems for the
  education systems and employment prospects
 shortages of skilled labor continue despite the effect of
  intensive education programs
 growing university educated group in each country, but
  they find few employment opportunities in their home
   problems   of employment led many North Africans to
    migrate to France and other European countries
   remittances of money sent home are important additions
    to local income.
– Economic Development
   problems   facing North African countries stem from the
    type of economy established in colonial times with its
    built-in dependence on Europe.
   land appropriation for settlers who farmed commercially
    and used irrigation water for intensive farming that was
    tied to markets in Europe.
   Manufacturing and oil exploration were not encouraged
 export  crops, such as citrus and olive oil, continue to be
  produced on large holdings of over 124 acres
 North African countries still need to import up to half
  their food needs
 only Morocco has as much as half of its population still
  dependent on agriculture
 Morocco is contesting the management of fishing
  grounds off Western Africa with the European Union
  and, particularly, Spain. The main fish caught are squid
  (for export to Japan), tuna, and hake.
 Morocco continues to export cork from the bark of oak
  trees in the northern area of the country.
 Oil and natural gas dominate the economies and exports
  of Algeria and Libya.
 Libya,  with its small population, suddenly gained great
  riches that were nationalized after an initial phase of
  development by multinational oil companies Algeria and
  Libya are major world producers with refining and
  petrochemical industries
 Pipelines bring the oil and natural gas from interior
  locations to coastal ports and refineries (Figure 3.15).
 Manufacturing is growing in all countries and now
  contributes 20% (Morocco) to 30% (Algeria) of GDP.
 In Morocco and Tunisia, tourism is a major source of
  income, based on their sunshine, coastal locations, historic
  and cultural features, shopping opportunities and stable
  political environments
 Tunisia has a thriving film industry due to good location
  and spectacular scenery (Star Wars/English Patient)
 In the 1990s, North African countries are attempting to
  privatize large sections of their economies
 Tunisia is farther ahead and even has its own sock
  exchange; Morocco is following with unparalleled sales of
  state holdings
 populations of all the North African countries continue to
  grow rapidly,
 despite the reduction of fertility in the most populous
  countries, the total population of these five countries rose
  from just under 50 million in 1980 to almost 70 million in
  1993, and could be over 110 million by AD. 2025.
 growth of population in North African countries occurs in
  urban areas, which now contain over half the total
Map of Fez, Morocco
Fez, Morocco
   Nile Valley-Egypt and Sudan
    – flow of water from Nile crucial to Egypt and Sudan
    – 1959 Nile Waters Agreement shared water between
      Egypt and Sudan with Sudan getting 30% of total
    – Egypt largest population of any Arab country with 65
      million people
    – Egypt has great power and influence in the Arab world,
      strategic location with Suez canal
    – Sudan the largest country in area but only has half the
      population of Egypt and is the poorest country of the
– Gamal Abdul Nasser’s coup in 1952, establishment of
  socialism and non-alignment in world affairs
– nationalization of Suez canal in 1956, Suez Crisis 1956, Six-
  Day War with Israel in 1967 and turn toward Russia
– Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser stored three times amount of
  annual water for agriculture and hydroelectric power
– Egypt’s shift to more pro-West , pro-US and
  accommodationist policy vis-à-vis Israel in 1970’s and its
  consequences in the Arab World
– Sudan plagued by problems of drought, political instability,
  and refugees problems from Ethiopia
– Population
    both Egypt and Sudan have rapidly expanding
    Egypt making some progress to reduce growth rates
     with help of US and UN aid
    progress to reduce fertility may depend on raising the
     status of women and some progress being made here
    Cairo’s population expanded to 13 million with huge
     transportation, sanitation and housing problems
    Alexandria’s population at 4 million

    Khartoum, capital of Sudan has 2.5 million and
     population is growing faster than the government can
     provide services
– Economic Development
   Egypt   has moved from economy dominated by cotton
    production for export to one emphasizing food
    production, i.e.. sugar, rice, vegetables, and fruit
   still not self sufficient in food production, but investment
    has boosted production
   Agricultural Reform Act of 1952 designed to limit
    landholding; redistribution to peasants
   industrialization potential based on power generated by
    the Aswan dam has not fully materialized
   some industrialization based on iron and steel industries,
    chemicals, assembly of cars, food processing, tire
    manufacturing, etc.
 ecological  problems caused by Aswan Dam- silting,
  salinization, schistosomiasis
 double/triple cropping in most areas with irrigation

 cotton, alfalfa, wheat, maize, rice are main crops

 nationalized industries overregulated

 remittances from Egyptian workers in Saudi Arabia and
  Gulf benefited the economy in 80’s
 Gulf War in 1991 led to many workers returning home

 end of Cold War may lead to less US aid ($10 billion)

 tourism capable of generating large foreign exchange
  earning ($2 billion in 92), but Islamic terrorism since the
  1990 has hurt this sector; beach resorts at Sharm el-
  Sheikh at southern tip of Sinai popular
 Suez  canal revenues static but not growing much
 incomes from Upper Egypt south of Cairo are about half
  the incomes from the Delta to Cairo
 Sudan’s economy very poor with little prospect of
  outside help from US or other Western countries
 cotton provided 50% of Sudan’s exports in good times

 civil war, drought, pressures from refugees from
  Ethiopia produced difficult conditions in Sudan
 decreasing world prices for cotton and sugar have hurt
  both Egyptian and Sudanese economies
 restiveness of Egyptians
            Arab Southwest
 Background
  – heart of Arab world consists of Arabian
    Peninsula and fertile crescent from Tigris-
    Euphrates to the Lebanese coast
  – includes countries of Iraq with 23 million
    people; Saudi Arabia with 21 million; Syria
    with 17 million, Yemen with 18 million, and
    Gulf states with a total of 6 million
  – center of the Islamic religion and focus of
    Muslim pilgrimage at Mecca (Mekkah)
– focus of oil industry on eastern shore of Persian Gulf
– oil-rich countries have built internal infrastructure,
  built up military strength, and provided full welfare
  services for the population
– cost of Gulf War in 1991 and drop in world oil
  prices have had an adverse effect on the economies
  of the region
– presence of Israel in midst of Arab heartland has
  been thorny political issue
– US foreign policy of unconditional support for Israel
  has created problems for the US in the region
 Countries   of Arab Southwest
  – Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,
    Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United
    Arab Emirates and Yemen
  – Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar
    and Oman produce oil but have little water
  – Lebanon and Jordan have some water but no oil
  – Syria and Iraq have both oil and water
  – Yemen has no oil and little water
– some efforts to share oil wealth before Gulf War
  in 1991 with poorer states but falling prices and
  political conflicts between Arab states has
  lessened contributions
– tensions between donor countries (Gulf states)
  and debtor nations (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and
– lack of skilled labor has led to massive
  importation of foreign workers from Arab world,
  Indian subcontinent, Korea, and Philippines
– tension over Tigris-Euphrates between Turkey
  and Syria/Iraq
  – Sunni majorities in most Gulf countries, but
    tensions between Sunnis and Shiites have
    complicated relations in the region
  – border disputes between Saudi Arabia and Yemen
    and between Iraq and Kuwait which led to Gulf
 Population
  – rapid population growth in region
  – large population of youths
  – life expectancies vary from 65+ years of age in Gulf
    to 46 years in Yemen
  – migrations still way of life for Bedouins
  – high urbanized population in most states
  – largest cities include Bagdad, Iraq (4 million);
    Amman, Jordan (1.5 million); Beirut, Lebanon
    (1.5 million); Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2 million);
    Damascus, Syria (5 million); Jeddah, Saudi
    Arabia, (1.5 million) Aleppo, Syria (1.5 million)
 Economic   Development
  – great contrast between countries with high oil
    revenue and countries with no oil
  – Persian Gulf countries sitting on huge oil reserves
    with relatively small populations
– Iraqi economy virtually destroyed as consequence
  of the Gulf War, sanctions prevent exports and
  imports though a limited amount of medicine and
  food are permitted
– before oil discovery, Gulf states engaged in low
  intensity farming where water was available or
  nomadic herding where water was scarce
– crops like dates and citrus exported
– crude oil make up 85-90% of exports
– challenge to move to a more diversified
  manufacturing base
– Kuwait attempting to restore production of oil
  wells, wiped out in Iraqi invasion and setting of
  fires by retreating Iraqi soldiers
– Kuwait overseas assets fell from $100 billion to
  $35 billion
– new industrial cities of Jubail on Gulf and Yanbu
  on Red sea in Saudi Arabia major centers of new
  petrochemical plants and manufacturing industries
– gasoline, electricity, water and telephone highly
– creation of a new university system in Saudi Arabia
  and Gulf states to turn out skilled labor
– Iraq could have been a major leader in the region
  but instead chose to make war on Iran and Kuwait,
  neglected agricultural resources, and spent huge
  sums on military equipment
– economic progress in non-oil producing countries
  like Jordan and Yemen very slow
– loss of West Bank to Israel in 1967 hurt Jordanian
  economy and led to significant problems with
  Palestinian refugees
– Beirut, the Paris of the Middle East, virtually
  destroyed in 1975 civil war, now experiencing a
  commercial building explosion, money returning
 Saudi   Arabia
  – Background
      kingdom   divided among various clans in 19th C
      crucial role of Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, founder of modern
       Saudi Arabian state
      consolidated tribal and regional units into Saudi
       kingdom before discovery of oil
      very poor desert kingdom prior to WW II

      discovery of oil near Dammam in 1938, no large scale
       production until after WW II
      oil production developed by ARAMCO (Arabian
       American Oil Co) owned by 4 large multinational oil
– Physical Character and Climate
    Saudi  Arabia occupies greater part of Arabian peninsula
    interior is an arid plateau formed on west by steep
     mountains that rise from Red Sea
    plateau 2,000-4,000 feet in elevation

    Rub al Khali (Empty Quarter) in southeast part of
    Syrian desert extends into northern part of area

    coastal plain along Red Sea

    low-lying area known as Al A’sa along Persian Gulf
     where most of the oil can be found
Saudi Arabia: Physical Map
– Climate
   extreme  heat and aridity throughout the country
   winter temperatures between 45 to 70 degrees F

   summer temperatures between 80 to 107 degrees F

   temperatures in desert often reach over 120 degrees F

   precipitation sparse

   Riyadh averages 3.2 inches per year

   Jiddah receives only 2.4 inches per year

   no permanent rivers or lakes

   wadis (watercourses) punctuate the interior
– Population
    population   of Saudi Arabia estimated to be 21 million
    82% of the population composed of Arabs whose
     ancestors lived in region for centuries
    13% Yemenis and other Arabs who migrated to Saudi
     Arabia in the 50’s in search of jobs
    Nomads are declining percentage of population

    80% of the people live in cities today

    largest cities are Riyadh (2.5 million);
     Jeddah (1.6 million; Mecca (1.5 million)
     Medina (.5 million) and Dammam (.2 million)
    Industrial centers of Jubail on Persian Gulf and Yanbu
     on the Red Sea
– Petroleum
   founded  in 1938 by the Arabian-American Oil Company
   Saudi government acquired controlling interest in
    ARAMCO in 1974
   Saudis have 1/4 of known world oil reserves; largest
    producer of oil with 3 billion barrels produced each year
   sizable quantities of natural gas

   Trans-Arabian pipeline carries oil from eastern fields
    to Sidon in Lebanon; oil facilities at Yanbu on Red Sea;
    and from Ras Tanura in Persian Gulf
   considerable influence in OPEC decisions

   future of Iraqi reserves and US policy
– Economic Development
   ambitious   five year development plans calling for $150
    billion in investment
   priority to industrial sector, particularly petrochemical
    industry, liquefied natural gas, steel and cement plants,
    light industry
   build up of defense, social services, education and
   agriculture promoted with dairy projects, poultry
    raising, irrigated lands from deep wells
   now grow wheat, tomatoes, melons, onions, citrus,
    grapes, and other crops
– Political stability
    Saudi  Arabian monarchy and US concerns ability the
     stability of ruling family
    security concerns focus on Iraq, Iran, and Israel

    AWAC’s radar planes sold to Saudi Arabia in 1981
     over objections of Israelis
    consultative councils to advise King on political reform

    concern about human rights of prisoners

    cruel and unusual punishments (chopping block square)

    terrorist incidents troubling for Saudis and US

    US housing center bombed in 1996, heavy damage

    Saudi concern about American presence
 extremists   incidents during pilgrimage, 270 deaths near
 demands for social change slow in coming

 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) established among
  Gulf States to discuss security and economic relations
 good cooperation among sheikdoms of Persian Gulf

 Saudi monarchy guardians of two most Holy Places in
  Islam -Mecca and Medina
 strong concern about status of Jerusalem

 special interest in Islamic concerns around the world,
  Bosnia, former Soviet Socialist Republics
 King Abdullah, the new Saudi monarch who succeeded
  to the throne in 2005
King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud   King Abdullah
 Israel,   Gaza, and West Bank
   – Israel is a major political, economic, religious, and
     cultural anomaly in the region
   – Jewish desire to establish a homeland in Palestine
     prior to WWI culminates in a state by 1948
   – desire to escape persecutions, pogroms, and poverty
     led to creation of the State of Israel; strong US
     support in the UN crucial in establishing Israel
   – hostility of Palestinian community and surrounding
     Arab states leads to 1948 war; 800,000 Palestinian
     refugees created by Israeli's refusal to allow
     refugees to return to their homes
Growth of
West Bank Settlements
– Arab refusal to accept existence of the state of Israel
  and Israel desire to expand borders for more security
  lead to host of wars from 1948 through 1982
– establishment of the PLO in 1964 to advance
  Palestinian interests
– crucial issue of Israeli settlements around Jerusalem
  and all over West Bank complicate the search for
– significance of water politics (extension of Israeli
  power in Lebanon, Golan Height, and West Bank)
  designed to obtain scarce supplies of water
– injustice of Israeli policies on West Bank
– concern in Israel about population growth rates
  falling except for additions from external
– today 90% of Israeli population lives in cities with
  Tel Aviv/Jaffa the largest concentration of people
– future of Israel dependent upon relations with
  Palestinians and relations with Arab neighbors
– heavy defense expenditures, high expectations for
  social services, and high levels of US foreign aid
  (12 billion in recent times) cannot continue
– Israel needs to trade land for peace, but the present
  government appears to want both
– economic development
   Israel economy similar to those of Mediterranean
   high ownership of consumer goods and high standard of
   government running large budget deficits and depleting
    currency reserves
   government needs to speed privatization, streamline
    bureaucracy, and lessen controls over the economy
   economic advantage of a very highly trained and skilled
    work force
   government attempting to diversify economy with a
    thriving agricultural sector and manufacturing sector
 agriculture on kibbutzim declining, only 5% of work force
  in agriculture in Israel
 manufacture of industrial machinery, military equipment,
  chemicals, and high tech industries like
  telecommunications, electronic printing, diagnostic
  imaging systems in medicine and date communications
 service sector also strong with tourism as a major industry

 government desires to break into EU markets and markets
  in Arab world
 Palestinians highly educated with good prospects of
  development if peace can be established
 huge infrastructure problems in Gaza, most people still
  live in refugees camps, unemployment over 50%,
  promised aid not delivered
 Palestinian  land being taken for settlements in West Bank
  which leads to further hostility
 tensions high on the West Bank

 extremists among Israeli settlers and radical Islamic
  militants like Hamas complicated search for peace
 issue of Jerusalem

 Oslo Accords 1992 and their consequences for the
 cycle of Palestinian terrorism and gross Israeli human
  rights violations
 Prime Minister Sharon hard line policies toward PLO,
  building wall around occupied territories
 Transfer of Gaza to Palestinian Authority

 Prospects for peace uncertain
Israel: Physical Map
 Turkey   and Iran
  – Similarities
      Turkey   and Iran different from other Arab-language
       states of the Middle East
      Arabic replaced by Turkish and Persian languages

      both overwhelming Islamic in religion that Turkey is a
       more secular state
      both have large populations over 65 million each

      both powerful forces in the region and have a strategic
       locations- Bosporus and Dardanelles in Turkey and
       Strait of Hormuz at entrance to the Persian Gulf
    both  share largely mountainous countries along the plate
     collision between Arabia and Asia
    both receive precipitation in mountains, much of which
     falls as winter snow. Meltwater feeds rivers
    both subject to earthquakes

    both have Kurdish minorities inside country borders

– Differences
    both are long-time rivals for power and influence in the
    Iran’s Muslims belong to Shia group while Turkey’s
     Muslims are Sunni
 Iran ruled by leading family under military control (Shah
  of Iran until revolution in 1979 which ushered in rule by
  Shiite religious mullahs led by Ayatollah Khomeini
 Turkey became a nationalist secular state under Mustafa
  Kemal Ataturk after WW I and later a democratic state
  and NATO member
 Turkey has been closely involved with European interest
  and support from the US
 major US bases in Turkey, monitoring Soviet ships
  through Bosporous
 Iran very hostile to US interest after the 1979 Iranian
– Population
    Population  of Turkey around 65.9 million (2002) vs.
     Iran’s population of 66.2 million (2002)
    Iranian population growing much faster so by year 2025
     projections are for 150 million in Iran vs. 100 million in
    varied composition of the Iranian population with
     50% Persian in Iran, 25% Azeris (Azerbaijan), 10%
     Kurds, and others 15%
    Turkish population is 80% Turks and 20% Kurds

    expanding urban populations in Turkey and Iran as
     people move from the rural areas to cities
   Tehran,   capital and largest city in Iran with 6 million
    people; Meshed (1.5 million); and Isfahan and Tabriz
    (1 million each)
   Istanbul, largest city in Turkey with 10 million; Ankara,
    the capital of Turkey build in the empty interior of country
    now has 3 million people; Izmir (2 million)
– Economic Development
   Iran and Turkey experienced different types of economic
    development based on oil for Iran and water resources for
   Iranian oil income used to build urban-industrial state with
    a strong military
 Iranian revolution in 1979 led to isolation in region,
  devastating war with Iraq in 80’s, squandering of oil
  wealth, and less emphasis on modernization
 Turkey invested heavily in developing water resources for
  agriculture and some industrial development
 major advances in mechanization of agriculture in Turkey
  with use of fertilizers to increase yields
 increase production of cotton, soybeans, grains, fruits,
 20% of exports by value are from agriculture

 mining of chromite, copper and gold add to mineral exports

 steel made on Black Sea coast near coal and steel deposits

 international tourism brings in $1 billion per year
 Iranian agriculture less sophisticated and less productive
 lack of sufficient investment in agriculture, need for
  more irrigation
 Iran imports much of its food

 arid land in south and east of Iran limits agriculture

 oil revenue used to create oil refineries, petrochemical
  plants on Gulf coast, iron and steel works at Isfahan
 pipelines distribute oil and gas

 small private sector assembles cars, produces textiles,
  leather goods and other light industries
 Contemporary    Issues
  – Turkey’s desire to become part of EU
  – Conflict between Islam and secularism
  – EU concern about militant Islam, democracy
    and human rights
  – Iranian drive for big power status and
    development of a nuclear capability
  – Conflict between reformers and traditionalists
Turkey: Physical Map

   Anatolian Plateau
   Iran: Physical Map

    Elburz Mts

Zagros Mts
             Iranian Plateau