Psychology_ by Saundra K - DOC

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					13                    Social Psychology

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

Type
A=Applied
C=Conceptual
F=Factual
Level
(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

LO=Learning Objective
SG=Used in Study Guide
p=page

MULTIPLE CHOICE
Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience

Learning Objective 13.1- What makes people want to conform to the actions of others?

1. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by
_______.
        a) cognition
        b) mental processes
        c) the real or imagined presence of others
Correct. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced
by a group.
        d) psychology
Incorrect. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; social psychology is a separate field
that focuses on an individual within the social world.
ANS: c, p. 480, F, LO=13.1, (1)

2. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.
         a) people’s susceptibility to clever advertising
         b) the individual within a group
Correct. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on the individual within a group.
         c) abnormal behavior
         d) conformity
Incorrect. Conformity is one aspect of social psychology, but social psychology’s main distinction from psychology
is its focus on the individual within a group.
ANS: b, p. 480, F, LO=13.1, (1)




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3. ―Look! Up in the sky! It’s a bird. It’s a plane. It’s Superman!‖ If you looked up, would you be conforming?
       a) Yes. You would be looking up because you were told to do so.
Incorrect. Looking up because you are being told to look up is more like compliance. You have to look up because
everyone else is if it is to be considered conformity.
       b) No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told to do
       so.
Correct. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told what to
do.
       c) Yes. Conformity means doing what you are told or else.
       d. No. Looking up only means you are curious.
ANS: b, p. 481, C, LO=13.1, (3)

4. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears
the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor.
When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince’s behavior is an
example of _______________________.
         a) compliance
Incorrect. Compliance would be the case if someone had asked him to voice an opinion in keeping with the previous
speakers. In this case, Vince did it on his own as a result of internal pressure to conform.
         b) persuasion
         c) conformity
Correct. Conformity involves going along with the group despite one’s real opinion.
         d) obedience
ANS: c, p. 481, A, LO=13.1, (2) SG

5. Giving in to indirect pressure to change your behavior and/or thoughts is called _________________.
       a) obedience
       b) persuasion
       c) compliance
Incorrect. Compliance occurs if you give in to a direct request.
       d) conformity
Correct. Giving in to indirect pressure to change your behavior and/or thoughts is called conformity.
ANS: d, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (1)

6. In Solomon Asch’s study, which factor increased the rate of conformity?
        a) The task difficulty was increased.
        b) The confederates were all adults.
Incorrect. The factor that increased the rate of conformity was the addition of
confederates.
        c) The number of confederates increased.
Correct. The more confederates, the greater was the rate of conformity.
        d) The participants were given two chances at responding.
ANS: c, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)

7. Which factor significantly decreased the likelihood of conformity in Solomon Asch’s studies?
       a) The task difficulty was increased.
       b) The confederates were all adults.
Incorrect. The factor that decreased the likelihood of conformity was having one
confederate who gave a correct response.
       c) One confederate gave a correct response.
Correct. If even one confederate gave a correct response, the likelihood of conformity
decreased.
       d) The participants were given two chances at responding.
ANS: c, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)


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8. It is 1951, and you are required to participate in a perception experiment. You join seven others seated in a room.
You are shown a 10-inch test line and must choose the line that matches it in length from a choice of three lines. The
experimenter, Solomon Asch, is studying _____________________.
           a) bystander apathy
           b) social loafing
           c) groupthink
Incorrect. Asch studied conformity, not groupthink, by using the 10-inch line.
           d) conformity
Correct. Asch’s studied conformity by using a 10-inch line.
ANS: d, p. 481, A, LO=13.1, (2)

9. Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one’s own preference, is called ______.
         a) obedience
Incorrect. Obedience occurs when someone changes behavior in response to a command by an authority figure.
         b) submission
         c) conformity
Correct. Conformity involves yielding to social norms despite one’s true preference.
         d) compliance
ANS: c, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)

10. ______ is a response to pressure exerted by often unstated group norms.
         a) Conformity
Correct. Conformity occurs when someone changes his or her behavior or thinking in order to be in accord with
often unstated group norms.
         b) Obedience
         c) Compliance
Incorrect. Compliance involves giving in to a direct request.
         d) Deindividuation
ANS: a, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)

11. Experiments showing the effects of group pressure on conformity were conducted by ______.
         a) Asch
Correct. Solomon Asch first did experiments showing the effects of group pressure on conformity.
         b) Milgram
Incorrect. Milgram studied obedience.
         c) Luchens
         d) Singer
ANS: a, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)

12. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about
______ of the time.
         a) one-fifth
         b) one-third
Correct. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about one-third of the time.
         c) one-half
Incorrect. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about one-third of the time.
         d) three-fourths
ANS: b, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)




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13. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until ______ confederates were present.
         a) three
         b) four
Correct. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until four confederates were present.
         c) five
Incorrect. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until four confederates were
present.
         d) six
ANS: b, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (1)

14. Recent research using the Asch paradigm has found less conformity in the United States than the original study
found in the 1950s. The reason for this decrease in conformity may be that _____.
         a) the nature of the people in 1950s seemed to be more conforming
Correct. The culture of the 1950s was more conformist than is today’s culture.
         b) people today are more obedient
Incorrect. The decrease in conformity since the 1950s is believed to be due to the change of American culture into
one that is less conformist.
         c) people in the 1950s had less money
         d) people today watch more television
ANS: a, p. 481, F, LO=13.1, (2)

15. Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?
        a) sex-role stereotypes
        b) low socioeconomic status
Incorrect. Low socioeconomic status actually increases conformity.
        c) high level of individualism
Correct. People in individualistic cultures are less likely to conform than are people in
collectivist cultures.
        d) high levels of societal dependence
ANS: c, p. 481, C, LO=13.1, (2)

Learning Objective 13.2- What is groupthink?

16. When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation, they are
engaging in what social psychologists call _____.
         a) groupthink
Correct. When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation, they
are engaging in groupthink.
         b) mass thought
Incorrect. Mass thought sounds plausible but is not the term social psychologists use.
         c) consumerism
         d) solidarity think
ANS: a, p. 482, F, LO=13.2, (1)

17. Close, friendly groups usually work well together, but they may face a problem involving an extreme form of
conformity called ______________.
         a) fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another
person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation.
         b) groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink –(i.e., give priority to the cohesiveness of the
group over the facts of a situation).
         c) generational identity
         d) self-serving bias
ANS: b, p. 482, F, LO=13.2, (1)



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18. Which of the following is NOT an example of ―groupthink?‖
         a) the Challenger disaster
         b) the Titanic
         c) the Boston Red Sox
Correct. This is a group that works together as a team and considers facts realistically.
         d) Bay of Pigs
Incorrect. The Bay of Pigs fiasco IS an example of groupthink.
ANS: c, p. 482, F, LO=13.2, (2)

19. Carlos and his work associates form a close, friendly group, and they usually work well together. However, they
may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called ______________.
         a) fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another
person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation; it is not a
form of conformity.
         b) generational identity
         c) groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink –(i.e., give priority to the cohesiveness of the
group over the facts of a situation).
         d) self-serving bias
ANS: c, p. 482, C, LO=13.2, (2)

20. The prime minister notices that her closest advisors never seem to disagree with her or with each other on a lot
of important issues, such as arms control. She worries that she is not getting the pros and cons of different issues
because her advisors are engaging in ______.
         a) compliance
Incorrect. Compliance is doing what you are told to do. In this case, the group is just not getting the facts.
         b) intrinsic reinforcement
         c) latent learning
         d) groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink –(i.e., give priority to the cohesiveness of the
group over the facts of a situation).
ANS: d, p. 482, A, LO=13.2, (2)

21. All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT ____________.
         a) the belief that the group can do no wrong
Incorrect. This is a cause of groupthink.
         b) the belief that the group is invulnerable
         c)the belief that opposition to the group is unsound
         d) openness to differing opinions
Correct. Groupthink results in lack of differing opinions.
ANS: d, p. 482, F, LO=13.2, (2) SG

22. In what way is compliance different from conformity?
        a) Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
Correct. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
        b) Conformity and compliance are very similar; the distinction depends on whether one is a male of female.
         c) Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders or commands.
Incorrect. Conformity does not involve direct group pressure. The group pressure is always indirect.
        d) Compliance involves eliciting reactance on the part of group members, whereas conformity involves
        subliminal persuasion.
ANS: a, p. 483, C, LO=13.2, (3)




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23. Behavior that is initiated or changed in response to a request as opposed to a command or direct order is an
example of _______.
       a) obedience
       b) compliance
Correct. Compliance is a response to a request.
       c) conformity
Incorrect. Conformity involves adhering to often unstated group norms despite one’s own preferences. It does not
involve a request or a command.
       d) persuasion
ANS: b, p. 483, F, LO=13.2, (1)

24. ______ is a change of behavior in response to an explicit request.
         a) Conformity
         b) Obedience
Incorrect. Obedience is a change of behavior in response to a command or direct order.
         c) Compliance
Correct. Compliance is a change of behavior in response to an explicit request.
       d) Deindividuation
ANS: c, p. 483, F, LO=13.2, (1)

Learning Objective 13.3- What are four common ways to gain the compliance of another?

25. Many people hang up on telemarketers, but others will listen politely to their pitches even if they are not
interested in the product. Telemarketers know that anyone who agrees to listen to a pitch is more likely to buy the
product, thanks to the ________ phenomenon.
        a) risky shift
        b) polarization
        c) foot-in-the-door
Correct. The foot-in-the door phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has complied with a small
request (to listen to the pitch), that person is more likely to then comply with a larger request that follows (buying
the product) because he or she wants to behave consistently.
        d) door-in-the-face
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has turned down a large
request, that person is more likely to then comply with a smaller request that follows because he or she wants to
make up for refusing the first request.
ANS: c, p. 483, A, LO=13.3, (1)

26. What term is used to describe compliance with an initial small request followed
by compliance with a larger request?
       a) risky shift
       b) foot-in-the-door effect
Correct. The foot-in-the door effect occurs when someone complies with a small request
and then with a larger request that follows.
       c) door-in-the-face effect
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small
request after having refused an initial large request.
       d) polarization phenomenon
ANS: b, p. 483, F, LO=13.3, (1)




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27. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a small request is called
the ______ effect.
          a) lowball
          b) door-in-the-face
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small request after having refused an
initial large request.
          c) foot-in-the-door
Correct. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a small request is
called the foot-in-the-door effect.
          d) response cue
ANS: c, p. 483, F, LO=13.3, (1)

28. You are in the market for a new car. You go from dealer to dealer and find they all follow the same procedure:
every salesperson offers you a soda and asks you to take a test drive. Which two psychological techniques are
behind the offer of the soda and the test drive?
       a) that’s-not-all and foot-in-the-door
       b) norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
Correct. The soda is an example of the norm of reciprocity, as you are supposed to feel as though you owe the
salesperson something in return; the test drive is an example of the foot-in-the-door technique because you agree to
a small request that the salesperson hopes will be followed by an agreement to buy the car.
       c) social facilitation and norm of reciprocity
Incorrect. Social facilitation refers to a positive effect on one’s performance due to the
presence of others. There is no social facilitation in the car dealership example.
       d) groupthink and social facilitation
ANS: b, p. 483–484, A, LO=13.3, (2)

29. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a
larger one is called the ______ effect.
          a) lowball
          b) door-in-the-face
Correct. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a larger one is called the
door-in-the-face effect.
          c) foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a small one is called
the foot-in-the-door effect.
          d) bait-and-switch
ANS: b, p. 483–484, F, LO=13.3, (1)

30. A person asks you if you would volunteer to counsel delinquent youths at a detention center for two years. When
you refuse, she asks you if you could supervise the youths during a trip to the zoo. She is using the ______ effect.
         a) lowball
         b) door-in-the-face
Correct. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small request (the zoo trip) after having
refused an initial large request (two years of volunteer work).
         c) foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. The foot-in-the-door effect would occur if you were first asked to supervise the zoo trip and said yes and
then were asked to do the two years of volunteer work and said yes.
         d) bait-and-switch
ANS: b, p. 483–484, A, LO=13.3, (1)




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31. You get a free sample of a new cereal in the mail. The company hopes you will try the cereal and then feel
obligated to buy it. What term do psychologists use to describe this phenomenon?
        a) norm of reciprocity
Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give something in return after
they have received something.
        b) indebtedness
        c) augmented return
        d) social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal.
ANS: a, p. 484, A, LO=13.3, (2)

32. At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives each taster a coupon
worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of ________ to increase
sales.
        a) the norm of reciprocity
Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give something in return after
they have received something.
        b) deindividuation
        c) group polarization
        d) social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal.
ANS: a, p. 484, A, LO=13.3, (2) SG

33. A consultant was telling newly hired salespeople about techniques they can use to increase sales. At one point he
was talking about increasing compliance by creating a sense of obligation. Because one of the last classes you took
before you graduated was Social Psychology, you recognize the concept as ________________.
       a) the norm of reciprocity
Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give something in return after
they have received something.
       b) indebtedness
       c) foot-in-the-door effect
Incorrect. Foot-in-the-door effect occurs when you comply with a lesser request first and then feel obligated to
comply with a larger one that follows.
       d) returning a favor
ANS: a, p. 484, A, LO=13.3, (2)

34. A dealer persuades a customer to buy a new car by reducing the price to well below that of his competitors.
Once the customer has agreed to buy the car, the terms of the sale are shifted by lowering the value of the trade-in
and requiring the purchase of expensive extra equipment. Now the car costs well above the current market rate. This
is an example of the ______ procedure.
         a) lowball
Correct. Lowball occurs when the cost of something increases after the commitment to buy has been made.
         b) foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. Foot-in-the-door effect occurs when you comply with a lesser request before complying with a greater
one.
         c) primacy
         d) bait-and-switch
ANS: a, p. 484, A, LO=13.3, (2)




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35. One form of the norm of reciprocity is when the merchant offers more than the consumer asks for. This is called
the ___________ technique.
         a) that’s-all-folks
         b) one-mo’-time
         c) that’s-not-all
Correct. The that’s-not-all technique occurs when the merchant throws in something extra that the consumer did not
even ask for to make the consumer feel obligated to buy the product.
         d) there’s-still-more
Incorrect. There’s-still-more sounds like it could mean the same thing as that’s-not-all, but it is not a term social
psychologists use.
ANS: c, p. 484, F, LO=13. 3, (1)

Learning Objective 13.4- What makes people obey the instructions or orders of others?

36. What is the main difference between obedience and compliance?
         a) There really is no difference.
         b) The perceived consequences are worse if you do not comply.
Incorrect. The consequences are generally worse if you do not obey.
         c) The perceived consequences are worse if you do not obey.
Correct. Obedience implies that the consequences will be bad if one does not obey.
         d) In compliance there usually is an authority figure but in obedience there is not.
ANS: c, p. 485, F, LO=13.4, (1)

37. What is a difference between obedience and conformity?
         a) In obedience there is a perceived difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes
         the request.
Correct. In obedience there is a perceived difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes
the request.
         b) Conformity requires strict adherence to the rules whereas obedience does not.
         c) Obedience is an indirect request whereas conformity is a direct request.
         d) In conformity there is a perceived difference in status between the one who conforms and the group.
Incorrect. In obedience there is a perceived difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who makes
the request. This is not the case with conformity.
ANS: a, p. 485, F, LO=13.4, (2) SG

38. Which statement correctly characterizes one aspect of Stanley Milgram’s study of obedience?
         a) Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450 volts.
Correct. Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450 volts; they were told it
was real.
         b) Participants in the study were randomly assigned to be teachers or learners.
Incorrect. The assignments were not random: The learner was always a confederate.
         c) Participants were shocked when they made errors in reciting word pairs.
         d) A learner and the teacher sat side –by side across from the shock machine.
ANS: a, p. 485, F, LO=13. 4, (1)

39. Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study on obedience. How
are these 100 people likely to respond?
        a) The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
Correct. The Milgram experiment has been repeated at various times, in the United States and in other countries,
and the percentage of participants who went all the way consistently remained between 61 and 66 percent.
        b) The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave.
        c) Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey.
Incorrect. The Milgram study showed few sex differences.
        d) Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the experiment.
ANS: a, p. 486, A, LO=13. 4, (3) SG



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40. A social psychologist has been invited to give a community lecture on the importance of Milgram’s research. He
asks a social psychology class for suggested titles. Which of the following titles might they suggest as the most
appropriate?
        a) ―Obedience and Aggression Are Inborn‖
Incorrect. Milgram did not find that obedience and aggression are inborn.
        b) ―Do Not Underestimate the Power of Obedience‖
Correct. Milgram found that more people obeyed than he expected.
        c) ―Training in Ethics Can Overcome the Pull of Obedience‖
        d) ―Make a Small Request First and the World Can Be Yours‖
ANS: b, p. 486–487, C, LO=13. 4, (3)

41. Which statement best describes an important finding of Milgram’s classic research?
       a) Individuals easily conform to group norms.
Incorrect. Milgram’s study focused on obedience, not conformity.
       b) The presence of other people makes aggression more likely.
       c) People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.
Correct. Milgram did find that people will easily obey authority and do harm to others.
       d) Agreeing to a small request makes it more likely you will agree to a big request.
ANS: c, p. 486–487, A, LO=13.4, (3)

42. What circumstance increases the likelihood of someone obeying an authority?
       a) the authority figure being absent
       b) personality traits
Incorrect. There is no evidence of personality traits increasing obedience.
       c) the experimenter assuming responsibility
Correct. If the experimenter assumes responsibility, the subjects feel less responsible and obey more easily.
       d) close proximity to the target of the behavior
ANS: c, p. 486, A, LO=13. 4, (3)

43. Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to the __________
effect.
        a) reciprocity
Incorrect. The situation was not one in which the participant was made to feel he or she owed anyone anything.
        b) indebtedness
        c) foot-in-the-door
Correct. Some thought the participants felt obliged to continue with each level of shock because they had already
complied with the previous ones.
        d) returning-a-favor
ANS: c, p. 487, F, LO=13.4, (1)

Learning Objective 13.5- How does the presence of other people affect a person’s performance on a task?

44. What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching?
        a) social loafing
        b) social idleness
        c) social facilitation
Correct. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by the perception that
others are watching.
        d) social productivity
Incorrect. There is no such term as social productivity to refer to the positive effect on performance caused by the
perception that others are watching.
ANS: c, p. 487, F, LO=13.5 (1)




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45. Dan really doesn’t feel like riding the stationary bicycle today, but he doesn’t want the people around him to
think he is a slacker. If he decides to continue exercising, what concept might explain his actions?
        a) social loafing
Incorrect. Social loafing is what occurs when someone slacks off of a task to let others carry the workload.
        b) social idleness
        c) social facilitation
Correct. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by the perception that
others are watching. Dan does more exercise because of this perception.
        d) social productivity
ANS: c, p. 487, F, LO=13.5, (1)

46. John has practiced his difficult trumpet solo over and over before his performance. He has played it perfectly in
his practice room. However, when he performs in public he makes mistakes due to his anxiety. John is a victim of
______.
          a) performance-in-public syndrome
          b) social impairment
Correct. Social impairment occurs when a task is not as well performed due to arousal caused by the perception
that others are watching.
          c) social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on performance caused by the perception that others
are watching.
          d) social loafing
ANS: b, p. 487, A, LO=13.5, (2)

47. In both social facilitation and social impairment, the key factor is ___________.
         a) time
         b) the number of people
Incorrect. The number of people is important only if it affects arousal.
         c) arousal
Correct. Arousal interferes with performance.
         d) task difficulty
ANS: c, p. 487, F, LO=13.5, (1)

48. People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than they do when working individually are
engaging in ___________.
         a) groupthink
         b) social loafing
Correct. People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than when working individually are
engaging in social loafing.
         c) social conformity
Incorrect. Social conformity occurs when people behave according to group norms as opposed to their own
preferences.
         d) malingering
ANS: b, p. 487, F, LO=13.5, (1)




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49. An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual contributions will not be
evaluated is engaging in what is called _____.
        a) social loafing
Correct. An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual contributions will not be
evaluated is engaging in social loafing.
        b) social idleness
        c) social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by the perception that
others are watching.
        d) the goof-off phenomenon
ANS: a, p. 487, F, LO=13.5, (1)

50. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the same grade. What social
psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about?
        a) conformity
        b) social loafing
Correct. The teacher knows that some students will slack off if they are not being evaluated for their individual
performance due to a phenomenon known as social loafing.
        c) social influence
        d) social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by the perception that
others are watching.
ANS: b, p. 487, A, LO=13.5, (2) SG

51. How can a coach get his football team to perform better if he suspects they are exhibiting social loafing?
        a) introduce new challenges
        b) get the captain to apply pressure
Incorrect. Getting the captain to apply pressure might help but is not the solution specifically for the problem of
social loafing.
        c) grade their performance
Correct. Social loafers stop their loafing when they are being evaluated on their individual performance.
        d) ignore the behavior
ANS: c, p. 487, A, LO=13.5, (3)

Attitudes

Learning Objective 13.6- What are the three components of an attitude and how are attitudes formed?

52. A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, or object is called _____________.
         a) bystander apathy
         b) an attitude
Correct. Attitude is a response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, or object.
         c) groupthink
         d) conformity
Incorrect. Conformity is indirect compliance due to group pressure.
ANS: b, p. 488, F, LO=13.6, (1)




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53. What do we call judgments about people, objects, or thoughts?
       a) cognitions
       b) stereotypes
       c) attitudes
Correct. Attitudes are responses, or judgments, either positive or negative, toward people, ideas, or objects.
       d) attributions
Incorrect. Attributions are the explanations one comes up with for one’s own or other people’s behavior.
ANS: c, p. 488 F, LO=13.6, (1)

54. Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude?
       a) Bea feels recycling is a great concept.
       b) Bob is upset when he hears a corporation plans to build a polluting plant near his home.
       c) Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new manufacturing plant.
Incorrect. The fact that Bill struggles to understand indicates that what he is doing is cognitive.
       d) Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the
       pollution they cause.
Correct. Writing is an action, or behavior.
ANS: d, p. 489, C, LO=13.6, (2) SG

55. Attitudes are __________________.
          a) innate
          b) generally positive
Incorrect. Attitudes tend to be both positive and negative.
          c) learned
Correct. Attitudes are learned from experience with the environment.
          d) unchangeable
ANS: c, p. 489, F, LO=13.6, (1)

56. An attitude has ______ major components.
         a) two
         b) four
Incorrect. An attitude has three major components: thinking, behaving, and feeling.
         c) three
Correct. An attitude has three major components: thinking, feeling, and behaving.
         d) five
ANS: c, p. 489–490, F, LO=13.6, (1)

57. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?
         a) beliefs
Incorrect. The cognitive component of attitude involves thoughts and beliefs.
         b) feelings
         c) goals
Correct. An attitude has three major components: thinking, behaving, and feeling.
         d) behaviors
ANS: c, p. 489–490, C, LO=13.6, (2)

58. You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the news about the
kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being affected?
       a) affective
       b) cognitive
Correct. You are developing new thoughts as you read facts about Argentina.
       c) behavioral
Incorrect. Reading the newspaper is changing your thinking, not behavior.
       d) situational
ANS: b, p. 490, A, LO=13.6, (2)


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59. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she
has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him
and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her
opinion that the candidate is not qualified represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
         a) cognitive
Correct. Roberta’s thought process in evaluating the candidate’s qualifications is a cognitive one.
         b) feeling
Incorrect. Roberta’s positive feeling about the candidate is affective, but her evaluation of his qualifications is
cognitive.
         c) intuition
         d) behavioral
ANS: a, p. 489–490, A, LO=13.6, (2)

60. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she
has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him
and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her
trust of the candidate represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
         a) affective
Correct. Trust is emotional and, therefore, is an affective component of attitude.
         b) cognitive
Incorrect. Trust is emotional and, therefore, is an affective, not a cognitive, component of attitude.
         c) behavioral
         d) situational
ANS: a, p. 489–490, A, LO=13.6, (3)

61. Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about
him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she
trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his
campaign. Her sending a donation to the campaign represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
        a) affective
        b) cognitive
Incorrect. Sending a donation is an action and is, therefore, a behavioral, not a cognitive, component of attitude.
        c) behavioral
Correct. Since sending a donation is an action, it is a behavioral component of attitude.
        d) situational
ANS: c, p. 489–490, A, LO=13.6, (3)

62. Attitude formation is the result of a number of influences. What they have in common is that they are all forms
of ________________.
          a) learning
Correct. You learn the components of the attitude you have.
          b) intuition
          c) reinforcement
Incorrect. Reinforcement is only one part of a learning process.
          d) conformity
ANS: a, p. 490–491, F, LO=13.6, (1)




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63. ―I hate Disneyworld. Whenever I take the kids there, I realize how much I hate that place.‖ Which method of
attitude formation is involved in this example?
          a) direct contact
Correct. The phrase “whenever I take the kids” shows that direct contact is the cause of the attitude.
          b) direct instruction
          c) vicarious conditioning
          d) observational learning
Incorrect. The attitude comes from a direct experience, not an observation of someone else’s attitude.
ANS: a, p. 490, F, LO=13.6, (1)

64. Kerry’s positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that
her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formation is involved
in this example?
          a) direct contact
          b) direct instruction
          c) interaction with others
Correct. The fact that Kerry’s mother talks about China all the time with Kerry and is Chinese indicates that her
attitude is the result of interaction with her mother.
          d) classical conditioning
Incorrect. Classical conditioning occurs when someone learns through repetition to respond in a certain way to a
stimulus.
ANS: c, p. 491, F, LO=13.6, (1) SG

Learning Objective 13.7- How can attitudes be changed?

65. Which communicator would likely be the most persuasive?
       a) an attractive person who is an expert
Correct. Attractiveness and expertise have been shown to increase persuasiveness.
       b) a moderately attractive person who is an expert
       c) an attractive person who has moderate expertise
       d) a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise
Incorrect. The more expertise and the more attractive someone is, the more effective he or she can be as a
persuader.
ANS: a, p. 491, C, LO=13.7, (2) SG

66. What is the relationship between expertise and persuasion?
       a) Expertise has no effect on persuasion.
       b) Nonexperts tend to be the most persuasive.
       c) Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.
Correct. Expertise makes the persuader credible.
       d) Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.
Incorrect. The more expertise, the better for the persuader.
ANS: c, p. 491, C, LO=13.7, (2)

67. Expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness all relate to which factor of persuasion?
       a) channel
       b) message
Incorrect. Attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness are aspects of the person trying to persuade, not aspects of
the message.
       c) source
Correct. Attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness are source characteristics, that is, characteristics of the
persuader.
       d) audience
ANS: c, p. 491, F, LO=13.7, (1)



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68. Which of the following statements about sending a persuasive message is true?
         a) The greater the level of fear in a message, the more effective it will be in changing attitudes.
         b) It is best to give only your side of the argument.
Incorrect. Research supports the idea that it is better to present both sides of the argument.
         c) Fear has not been properly investigated as a factor in attitude change.
         d) Too much fear in a message can create too much anxiety in the receiver for the the message to have the
         desired effect.
Correct. Messages that induce too much fear are met with denial and are, therefore, ineffective.
ANS: d, p. 491, C, LO=13.7, (2)

69. Which of the following qualities would make members of a target audience easier to persuade?
         a) highly educated members
         b) experts in the field
         c) younger members
Correct. A younger target audience seems to be more likely to be easily persuaded.
         d) older members
Incorrect. Older members of an audience seem to be harder to persuade.
ANS: c, p. 491, F, LO=13.7, (1)

70. When George Bush said, ―Everything in Iraq is going as planned. Trust me, I am the president,‖ he was using
what form of the elaboration likelihood model?
       a) under-route processing
       b) peripheral route processing
Correct. In peripheral-route processing one focuses on the source of the message rather than the content.
       c) central-route processing
Incorrect. In central-route processing one focuses on the content rather than the source.
       d) classic-route processing
ANS: b, p. 492, A, LO=13.7, (1)

71. The advice to ―keep it simple stupid‖ suggests that political and other messages should be simple so that the
audience will understand the content without distractions. This is an example of which type of processing suggested
by the elaboration likelihood model?
        a) under-route processing
        b) peripheral-route processing
Incorrect. In peripheral-route processing one focuses on the source of the message rather than the content.
        c) central-route processing
Correct. In central-route processing one focuses on the content rather than the source.
        d) classic-route processing
ANS: c, p. 492, C, LO=13.7, (2)

72. What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior?
        a) enticement
        b) persuasion
Correct. Persuasion is the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior.
        c) conversion
Incorrect. Conversion is the actual process of changing. The use of social influence to cause other people to change
their attitudes and behavior is persuasion.
        d) affectance
ANS: b, p. 491, F, LO=13.7, (1)




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Learning Objective 13.8- What happens when a person’s attitudes don’t match the person’s actions?

73. Which of the following is the correct definition of cognitive dissonance?
         a) a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the person’s attitude
Correct. Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the
person’s attitude.
         b) the tendency for members of a group to avoid taking responsibility for their actions because they assume
         that others will do so
Incorrect. The tendency for members of a group to avoid taking responsibility for their actions because they assume
that others will do so is called diffusion of responsibility.
         c) the tendency for members of a close-knit group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress
         disagreement
         d) a belief that a statement is true just because the person has heard it repeated over and over again
ANS: a, p. 493, F, LO=13.8, (1)

74. A state of tension that occurs when a person’s attitudes do not match the person’s actions is called
_______________.
         a) cognitive dissonance
Correct. Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the
person’s attitude.
         b) the validity effect
         c) the fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error occurs when people overestimate the influence of another person’s
internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation.
         d) routinization
ANS: a, p. 493, F, LO=13.8, (1)

75. Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?
       a) changing the behavior to match the attitude
       b) changing the thought to justify the behavior
Incorrect. This activity will reduce cognitive dissonance.
       c) developing new thoughts to justify the behavior
       d) continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
Correct. This activity will do nothing to reduce cognitive dissonance.
ANS: d, p. 493, F, LO=13.8, (2)

76. Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and reads, ―Cigarette smoking is harmful to your health.‖ Which one of the
following statements leads one to believe Luis is actually having cognitive dissonance?
       a) ―I’ve been smoking my whole life and I don’t have health problems.‖
Incorrect. There is no conflict between what Luis is doing and how he thinks.
       b) ―No one I know who smokes is sick.‖
       c) ―I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop.‖
Correct. Luis is demonstrating that there is a clear conflict between what he is doing and what he is thinking.
       d) ―That is not true. Cigarettes are not that harmful.‖
ANS: c, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (2)




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77. The World-Will-End-on-June-7 group got together on June 7 to pray as the world ended. The next day the world
did not end. The leader of the group said, ―Our prayers saved the world.‖ What process was responsible for the
attitude change?
        a) operant conditioning
Incorrect. There was no reinforcement or punishment in effect in this situation.
        b) cognitive dissonance
Correct. The dissonance of the world not ending and their original beliefs made the necessity of reducing the
dissonance. Saying their prayers saved the world served that purpose.
        c) classical conditioning
        d) positive reinforcement
ANS: b, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (3)

78. Which of the following is an example of cognitive dissonance?
        a) You are a lousy cook but you keep trying different recipes.
        b) You believe TV is for morons but are addicted to a sitcom that you watch every Tuesday night.
Correct. If you think TV is for morons, then you must think that you yourself are a moron for watching TV. Cognitive
dissonance occurs when your actions don’t match your attitudes.
        c) You dislike doing exercise but do it anyway to improve your health.
Incorrect. There is no cognitive dissonance in doing exercise even though you don’t like to; you know that you are
doing it solely for the health benefit, not for enjoyment.
        d) You are polite and civil to people you dislike.
 ANS: b, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (2)

79. Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?
         a) Wearing glasses is dignified; a respected political leader wears glasses.
         b) Dresses are feminine; Britney Spears wears dresses.
Incorrect. Britney Spears is feminine so these are consistent statements.
         c) Pink shirts are effeminate; Mel Gibson wears pink shirts.
Correct. Mel Gibson is not effeminate so the first statement creates dissonance.
         d) Orange juice is healthy; I love orange juice.
ANS: b, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (2)

80. Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?
         a) I believe smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke.
Correct. These statements are dissonant.
         b) I believe exercising is healthy; I love to exercise.
         c) I believe dresses are feminine; Nicole Kidman sometimes wears pants.
         d) I believe profanity is childish; my father uses profanity.
Incorrect. There is no conflict between attitude and actions in this example, since it is the father who uses profanity,
not the person who believes profanity is childish.
ANS: a, p. 493, C, LO=13.8, (2)




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81. You’ve always disliked a particular coworker who strikes you as dishonest, but he is nice to you and does you
favors, so you become friendly with him despite your misgivings. One day you learn that he stole personal items
from your desk. You now decide to discontinue the friendship. Your negative attitude toward this coworker is
strengthened through ___________.
        a) operant conditioning
        b) instrumental learning
        c) classical conditioning
Incorrect. Classical conditioning applies to the kind of learning that occurs with involuntary, reflexive behavior;
befriending a coworker requires voluntary behavior.
        d) reduction of cognitive dissonance
Correct. Cognitive dissonance occurred due to the conflict between your attitude (i.e., mistrust of this person) and
your actions (i.e., being friendly). Once your suspicion about his dishonesty is confirmed and you discontinue acting
friendly, there is no longer any cognitive dissonance.
ANS: d, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (2)

82. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)?
       a. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $20.
Correct. They used cognitive dissonance to justify their poor pay.
       b) Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $1.
Incorrect. Contrary to popular belief, cognitive dissonance was supported..
       c) Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups.
       d) Women performed the tasks for less money than men.
ANS: a, p. 493, F, LO=13.8, (2) SG

83. Dr. Cirillo divided her first-period class into two groups. One group had to read 20 pages in a boring psychology
text but would get 2 extra points on the next test. The other group also read 20 pages but were given 25 points added
to the next test. The class members were then asked to tell the second-period class how interesting the book was.
According to the results of the Festinger and Carlsmith study, what predictions could one make about the remarks of
the first-period class?
         a) Both groups would say the pages were boring.
Incorrect. According to Festinger and Carlsmith, there would be differences in how the groups perceived the
reading.
         b) The first-period class would say the pages were boring but the second-period class would not.
         c) Both groups would say the pages were interesting.
         d) The first-period class would say the pages were interesting but the second-period class would say the
         pages were boring.
Correct. The group that got such a small reward would reduce dissonance and say it was not so bad reading the
pages.
ANS: d, p. 493, A, LO=13.8, (3)

Impression Formation and Attrubution

Learning Objective 13.9- What are social categorization and implicit personality theories?

84. What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person?
       a) social interaction
       b) stereotyping
Incorrect. Although stereotyping may be a component of impression formation, it is not the term for the process of
developing an opinion about another person.
       c) impression formation
Correct. Impression formation is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person.
       d) interpersonal judgment
ANS: c, p. 494, F, LO=13.9, (1) SG



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85. Which of the following statements concerning social categorization is correct?
        a) It occurs without conscious awareness.
Correct. Social categorization does occur without conscious awareness, which is the reason so many people don’t
think they do it.
        b) It is deliberate and conscious.
Incorrect. Social categorization does occur without conscious awareness.
        c) People who do it tend to be young and naïve.
        d) Social categorization is a relatively new phenomenon.
ANS: a, p. 495, F, LO=13.9, (1)

86. Which term refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a particular group?
       a) stereotype
Correct. The term stereotype refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a particular
group.
       b) expectation
Incorrect. Expectation may be a component in stereotyping but it is only one part of a bigger process.
       c) classification
       d) categorization
ANS: a, p. 495, F, LO=13.9, (1)

87. Why do we engage in the stereotyping of people?
       a) to validate our assumptions
Incorrect. Stereotyping is a cognitive process that all people engage in to reduce the
amount of information we need to process.
       b) to help us perceive people more accurately
       c) to reduce the amount of information we need to process
Correct. We engage in stereotyping in order to reduce the amount of information we need
to process.
       d) to provide more complete information about individuals
ANS: c, p. 495, C, LO=13.9, (2)

88. ―We‖ have all different types of personalities and lots of endearing little quirks, whereas ―they‖ all think and act
alike. This assumption would be an example of the cognitive schema called______________.
         a) mindlessness
         b) a stereotype
Correct. Stereotyping helps us to reduce the complexity of our perceptions.
         c) a fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another
person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation.
         d) mental set
ANS: b, p. 495, A, LO=13.9, (2)

89. Dave believes all college professors are irritable, impatient, and uninterested in whether students learn. His
belief is an example of _______________.
         a) consensus
         b) impressions
Incorrect. Dave has taken his impressions and created a stereotype, or a set of characteristics that he believes are
shared by all college professors.
         c) an attitude
         d) a stereotype
Correct. A stereotype is a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members
of a particular group.
ANS: d, p. 495, A, LO=13.9, (2)




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90. According to the research on implicit personality theory, who among the following is most likely to think that
personality is a changeable thing?
       a) Mark, an Irish American born in Kansas
       b) Yonghang, a Chinese American born in Hong Kong
Correct. People native to Honk Kong seem to believe that personality is changeable.
       c) Tony, an Italian American born in New York
       d. Shireese, an African American born in New Jersey
Incorrect. American-born individuals do not seem to believe personality is changeable.
ANS: b, p. 495, F, LO=13.9, (1)

91. Which of the following descriptions best defines implicit personality theory?
         a) the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their personality traits
Correct. Implicit personality theory is the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their
personality traits.
         b) personal insights
         c) objective ideas about maladaptive behavior
         d) unconscious motives for aggressive behavior
Incorrect. Implicit personality theory is the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their
personality traits.
ANS: a, p. 495, F, LO=13.9, (1)

Learning Objective 13.10- How do people try to explain the actions of others?

92. Attributions are __________________.
        a) reasons people make for why they and others do what they do
Correct. Attributions are reasons people have to explain the behavior of themselves and others.
        b) innate personality traits
        c) genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
Incorrect. Attributions are reasons people have to explain the behavior of themselves and others.
        d) physical qualities people have such as attractiveness
ANS: a, p. 496, F, LO=13.10, (1)

93. Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out why, you are engaging in
the process called ________________.
       a) attribution
Correct. You are attributing motivations for your friend’s behavior.
       b) causal analysis
Incorrect. Causal analysis is not a term used in social psychology.
       c) ascribing values
       d) nonverbal communication
ANS: a, p. 496, F, LO=13.10, (1)

94. A group of Ray’s friends have been waiting for Ray for an hour. One says, ―He never remembers anything.‖
Another says, ―He’s probably caught in rush hour traffic.‖ What are these friends doing that might be of interest to a
social psychologist?
        a) They are making attributions.
Correct. They are attributing motivations for Ray’s behavior.
        b) They are reducing dissonance levels.
        c) They are conforming to the group’s norms.
        d) They are forming initial impressions of Ray.
Incorrect. They are attributing motivations for his behavior.
ANS: a, p. 496, F, LO=13.10, (1)




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95. The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is due to something about that
person or due to the person’s situation is called ______.
         a) the primacy effect
         b) cognitive dissonance
Incorrect. Cognitive dissonance theory focuses on how people justify their behavior.
         c) attribution theory
Correct. The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is due to something about
that person or due to the person’s situation is called attribution theory.
         d) stereotyping
ANS: c, p. 496, F, LO=13.10, (1)

96. ―Look, Officer, I didn’t see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes.‖ The police officer
responds, ―You were not paying attention.‖ How would a social psychologist describe this situation?
        a) Both individuals were making fundamental attribution errors.
        b) Both individuals were making situational attributions.
        c) The driver was making a dispositional attribution; the officer was making a situational attribution.
Incorrect. The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, that is, the sun, whereas the officer attributed
his error to something internal to him, that is, his lack of attention.
        d) The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a dispositional attribution.
Correct. The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, that is, the sun, whereas the officer attributed
his error to something internal to him, that is, his lack of attention.
ANS: d, p. 496, A, LO=13.10, (2) SG

97. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front of the line and drops
his items on the counter. Alex says to his friend, ―That man is incredibly rude.‖ A social psychologist who is within
earshot jots down a note so she can use the example in class. What does she write concerning Alex?
        a) He made a situational attribution.
Incorrect. A situational attribution would be an assumption that the man had an externalreason why he had to cut
the line.
        b) He made a dispositional attribution.
Correct. Alex’s judgment that “the man is rude” is a dispositional attribution, as it assumes his behavior is due to
his character.
        c) His remark is based on a stereotype.
        d) His remark is considered a collectivistic remark.
ANS: b, p. 496, A, LO=13.10, (2)

98. When we make situational attributions we are identifying the cause of an action as something _____.
         a) in the environment
Correct. When we make situational attributions, we are identifying the cause of an action as something “out there”
in the environment.
         b) in the person’s disposition
Incorrect. Identifying the cause of an action as something in a person’s disposition is what we do when we make a
dispositional attribution.
         c) that is a biological trait
         d) something with an unconscious motivation
ANS: a, p. 496, C, LO=13.10, (2)




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99. Why is Jane laughing? The comedy club was full of people waiting for Bill, the comic of the evening. Many
people were drinking alcohol. Jane does not drink. She laughs a lot though. No matter what happens Jane always
laughs. When Bill the comic started his act, no one laughed but Jane. According to the fundamental attribution error,
to what would we attribute Jane’s laughing?
        a) Bill is funny.
        b) The other people don’t like Bill.
        c) Jane has a laughing disposition.
Correct. Given the situational information, we attribute Jane’s laughing to personal disposition.
        d) Jane knows Bill.
Incorrect. No information would lead one to that conclusion.
ANS: c, p. 497, C, LO=13.10, (2)

100. You observe a person at the grocery store get angry and yell at the cashier. Which of these attributions
illustrates the fundamental attribution error?
         a) The yeller is a mean, angry person.
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another person’s
internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation. In this case, it may be
an error to assume that the person is mean and angry and overlook the possibility that he has a good reason to be
angry and/or that he had a horrible day
         b) The cashier is overworked.
         c) The yeller has had a bad day.
Incorrect. Making a situational attribution is not a fundamental attribution error.
         d) The cashier has had a bad day.
ANS: a, p. 496, A, LO=13.10, (1)

101. Which statement is correct concerning cross-cultural research on the fundamental attribution error?
        a) Fundamental attribution error appears to be universal.
Incorrect. There does seem to be differences in the way cultures make attributions.
        b) Most cultures attribute behavior to dispositional causes.
        c) Eastern cultures like Japan seem to make more situational attributions than Western cultures such as
        United States.
Correct. There seems to be a tendency for Eastern cultures to make situational rather than dispositional
attributions.
        d) Western cultures seem to make more situational attributions than Eastern cultures such.
ANS: c, p. 496, F, LO=13.10, (1)

102. Which statement is the best explanation of the fundamental attribution error?
       a) We attribute most of what people do to the influence of situations.
       b) We rely on the first information we receive to make internal attributions.
       c) We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to situational causes.
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another person’s
internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation.
       d) We tend to attribute our successes to our own efforts and failures to the shortcomings of others.
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another
person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation.
ANS: c, p. 496–497, C, LO=13.10, (2)




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103. What do social psychologists call the tendency to rely on internal characteristics for explanations of the
behavior of others and to ignore the influence of the situation?
       a) availability heuristic
       b) augmenting principle
       c) self-fulfilling prophecy
Incorrect. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when you believe others’ expectations about you and live up to them.
       d) fundamental attribution error
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the influence of another person’s
internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the person’s situation.
ANS: d, p. 496–497, F, LO=13.10, (3)

104. While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, ―Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He must be a genius.‖
You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor
discussed the topic of ______.
       a) social facilitation
       b) stereotyping illusions
       c) internal attribution biases
Incorrect. Internal attribution bias is not a term used in social psychology.
       d) fundamental attribution errors
Correct. Your roommate attributed something that is situational (Trebek gets the answers ahead of time) to an
internal characteristic (genius).
ANS: d, p. 496–497, A, LO=13.10, (2) SG

105. Which of these people is most likely to commit the fundamental attribution error?
        a) a man watching someone trip and fall while crossing the street
Correct. A fundamental attribution error requires one person to observe and make an attribution about someone
else’s behavior.
        b) a woman buying a car
        c) a young boy who helps an old lady cross the street
Incorrect. Fundamental attribution requires an observer.
        d) a gardener who runs over a rosebush with the mower
ANS: a, p. 497, C, LO=13.10, (3)

106. Which statement is more likely to be true concerning attributions made by Americans versus Chinese people?
       a) They both tend to make situational cause errors.
       b) They both tend to make dispositional cause errors.
Incorrect. Americans are more likely than Chinese people to erroneously attribute behavior to disposition.
       c) Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are Chinese people.
Correct. People from cultures that are individualistic, such as American culture, are more likely to make the
fundamental attribution error than are people from cultures that are collectivistic, such as Chinese culture.
         d) Chinese people are more likely to make dispositional errors, whereas Americans are more likely to make
         situational errors.
ANS: c, p. 497, C, LO=13.10, (3)




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Prejudice and Discrimination

Learning Objective 13.11- What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?

107. Prejudice is a(n) _________, whereas discrimination is a(n) ________.
       a) dislike; hatred
Incorrect. Prejudice is a thought process, whereas discrimination is an action against a person or group that is
often motivated by prejudice.
       b) hatred; dislike
       c) behavior; attitude
       d) attitude; behavior
Correct. Prejudice is a thought process, whereas discrimination is an action against a person or group.
ANS: d, p. 498, F, LO=13.11, (2)

108. A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them
loans. The loan officer’s belief is an example of _____ . His refusal to grant them loans is an example of _____.
        a) discrimination; prejudice
Incorrect. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular group, whereas
discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief.
        b) stereotyping; attribution
        c) attribution; stereotyping
        d) prejudice; discrimination
Correct. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular group, whereas
discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief. In this case, the action is the refusal to grant loans.
ANS: d, p. 498, A, LO=13.11, (2) SG

109. Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up-and-coming African American
singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they
insist on being admitted.
Luther’s behavior is BEST described as an example of ______.
          a) prejudice
Incorrect. Prejudice is an attitude, not a behavior.
          b) ambiguity
          c) discrimination
Correct. Discrimination is a behavior toward an entire group of people.
          d) oppression
ANS: c, p. 498, A, LO=13.11, (2)

110. Ralph, a white student who grew up in Maine, is about to enter the University of Southern California on an
athletic scholarship. He is aware that many of his teammates
will be black and assumes that they will dislike him and ostracize him. Ralph’s attitude is
BEST described as an example of______.
          a) prejudice
Correct. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative attitude about members of a group.
          b) ambiguity
          c) nonconformity
          d)discrimination
Incorrect. Discrimination is a behavior, not an attitude.
ANS: a, p. 498, A, LO=13.11, (2)




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111. A group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy
of respect is a(n) ______.
         a) pariah
         b) in-group
Incorrect. An in-group is a group viewed as friends who are worthy of respect.
         c) threat-group
         d) out-group
Correct. A group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy of respect is an out-group.
ANS: d, p. 498, F, LO=13.11, (1)

112. The group viewed as the one a person identifies with is called a (an) ________.
         a) pariah
         b) in-group
Correct. The group with which a person identifies is an in-group.
         c) threat-group
         d) out-group
Incorrect. An out-group is a group with which one does not identify.
ANS: b, p. 498, F, LO=13.11, (1)

113. The realistic conflict theory focuses on conflict ______.
         a) within an in-group
Incorrect. Most conflict occurs between different groups.
         b) between two groups
Correct. Most conflict occurs between different groups.
         c) within an out-group
         d) between two members of an in-group
ANS: b, p. 499, F, LO=13.11, (1)

114. What term do social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group responsible for the
problems of people in the in-group?
       a) groupthink
       b) pariah formation
Incorrect. The term social psychologists use for the process of making a people in an out-group responsible for the
problems of people in the in-group is scapegoating.
       c) deindividuation
       d) scapegoating
Correct. The term social psychologists use for the process of making a people in an out-group responsible for the
problems of people in the in-group is scapegoating.
ANS: d, p. 500, F, LO=13.11, (1)

115. Scapegoats are usually the group of people with _________.
       a) the most annoying customs
Incorrect. Groups can get away with having annoying customs as long as they have power.
       b) the most unusual appearance
       c) the most money
       d) the least power
Correct. Groups with the least power are typically used as scapegoats.
ANS: d, p. 500, F, LO=13.11, (1)




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Learning Objective 13.12- Why are people prejudiced, and how can prejudice be stopped?

116. Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity theory?
         a) social categorization
         b) identification
Incorrect. This is a process in social identity theory.
         c) authoritarianism
Correct. Authoritarianism is not a process in social identity theory.
         d) social comparison
ANS: c, p. 500, F, LO=13.12, (1)

117. Social comparison occurs when _______________.
         a) someone asks you to give them directions
         b) two people order food in a restaurant
Incorrect. Social comparison involves comparing oneself to another to improve one’s own self-esteem. Ordering
food does not create this comparison; a beauty contest is a more accurate example.
         c) two people enter a beauty contest
Correct. A beauty contest would be a good example of a situation in which people compare themselves to others.
         d) playing solitaire
ANS: c, p. 500–501, C, LO=13.12, (2)

118. Which of the following statements supports the idea of social identity?
         a) My name is Dan and I play the trumpet.
Incorrect. Playing the trumpet does not tell us about Dan’s social identity and group.
         b) My name is Mario and I like tuna fish.
         c) My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus.
Correct. Tony is expressing social identity and being a part of an in-group.
         d) I am Sam and own a car.
ANS: c, p. 501, C, LO=13.12, (1)

119. The part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic
group or with gender or other roles in society is called _____________.
          a) the fundamental attribution error
          b) self-serving bias
          c) ethnocentrism
Incorrect. Ethnocentrism is an overidentification with people who share one’s ethnic background or nationality to
the exclusion of others.
          d) social identity
Correct. Social identity is the part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation,
culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society.
ANS: d, p. 500, C, LO=13.12, (2) SG

120. All of the following terms are used in social identity theory EXCEPT _______________.
         a) reference group
Incorrect. One’s reference group is one’s in-group, and the term is used in social identity theory.
         b) control group
Correct. Control group is a term used in the area of experimentation, not in social identity theory.
         c) identification
         d) social comparison
ANS: b, p. 500, F, LO=13.12, (1)




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121. A college instructor’s schedule has her teaching an honors section of psychology. Halfway through the
semester, she is told that her class was NOT an honors section after all. She responds, ―This is the best class I have
ever taught and the grades prove it.‖ What concept might a social psychologist use to explain the high grades this
class obtained and the teacher’s high opinion of the class?
        a) subject bias
Incorrect. Subject bias refers to the tendency of subjects in an experiment to behave a certain way.
        b) self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. Her expectations set a high standard that caused the class members to perform better than they would have
otherwise.
        c) covert sensitization
        d) collectivism
ANS: b, p. 501, A, LO=13.12, (3)

122. When the expectations of one person bring about the expected behavior in another person, the expectation has
become a(n) ______.
         a) attribution
Incorrect. An attribution is an explanation a person comes up with about the motivations behind someone else’s
behavior.
         b) response characteristic
         c) self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. When the expectations of one person bring about the expected behavior in another person, the expectation
has become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
         d) primary drive
ANS: c, p. 501, F, LO=13.12, (1)

123. Stereotype threat is anxiety related to the phenomenon known as _____.
         a) attribution
         b) response characteristic
Incorrect. Stereotype threat occurs when you believe the stereotype about your group.
         c) primary drive
         d) self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. People worry that they may bring about a self-fulfilling prophecy by behaving in ways that confirm the
stereotype about their group.
ANS: d, p. 501, F, LO=13.12, (1)

124. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that _____________.
           a) playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us–them hostility
Incorrect. Playing athletic games tends to increase us–them hostility.
           b) watching movies together, and similar quiet interactions, reduces us–them hostility
           c) engaging in mutually exciting activities, such as tug-of-war, reduces us–them hostility
           d) interdependence in solving crises together reduces us–them hostility
Correct. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that interdependence in solving crises together reduces us–them
hostility.
ANS: d, p. 502, C, LO=13.12, (3)

125. All of the following are ways to reduce prejudice EXCEPT ______________.
         a) mutual interdependence
Incorrect. Mutual interdependence is a great way to decrease prejudice.
         b) equal status contact
         c) scapegoating
Correct. Scapegoating, which involves taking out one’s hostility on an entire group that is not necessarily the source
of one’s anger, only increases prejudice.
         d) intergroup contact
ANS: c, p. 501, F, LO=13.12, (1)




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126. How does the jigsaw classroom operate?
         a) Students compete to win a top award.
Incorrect. There is less competition in the jigsaw classroom.
         b) Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a problem.
Correct. In the jigsaw classroom, students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a
problem.
         c) Students are told that one student holds the key to solving a problem and they must find out who it is.
Incorrect. In the jigsaw classroom, students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a
problem.
         d) Students are all given separate puzzles to solve.
ANS: b, p. 502, F, LO=13.12, (2)

Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction

Learning Objective 13.13- What factors cause people to be attracted to each other?

127. We tend to ___ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.
         a) like
Correct. Unfortunately, social psychologists have found that we tend to like attractive people more than unattractive
people.
         b) dislike
Incorrect. Social psychologist have found that we tend to like attractive people more than unattractive people.
         c) ignore
         d) hate
ANS: a, p. 503, F, LO=13.13, (1) SG

128. What term do psychologists use to describe our liking of other people?
       a) love
Incorrect. This is a strong emotional affection for another person.
       b) appeal
       c) interpersonal attraction
Correct. Psychologists use the term interpersonal attraction to describe our liking of other people.
       d) cognitive dissonance
ANS: c, p. 503, F, LO=13.13, (1)

129. How are proximity to others and attraction correlated?
       a) not correlated
       b) positively correlated
Correct. We tend to like those who are nearby.
       c) negatively correlated
Incorrect. We tend to like those who are nearby.
       d) inversely correlated
ANS: b, p. 503, F, LO=13.13, (1)

130. The term psychologists use for how close two people live to each other is ______.
         a) similarity
Incorrect. Similarity has to do with how people are alike. The term psychologists use for how close people live to
each other is proximity.
         b) proximity
Correct. Proximity means physical nearness.
         c) propinquity
         d) complimentarity
ANS: b, p. 503, F, LO=13.13, (1)




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131. ―I adore the girl next door.‖ This phrase refers to what rule of attraction?
        a) saturation effect
        b) proximity
Correct. Proximity refers to being near someone else.
        c) birds-of-a-feather effect
Incorrect. This refers to similarity, not proximity.
        d) foot-in-the-door effect
ANS: b, p. 503, C, LO=13.13, (2)

132. ―Birds of a feather‖ is a phrase that refers to __________.
       a) similarity
Correct. “Birds of a feather” refers to similarity, as birds with the same kinds of feathers are likely to be of the same
species.
       b) reinforcement
       c) self-disclosure
Incorrect. “Birds of a feather” refers to similarity, as birds with the same kinds of feathers are likely to be of the
same species.
       d) emotional expression
ANS: a, p. 503, C, LO=13.13, (2)

133. When opposites attract, it is said that they have __________ characteristics.
         a) proximal
Incorrect. Proximity means nearness.
         b) complimentary
Correct. Things that “complement” each other tend to be opposites.
         c) rewarding
         d) reciprocal
ANS: b, p. 503, F, LO=13.13, (1) SG

134. Which of the following illustrates the power of complementary traits?
         a) A dominant woman marries a submissive man.
Correct. Dominance and submissiveness are opposite qualities.
         b) A girl marries the boy next door.
Incorrect. Marrying the person next door illustrates the power of proximity, not complementary traits.
         c) Two tennis players become good friends.
         d) A girl and a boy who both like jogging fall in love.
ANS: a, p. 503, C, LO=13.13, (3)

135. Which of the following examples describes the rule of attraction called reciprocity of liking?
         a) Mary likes Julio because he is so different from her.
         b) Sabrina loves Clark because he lives next door to her.
Incorrect. Liking someone who lives close to you is the proximity rule.
         c) Tameka likes Raphael because he likes her.
Correct. Reciprocity of liking means that we like those who like us.
         d) Marcia likes Donald because he is rich.
ANS: c, p. 503, A, LO=13.13, (1)




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Learning Objective 13.14- What is love and what are the different forms that love can take?

136. All of the following are Sternberg’s components of love EXCEPT ________________.
       a) passion
       b) intimacy
       c) loyalty
Correct. According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and commitment.
       d) commitment
Incorrect. According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and commitment.
ANS: c, p. 504, F, LO=13.14, (1)

137. Which type of love is defined as commitment only?
       a) infatuation
       b) consummate love
       c) companionate love
Incorrect. Companionate love includes intimacy as well as commitment.
       d) empty love
Correct. Empty love involves commitment alone.
ANS: d, p. 504, F, LO=13.14, (1)

138. Which type of love is defined as passion only?
       a) seduction
       b) infatuation
Correct. Infatuation is passion without intimacy or commitment.
       c) romantic
Incorrect. Romantic love is passion and intimacy but no commitment.
       d) companionate
ANS: b, p. 504, F, LO=13.14, (1)

139. Which type of love is defined as having only intimacy and commitment?
       a) seduction
       b) empty
Incorrect. In empty love there is only commitment, no intimacy.
       c) infatuation
       d) companionate
Correct. Companionate love has commitment and intimacy but no passion.
ANS: d, p. 504, F, LO=13.14, (1)

140. Herbie and Irene have been married for almost 55 years. Through it all they have remained committed to each
other and have been as close as two people can be. Over the years the passion has waned but they still stayed
together. Sternberg would call this type of love ________________.
        a) consummate
Incorrect. Consummate love has intimacy, commitment, AND passion.
        b) romantic
        c) intimate
        d) companionate
Correct. Companionate love has the components of intimacy and commitment but not passion.
ANS: d, p. 504, F, LO=13.14, (2)




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Agression and Prosocial Behavior

Learning Objective 13.15- How is aggressive behavior determined by biology and learning?

141. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.
       a) testosterone
Correct. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be testosterone, and it’s the one males have the most of.
       b) estrogen
Incorrect. Estrogen, the hormone found in higher amounts among females, is not associated with aggression.
       c) MDH
       d) peptone
ANS: a, p. 506, F, LO=13.15, (1)

142. In Zimbardo’s prison study, male college students agreed to participate in a two-week experiment to discover
what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and guards. After the prisoners staged a revolt, the
researchers found that _______________.
         a) the guards became more aggressive
Correct. After the prisoners staged a revolt, the researchers found that the guards became more aggressive, and the
study had to be stopped.
         b) all of the guards decided to quit the experiment
         c) the guards tried to be ―tough but fair‖
         d) the experimenters had everyone switch roles
Incorrect. The participants never switched roles.
ANS: a, p. 507, A, LO=13.15, (3)

143. What actual event could have been predicted based on the results of Zimbardo’s classic prisoner study at
Stanford University?
       a) the prison break at Attica prison in New York
Incorrect. The impact of social roles was not as evident in the prison break.
       b) the events in Waco, Texas, in which followers of a cult were killed by government agents.
       c) the events at Abu Gharib prison in Iraq.
Correct. These events seem to mirror Zimbardo’s examination of social roles.
       d) the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001
ANS: c, p. 507, A, LO=13.15, (2)

144. One conclusion of much of the research on media and violence is that ____________.
       a) TV causes violence
       b) aggressive children tend to watch violent TV more than nonaggressive children
Correct. This makes sense because there is a predisposition to be aggressive.
        c) TV tends to make nonaggressive children become aggressive
Incorrect. This popular misconception has been proven unreliable many times.
       d) violent TV programs are responsible for over 75 percent of aggression among children
ANS: b, p. 508, F, LO=13.15, (2)




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Learning Objective 13.16- What is altruism?

145. What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no
anticipation of reward?
        a) altruism
Correct. Altruism is defined as helping others for no personal benefit
        b) collectivism
        c) interdependence
        d) humanitarianism
Incorrect. Humanitarianism means almost the same thing as altruism but is not the term social psychologists use for
the helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward.
ANS: a, p. 509, F, LO=13.16, (1) SG

Learning Objective 13.17- What is the bystander effect?

146. What term do psychologists use for the phenomenon that occurs when people are less likely to aid a person in
trouble if there are other people around who are also potential helpers?
        a) bystander effect
Correct. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because they think others will
do so.
        b) sole-witness effect
        c) subtle aggressive effect
        d) antisocial behavior effect
Incorrect. There is no such term as antisocial behavior effect in social psychology.
ANS: a, p. 509, F, LO=13.17, (1)

147. A car crash woke John from his afternoon nap. When he looked out his apartment window, he saw several
people milling around two smashed cars. He decided not to dial 911 because he assumed someone had already
called. John’s reaction is an example of ______.
        a) the bystander effect
Correct. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because they think others will
do so.
        b) pluralistic compliance
        c) obedience to authority
        d) conformity to social norms
Incorrect. Conformity to social norms does not explain John’s inaction, as it would be considered normal to call for
help.
ANS: a, p. 509, A, LO=13.17, (3)

148. In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, ―He’s killing me!‖ Yet no one calls
the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latané?
        a) People are too busy to respond.
        b) Most people ―do not want to become involved.‖
Incorrect. According to Latané and Darley, very few people say they do not want to become involved.
        c) The fight-or-flight response is not activated when others are in danger.
        d) Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond.
Correct. Diffusion of responsibility is what happens because each person thinks someone else will call for help (i.e.,
take responsibility).
ANS: d, p. 509, A, LO=13.17, (2) SG




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Learning Objective 13.18- What did Latané and Darley discover about the presence of others and helping behavior?

149. According to the research of Latané and Darley, which of the following situations would be the most likely in
which someone would offer to help?
         a) person on the side of the road with a flat tire during rush hour
         b) person asking for help in a crowded stadium parking lot
         c) person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it.
Correct. Latané and Darley predict that the fewer number of people present the more likely someone will help.
         d) a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom
Incorrect. Latané and Darley predict that the fewer number of people present the more likely someone will help. The
full classroom would lower the chance of someone helping.
ANS: c, p. 510, F, LO=13.18, (2)

Learning Objective 13.19- What decisions have to be made before a person will help someone?

150. Which of the following individuals would be the LEAST likely to help?
       a) Carrie, who sees Carl’s car is on fire
       b) Leah, who while walking alone sees a young boy caught in a sewer drain pipe
       c) Susanna, who is in a bad mood and sees a car flip over on a crowded intersection
Correct. Bad mood and crowds lower the chances that someone will help.
       d) Jessica, who is a nurse and sees a man having a heart attack in his car in a deserted parking lot.
Incorrect. Being alone as well as noticing the event and having the skills to help would increase the likelihood of
helping.
ANS: c, p. 511, F, LO=13.19, (2)

151. All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT ____________.
       a) noticing
Incorrect. Noticing is a decision point.
       b) defining an emergency
       c) taking responsibility
       d) diffusion of responsibility
Correct. Diffusion of responsibility stops a person from helping.
ANS: d, p. 511, F, LO=13.19, (1) SG

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Anatomy of a Cult

Learning Objective 13.20- Why do people join cults?

152. Which of the following individuals is the most likely candidate to join a cult?
         a) Dan who just got a job, has a great marriage but is unhappy with his religion
Incorrect. Being dissatisfied with religion is not enough. Dan is also in a good relationship and has a job, making
him an unlikely candidate for a cult.
         b) Jane who is a straight A student and has a great relationship with her parents but just broke up with her
         boyfriend
         c) Glenn who lives with his strict parents, never fights back when people call him names, and builds Star
         Trek symbols out of wood
Correct. Unassertive and stressed individuals who are idealistic are great candidates for cults.
         d) Brenda who is disappointed with the president, lives with her sister, and has a great job
ANS: c, p. 512, C, LO=13.20, (2)




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TRUE OR FALSE

153. Giving in to indirect pressure to change your behavior and thoughts is called obedience.
ANS: F, p. 481, LO=13.1

154. Collectivist cultures seem to be more conducive to conformity than individualistic cultures.
ANS: T, p. 481, LO=13.1

155. You receive a call at home from a telemarketer who wants you to listen to a pitch for aluminum siding. If you
agree to listen, you are more likely to buy siding—a phenomenon known as the foot-in-the-door technique.
ANS: T, p. 483, LO=13.3

156. The purpose of Milgram’s study on obedience was to find out how many people would obey an authority figure
when directly ordered to violate their own ethical standards.
ANS: T, p. 485, LO=13.4

157. Social loafing occurs when a member of a team slows down, letting others work harder.
ANS: T, p. 487–488, LO=13.5

158. An attitude has four major components.
ANS: F, p. 489–490, LO=13.6

159. The greater the level of fear in a message, the more effective it will be in changing attitudes.
ANS: F, p. 492, LO=13.7

160. Stereotypes overestimate the differences among people in other groups.
ANS: F, p. 495, LO=13.9

161. Following their classic study, Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) reported that those who got $1 for a boring task
said it was more interesting than those who got $20.
ANS: T, p. 493, LO=13.7

162. Social categorization occurs without conscious awareness.
ANS: T, p. 495, LO=13.9

163. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front of the line and drops
his items on the counter. Alex says, ―That man is incredibly rude." Alex just made a situational attribution.
ANS: F, p. 496, LO=13.10

164. People from collectivist cultures are more likely to make attributions based on dispositions than are people in
more individualistic cultures.
ANS: F, p. 497, LO=13.12

165. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us–
them hostility.
ANS: F, p. 501–502, LO=13.12

166. According to Sternberg, consummate love requires only passion and intimacy.
ANS: F, p. 505, LO=13.14

167. According to Darley and Latané, the main factor causing people to refrain from helping is not wanting to get
involved.
ANS: F, p. 510–511, LO=13.17




                                                                                                                  465
SHORT ANSWER

168. What is groupthink?
LO=13.2, p. 482

169. Describe one of the components of attitude.
LO=13.6, p. 489-490

170. What should a message accomplish to be effective?
LO=13.7, p. 491-492

171. Give an example of what happens when a person’s attitude does not match his or her behavior.
LO=13.8, 492-493

172. Briefly describe social categorization.
LO=13.9, p. 494-495

173. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
LO=13.11, p. 498

174. Give two ways in which prejudice can be stopped.
LO=13.12, p. 501-502

175. List and define Sternberg’s components of love.
LO=13.14, p. 504-505

176. Give one reason why televised violence may cause a child to be aggressive.
LO=13.15, p. 508

177. Define altruism.
LO=13.16, p. 509




                                                                                                    466
ESSAY

178. The obedience study conducted by Stanley Milgram has become world famous. More than 1,000 people at
several American universities went through replications of the study. In addition, researchers in other countries, such
as Spain and the Netherlands, have used Milgram’s procedures. Explain in detail the procedures that Milgram used
in his study and then analyze his results. What conclusions did Milgram reach? How have critics reacted to his
research?
LO=13.4, p.485-487

179. How do advertisers use the principles of persuasion discussed in your chapter? Pick a television commercial
and use it as an example of the components of persuasion.
LO=13.7, p. 491-492

180. According to attribution theory, the explanations we create for our behavior and the behavior of others
generally fall into two categories. Describe these two categories. In your essay, discuss key concepts in attribution
theory, such as the fundamental attribution error.
LO=13.10, p. 496-497

181. Using Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, describe two relationships in your life (e.g., your parents or your
current love relationship) and discuss how these relationships fit into one or more of Sternberg’s forms of love.
LO=13.14, p. 504-505

182. If you saw someone on the side of the road with a flat tire, would you help that person? What factors would
influence whether you would help or not? Include terminology discussed in the Latané and Darley study discussed
in your text.
LO=13.16-13.17, p. 509-511




                                                                                                                   467

				
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