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Foliar Fungicides on Corn

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					Foliar Fungicides on Corn

        Paul Vincelli
    Extension Professor,
    University of Kentucky
                Background
• Several chemical companies are actively
  promoting foliar fungicide applications on corn.
• Cited benefits: increased crop y       ,   g
                                p yields, longer
  grain fill time, and occasionally, reduced crop
  lodging.
• Estimated corn acres sprayed in U.S
   • Prior to 2006: 300,000 acres
   • During 2007: 14 million acres! (10-12% of
     total U.S. crop)
                              Target diseases
            Gray leaf spot                           Northern leaf blight




Image by K. Leonard and E. G. Suggs
Courtesy of the American Phytopathological Society




          Both survive in infested corn residue.
                       (cont d)
       Target diseases (cont’d)




Common rust: usually minor   Southern rust: damaging
to no effect on yield        but very sporadic
    Fungicides Labeled For Corn
             Propiconazole Tebuconazole     Pyraclostrobin Azoxystrobin
  y
Systemic     Tilt          Orius 3 6F
                           O i 3.6F         Headline
                                            H dli          Q di
                                                           Quadris
fungicides   Bumper 41.8EC
             Propimax EC
                                  Strobilurin fungicides
Fungicide        Azoxystrobin +      Trifloxystrobin +
                 propiconazole       propiconazole
mixtures         Quilt               Stratego



                 Chlorothalonil     Mancozeb               Maneb
                 Bravo Ultrex       Dithane DF             Manex
Contact          Equus 720 SST      Dithane M-45
fungicides
f   i id         Equus DF           Manzate 75DF
                                    Manzate Flowable
                                    Penncozeb 75DF
                 y                     y
2004 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
DeKalb DKC63-81 (GLS=5, NLB=3, 1-9 scale where 1=best)
Planted in in conventional till continuous corn
Application at tasseling


                            % GLS          % NLB          Yield
  Treatment                 49 DAT         49 DAT        (
                                                         (bu/A))
  None                       43 a           10 a         150 b

  Tilt 4 fl oz                33 b            8a         153 b

          92
  Quadris 9.2 fl oz           8d              4d         170 a

  Headline 9.2 fl oz          6d              4d         166 a
Foliar Fungicides on Corn in 2007:
  Summary of University Trials
             Carl A. Bradley
       Department of Crop Sciences
          University of Illinois
              carlbrad@uiuc.edu
           2007 Corn Fungicide Trials

•   States/Province in which trials were conducted:
    – Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
      Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
      Dakota, Ohi O
      D k                   i    d Wi      i
                Ohio, Ontario, and Wisconsin

•               on-farm                  small-plot
    Mixture of on farm strip trials and small plot
    trials (majority were small-plot trials)

•   All had a minimum of 3 replicates per location
           2007 Corn Fungicide Trials

•   Majority of trials were sprayed by ground
    applicator – only 3 trials were sprayed by aerial
    applicator

•   Fungicide applications were made between VT
      d R1
    and R
                   Assumptions
•              p      q          q
    Each data point equals a unique location or
    unique hybrid (i.e. multiple hybrids at the same
    location each have their own data point)

•   Fungicide treatment = $20/A

•   Market price of corn = $3.50/bu

•   Need 6 bu/A return to be profitable
            Pioneer® summary
           1999-2007         2006 2007)
• Data for 1999 2007 (mostly 2006-2007)
  – 271 strip trials, 74 university trials.
• Application at VT to brown silk
• Grower strip trials were not replicated and most
  were aerially applied.
              y pp
• Assumes corn price of $4.25/A, fungicide + appl
  cost of $22/A, breakeven point of 5.2 bu/A
What is the overall benefit of
   fungicides on corn?
                                         Headline 6 fl oz, Quilt 14 fl oz, Stratego 10 oz
                                          30
                                          25
                                 bu/A)




                                          20
Yield difference from untreated (b




                                          15
                                          10
                                           5
                                           0
                    m




                                          -5
                                         -10
                                         -15
                                          20
                                         -20
      d




                                         -25
                                         -30
                                         -35
                                                                         Location or Hybrid

                                    63 out of 168 = 38% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.
                                    Mean = 3 bu/A increase over the untreated


                                                                                                            2007 data
Pioneer® results
                                            Yield differential in corn from a strobilurin
                                                  g       pp
                                              fungicide application in 68 university y
                                                   research trials through 2006
           erence, trt minus untrt (bu/A)
 Yield diffe




Some trials conducted with susceptible hybrids or other conditions expected to
increase disease pressure. Data collated by Pioneer Hi-Bred.
How do the individual
 fungicides perform?
                                                                                                                                                                  ference from untreated (b
                                                                                                                                                         Yield diff                       bu/A)




                                                                                                                                                         -25
                                                                                                                                                         -20
                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                         -15
                                                                                                                                                         -10
                                                                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                                                          30




                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-23
                                                                                                                                                                         KY-1
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-1
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-16
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                        IA-11
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-17
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-20
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-3
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-8
                                                                                                                                                                        MO-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-12
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-4
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-1
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-18
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-19
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-3
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-7
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-13
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-14
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7




            Mean = 4 bu/A increase over the untreated
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-2
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-5
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-6
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                         KS-2
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                    Location or Hybrid




                                                                                                                                                                        IA-13
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                        ND-1
                                                                                                                                                                         KY-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-9
                                                                                                                                                                        IA-10
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Headline 6 fl oz/A




                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-1
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-2
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-4
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-4
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-1
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-1
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-11
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-1
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                         NE-1
                                                                                                                                                                         KY-2
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                        39 out of 89 = 44% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.




                                                                                                                                                                         IL-15
                                                                                                                                                                         KS-3
                                                                                                                                                                        MN-1
                                                                                                                                                                        OH-4
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-2
                                                                                                                                                                         IL-23
                                                                                                                                                                        MD-3
                                                                                                                                                                        ON-2
                                                                                                                                                                         NE-1
                                                                                                                                                                        IA-12
2007 data
                                                                                                                                                               d            om
                                                                                                                                                         Yield difference fro untreated (bu/A)




                                                                                                                                                         -30
                                                                                                                                                         -25
                                                                                                                                                         -20
                                                                                                                                                         -15
                                                                                                                                                         -10
                                                                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                                                          30           IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-1
                                                                                                                                                                       IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                     IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                     MO-1
                                                                                                                                                                       IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-3
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                      IN-2
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-5
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-7




            Mean = 3 bu/A increase over the untreated
                                                                                                                                                                     IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-4
                                                                                                                                                                     KS-3
                                                                                                                                                                     MN-5
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-8
                                                                                                                                    Location or Hybrid




                                                                                                                                                                       IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Quilt 14 fl oz/A




                                                                                                                                                                       IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                     IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                     KS-2
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-2
                                                                                                                                                                      WI-6
                                                                                                                                                                       IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-1
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-7
                                                        13 out of 37 = 35% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.




                                                                                                                                                                     IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                     NE-1
                                                                                                                                                                     NE-1
                                                                                                                                                                       IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                      IN-1
2007 data
                                                                                                                                                             d              om
                                                                                                                                                         Yield difference fro untreated (bu/A)




                                                                                                                                                         -35
                                                                                                                                                         -30
                                                                                                                                                         -25
                                                                                                                                                         -20
                                                                                                                                                         -15
                                                                                                                                                         -10
                                                                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                          25              IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22
                                                                                                                                                                          N-3
                                                                                                                                                                         IN
                                                                                                                                                                        OHH-3
                                                                                                                                                                          N-2
                                                                                                                                                                         IN
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-5
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                          N-3
                                                                                                                                                                         IN
                                                                                                                                                                        KS-3
                                                                                                                                                                          N-3
                                                                                                                                                                         IN
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                        OHH-2
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22




            Mean = 2 bu/A increase over the untreated
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-6
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          N-1
                                                                                                                                                                         IN
                                                                                                                                    Location or Hybrid




                                                                                                                                                                          IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                        OHH-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-5
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Stratego 10 fl oz/A




                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-4
                                                                                                                                                                        OHH-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-6
                                                                                                                                                                        KS-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IA-4
                                                        11 out of 42 = 26% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.




                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                        IL-22
                                                                                                                                                                        NE-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-7
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                        NE-1
2007 data
What is the benefit due to?

    1. Disease control
    2. “Plant health”
                                 Hybrids w/ Fair to Poor Resistance to Gray Leaf Spot
                                        25
Yield difference fro untreated (bu/A)




                                        20
                             d




                                        15
                                        10
                   om




                                         5
                                         0
                                         -5
                                         10
                                        -10
                                        -15
                                                                             Location or Hybrid


                                        16 out of 31 = 52% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.
                                        Mean = 6 bu/A increase over the untreated


                                                                                                                2007 data
                                         Hybrids w/ Good to Excellent Resistance to Gray Leaf Spot
                                          30
Yield difference from untreated (bu/A)




                                          25
                                          20
                                          15
                              d




                                          10
                                           5
                                           0
                                           5
                                          -5
                                         -10
                                         -15
                                         -20
                                          25
                                         -25
                                         -30
                                         -35
                                                                              Location or Hybrid

                                         47 out of 121 = 39% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.
                                         Mean = 3 bu/A increase over the untreated


                                                                                                                 2007 data
   p         y
Response of Hybrids with different levels of
 Gray Leaf Spot Resistance to Fungicides

                        6
Yield difference from




                        5
              bu/A)




                        4
   ntreated (b




                        3
                        2
    d
  un




                        1
                        0
                            Good to Excellent      Fair to Poor
                             Hybrid Resistance to Gray Leaf Spot




                                                                   2007 data
Pioneer®
results
                                                                                                                                                                           rom untreate (bu/A)
                                                                                                                                                         Yield difference fr          ed




                                                                                                                                                         -35
                                                                                                                                                         -30
                                                                                                                                                         -25
                                                                                                                                                         -20
                                                                                                                                                         -15
                                                                                                                                                         -10
                                                                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                          25               IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-23
                                                                                                                                                                          OH-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                             IA-
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-1
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-5
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-20
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-3
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-1
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-18
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-3
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-13




            Mean = 1 bu/A increase over the untreated
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-2
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-4
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-2
                                                                                                                                    Location or Hybrid



                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-5
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-4
                                                                                                                                                                          OH-3
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Previous Crop = Corn




                                                                                                                                                                           IA-6
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-10
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-2
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                           WI-6
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-3
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-1
                                                                                                                                                                           IA-4
                                                        19 out of 68 = 28% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.




                                                                                                                                                                           IA-2
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-15
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-21
                                                                                                                                                                          IL-23
                                                                                                                                                                          MD-3
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
                                                                                                                                                                            IL-8
2007 data
                                                                                                                                                                        rom untreate (bu/A)
                                                                                                                                                      Yield difference fr          ed




                                                                                                                                                    -10
                                                                                                                                                          -5
                                                                                                                                                           5
                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                       10
                                                                                                                                                                            15
                                                                                                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                                                                                                      25
                                                                                                                                                                                           30
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy




            Mean = 5 bu/A increase over the untreated
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                    Previous crop




                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                        21 out of 51 = 41% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.




                                                                                                                                                           ugar
                                                                                                                                                          su
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                                                                Previous Crop = soybean, sugarbeet, or wheat




                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                           heat
                                                                                                                                                          wh
                                                                                                                                                            soy
2007 data




                                                                                                                                                            soy
Pioneer® results
 If GLS and NLB pressures are
                              fill,
moderate to high during grain fill
strobilurin fungicides work well.
               g
       What is the benefit due to?

                  1. Disease control
                  2. “Plant health”

"The U.S. experience with [trade name deleted] has provided us with some
amazing results. Field observations indicate the potential for
                                             ith environmental
[trade name deleted] to help plants cope with en ironmental stress
like heat, cold, and insufficient or excess moisture."
               Greening
              “Greening” effect




Courtesy Carl Bradley, Univ. of Illinois
                     results,
        Logan County results 2007


Treatment          % Leaf Disease†       Ear Disease %   Yield (bu/acre)
Check                     1.3                 --             159.7
Headline 6 fl oz          2.0                 --             155.1
    (0.05)
LSD (0 05)                ns                  --               ns




 †Assessed on ear leaf at ½ milk line.
                    results,
    Spindletop Farm results 2007
SPINDLETOP FARM (STUDY 1)
Treatment          Leaf Disease %   Ear Disease %   Yield (bu/acre)
Check                   9.5             24.4            202.4
Headline 6 fl oz        3.2             16.9            213.9
LSD (0.05)              ns               ns               ns


SPINDLETOP FARM (STUDY 2)
Treatment          Leaf Disease %   Ear Disease %          (
                                                     Yield (bu/acre
Check                   0.80              9.6            219.0
Headline 6 fl oz        0.30             12.8            225.6
Quadris 6 fl oz         0.55             10.4            226.5
LSD (0.05)              ns                ns               ns
                   results,
   Spindletop Farm results 2007

SPINDLETOP FARM (STUDY 2)
Treatment          Leaf Disease %   Ear Disease %         (
                                                    Yield (bu/acre
Check                   0.80             9.6            219.0
Headline 6 fl oz        0.30            12.8            225.6
Quadris
Q d i 6 fl oz           0.55
                        0 55            10 4
                                        10.4            226.5
                                                        226 5
LSD (0.05)              ns               ns              ns
1999 data, P. Vincelli, University of Kentucky,
and Wheattech
Zimmerman Z75 (Moderately susceptible to GLS)
Planted in no-till corn/wheat/db-crop soybean rotation
Application at V9 (chest to shoulder height)


                               % GLS
 Treatment                     41 DAT           Yield (bu/A)*
 None                           0.2 a             137 abc

 Tilt 4 fl oz                    0.2 a              144 ab

 Quadris 9.2 fl oz               0.2 a             140 abc

         d   lit       t           t influenced b f
 *MC and quality parameters were not i fl              i id
                                              d by fungicide
 application
                            2008, Lexington and Logan County
                            Averaged over H b id
                            A       d     Hybrids
                      300


                      250
                5%)




                      200
Yield, bu/a (15.5




                      150


                      100


                      50


                        0

                                Check        Headline
                       trials,
University of Illinois trials 2007




                 Red box=trials with no significant disease
Pioneer®
results
       What is the benefit due to?

                  1. Disease control
                  2. “Plant health”

"The U.S. experience with [trade name deleted] has provided us with some
amazing results. Field observations indicate the potential for
                                             ith environmental
[trade name deleted] to help plants cope with en ironmental stress
like heat, cold, and insufficient or excess moisture."
                           7          y
       Conclusions from 2007 University Trials
•   Overall, a foliar fungicide application would have been
    profitable 38% of the time, and overall mean was 3 bu/A
    better than the untreated

•   Fungicides applied to hybrids with Fair to Poor resistance
    to GLS would have been profitable 52% of the time, with a
    mean of 6 bu/A better than the untreated (as opposed to
    39% of the time with good to excellent resistance)

•   Previous crop being corn did not make fungicide
    applications more profitable than previous crop being
    soybean, sugarbeet, or wheat……..Impact of tillage????
                                                      Overall Yield Response
                                                             y (68)            (   )
                                                    University ( ) and On-Farm (121) Trials

                                          60
                                                Overall yield advantage: 8.7 bu/ac
                                          50
                                                Percent wins: 79%
      ngicide yield advantage (bu/acre)




                                          40    Economically beneficial*: 60%
                                                Average net return: $12.63/ac
                                          30
                            e




                                          20

                                          10
                  d




                                           0

                                          -10
    Fun




                                                             (121 hybrids from 20 companies)
                                          -20

                                          -30
                                                      Assumes $3 75/bu                     fungicide
                                                     *Assumes $3.75/bu corn and $20/ac for fungicide.
                                                            Break-even response = 5.3 bu/ac

PIONEER SUMMARY
                                                 Comparison of 2006 and 2007

                                                       2006 (85)                                                                      2007 (68)




                                                                                                  antage (bu/acre)
                      antage (bu/acre)




                                         60                                                                          60
                                         50                                                                          50
                                         40                                                                          40
                                         30                                                                          30
                                                                                                                     20




                                                                                 ngicide yield adva
                                         20
  Fun gicide yield adva




                                         10                                                                          10
                                          0                                                                           0
                                         -10                                                                         -10
                                         -20                                                                         -20




                                                                               Fun
                                         -30                                                                         -30



                                          Overall yield advantage: 8.1 bu/ac                                               Overall yield advantage: 7.0 bu/ac
                                          Percent wins: 84%                                                                Percent wins: 72%




PIONEER SUMMARY
                       Yield response to fungicide application
                       In    tests i I
                       I 26 t t in Iowa - 2007
                       25
                                            y        p
                                   Positive yield response = 77%
                       20          Overall yield response = 3.3 bu/ac
               u/A)




                       15
        onse (bu




                       10
                         5
Yie respo




                         0     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   1 0   1 1   1 2   1 3   1 4   1 5   1 6   1 7   1 8   1 9   2 0   2 1   2 2   2 3   2 4   2 5   2 6




                        -5
  eld




                       10
                      -10
                      -15
                       20
                      -20

                      Alison Robertson, Iowa State University
                                 2007 Summary
                        Yield response to fungicide application
                        25

                        20

                        15
                bu/A)




                        10
Yield response (b




                         5

                         0    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   1 0   1 1   1 2   1 3   1 4   1 5   1 6   1 7   1 8   1 9   2 0   2 1    2 2   2 3   2 4   2 5   2 6
      r




                         -5
                                                                                                 = fc x hybrid replicated
                        -10
                                                                                                     (side by side)
                                                                                                = fc (side-by-side)
                        -15
                                                                                                = fc (replicated)
                        -20


                                                                                                                                          Iowa Summary
2008 Corn Fungicide Trials,
 Lexington 1 & 2 (averaged over hybrids)




                 EXP
                 y                     y
2003 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
Pioneer 33v08, planted in no-till corn/soybean rotation
Application at tasseling



                                                                  Stalk rot
                                                 Treatment             (0 5)
                                                                rating (0-5)
                                                 None             3.54 a

                                                 Tilt 4 fl oz     3.56 a

                                                 Quadris          3 00 b
                                                                  3.00
                                                 9.2 fl oz
                                                 Headline         2.29 c
                                                 9.2 fl oz
               Grain fill and stalk rots




http://plantandsoil.unl.edu/croptechnology2005/UserFiles/Image/siteImages/Male-Female-Corn-SC-LG.gif
             g
     Ear damage from nonionic surfactant




http://www.ipm.uiuc.edu/bulletin/article.php?id=1033,
Emerson Nazfiger, University of Illinois
Is yield benefit of fungicides more likely
         in higher-yielding fi ld ?
         i hi h      i ldi fields?
                                       Yield differential in corn from a strobilurin fungicide application
                                                      in 68 university trials through 2006
  Yield advan         ungicide, bu/A
            ntage of fu         b




                                                             Yield of untreated corn, bu/A
                                         Headline 6 fl oz, Quilt 14 fl oz, Stratego 10 oz
                                          30
                                          25
                                 bu/A)




                                          20
Yield difference from untreated (b




                                          15
                                          10
                                           5
                                           0
                    m




                                          -5
                                         -10
                                         -15
                                         -20
                                          20               How do you maximize the chances
      d




                                         -25
                                         -30               Of avoiding “recreational spraying”?
                                         -35
                                                                         Location or Hybrid

                                    63 out of 168 = 38% of the time had a yield increase of 6 bu/A or greater.
                                    Mean = 3 bu/A increase over the untreated


                                                                                                            2007 data
 How do you maximize the chance
  of getting an economic return?
• Treat between tasseling and silking
• Treat the most disease-prone fields
                         p
 Risk Assessment to Determine Likely
 Response to Foliar Fungicides in Corn
Factors that Increase Risk
  Susceptible h b id
• S        tibl hybrid
  (primarily GLS)
• Continuous corn
• No-till
• Late planting
     g plant population
• High p a popu a o
  and/or yield potential
• Irrigation
• Disease activity at                             Less risk
  tasseling                More risk              Response less likely

• Disease-favorable        Response more likely
  weather forecasted
• Field history of disease
  and lodging
Leave untreated strips
  Climbing the “Probability Ladder” for
        Foliar Diseases of C
        F li Di           f Corn
                                g
                              High
Factors that increase risk
• Susceptible hybrid          probability
• Continuous corn
• No-till
• Late planting
     g yield p
• High y      potential
• Irrigation
• Disease activity at
  tasseling
• Disease-favorable
  weather
• Field history of disease    Low
                              L
                              probability
“Beer can” ears associated with
    pretassel applications




Source: Abnormal Corn Ears, The Ohio State University
http://agcrops.osu.edu/corn/documents/AbnormalCornEarsPoster.pdf
   Is there a yield benefit from
strobilurin fungicide on corn that
 goes beyond disease control?

  To date, most research at UK and
 beyond does not support this notion
  Fungicide Test A Western Maryland, 2006
                                           +7.2 bu
                                           +7 2 b               No-till into corn stubble
 140
                                                     +11.4 bu
                  Treatment
                                                *                   GLS Res
 120              means for 6
                  replications                                      Check+
 100                                                    *
                                                                    Res Headline
    80

    60                                                                  Sus
                                                                    GLS S
                                                                    Check++
    40
                                                                    Sus Headline
    20
                                     *
       0
                       *
                % GLS Aug 23                 Yield (bu/A)                   61-
                                                                +Dekalb DKC 61- 45
Source: A. Grybauskas, Univ. of Maryland
                                                                ++Asgrow A702
   Fungicide Test B Western Maryland, 2006
                                           +13.6 bu
                                           +13 6 b               No-till into soybean stubble
 140
                                                      +28.3 bu
                  Treatment
                                                *                      GLS Res
 120              means for 6
                  replications                                         Check+
 100                                                     *
                                                                       Res Headline
    80

    60                                                                     Sus
                                                                       GLS S
                                                                       Check++
    40
                                                                       Sus Headline
    20
                       *             *
       0
                % GLS Aug 23                  Yield (bu/A)                     61-
                                                                   +Dekalb DKC 61- 45
Source: A. Grybauskas, Univ. of Maryland
                                                                   ++Asgrow A702
                 y                     y
2005 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
Pioneer DK63-81 (GLS=5, NLB=3, 1-9 scale where 9=best)
Planted in no-till continuous corn
Application at tasseling


                        GLS lesions NLB lesions           Yield
T t     t
Treatment                49 DAT*      49 DAT             (bu/A)
                                                         (b /A)
None                       63 a         2a               200 bc

Quadris 9.2 fl oz            25 b              1b         221 a

Headline 9.2
H dli 9 2 fl oz              17 b              1b             b
                                                         207 abc


*Moderate disease pressure
*M d t di
                  y                     y
 2006 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
 Treatment is Headline 9 oz/A at VT
 Planted in no-till corn/soybean rotation
 Application at tasseling
      rating=no 0 5
 GLS rating=no. 0.5 inch lesions 35 days after application



                    GLS                 GLS             Yield       Yield
Hybrid            Untreated           treated         Untreated    Treated
DKC63-80             15                  5*                  252     243

P33M57                  7                2*                  250    255

DKC63-81                11               3*                  257    238

  Asterisk indicates statistical difference from untreated
                                                                                                                                       Yield Studies –
          F      R      O     N       T           O      F           T      R      I      A      L
          1      2      3      4      5      6     7      8     9    10     11     12     13     14     15     16     REP 1

          G      D      G     P       P     D     G      C      D    C      D      L      P      G      N      N
 16       A      E            I       I     E     A             E           E      G      I
Border    R      K      H     O       O     K     R      P      K    P      K             O      H      K      K
Rows      S      A      A     N       N     A     S      L      A    L      A      S      N      A      I      I
          T      L      R                   L     T      A      L    A      L      E             R      N      N




 16
          8
          5
          3
          5
                 B

                 6
                 4
                (-)
                 8
                        V

                        9
                        0
                        0
                        6
                              3
                              1
                              G
                              7
                                      3
                                      3
                                      P
                                      7
                                            B

                                             6
                                             1
                                            (-)
                                             7
                                                  8
                                                  4
                                                  5
                                                  0
                                                         N


                                                         7
                                                         9
                                                         9
                                                              6
                                                              1
                                                             (-)
                                                              4
                                                                B    N


                                                                      7
                                                                      2
                                                                      1
                                                                            B

                                                                             6
                                                                             3
                                                                            (-)
                                                                             4
                                                                                   E
                                                                                   D

                                                                                   2
                                                                                   6
                                                                                   4
                                                                                          3
                                                                                          1
                                                                                          D
                                                                                                 V

                                                                                                 L
                                                                                                 9
                                                                                                 H
                                                                                                 6
                                                                                                        G

                                                                                                        N
                                                                                                        6
                                                                                                        5
                                                                                                       (-)
                                                                                                               G

                                                                                                               N
                                                                                                                6
                                                                                                                5
                                                                                                              ( - ) 16 Hybrids
                                                                                                                                       Hopkinsville, KY
                 1            1       0      2                5              6     0      5      3      M      C


                                                                                                                                            2006
Border                                                  YGBt
Rows     YGBt          YGBt HX1Bt YGBt            IT           YGBt YGBt YGBt YGBt        8             7       5
          CL                 RR2  RR2       RR2                RR2 RR2 RR2                      YGBt          CB,LL

          1      2      3      4      5      6     7      8     9    10     11     12     13     14     15     16     Plot # 1-16



          17     18     19    20      21    22    23     24     25   26     27     28     29     30     31     32     REP 1

          M      D      P     B       L     N     D      N      C    P      D      M      P      P      G      P
 16       Y      E      F     E       G           E                  I      E      Y      I      I      A      I
Border    C      K      I     C             K     K      K      P    O      K      C      O      O      R      O
Rows      O      A      S     K       S     I     A      I      L    N      A      O      N      N      S      N
          G      L      T     S       E     N     L      N      A    E      L      G      E      E      T      E
          E      B      E             E     G     B      G      N    E      B      E      E      E             E
          N             R             D                              R             N      R      R             R
          2      6            6              N   6       N       3    6            2      3      3             3
          A      4      2     7       2      7   6       7  7    3    0            H      1      3      8      4      16 Hybrids
          7     (- )    7     2       5      6  (-)      6  5    R   (-)           7      G      N      2      A
 16       6      2      5     2       8     (-)  2      (-) 1    8    1            8      6      5      9      1
Border    5      7      0             5      H   3       D       1    9            9      8      6      4      6
Rows     YGBt                CB              2 YGBt      3 YGBt YGBt YGBt
         RR2 RR2       CL    RR2     CL           RR2   CB,LL RR2    RR2    RR2   CL     YGBt          YGBt   HXBt
                                                                                                        IT
          17     18     19    20      21    22    23     24     25   26     27     28     29     30     31     32     Plot # 17-32



         201    202    203    204    205    206   207    208   209   210    211   212     213   214    215     216    REP 2

          P      G      N     N       D     C     D      L      P    D      G      C      G      D      G      P
          I                           E           E      G      I    E      A             A      E             I
          O      H      K     K       K     P     K             O    K      R      P      R      K      H      O
 16       N      A      I     I       A     L     A      S      N    A      S      L      S      A      A      N
Border           R      N     N       L     A     L      E           L      T      A      T      L      R
Rows             V      G     G       B     N     B      E           B             N             B      V
                                                         D
                 L      N     N       6            6     2      3     6     8             8      6      9      3
          3      9      6     6       1     7      3     6      3     1     4      7      5      4      0      1
          1      H      5     5      (-)    2     (-)    4      P    (-)    5      9      3     (-)     0      G      16 Hybrids
          D      6     (-)   (-)      4     1      4     0      7     7     0      9      5      8      6      7
          5      3      M     C       5            6            0     2           YGBt           1             1
 16       8             7     5      YGBt YGBt YGBt     YGBt YGBt           IT           YGBt          YGBt
Border          YGBt         CB,LL   RR2 RR2 RR2             RR2 RR2                      CL                  HX1Bt
Rows                                                                                                           RR2
         201    202    203    204    205    206   207    208   209   210    211   212     213   214    215     216    Plot # 201-216



         217    218    219    220    221    222   223    224   225   226    227   228     229   230    231     232    REP 2

          P      P      G     P       C     P     D      M      M    D      P      B      L      N      D      N
          I      I      A     I             I     E      Y      Y    E      F      E      G             E
          O      O      R     O       P     O     K      C      C    K      I      C             K      K      K
 16       N      N      S     N       L     N     A      O      O    A      S      K      S      I      A      I
Border    E      E      T     E       A     E     L      G      G    L      T      S      E      N      L      N
Rows      E      E            E       N     E     B      E      E    B      E             E      G      B      G
          R      R            R             R            N      N           R             D
          3      3            3             3      6     2      2     6            6             N   6         N
          1      3      8     4       7     3      0     H      A     4     2      7      2      7   6         7
          G      N      2     A       5     R     (-)    7      7    (- )   7      2      5      6  (-)        6 16 Hybrids
          6      5      9     1       1     8      1     8      6     2     5      2      8     (-)  2        (-)
          8      6      4     6             1      9     9      5     7     0             5      H   3         D
 16                                  YGBt YGBt YGBt            YGBt               CB             2 YGBt        3
Border   YGBt          YGBt HXBt     RR2 RR2 RR2         CL    RR2 RR2      CL    RR2     CL           RR2    CB,LL
Rows                     IT
         217    218     219  220     221    222   223    224   225   226    227   228     229   230    231     232    Plot # 217-232


                                           BORDER       ROWS     BACK       OF    TRIAL




                UNTREATED                                            10 oz STRATEGO
                  CHECK                                               5 o z POWERLOCK
                 y                     y
2003 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
Pioneer 33v08 (GLS=3, NLB=5, 1-9 scale where 9=best)
Planted in no-till corn/soybean rotation
Application at tasseling


                            % GLS             Yield      MC at
  Treatment
  T t     t                 49 DAT           (bu/A)    harvest (%)
  None                       65 a            178 a       18.1 c

  Tilt 4 fl oz                55 b           193 a       18.7 b

  Q d i 9 2 fl oz
  Quadris 9.2                 38 c           193 a       19.0
                                                         19 0 b

  Headline 9.2 fl oz          21 d           196 a       20.1 a
      Fulton Co., 2006
Unreplicated strips by airplane
                 y                     y
2003 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
Pioneer 33v08 (GLS=3, NLB=5, 1-9 scale where 9=best)
Planted in no-till corn/soybean rotation
Application at tasseling


                            % GLS             Yield      MC at
  Treatment
  T t     t                 49 DAT           (bu/A)    harvest (%)
  None                       65 a            178 a       18.1 c

  Tilt 4 fl oz                55 b           193 a       18.7 b

  Q d i 9 2 fl oz
  Quadris 9.2                 38 c           193 a       19.0
                                                         19 0 b

  Headline 9.2 fl oz          21 d           196 a       20.1 a
 GLS control with Fungicides & Resistance (M. Newman)
                           p y
                         Spray         p y
                                      Sprayed   Unsp.
                                                   p     p y
                                                        Sprayed        p
                                                                   Unsp.
Treatments    Rate       Timing Diff.  Bu/a     Bu/a     Rating    Rating
With Pen. +             (Tassel) Bu/a                     0-10      0-10
Sus - 32T22   6 oz./a     VT     36    150       114       5          6
Headline
Sus - 32T22   6 oz./a     VT     31    153      122       5           6
Quadris
Mod - 33R76   6 oz./a     VT     38    170      132       3           3
Quadris
M d - 33R76
Mod                /
              6 oz./a     VT     13    156      143        2          3
Headline
Tol - 33V14   6 oz./a     VT     22    157      135       1           2
Quadris
Tol - 33V14   6 oz./a     VT     11    145      134        1          2
Headline
Average       ----        ----   25    155      130      2.75        3.75

MREC 2006                                                         UT/MAN
GLS control with Fungicides and levels of
          ,     ,
Resistance, 2006, MREC (Courtesy M. Newman)
                        (      y          )
Variety, Fungicide/ Insecticide       Rate      Bu/A      Bu/A        GLS
(0.5 % C.O.C. with all treatments)    Oz/A      Yield   over check   (0-
                                                                     (0-10)
P31B13 Quadris, Susceptible             9       166        58          5
P31B13 Quilt                           14       147        39          5
P31B13 Quilt/Karate                  14, 1.53
                                     14 1 53    149        41          7
P31B13 Check                           ----     108        ----        8
P33R76 Quadris, Moderate                9       167        31          1
P33R76 Quilt                           14       166        30          2
P33R76 Quilt/Karate                  14, 1.53   152        16          1
P33R76 Check                           ----     136        ----        4
P31G68 Quadris, Tolerant                9       156        10          1
P31G68 Quilt                           14       164        18          2
P31G68 Quilt/Karate                  14, 1.53
                                     14 1 53    161        15          2
P31G68 Check                           ----     146        ----        5

Sprayed at VT, using 20 g/a water                                    UT/MAN
            Yield response to fungicides
                      23 years of continuous corn

      190
      185
      180
      175                                         Corn
      170                                         Wheat/SB
      165
      160
                                                    *4 oz Tilt plus 8 oz
      155                                           experimental DMI in 30 gal
      150                                           0.15% NIS/A on 31 July
            Control        Treated*                 (blister stage =R2).

                                      Statistics
Source: John Grove                    Rotation effect is significant (P < 0.05)
Univ. of Kentucky                     Fungicide effect is not significant (P > 0.1)
            Yield response to fungicides
                      Second-year corn

      220
      215
      210
                                             Corn
      205
                                             Wheat/SB
      200
      195
                                               *4 oz Tilt plus 8 oz
      190                                      experimental DMI in 30 gal
      185                                      0.15% NIS/A on 31 July
            Control   Treated*                 (blister stage =R2).

                                 Statistics
Source: John Grove               Rotation effect is significant (P < 0.1)
Univ. of Kentucky                Fungicide effect is not significant (P > 0.1)
   Fungicide Test A Eastern Maryland, 2006
                                                               No-till into corn stubble
 200                                       +8.0 bu
                  Treatment
 180              means for 6
                                                     +9.8 bu
                                                                   GLS Res
 160              replications              NS                     Check+
 140                                                 NS            Res Headline
 120
 100
   80                                                                  Sus
                                                                   GLS S
                                                                   Check++
   60
   40                                                              Sus Headline
   20
      0                *            *                                      61-
                                                               +Dekalb DKC 61- 45
                % GLS Aug 16                 Yield (bu/A)
                                                               ++Asgrow A702
Source: A. Grybauskas, Univ. of Maryland
   Fungicide Test B Eastern Maryland, 2006
                                           +0.3
                                           +0 3 bu
                                                                Chisel plow corn stubble
 200                                                 -15.2 bu
                  Treatment
 180              means for 6                                       GLS Res
 160              replications              NS                      Check+
 140                                                 NS
                                                                    Res Headline
 120
 100
   80                                                                   Sus
                                                                    GLS S
                                                                    Check++
   60
   40                                                               Sus Headline
   20
      0                *            *                                        61-
                                                                 +Dekalb DKC 61- 45
                % GLS Aug 16                 Yield (bu/A)
                                                                 ++Asgrow A702
Source: A. Grybauskas, Univ. of Maryland
 Gray leaf spot: Ohio 2006




Source= Paul Pierce,
Ohio State Univ.
 Northern corn leaf blight: : Ohio 2006




Source= Paul Pierce,
Ohio State Univ.
 Yield response: Ohio 2006
                       Overall fungicide effect not significant (P = 0.44)
                       Untreated yielded 9 bu/A more that treated

                                                            A l Creek, OH
                                                            Apple C k




Source= Paul Pierce,
Ohio State Univ.
                                                                             95% CI
      Risk of inoculum carryover
            in        id
            i corn residue
• High risk:
  – No-till fields sown to corn last year
• Moderate risk:
  – Tillage or one-year away from corn
• Low risk
  – Tillage plus one-year away from corn
  – Two-years away from corn
        Spray considerations
• One application
• Tassel emergence to early brown silk
     lesions are present on more th h lf of
• If l i               t          than half f
  the leaf below the ear leaf (EL-1)
 Do strobilurin fungicides
provide sufficient disease
control to justify spraying?
• See Munkvold ASTA 2007 paper   paper.
  Interesting idea to calculate out how corn
  price influences probability of breaking
  even. It it not as influential as one might
  expect.
  expect
                 y                     y
2004 data courtesy Ron Hines, University of Illinois
DeKalb DKC63-79 (GLS=6, NLB=3, 1-9 scale where 1=best)
Planted no-till in soybean residue
Application at tasseling
Center pivot irrigation
Center-pivot


                           % GLS        NLB lesions       Yield
  Treatment                49 DAT         28 DAT         (bu/A)
  None                      35 a            0a           212 bc

  Tilt 4 fl oz               34 b            0a           207 c

  Quadris 9.2 fl oz          26 d            0a          224 abc

           9.2
  Headline 9 2 fl oz         12 d            0a           233 a
1999 data, P. Vincelli, University of Kentucky,
and Wheattech
Zimmerman Z75 (Moderately susceptible to GLS)
Planted in no-till corn/wheat/db-crop soybean rotation
Application at V9 (chest to shoulder height)


                               % GLS
 Treatment                     41 DAT           Yield (bu/A)*
 None                           0.2 a             137 abc

 Tilt 4 fl oz                    0.2 a              144 ab

 Quadris 9.2 fl oz               0.2 a             140 abc

         d   lit       t           t influenced b f
 *MC and quality parameters were not i fl              i id
                                              d by fungicide
 application
    GLS control in P31B13 (Sus), NT cont
                    corn
   Application ti i
   A li ti timing, 2006 MREC (Courtesy M. Newman)
Treatment        Rate       Timing        GLS     Lodging    Yield
                 O /A
                 Oz/A.    A li ti
                          Application    (0 10)
                                         (0-10)     (%)     (Bu/A)
                                                            (B /A)
Headline            9     Tassel (VT)      4         0       170

Headline            6        Tassel        3         6       170

Headline            9     Silking (R1)     5         2       169

Headline            6       Silking        7        28       120

Headline            9      Pre-tassel      8         8       153
                             (V10)
Headline            6      Pre-tassel      8         9       154

Check              ----       -----        9        16       122

Sprayed with 20 g/a water and 0.125 % Induce                UT/MAN
 Probability of selecting the better
hybrid in          li    d i
h b id i an unreplicated strip tests
                  Measured Yield Difference

Number of        12 Bu     6 Bu        3 Bu
Locations   % Chance Of Choosing The Better Hybrid
    1          60%        52%         51%
   10          90%          75%            65%
   30          95%          90%            75%
   200         98%          95%            93%


                        Courtesy Pioneer® Brand Products
Irrigated, continuous corn, UT Jackson

				
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