Chorus by ert634


									  make music now Chorus for beginners

              THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO...                                                                                                                              NEXT MONTH

                                                Chorus                     Time to come together and master the most basic
                                                                           modulation effect with our novice’s guide…

       A class of delay-based effects                   aving so far covered the ‘bread     effects are so distinctive, it’s very              phenomenon; in this case the sound of
       which are modulated (ie, controlled)
       by an LFO.
                                                        and butter’ effects in the          important to exercise restraint – both in          multiple performers playing together -
                                                        Essential Guide series, you         terms of the amount applied to any                 hence the name. Today it tends to be
       3 LFO                                    should now be well equipped with            given signal, and to the number of parts           used as an artificial effect in its own
       Stands for Low Frequency Oscillator.
       Often used in synths and audio           knowledge of the basic plug-ins and         on which it’s used.                                right, since dedicated ‘doublers’ or
       effects to control parameters that       how to put them to good use in a                As with many modern day audio                  ‘unison’ effects tend to make a more
       change over time.
                                                typical production environment.             effects, chorus was originally devised as          convincing job of emulating the sound
       3 FLANGER                                    This month we’ll be looking at the      a means of emulating a natural                     of multiple simultaneous parts. cm
       A specific modulation configuration      chorus effect in detail, saving the other
       which gives a very distinctive phased,
       sweeping sound.

       3 PHASER
                                                two modulation effects for later on in
                                                the series. Thus far, we've repeatedly
                                                underlined the importance of using
                                                                                            CHORUS WAS ORIGINALLY DEVISED
                                                                                            AS A MEANS OF EMULATING A
       Another specific modulation
       configuration that uses a lot of         effects in moderation, and this principle
       feedback to produce a very deep and      is particularly applicable when using
       resonant sweeping effect.
                                                modulation effects such as chorus,
                                                flanging and phasing. Because these         NATURAL PHENOMENON

                                                                                                                        Controls how deeply
                                                                                                                        the pitch of the delayed
                                                                                  RATE                                  signal is changed over
                                                                                  Controls the frequency of the         time (ie, the degree of
                                                                                  modulation curve. Generally           pitch modulation
                                                                                  fairly low values are used            being applied)

                                                                                                                                                                 Controls how much
                                                     DENSITY                                                                                                     of the processed
                                                     The density                                                                                                 signal is fed back
                                                     parameter controls                                                                                          to the effect’s input.
                                                     the number of delay                                                                                         This parameter is
                                                     units running in                                                                                            normally set to 0
                                                     parallel to produce                                                                                         for that classic
                                                     the chorus effect                                                                                           chorus sound

                                                        Sets the shape of the modulation                 MIX
                                                        signal, in this case either a                    As with all other effects, controls
                                                        triangle or sine wave. Normally a                the balance of processed (wet)
                                                        sine wave is used, but other                     and unprocessed (dry) signal
                                                        shapes can give good results                     present at the plug-in output


CMU89.t_guide 028                                                                                                                                                                   23/6/05 12:01:54 pm
                                                                                                          Chorus for beginners make music now
                                                                                                                                    Q&A focus

           WHAT IS IT?                                                    WHAT'S IT USED FOR?                                                 HOW DO I USE IT?
           Even when professional musicians play the same                 Despite originally being devised as a means of                      As we've discussed in What’s it used for?, chorus
           part together live, there are inevitably small,                simply doubling parts up, the chorus effect is                      is something that's often used in conjunction
           random variations in timing and pitch between                  now used more widely in a number of different                       with various other effects and can be applied
           the performances (not to mention differences in                applications. It can be used to good effect on                      equally successfully in either an insert or send/
           playing style or tone). The chorus effect emulates             vocals, guitars, lead synths, pad sounds and even                   return setup. Some units required special
           this by introducing a delay unit into the signal               drums and bass parts – in fact, almost anything!                    configuration when used as a send effect,
           path, typically offering between 20 and 30                     Besides the normal ‘use in moderation’ type                         however, including the CF-101 chorus/flanger
           milliseconds of delay and incorporating some                   rules, there are a few important factors to take                    included with Propellerhead Reason.
           basic pitch-shifting functionality as well. Since                into consideration when making use of this                            Like most other effects, chorus tends to
           the pitch of two parts played together                             effect – see How do I use it? for more info.                    make processed parts sound less direct. In
           does not normally differ by a constant                                   When used on individual parts, chorus is                  some situations, the doubling effect can
           amount, the delay block is                                             pretty distinctive, but it can also be used                 actually make the processed part sound
           controlled by a Low Frequency                                              well in other ways. One popular                         much thinner, which can have the potentially
           Oscillator (or LFO for short), so                                            technique involves placing the chorus                 undesired effect of pushing it to the back of
           that the delay time and amount                                                effect before a reverb in a send                     the mix. While this can sometimes be
           of shift in pitch changes cyclically                                           channel, thickening and sweetening                  compensated to a degree by raising the level
           over time.                                                                       the sound of the reverb. In days                  of the part, it may make more sense to restrict
                The depth of the chorus effect                                                gone by this trick was sometimes                your use of the chorus effect to parts that
           can be increased by adding multiple                                                  used to help disguise the                     normally sit towards the back of the mix (such
           delay blocks, running in parallel                                                     sound of cheap reverb units,                 as pad and string sounds, for example).
           together with slightly different                                                        or emulate the sound of                        Some chorus plug-ins work in stereo by
           configurations. The processed signal from                                                 more expensive models                    inverting one of the channels in an attempt to
           each block is then combined and mixed –                                                     (depending on how you                  widen the stereo field. Unfortunately, this can
           typically in equal parts – with the                                                           choose to look at it).               lead to mono compatibility problems; in
           unprocessed signal to give a thickened                                                         We’ve aimed to                      extreme cases, the effect or a processed
           sound with a slightly artificial feel to                                                       demonstrate this                    part may actually disappear entirely from
           it. The other two modulation                                                                   technique in the three-             the mix when played in mono! Modulation
           effects (flanging and phasing) are                                                        step tutorial below.                     effects in general can also suffer badly when
           essentially variations on this                                                                                                     compressed using lossy compression formats
           theme, each enhancing a particular                                                 1 Altogether now: show 'em who's                like MP3, particularly when a low bit rate has
           characteristic of the chorus effect.                                               Boss with some stereo chorus                    been used.

           FIVE TO TRY...
           Sonitus:fx Modulator                Fruity Chorus                       Tiny Chorus                            3D Chorus                           Vintage Modulator

         STEP BY STEP Using chorus to thicken up a reverb in FL Studio

         1                                                             2                                                               3
               Load up a synth and program a simple riff. Set the            Set up the Fruity Reeverb as follows: Dry – 0%, Reverb          Load an instance of Tiny Chorus into the first effect slot
               Generator to send to mixer channel 1 and increase the         – 100%, Decay – 4 secs. Set up the remaining                    of Send 1 (before the reverb) and set it up as follows:
               Send 1 value of channel 1 to 30%. Now select the              parameters to taste or go with the default values. Now          Density – 7, Rate – 0.61, Depth – 0.21, Feedback – 0,
         Send 1 channel and load a Fruity Reeverb into the second      press play to hear the reverb in isolation. >>                  Mode – Sine, Mix – 0.50. Try switching the chorus in and out
         effect slot. >>                                                                                                               so you can hear the difference it makes.

                                                                                                                                                   TUTORIAL AUGUST 2005 COMPUTER MUSIC           | 029

CMU89.t_guide 029                                                                                                                                                                            23/6/05 12:01:56 pm

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