Ⅲ.Clothing life

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Ⅲ.Clothing life Powered By Docstoc
					                       Ⅲ.Clothing life

   Students are to understand the functions of clothes as well as the types and characteristics of
fibers used in everyday wear. This will enable students to make appropriate choices regarding
everyday wear and understand their proper care and handling. They will learn sewing techniques
and experience making small handicrafts and basic clothing. They must also understand the
impact of clothing on the environment and natural resources, and develop an attitude for taking
proper care of their clothes. This handbook provides an educational model which covers everyday
wear to overall fiber products.
        1.Human beings and clothing
        2.Performance and characteristics of clothing materials
        3.Organization and maintenance of clothes
        4.Tools and methods for making clothes
        5.Clothing construction
   1.By understanding the functions clothes play in human life, students will acquire the ability
to wear clothes properly. Studying their own clothes will help them develop an awareness for
clothing. 2.Understanding the physical properties, chemical properties and types of clothing
materials will help students to learn how to handle them properly. Teaching materials and simple
experiments will enable students to understand the properties of clothing materials.           3.
Students will learn how to manage clothes properly, such as washing and getting clothes ready for
wear. Deeper understanding can be obtained through actual practice. 4.Preparatory steps for
clothing construction in elementary education. 5.Some basic materials for clothing construction
are presented here. Contents of learning can be adapted to regional conditions. Examples of
clothing embellishment may also be introduced in accordance with local traditions and customs.
<Elementary education>
   Understand that the clothing has functions regarding the following: health and sanitation,
daily activities and social living. Clothing is selected daily according to the climate and purpose.
Students will acquire the skills of hand washing clothes in accordance with the handling
instructions of the clothing. They will practice making hand-sewn accessories and a
machine-sewn bag in order to learn how to use tools properly
<Secondary education>
   Students will acquire an understanding of the functions of clothing in human life, and deepen
their understanding on the social functions of clothes in order to choose the appropriate clothes
according to the purpose and their own style.
   Based on knowledge about the types of fibers used in daily clothes, students will acquire the
skills to make a distinction between natural fibers and chemical fibers. This will also teach them
how to wash and handle clothes properly according to fiber type. Students are to acquire the skills
to make a cloth-making plan and basic clothing such as underpants.
<Applied education>
   Understand the types and performance of woven and knitted fabrics. To acquire the skills on
the care and maintenance of clothing, students are to learn about the performance of clothing
materials, methods of processing for fibers and fabrics to improve their performance, as well as
the basic concepts of textile cleaning. For a better understanding, related study with other
subjects including geography, history, industry and environmental study is recommended.

                                               - 59 -
               1 Clothing functions and styles

  Understand the purpose of clothing for human beings and the functions clothing serves (health
and sanitation, daily activity, social living) in order to wear the appropriate clothes according to the
season, climate, time, place, and occasion.
     Ex.:Functions for health and sanitation: protection from weather, injury, keeping the body
                                                   clean by absorbing sweat and dirt.
           Functions for daily activities: to assist with certain physical activities (sports wear,
                                           swimsuits, pajamas)
           Functions for social living: to indicate profession or affiliation for the maintenance of
                                           social order (ex. police uniform, school uniform), or to share
                                           common feelings on special occasions (ex. mourning, party
  Students are to study a variety of regional costumes around the world, and the way each style
reflects local climate and culture.

<Elementary education>
  Understand the functions of clothes for health and sanitation, for daily activities and for social
living, in order to choose clothing properly according to the climate or purpose. Discuss the methods
needed to protect the body from cold or hot weather, in order to learn how to adapt to both weathers.
Understand the necessity for clean clothes as soiled clothes impair the functions regarding health
and sanitation if left unwashed.

<Secondary education>
 Acquire a deeper understanding about the functions of clothes for social living in order to wear
clothes properly according to the purpose and occasion, or personal style. Learn about regional
costumes and functions of clothes.

<Applied education>
 Develop further knowledge about the functions of clothes with regards to clothing microclimate,
regional history, regional climate and regional customs.

                                                 - 60 -
1. Clothing functions and (1) Functions of clothes
   styles                                                                               1 hour

   Learning about the functions of clothes.
Keywords:functions of clothes, functions for health and sanitation, functions for daily activities,
functions for social living
1. Understand the functions of clothes.
 (1) Looking at the picture below and think about the functions for each type of clothing.

       Bamboo hat:                                                    Umbrella:
       Function                                                        Functions
       (protection from the sun)                                       (rain and sunlight protection)

       Outdoor clothing
                                                                   Motorbike suits:
     Uniform (cotton shirt and                                   Function (dust protection,
     polyester trousers)                                         prevention of injuries assists
     Function (show affiliation)                                 driving.)

    (2) Functions of these clothes can be categorized as follows: functions for health and sanitation,
        functions for daily activities, functions for social living.
    (3) Each students will complete the table below with examples of his (or her) own
                                     Functions for
                                                        Functions for daily      Functions for
                                      health and
                                                            activities            social living

     Bamboo hat                            ○

     Outdoor clothing                      ○                     ○

     Uniform                               ○                     ○

     Umbrella                              ○

     Motorbike suits                       ○                                           ○

                                                 - 61 -
1. Clothing functions and (2) Functions for health and sanitation
   styles                                                                            1 hour
                            1)Clothes for hot or cold weather
  Understand the functions of clothing for health and sanitation in order to adapt clothing to hot
or cold weather.
Keywords:functions of clothes, functions for health and sanitation, heat and cold protection
functions, clothing microclimate
1. Understand the functions of clothes for heat and cold protection among other functions for
  health and sanitation.
 ・ studying the clothes they are wearing, students will notice they wear different clothes in cold
   or hot days, and understand the functions of protection against cold or heat.
 ・Clothes create airspaces between the skin and the cloth and between the clothes. The
   temperature of these airspaces and the temperature of the external environment are different.
   This artificial climate is called clothing microclimate. A comfortable temperature for clothing
   microclimate is 32±1℃ for the trapped airspace between the skin and the clothing, with
   humidity of 50±10%.

2. Adapting clothing to hot or cold weather.
(1)When it is cold, warm clothing should be worn as follows.
 ①Wear clothes that cover as much surface area of the body as possible, in order to reduce heat
   loss from the body surface. For that purpose, it is recommended to wear long sleeves, long
   trousers, socks and gloves.
 ②Trap air that has been warmed by the body.
   Reduce as much as possible the number of openings in the clothing: wear close-necked or
   narrow-sleeved clothes, cover the neck with muffler or scarf, choose garment with wind-proof
   material as the outermost clothing.
 ③Create as much dead-air-space as possible to increase insulation. (Heating is achieved due to
   low heat transfer capacity of the air.): wear heavy clothing, wear layers of clothes

(2)When it is hot, cool clothing should be worn as follows.
 ①Release body heat to lower temperature and humidity of the clothing microclimate: expose the
   skin surface to open air, wear clothes with wide openings (neck and sleeves), choose the clothes
   made with air-permeable materials.
 ②Prevent the rise in humidity of the intra-cloth environment caused by sweating : wear clothes
   made of materials with high moisture absorbing and releasing capacities.
 ③Preventing the rise of body surface temperature by shielding against sunlight: use of hat or
   parasol is recommended.

                                              - 62 -
1. Clothing functions and (2) Functions for health and sanitation
   styles                   2)Protect the body from injuries and keep the                 1 hour
                                        skin clean
 Understand the functions of clothes to protect the body from injuries and keep skin clean, among
other functions for health and sanitation.
Keywords:functions of clothes, functions for health and sanitation

1. Understand that the functions of clothes for health and sanitation include functions for
  protecting the body from injuries and insects.
(1)Students are to study the clothes they are wearing and discover if there are other functions for
  health and sanitation asides from weather protection.

(2)Clothing has the following functions of protecting the body with regards to health and
 ①To protect the body from injury, insects and sunburn.
   Covering the legs and arms while exercising or hiking helps protect the body from injuries or
   insect bites.
 ②To protect the body from foreign dirt and to absorb sweat and dead skin cells in order to keep
   the skin clean.
   It is best to wash dirty clothes, as they cannot absorb sweat and dead skin cells well.

 1. Thinking about the different ways clothes can get dirty:
        From the external

        From the body

                                                           How did these clothes get dirty ?
                                                           : Mud, blood, food stain…

2. Specialized clothes are also being developed to protect the body and enable physical activities in
   extreme environments (space suits, fireman suits, heavy winter clothes for the polar zone).

                                                   - 63 -
1. Clothing functions and (3) Functions for social living and
   styles                     daily activities                                        1 hour

 Study clothing from the perspective of functions for social living and performing daily activities.
Students are to understand the functions of everyday wear or ceremonial clothes, and to acquire
the ability to choose clothes appropriate for the occasion.
Keywords:everyday wear, functions for social living, functions for daily activities

1. Understand the functions of clothes for social living.
(1)Students are understand the functions of clothes for social living by thinking of some specific
   occasions when we wear clothes different from our everyday wear, and explaining why we wear
   those clothes.

(2)The following examples list some typical functions of clothes for social living. Students are to
  think of more familiar cases of these functions.
 ①Adaptation to social protocols
   Wearing specialized clothing on formal occasions makes us feel ceremonious and allows us to
   share our joy or sorrow with other participants. The formal wear is typical of these clothes, and
   its establishment is profoundly involved in the local protocols and social system.
 ②Indication of profession or affiliation
   Uniforms of public officers (policemen etc), bank staff, sports teams or schools indicate
   affiliation to certain groups. Ethnic costumes also represent the ethnic people and have served
   to maintain the social order through the ages.
   Clothes may represent and assert personality, aesthetic sensibility, mentality, ideas or
   religious faith. The need to express one’s self can be satisfied by wearing clothes.
   Costumes for theater, dance and disguise can hide the personality of those who wears them
   and transform that person into another character.

2. Understand the functions of clothes for daily activities.
 One of the functions of clothes is to help the body to move smoothly with body movements.
 Clothing materials for competition swimsuits or speed skating suits have been developed
 recently in order to help the muscle motion and enhance motion efficiency by reducing the air or
 water resistance. Wearing loose clothing that does not restrict body movements helps the body to
 relax while sleeping.

                                              - 64 -
1. Clothing functions and (4) Regional costume and styles
   styles                                                                            1 hour

 Students are to understand the presence of regional costumes around the world, and to realize
that the characteristics of these costumes are deeply connected with the local climate, tradition
and culture. By looking at the relationship between clothing and society, students are to better
understand the appropriate ways of wearing clothing in accordance with the changes in
temperature and season as well as various occasions in life.
Keywords:regional costume, costume choice, time, place and occasion.
1. Understand the presence of regional costumes around the world, and to realize that the
   characteristics of these costumes are deeply connected with the local climate, tradition and

(1)Discuss if there are any particular costumes in their country that differ from the costumes of
  other countries.
  A costume that is particular to a region or a country is called a folk costume.

(2)Study the folk costume of ones country from the following perspectives:
  Is there any widening (or narrowing) of the neck opening or other openings to fit the climate?
  Is there any specific origin for the color or embellishments of the costume?
  Some research on the regional history, customs and ceremonies are required.

(3)Look at books and pictures representing clothes from various countries of the world, in order to
  realize the presence of regional costumes and that regional costumes are deeply connected with
  the local climate, tradition and culture.

          Kimono (Japan),     Sari (India),      Fur costume (Inuit)

2. Consider the socially appropriate ways of wearing clothes in accordance with the changes in
  temperature and seasons and the different occasions in life.

 Think up some occasions (commuting, graduation ceremony, festival), and consider the
appropriate dress for each of these occasions. The style must be appropriate for the place where
the clothing will be worn and fulfill the functions regarding health and sanitation and living
activities while making an impression on other people. The place where the clothing will be worn
oftentimes incorporates factors like time, and occasion.

                                              - 65 -
              2 Performance and characteristics of clothing materials

  Students are to learn about materials used in making everyday wear and their properties related
to the choice and handling of everyday wear, including material types, durability, shrinking
properties during cleaning, heat-resistance, heat-retaining and moisture-absorbing capacities.
Related information such as labels stating clothing description, handling instructions and sizes are
also to be studied here. This information can come in handy within the students’ own lifestyles.
  Clothing is made of fabric, fabric is made out of textile threads, and the textile thread is an
assembly of fibers. Fibers are classified into natural fibers and chemical fibers, each with their own
characteristics. The properties of fiber are connected to the performance of the fabric. The
performance of fabric differ according to the types of weave and processing.
  Clothing should be handled in accordance with its materials. For that purpose, various labels are
attached to ready-to-wear clothing. Composition labels or ISO labels include instructions such as
rinsing, bleaching, dry-clean, drying methods, tumble dry, ironing temperature. Regional or
national conditions should be kept in mind when teaching handling methods, as certain countries
have not adopted ISO standards.
  The size label is one of the labels used by ready-to-wear clothes. To select clothes of the
appropriate size, one must know the size classifications of that clothing and one’s clothing size.

<Elementary education>
 Acquire the skills to wash clothes by hand in accordance with the handling instructions.

<Secondary education>
 Understand the types of fibers used in daily clothes and acquire the skills to find proper ways of
wearing and cleaning clothes.

<Applied education>
  Understand the types and performance of woven and knitted fabrics.
Acquire clothing care and maintenance skills by learning about the performance of fabrics, the
methods of processing to improve their performance, as well as the basic concepts of textile

                                               - 66 -
2.Performance and                            (1) Fabric, textile thread and fibers
  characteristics of                                                                                 1 hour
  clothing materials
   Acquire an understanding of fabric, textile threads and fibers; fiber types and their properties.
Keywords:natural fiber, chemical fiber, synthetic fiber
1. Look at fabric, textile threads and fibers.
   ①Students are to study the fabric of the clothes              Fabric         textile threads
     they are wearing (with a magnifying glass).
   ②Fabric is made out of textile threads, and
     textile thread is made out of fibers.
     Fiber has an elongated form and carries                                              fibers
     highly flexible properties.

2. Learning about the types and properties of fibers.           Fabric, textile threads, and fibers
   Types of fibers
   Natural fibers include cotton, linen, silk, and wool. Manmade chemical fibers include polyester
   or nylon. Each type of fiber has specific properties and texture.

                                                   Types and characteristics of fibers
 Classification                    Name                                       Characteristics
      Plant fibers                 Cotton           Feels pleasant                     Good moisture
 natural fibers

                                   Linen            Feels cool to the touch            absorption. Does not
                                                                                       weaken when wet.
                   Animal fibers   Wool             Heat-retaining properties          Good moisture
                                   Silk             Has elegant luster                 absorption.
                                                                                       Vulnerable to alkali and
                   Regenerated     Rayon            Feels pleasant                     Good moisture
                   fibers          Cupra            Has luster                         absorption.
                                                                                       Weakens when wet.
 chemical fibers

                   Semisynthetic   Acetate          Has silky luster
                   Synthetic       Nylon            Vulnerable to heat and             Poor moisture
                   fibers                           ultraviolet rays                   absorption.
                                   Polyester        Best resistance to heat among      Resistant to tension
                                                    synthetic fibers.                  and friction but
                                   Acrylic fiber    Wool-like heat retention           vulnerable to heat.
                                   Polyurethane     High stretch capacity              Highly electrostatic.

                                                           - 67 -
2. Performance and               (2) Identification of fibers
   characteristics of                                                                   2 hour
   clothing materials
Learn about the basic methods of fiber identification to acquire useful knowledge in choosing and
handling clothes.
Keywords:identification test, fiber heat experiment
1. Learn the basic methods of fiber identification.
(1)Students will check the fiber type of the clothes they are wearing.
   Japanese products have labels stating fiber type, but the printed inscription may become faded
or detach during the washing process.          Foreign products do not necessarily have labels.
Understanding the fiber types helps determine proper washing methods and ironing
temperature, and also promotes appropriate care and management of clothes.

2. Conduct a heat experiment as a basic method of fiber identification.
   Fabric(pieces of 2×4cm fabrics of cotton, wool, silk, polyester)
   Alcohol lamp, tweezers, aluminum foil
   Place the alcohol lamp over a sheet of aluminum foil and light
   the lamp. Undertake the following instructions (1 to 4) for each
   fabric to be tested.
   1. Pick up the fabric with tweezers and bring it close to the flame to observe changes in the
     fabric (shrinkage).
   2. Insert the fabric in the flame (right) to observe the color of the flame, amount of smoke, color
     of the fabric, odor, and how the fabric burns.
   3. Take the fabric out of the flame and see if it keeps burning.
   4. Observe the consistency, color and amount of residue.

         Fiber type        Shrinkage, form and color of the flame, smoke, odor, residue
         Cotton            Burns like wood or paper. Ash-like residue.
         Wool              Smoldering combustion. Odor of burning hair.
         Silk              Burns slowly. Odor of burning hair.
         Polyester         Melts as it burns. Candy-like residue. Somewhat sweet odor.
         Acrylic           Melts and releases flame as it burns.

 ③This heat experiment confirms that the difference in the burning is due to the difference in
   fiber type. It may be dangerous to wear clothing made out of fibers that are flammable or have
   melting tendencies when cooking with heat. It is also important to pay attention to the
   materials of clothes designed for elderly persons or children.

                                               - 68 -
2. Performance and                       (3) Woven fabrics and knitwear
   characteristics of clothing                                                       1 hour
 Learn about textiles, the three basic weaves and knitwear.
Keywords: three basic weaves, plain weave, twill weave, sateen weave, knitwear, tricot

1. Learn about the textile and its three basic structures.
 ①Students are to study the fabric of their shirts or upper-wear; it is a woven fabric if the warp
   (vertical) threads intersect weft (horizontal) threads.
 ②Study the texture of the fabric in order to see which of the below three basic weaves it matches.
   Based on how the warp and weft threads intersect, textile structures are classified into three
   groups called the three basic textile weaves: plain weave, twill weave and sateen weave.

       Plain weave structure     Twill weave structure      Sateen weave structure

         Ex) Broadcloth          Ex) Denim                  Ex) Sateen

 ③To understand how textiles are woven, use strips of paper or strings as warp and weft threads,
  and cross them as in the diagrams above.

2. Learn about knitwear.
 ①Students are to study their sweaters or socks.
    When the structure of the fabric is constructed of twisted thread loops, it is called knitwear.
    The fabric is called a weft knit when loops form horizontal courses, and is called a warp knit
    when the loops run vertically.
    The plain knitting or ribbed knitting in sweaters is weft knitting, and the tricot knit used in
    underwear is warp knitting.
 ②Understanding knitting through actual practice.
    Knitwear is more stretchable and has greater air-containing capacities than woven fabrics.

                               Weft knit (plain knitting)

                                                  - 69 -
2. Performance and                      (4) Performance of clothing materials
   characteristics of clothing                                                              1 hour
  Learn about the performance and characteristic requirements of clothing, as well as the
relationship between clothes and the performance of clothing materials.
keywords:heat retaining property, breath ability, water absorption, water repellence
1. Understand the performance and characteristic requirements of clothing, as well as the
   relationship between clothes and the performance of clothing materials.
・Having already learned about the various functions of clothes (see 1.(1) 1, Functions of clothes),
  students are aware of various clothing requirements regarding performance and characteristics
  according to the type of clothing and occasion where the clothing is worn. This quality and
  performance is affected by the capacity of the clothing materials, as well as the design and make
  of the garment. Consequently, it is important to know the performance and characteristics of
  various clothing materials, and to choose materials which are suitable for the purpose.

  Quality and performance requirements of clothing and its relationship with capacity of clothing materials.
 Appearance                                Staining properties, wrinkle resistance, fuzz resistance
 (Color, design, surface appearance)       properties.
                                           Moisture and water absorption, moisture permeability,
 Wearing comfort (Adaptability to
                                           air permeability, heat-retention, stretching, electrostatic
 temperature and humidity, texture)
 Manageability                             Dirt-repellence, water-resistance, drying speed,
 (Washing, readying, handling)             heat-resistance, size maintainability
 Durability (Wearing and handling)         Elastic strength, color fastness
 Security                                  Flame resistance, heat resistance, chemical proof, water
 (Fire, heat, chemical agents, water)      repellence, static-proof

                                    Performance of clothing materials
 Heat-retaining          Does not release heat outside the clothing. Depends on the ability to trap
 property                air, as air has low heat conductivity.
                         Allows penetration of air. Depends on the structure and density of thread
 Breath ability
                         or fabric.
                         Absorbs and stores liquid water (water droplets or sweat) between the
 Water absorption        fibers or threads by capillary motion. Depends on the structure of fibers
                         and fabric.
                         Absorbs water vapor. Depends on the amount of water contained in the
 Moisture absorption
 Moisture                Allows penetration of water vapor. Water vapor can penetrate even with
 permeability            fibers with low water-absorption abilities.
                         Repels water. Fabrics with tight texture or with water-repellent finish
 Water repellence
                         have higher capacity for water repellence.
                         Expands or contracts. Depends on the fiber types and structure of thread
                         or fabric.

                                                 - 70 -
2. Performance and               (5) Property modification and processing of
   characteristics of                clothing materials                      1 hour
   clothing materials
   Learn about the processing of clothing materials that improves their performance.
Keywords:ultra-fine fibers, blended yarn, anti-flaming
1. Property modification and processing of clothing materials.
(1)The property modification of clothing materials is done at the fiber, yarn, and fabric stages.
 ①Property modification of fibers
    Natural fibers: Treatment of the wool fiber surface makes the wool machine-washable.
    Chemical fibers: Silk luster effects are given to the fibers by making
    changes in the cross section of the fiber during processing.
    Improved water-absorption, heat-retaining performance, stretching
    properties and smooth texture are achieved during the process of
    creating ultra-fine fibers.
                                                                          Example of ultra-fine fiber
                                            (The polyester and nylon yarn is split during manufacturing.)
(2)Yarn processing.
   Blended yarn and combined filament yarn are manufactured from more than two different
   types of fiber. These two yarns complement each other, and have been used in making lots of
   woven and knitted fabrics. Additionally, a yarn which uses a highly stretchable fiber at its core
   and is wrapped by fibers of different property was developed. It is used in the production of
   stretch jeans or stockings.

(3)Processing of fiber products.
  Various processing methods are used to modify the properties of fabric material (woven or
  knitted) and sewn fabrics.

   Type of processing                                     Purpose
 Wrinkle-proofing,        Prevents washed clothes from shrinking or wrinkling (for cotton, linen
 shrink-proofing          or rayon products)
 Shape treatment          Prevents clothing (shirt) from wrinkling or keeps its shape.
 Pleat treatment          Keep the pleats lines.
 Water-repellant and
                          Allow umbrella or rain coat to repel or resist water.
 waterproof finishing
 Flame resistance and     Make the carpets and curtains in kitchens or public institutions
 flame-proof finishing    resistant to fire.

                                                - 71 -
2. Performance and
                                 (6) Clothing labels
   characteristics of                                                             1 hour
                                   1) Descriptive labels and symbols for handling
   clothing materials
   Acquire an understanding of the descriptive labels of ready-made clothes in order to know the
proper care and handling of clothes.
Keywords:descriptive label, handling symbols, flameproof mark, Woolmark symbol
1. Learn about clothing labels.
(1)Each student is to study the labels of the clothes he (or she) is wearing, or

    Textile products, including clothes, have various types of labels which
   state clothing description, country of origin, size, quality certification by
   certain industrial groups, defects, as well as various performance
   capabilities (water repellency, flameproof, etc.).

     The graphics to the right are examples of Japanese clothing labels.
   The descriptive label (top) gives a description of the clothing by stating
   composition of the materials, washing and ironing instructions through
   handling symbols, as well as contact information such as name of the
   manufacturer, address, country of origin (where the product was made.)
   A flameproof mark is required for curtains hanging in public

     The Woolmark symbol is used for products made from 100% virgin wool and is an
   international symbol of quality.

 Handling instructions have symbols showing recommended washing processes
    JIS mark       ISO mark
                               Hand-wash only (do not use washing machine).
                               Wash carefully by hand. The number indicates the
                               temperature of water : under 30℃ (or cold water).
                               For machine-wash (also for hand-wash).
                               The “Weak” indication recommends the delicate cycle.
                               Water temperature is to be 30 ℃ (under 40℃), or to be cold

                                   Can be ironed at high temperatures; up to 210 degree

 Clothing properties differ according to fiber types. Because of this, clothing is affected differently
 by type of water, detergent, and ironing temperatures.

                                               - 72 -
2. Performance and
                                (6) Clothing labels
 characteristics of                                                                   1 hour
                                  2) Clothing sizes
 clothing materials
 Understand the size indications for ready-to-wear clothes in order to choose the right size.
Keywords:size, measuring
1. Learning about size indications
   To choose ready-to-wear clothes, it is recommended to read the size indication or to try on
   clothes in order to choose the proper size.

・In Japan, sizes are indicated by body measurements (cm). This may be in combination with body
mass (Y or A), size range (S, M, L), or numbers indicating body height or chest circumference (7, 9,
11, etc.)

 Examples of Japanese sizes
           140                   9AR                       86Y7
      Children’s wear        Women’s wear                Men’s wear
     140= body height     9= chest size            86=chest
                             (according to            circumference (cm)
                             circumference)        Y= body mass (thin
                          A= body mass                build)
                             (normal)              7= height(180cm)           (size range)
                          R= height (normal)

・Notes on body measurements
 Chest circumference:Measurement of the widest
                       circumference of the chest area (this
                       area is called “chest” for men, and “bust”
                       for women).
 Waist circumference:Measurement of the narrowest
 Hip circumference:Measurement of the widest circumference
 For each measurement, the measuring tape should be held
 The person being measured should be standing with arms
 down in a natural manner, and he/she should be looking
 straight ahead.
 Self-measurement does not give the correct size.

・ Knowing one’s correct size is important in choosing
ready-to-wear clothes.

                                               - 73 -
              3 Organization and maintenance of clothes

   Once worn, clothes become soiled and uncomfortable to wear. Left as they are, dirt and stains on
clothing not only become difficult to remove, but promote fiber degradation, discoloration,
propagation of mold, and insect damages. We wash clothes in order to restore their performance and
to wear clean clothes. When buying clothes, consideration towards methods of cleaning, storage and
disposal is important for the maintenance of clothes.
   There are two different methods of cleaning: wet cleaning which uses water, and dry cleaning
which uses volatile organic solvents. Most home-cleaning operations belong to the wet-cleaning
category, which is effective for removing water-soluble stains. Washing with detergent enhances the
ability to remove oily stains. In this chapter, students will acquire skills for hand and
machine-washing at home and learn how detergent works as well as getting clothes ready for wear.
They will discuss issues on cleaning and the environment, as well as the reuse and disposal of
   In order to wash out sweat and food stains from clothing water and detergent is needed, combined
with manpower. For stain removal, some items require pre-washing or preapplication of solvents
(benzene etc.) depending on the stain types or level of dirtiness. As stains left on for a long period of
time become difficult to remove, practice of regular, periodic cleaning is necessary. Certain types of
fibers and stitching are unsuitable for wet-cleaning; check the handling instructions before
   After washing, iron the clothes and fix frayed areas to prepare for the next use.
   In order to adapt to the seasons, different purposes and occasions, we own a several number of
clothes. It is also important to consider ways of recycling or discarding clothes that are too small to
be worn or are seldom worn instead of just keeping them at home, by giving them to someone else or
recycling them as hand-craft accessories.
   Washing with detergent and disposal of old clothes may cause burdens to the environment.
Students should consider their clothes not just as their belongings, but also as environmental issues
when undertaking clothing maintenance.

<Elementary education>
  Acquire the skills to hand-wash clothes properly according to the handling indications of the
clothing. Each student is required to know the number of clothes he (or she) has.

<Secondary education>
   Acquire the knowledge to distinguish between natural fibers and chemical fibers, and the skills to
properly wash clothes according to the type of fiber. Students are to take care of their clothes and to
figure out how to recycle their clothes when they will no longer wear them.

<Applied education>
  Acquire knowledge on fabric performance, processing methods according to fiber type, as well as
cleaning concepts in order to enact the proper care and maintenance of clothing. Students are to
consider the environment and natural resources when choosing clothes. They are also to
understand how to reuse and recycle them.

                                                 - 74 -
3. Organization and             (1) Washing practice
  maintenance of clothes                                                              2 hours

 Learn washing techniques focused on hand-washing, and acquire the basic skills to wash clothes
by hand.
Keywords:hand-washing, machine-washing
1. Understand the methods of hand-washing                        Wear clothes easy to work
(1) Before doing the actual practice.
    Preparation before washing.
 ①Check the level of dirtiness and confirm that the
    pockets are empty.
 ②Check the type of fiber (by descriptive label),
    and handling symbols to confirm that the clothes
    can be washed at home. .                                 Make sure pockets are empty and buttons
 ③Sort the laundry items by fiber type, color, and level are securely fixed.
    of dirtiness
    (to ensure effective washing, sort them into different piles by washing conditions).
 ④Prepare detergent and materials needed for washing.
○ On soiled clothes, see <<1. Clothing functions and styles - (2) Functions for health and
○ On descriptive labels and handling instructions, see <<2. Performance and characteristics of
clothing materials (6) Clothing labels>>.

(2)Hand-washing instructions
  ①Preparation of detergent solution. (a) Weigh the laundry, (b) Measure out the water and
  detergent, and dissolve the detergent into a washtub of water or lukewarm water. Prepare 10 or
  20 times the amount of water to the weight of the laundry. For the amount of detergent, read
  instructions for use. ②Soak the laundry into the detergent water (when hand-washing with a
  bar of soap, soak the laundry into cold water instead of detergent water).

  ③Washing→aHandwashing motions include hand-rubbing, scrubbing, and beating. Carefully
  scrub stained areas (if you use a bar of soap, rub the soap on the stained areas). ④ Wring the
  laundry (to eliminate detergent water) → motions include twisting and wringing. ⑤ Rinse
  and wring the laundry → this is rinsing the laundry in a washtub of clean water. Change the
  water two-three times and wring the laundry each time. ⑥ Dry the laundry → Wipe clean the
  laundry pole or clothesline. Smooth out wrinkles when hanging the laundry. (Hang the laundry
  according to handling instructions.) ⑦ Clean up. When the laundry has dried take the laundry
  down. Fold the clothes and put them away.

(3)Machine-washing instructions
  ①Prepare detergent solution. ②Put the laundry into the washing machine and run the
machine (the machine will run in the following order: washing→wringing→rinsing→wringing)③
Hang the washed laundry→put them away.

                                              - 75 -
3. Organization and                (2) Detergent types and how they work
                                                                                        1 hour
 maintenance of clothes
 Understand how detergent works in order to make an appropriate choice regarding which
detergent to use according to material type. Acquire an awareness of the problems detergent may
cause to the environment.
Keywords:detergent, surfactant, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
1. Understand how detergent works.
  ・Surfactant is the major constituent of laundry detergent, and its molecule generally consists of
     two groups: hydrophilic group and lipophilic group (1). The surfactant attaches to the surface
     of the dirt, and in between the fibers (2). The surface tension is lowered, which allows the
     molecule to be inserted between the dirt and fiber and detaches the dirt (3). The dirt is
     released into the water, which is then dispersed and emulsified by the molecules (4). After
     dispersion, the molecules attach themselves to the clothing to prevent reattachment of the
     dirt (5).
            Diagram showing how surfactant works and the cleaning process
    Hydrophilic group

   Lipophilic group

1 Surfactant and dirt 2 Dirt attaches to the fibers→3 Infiltration→4Emulsification and dispersion →
5 Prevention of dirt reattachment

2. Types of detergent
・Detergents are classified as follows (see table below) by type and proportion of surfactant.
   The detergent should be used properly according to clothing materials. Increasing the detergent
   concentration beyond the prescribed dosage does not increase the washing performance; use an
   appropriate amount according to the dosage instructions of the product.

                  Surfactant                     Characteristics                     For use on:
               Fatty acid salt       The solution is weakly alkaline. Not very   Cotton, linen,
               (100% pure            soluble in cold water and hard water.       polyester.
               soap). Soaps are      Produces soap suds. Causes yellowing of
               grease-based.         white clothes.
               Includes              Classified into mild alkaline detergents    Cotton, linen,
               surfactants other     and neutral detergents. Dissolves easily    polyester (mild
 Synthetic     than those used       in cold water and resistant to hard water   alkaline
 detergents    in pure soap.         effects. Neutral detergent has less         detergent),
               Petroleum or          cleansing power, but is suitable for wool   Silk, wool (neutral
               grease based.         and silk fabrics.                           detergent).

(3)Textile cleaning and the environment.
・After washing, the used detergent is released into the natural world through laundry drainage,
 but the released surfactants are not very decomposable in the natural world. Laundry drainage
 is high in BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), a measure of the quantity of oxygen consumed
 by microorganisms during the decomposition of organic matter. Efforts to reduce the amount of
 detergent use and the use of decomposable surfactants are thus required.

                                                - 76 -
3. Organization and             (3) Finishing and storage
 maintenance of clothes                                                                 2 hour

  Understand how to use the pressing iron and mend clothes.
Keywords:pressing iron, mending
1. Finishing
   After the washing, finishing processes such as softening (using an cation surfactant agent that
gives softening and antistatic effects to clothes for preventing clinging), starching (coating textile
fibers with starch to give body to the fabric), and ironing is to be done if necessary.

2. Students will acquire the skills to iron clothes through practice.
・Students will experience ironing clothes (handkerchief, shirt).
 ①Preparation. a) Check the fiber type (by descriptive label) and
   suitable ironing temperature (see handling symbols).
 b) Prepare the tools necessary for ironing.
 →pressing iron, ironing board, water spray-bottle, piece of fabric
 ②Running the iron→Spray water on the clothes, set the temperature dial to the correct setting,
   wait until the iron temperature is high enough before starting the ironing. Run the iron along
   the direction of the warp lines. To prevent wool fabrics from having a shine finish, place a piece
   of fabric over the ironing plate before ironing clothes.
   ○ Be careful not to burn the hands. Remember to turn the power off when finished.

                                        Iron temperature recommendations
                                               190℃          Cotton, linen
      Middle                                   160℃
                                                             Rayon, cupra, polyester
                                               140℃          Silk
        Low                                    120℃          Acetate, nylon, acrylic
                                               100℃          Acrylic, polyurethane

3. Textile mending: after washing and drying, reattach buttons to cloth and restitch frayed
  threads if necessary.

                   Stitching a bottun                                        Mending

                                                - 77 -
3. Organization and            (4) Use and disposal of clothes
                                                                                    1 hour
   maintenance of clothes
 Students will think about how to make effective use of the clothes they have, and the proper
disposal of the clothes they no longer wear.
Keywords: use, reuse and disposal of clothes
1. Use of clothes.
 ・Students will check their wardrobe and think if they are making full use of the clothes they
 ①How many summer clothes, winter clothes and underwear do they have? Are there any clothes
   they don’t wear?
 ②Following the answers above (①), students will think about the occasions for wearing different
   clothes (commuting to school, house chores, graduation ceremony) and the combinations of
   clothes they wear.
 ③Students are to explain the reasons why they no longer wear certain clothes, if they have any,
   to discuss how to reuse them.
 ④Based on the answers to the questions above (①and②), they will consider if they need more

2. Thinking about the reuse and disposal of clothes.
・After the discussion above in(1), discuss how to dispose the clothes that are no longer in use.
   Keeping them is wasteful in terms of space and resources, so it is desirable to recycle or
   properly discard these clothes.
 ①Reuse (give to sister or brother)
 ②Alter (Make another piece of clothing or accessories).
 ③Disposal methods: Reuse as rags to be used by industrial plants for cleanup of grease or oil,
    remanufacture as recycled wool for use as filling, or dispose by incineration.

・The poncho and sari can be worn despite changes in body shape. While flat-shaped garments like
  kimono cover slight changes in body shape and can be easily remade, three-dimensional clothes
  such as shirt and trousers are hard to remake when they become unwearable because of body
  growth or change in body shape. In such cases, give the clothing away to someone who fits into
  these clothes, or make another piece of clothing of a smaller size or accessories out of them.

3. Thinking about the relationship between clothes and conservation of natural resources, energy
   and the environment.
    Manufacturing of chemical fibers consumes much energy and many resources. Energy is also
   consumed during the sewing process of clothes. Water, detergent, and energy is consumed
   during washing. Disposal and incineration of clothes produces much carbon dioxide, and
   noncombustible materials are not decomposable in the natural environment.
    Our clothing life consumes lot of resources and energy, which adds further burdens to the
   environment. The instructor is to teach the students the importance of wearing clothes from the
   perspectives of conserving natural resources and environmental protection.

                                             - 78 -
                4 Tools and methods for making clothes

   In creating something useful for our life by making clothes, we can enjoy the pleasure of creation,
a sense of accomplishment, and joy in life. In this chapter, as the preliminary step to making clothes
students will learn how to handle sewing tools and acquire the skills for sewing clothes step-by-step
from hand sewing to machine sewing.
   Students will learn some basic hand stitches such as straight stitch, back-stitch, blind stitch, knot
tying, and a finishing stitch. They will then make a small object by using a paper pattern to sew a
felt cloth by hand. Felt cloth is an appropriate material for beginners, because its cut edges are
rarely ragged.
   There are a variety of sewing machines: machines with foot pedal, machines with electric motors,
machines with computer control, machines for domestic or professional use, etc. Students will learn
about the handling, carrying, storage, needle change and thread adjustment of sewing machines
using the sewing machines at school. Unlike felt cloth, handling the textile requires straightening
the clothing in the direction of the woven lines to avoid deformation, and the seam allowance must
be securely finished to avoid unraveling. Students will understand the characteristics of the textile,
and experience cutting the seam allowance, marking, and sewing with the sewing machine. They
are to make a plan for sewing an object and confirm the purpose and procedures of this plan.

<Elementary education>
 Understand the proper use of the tools for making a hand-sewn object and machine-sewn bag.
 Understand the concepts of paper pattern and seam allowance.

<Secondary education>
  Review on how to use a sewing machine.
  Acquire the skills to develop a clothing construction plan and sew some basic clothes (underpants

                                                - 79 -
4. Tools and methods for               (1) Sewing tools and how to handle them
                                                                                              1 hour
 making clothes
 Understand the types of sewing tools and how to handle them.
Keywords:types of sewing tools, handling methods of sewing tools
1. Sewing tool and how to handle them
(1)Understand the characteristics of sewing tools and their safe and proper handling methods.

The following tools may be needed in sewing (example: Japan).
・Measuring ruler and tape

・Shears to cut the cloth

・Thread cutter to cut the textile thread

・Tailor’s chalk to mark with

・Sewing needles and dress pins

・Pincushion, sewing cotton


(2)For safe and proper use of tools,
  scissors and needles should be stored in a box.

Cover the cutting edges of scissors or put them into a box when carrying them..

                                                          Needles should stay in pincushion
                                                             when not in use.

       When you hand over scissors, hold the cutting edge side so that the receiver takes the grip side.

                                                 - 80 -
4. Tools and methods for            (2) Hand-sewing methods
                                                                                         1 hour
 making clothes
Students learn basic sewing stitches such as straight stitch, back stitch and blind stitch.
Keywords:straight stitch, back stitch, blind stitch, knot tying, finishing stitch
1. Students will learn how to sew fabrics together and learn some basic stitches.
・Exercise(①~⑤)       。
   ① Tie a knot at the end of the sewing thread before sewing.

  ② Secure the thread when you are done by making a finishing stitch through tying an end
    knot with the needle.

  ③Straight stitch ④Back stitch⑤Blind stitch
              ③ Straight stitch            ④ Back stitch                ⑤ Blind stitch



      Single thread

      double thread

                                              - 81 -
4. Tools and methods for             (3) Making a small handicraft through
                                                                                     2 hour
making clothes                           hand sewing
 Understand the characteristics of non-woven felt cloth, and make a hand-sewn handicraft with
paper patterns.
Keywords:making small handicrafts, felt cloth, pattern paper
1. Making a toy or a small bag out of felt.
   ・One of the characteristics of the felt cloth is that its cut edge will not fray.
   ・Materials: felt cloth, paper for patterning, cotton filling, sewing thread, embroidery threads,
    needles, scissors.
   ・Instructions: making paper pattern, cutting the fabric, and sewing

 ① Cut out the paper                             ④ Sew the pieces
 pattern.                                        together with blind
                                                 stitch or blanket

 ② Place the paper                               ⑤ While sewing the
 pattern on the felt and                         pieces together, leave
 cut out two pieces.                             some opening to tuck
                                                 filling in, then sew
                                                 the rest.

 ③ Embroider on one of
 the felt pieces.                                ⑥ Attach a string to
                                                 the figure to finish.

                                              - 82 -
4. Tools and methods for                (4) How to use a sewing machine
                                                                                          1 hour
 making clothes
 Students will understand the mechanisms of the sewing machine, learn how to use it safely, and
experience using it.
Keywords:machine sewing, upper thread, lower thread, thread adjustment
1. Understand the mechanisms of the sewing machine, and learn how to use it safely.
・Compare machine-sewn and hand-sewn seams.
・Observe the sewing machine.
   The sewing machine was invented to sew fabrics together.
   With sewing machine, seams consist of the
   upper thread and the lower thread.

・Carrying the sewing machine (make sure to hold back all metal parts
 and carry it with both hands) .

・Taking a sewing machine out of a box and putting it back
 Taking it out: Hold the upper side of the machine
 with both hands securely to bring it out of the box.
 Putting it back: Turn the power off and pull the plug out of its socket, then put the machine
 back in the box. Both operations should be exercised with caution.

・Turn on the sewing machine (connect the controller cable to the machine, and insert the power
 cable plug into the socket→then push the control pedal)
・Set the needle.
・Spin with the empty bobbin.
・Learn the techniques of winding and inserting the lower thread, then apply it with the bobbin.
・Learn the techniques of placing the upper thread and apply.
・Sew with a straight stitch.
・Learn how to adjust the tension of the upper and lower threads, as well as stitch width

(Fig. Tension adjustment of the upper and lower threads.)
Turn dial to lower number       Adjustment dial for upper thread       Turn dial to higher number
Upper thread tension is too tight ← Appropriate tension →              Upper thread tension is too loose

      Lower thread tension is too loose                         Lower thread tension is too tight
                                Tighten     ←   Bobbin case screw → Loosen

                                                  - 83 -
4. Tools and methods for             (5) Making a bag with the sewing machine
                                                                                   3 hour
making clothes
 Students will learn how to handle woven textiles with the sewing machine through execution of
their own plans.
Keywords:woven textile; seam allowance, marking
1. Making a bag with woven textiles.
(1)Making the plan (example: deciding on purpose, size, color and materials)
(2)Straighten the textile in the direction of the woven lines.
(3)Put the textile on flat table, and place the paper pattern on it.
   Mark the design lines with a tailor’s chalk (blue lines).
(4)Cut the piece, including seam allowance (dark gray lines)
   Woven textile requires protection for the cut edges (seam allowance, for example).
(5)Sew the pieces according to the instructions below.

1. Marking and cutting    2. Fold the top part in three and sew with the machine
3. Attach the handles  4. Double-stitch at both ends     5. Finished

2. Making a pouch with the zipper.

1. Marking and cutting    2. Fold the top part in three and sew with the machine
3. Attach the zipper   4. Sandwich the string between pieces and saw with the machine
5. Reverse and stitch   6. Cut side drops of zipper and Finished

                                            - 84 -
              5 Clothing construction

   Clothes cover the three-dimensional human body with two-dimensional pieces of fabric. For that
purpose, a piece of fabric must be cut in several parts and sewn together, or a large piece of fabric
must be used to cover the curves of the human body. Accessory materials such as straps, buttons,
and zippers are also to be used in clothes if needed.
   Students are to understand the shape of human body and acquire the skills to make basic
clothing for the human body. This textbook uses examples of an apron and shirt for the upper body,
and a pair of underpants and skirt for the lower body. We recommend using materials appropriate
for the year and the skill level of the students.
   Students will discover that there are various methods of clothing construction through the study
of regional and folk costumes around the world, and those of their own region or their own country.
   Knitting, embroidery, braid, dyeing and weaving are given as examples of basic clothing
embellishment. Teaching materials are to be in accordance with the cultural and traditional context
of each country.
   Students will enjoy the pleasure of creation, a sense of achievement, and sense of fulfillment to
make something for their family or something that can be shared with their friends through
hands-on training.

<Elementary education>
 Students will understand that clothing is made with pieces of fabric sewn together.
 Acquire the skill for embroidering small handicrafts in order to express oneself.
 The apron made from the hands-on training can also be used in cooking practice class.

<Secondary education>
  Students will learn about the different shapes of fabric that are used to cover the human body.
  They are required to create a plan for making clothes and acquire the skills for creating basic
clothes (pants etc.).
  The shirt or pants can be worn for festivals or group work.

<Applied education>
  Learning about the construction of regional costumes.
  For practice in making clothes, examples of clothes with collars, sleeves or ornamentation
according to the local costumes and traditions are to be introduced.

                                               - 85 -
                                (1) Construction of regional costumes
5. Clothing construction                                                             1 hour

 Understand the construction of a regional or folk costume and make a comparison with the
clothing that student himself (herself) wears or with other folk costumes.
Keywords:folk costume, sari, kimono
1. Look at pictures of regional or folk costumes around the world to understand their construction.

・Students study the costume of their own region; are there any clothes that are different from
 what they wear daily?

・They will also study about different folk costumes through books, pictures and videos.
 A folk costume is clothing that is unique to a people or a nation. Folk costumes have been
 developed amidst the regional climate, culture and history, and have a variety of styles.

・Comparing different folk costumes.
  From the construction point of view, folk costumes are classified into
  ①Two-dimensional costumes (sari, kimono)
  ②Three-dimensional costumes (jacket, blouse).

                                              - 86 -
                                (2) Clothing organization
5. Clothing construction                                                           1 hour

 Understand that clothing is made with a number of pieces of fabric sewn together and with
accessory materials such as buttons.
1. Looking at upper wear organization.
・Students are to use their own clothes for observation.
・They are to notice the shapes of pieces sewn together and the presence of components other than
   textile fabric.

        A shirt made of pieces of fabric
        sewn together with sewing thread.

          A jacket decorated with buttons and

                                                - 87 -
                               (3) The human body and clothing
5. Clothing construction                                                            1 hour

 Learn about an example of how two-dimensional pieces of fabric are designed to cover the
complex three-dimensional structure of the human body.
Keyword:clothing construction, three-dimensional structure, volume allowance
1. Students will learn hands-on how clothing is designed to cover the three-dimensional structure
    of the human body with two-dimensional pieces of fabric.
・Pin a piece of fabric onto the human body (mannequin) for fitting. Spread the piece out on a flat

○The contour of the human body is composed of curved lines.
To cover the human body with clothing, one can wear a large piece of fabric fastened at several
points, or make a cloth with a several number of parts sewn together.

○Clothing requires some volume allowance for human body to move. (cm)

                                             - 88 -
                               (4) Construction and making of upper wear
5. Clothing construction                                                            4 hour
                                 1) Construction and making an apron
 Learning about the form of cloth to cover the front of the human body, protect clothing from dirt in
kitchen or at work; making an apron.
Keywords:apron, bias cutting
1. Construction and making of an apron
(1)Construction of an apron

(2)Making an apron
・Making an apron as an example of basic upper-wear.
  Double fold the edges and hem. The length of the strap should be longer than the head

 ○ For draping effect, cut the fabric so that the woven lines run diagonally
   (in bias).
 ○ Add pocket at a convenient position.
 ○ Old clothes can be recycled. Unstitch an old large shirt to understand
     its construction, then reuse the pieces to make an apron.

                                              - 89 -
                               (4) Construction and making of upper wear
5. Clothing construction                                                            6 hour
                                 2) Construction and making of a shirt
 By using a clothing example that covers the front and the back of the human body, students will
learn about clothing construction that fits the human body. This type of cloth requires a hole for
the neck and two holes for the arms. A round curve like the neckline requires interfacing (special
cloth for finishing cut curves such as collar, sleeves, etc.)
Keywords: neckline, armhole, interfacing
1. Making a shirt to understand its construction.
(1)Construction of a shirt                            Front               Back

(2)Making a shirt
  ① Sew the interfacing at the shoulder and trim the edges.
  ② Double-stitch the front and back pieces at the shoulder (finish the edges)
  ③ Assemble the interfacing and the body and sew the neckline together.
  ④ Fold twice the armhole and the body at underarm.
  ⑤ Sew the front body and the back body together up to the underarm, double fold the edges
     and hem.

                                             - 90 -
                               (5) Construction and making of bottom wear
5.Clothing construction                                                            8 hour
                                 1) Construction and making of pants
 Understand the construction of the cloth that covers the two legs and find out how to fasten the
cloth at the waist.
Keywords: length from waist to hip (rise), length of inside leg (inseam)
1. Making underpants to understand its construction.
(1)Construction of pants

(2)Making pants
①Double-stitch the rise lines (as reinforcement). Sew both the center front and the center back.
②Sew the inseam twice (finish the edges.)
③Double fold the bottom edge twice and hem. Fold the waist seam twice to pass rubber string

                                             - 91 -
                               (5) Construction and making of bottom wear
5. Clothing construction                                                            8 hour
                                 2) Construction and making of a skirt
 Understand the methods to cover the hip area and to fasten a skirt at the waist.
Keywords:skirt, gathering, dart seams

1. Making a gathered skirt to understand its organization.
 (1)Construction of gathered skirt.

(2)Making a gathered skirt
  Sew the center back line twice (finish the cut edges). Double fold the bottom and waist seam
  and hem to finish. Pull the rubber string along the waist.
Skirt with dart seams

                                             - 92 -
                               (6) Clothing embellishment
5. Clothing construction                                                           2 hour
                                 1) Knitting
 Students experience knitting with crochet needle and learn how to make an object of any size as
they like.
Keyword:crochet (chain stitch), single crochet
1. Knitting a pouch (cell phone holder).
 Crochet                                         Single crochet
 ①                         ②                     ①                     ②

  Choose the purpose of the bag.
  Prepare cotton or acrylic yarn.
  Yarn of 40g and approximately 80m per spool are easy
  to handle.

  Crochet a chain to the desired length.

  Single crochet the pouch bottom around the chain..

  Continue to knit around the bottom to make
  the body of the pouch.

  When the body gets to the desired size (black),
  knit the lid with a button hole (grey).

  Crochet the handle to the desired
  length using two strands of yarn.

                                             - 93 -
                                 (6) Clothing embellishment
5. Clothing construction                                                            2 hour
 Students experience some basic embroidery work and acquire the skills to decorate hand-sewn or
machine sewn objects. They will also experience basic braid techniques.
Keywords:chain stitch, cross-stitch, blanket stitch, four-strand braid belt

1. Embroidery
・Decorating clothes or objects with embroidery work
                 Running stitch                   Chain stitch

                  Cross-stitch                        Blanket stitch

2. Braid
    Interweaving three or more strands to make a strong strip.(Example: Four-strand braid)

                                             - 94 -
                                   (6) Clothing embellishment
5. Clothing construction                                                                        2 hour
                                     3) Dyeing
 Students will experience dyeing with available materials.
Keyword:Dyeing with coffee beans
1. Dyeing with coffee beans                                                 1

・Boil the fabric in boiling water.(1)
(preparation to ensure penetration)

・Prepare strong coffee for dye solution.(2)
                                                                        2                 3              4
・Heat the coffee solution and dip the fabric into the solution.(3)

・Take the fabric out of the solution after 15 minutes of simmering, and then dip it into an alum based solution

・Students can use coffee grounds or other kinds of mordant.

 ● Stencil-dyeing                                       ● Tie-dyeing
 Cut out a paper pattern and dye the fabric             Tie the fabric with strings or rubber bands and
 using appropriate brush and dye compounds              submerge the fabric into the dye solution.
 (coloring).                                            Use a strong tea solution or onion peels (brown
                                                        parts) for colorants, and alum for the mordant.

                                                        Various tie-dye patterns can be used.

                                                   - 95 -
5. Clothing construction       (7) Ways of changing clothes                          2 hour

 Learn about some examples of altering clothing to make it easier for all people to change clothes.
Keyword:alterations to make changing clothes easier
1. Consider the ways that enable all people despite age, handicap or type of physique to change
  clothes easily.
(1)A little arrangement can enable a person to wear clothes comfortably if body movement is
   restricted because of age, disease, or accident.

(2)Examples of simple clothing alterations are to be introduced here.
  Alterations using rubber or gore makes clothes changing easier, and allows the person to
  experience the pleasure of wearing different clothes.

○Ways of changing clothes
  Use a number of rubber strings
  instead of a wide rubber strap.

○Ways of changing clothes
  Add a triangular gusset to the area
  between undersleeve and underarm.

○Ways for texture.
  Hem with a fine seam and
  finish the edges.

                                              - 96 -
                       Ⅳ.Dwelling life
   In Japanese home economics education, home life is characterized by “units.” It begins with the
small unit of “your immediate surroundings inside the home” during elementary school, which
develops into larger units such as housing, home life, town and city during secondary school.
Through this process, students are to understand current conditions and home life issues, and find
solutions to these issues.
   For primary school education, this handbook teaches about “one’s immediate surroundings,”
which is considered a small unit of comfort and how to improve it from the inhabitant’s point of view.
Here, the term “comfort” refers to sanitary and environmental comfort for human senses.
   For secondary and higher school education, the study of home life goes beyond the home and into
the surrounding environment. The “surrounding environment” includes areas around one’s place of
residency, the neighboring areas, town and city environment. This expansion of study allows a
deeper and better understanding of home life as a whole, from the internal surroundings and
lifestyle to the entire building.
   In applied and professional education, the home must also be considered in terms of design and
   This handbook provides the four recommendations of World Health Organization on Healthy
Dwelling Environment as evaluation indexes. The study goals are thus based on these
recommendations listed below, with classified subsections for each session.
     [reference]WHO’s recommendations for healthy living environments
     ・     Safety       natural disaster (typhoon, floods, earthquake), traffic accidents
     ・     Health        sun exposure, ventilation, car and industrial pollution, sewer system
     ・     Efficiency transportation convenience, facilities (school, shopping store, parks)
     ・     Comfort     greenery, streets and landscape
<Primary education>
   The four recommendations above are presented with easy and familiar examples of places to live.
The study starts from the understanding of one’s own surroundings. In this stage, students are
required to acknowledge the importance of the home through familiar examples, and theoretical
grounding is to be made during secondary school in most cases. Picture and materials showing
various living styles and houses of foreign countries are also to be presented if possible. The study
goal is to learn about the living style suited to one’s own region.

<Secondary school>
  An in-depth study on the home and its four principles (safety, health, efficiency and comfort) is
required. Students learn about the functions of the house, as well as basic terms and knowledge of
home life. Study should range from the house to the local area.

<Applied education>
  In applied education, it is recommended to present professional knowledge related to design and
professional practices. The instructor provides related information on the design requirements for
safety, health, efficiency and comfort. The study ranges from the interior space to the entire
building, local and city areas. Exercises in design are recommended.

                                               - 97 -
1. Functions of the house           (1) The climate and the house
                                    (2) The functions of the house                         1 hour

  To consider the functions of the house by promote awareness of important housing issues. In
order for students to learn how to improve housing conditions, they must reconsider the
importance of housing and determine problematic issues (elementary), and learn about the
functions of the house (secondary.)
  Natural conditions and social environment determine various types of housing. Students are to
learn especially about their own region and its suitable housing.
Keywords: regions, culture, climate, ways of living, construction materials, housing structure,
functions of the house
1. The climate and the house.
  Influenced by different climate and cultural factors, traditional houses and housing style vary
according to the country (document 1). For example, ways of protection against the cold or heat
appear in the building appearance, materials, or room arrangement. Students should first present
their image of houses around the world by climate. The instructor will then make pictures and
text presentations of actual homes. Examples are to be as various as possible in order the raise
the students’ interest. It may also be effective for students to do drawing exercises of their houses.

2. The functions of the house.
    The house is the vessel of life. Students are to rethink about the houses they live in, and to
 learn about the house’s functions. The functions listed in Document 2 are necessary to both house
 and home life.
    Although less priority tends to be given towards improving home life among other areas of
 living (food and clothing), students will begin by learning what they can do to improve. Students
 will learn about practical room arrangements for reducing domestic labor in order to ensure
 sanitary and security. Examples of Japanese housing issues are presented below※. In applied
 education, further consideration should also be given to housing issues of other countries.

※ Housing issues in Japan:tendency to use the house like consumable items as they are often
 built and collapsed in a short period of time, small house size, construction of taller buildings,
 creation of artificial environments, expensive housing costs, long work hours and commuting

Learning activity (elementary school)
(1) Presenting pictures of various houses around the world which are adapted for different natural
  and social environments.
(2) Confirming that there are many different kinds of houses.
(3) Thinking about the characteristics of the following homes:
     ・ House protected against the cold
     ・ Homes adapted for nomad life in the steppe areas
     ・ Mud, clay, or palm-leaf houses
     ・ House protected against heat and humidity
     ・ House protected against typhoon and storms
(4) Thinking about our daily activities: what we do in each of the rooms, and which room we tend
  to stay in. Confirm the functions of the house and how to improve one’s immediate

                                               - 98 -
1. Functions of the house                  (1) The climate and the house
                                           (2) The functions of the house                            1 hour

Document 1: Homes in the world.
An overview of various types of homes in the world; the forms and functions vary according to the
climate and lifestyle.

Pitched roof to protect against heavy snowfall (Japan)*1
Nomad’s dwelling which allows for easy assembling and disassembling (Mongolia)*1
Houses built on stakes in the water(Southeast Asia)

Construction materials and building structures also vary according to the climate.

      Wooden house, Switzerland *2           Houses made of stones or bricks   Dai-zu stilt house, China.*2

Stone and brick residences, Germany. (To protect against the cold) *2

                                                         - 99 -
1. Functions of the house                  (1) The climate and the house
                                           (2) The functions of the house                                  1 hour

Stone houses, Alberobello, Italy.                               Stone is used to protect against the heat. *2
Bamboo and reed house, Korea,                                     Protected from typhoon and storms. *2
                    Photo:*1 Takashige Isikawa(Japan Women’s University) *2 Fumiko Okita(Japan Women’s University)

Document 2:Functions of the house
   ・ Lifestyle protection against the weather and foreign invasion
   ・ Space for restoring and maintaining health
   ・ Space for rest and relaxation
   ・ Family space (lifestyle space for family members; for raising children and taking care of
   ・ Housework space
   ・ Guest entertainment and worship space

     Daily activities:
     Wake-up, change of clothes, face washing, meal time, cooking, tidying, cleaning, washing,
     work operations, breaks, napping, shopping, family bonding、reading, TV watching or radio
     listening, studying, playing, bathing, lavatory time, childcare, etc.

Learning activity (Applied education)
Housing requirements and house types differ according to each stage of life. The relationship
between the number of family members and types of rooms needed, as well as room arrangement
must be considered. For example, a family with a small child need some space to follow him (or
her), and space for studying is needed when the child grows up.

Thanks to economic growth, acquisition of better dwelling has become relatively easy. However,
many issues arise due to economic growth, concentration of population in urban areas, excessive
demolition of houses and others. It is important not to be deceived by appearance and
sumptuousness of the house, but to have an understanding of what good housing is from early

                                                      - 100 -
2. Housing and health            (1) Sun exposure and daylight
                                                                                     1 hour

   To understand the amount of sunshine needed (sun exposure, UV radiation, daylight, lighting)
for a healthy and comfortable life.
   Students should acknowledge issues regarding their own houses and provide brief descriptions
of solutions.
Keywords: sun exposure, UV radiation, daylight, lighting
Contents of learning
1. Use of sunlight
   A good house must be hygienic and have sufficient brightness. Taking in sunlight rays is
 called ”sun exposure.” Sunlight rays are classified into ultraviolet, visible light, and infrared
 according to wavelength. These rays then produce lighting, heat, or produce
 physical/decontaminating effects. Infrared radiation has heating and drying effects. Ultraviolet
 has decontaminating (sterilization) and photochemical effects. Ultraviolet rays also promote
 Vitamin D formation which is essential for increasing amounts of hemoglobin, calcium,
 phosphorus and bone growth. In regions prone to mold due to the hot and humid climate, the
 heat and drying produced by sun exposure in the summer gives sanitary effects.
   In elementary school, familiar examples are presented in order to learn how to use sunlight. It
is also important to learn about where the sun hits within the house, the sun’s relationship to the
brightness of the interior space, and how sun exposure changes over time.
Learning activity (elementary and secondary)
   Sunlight requirements for living:
     ・ Brightness :daylight angle, duration and orientation of the sunlight
     ・ Warmness : letting in the sunlight is especially important during the winter or in cold
     ・ Sanitary level:house humidity

2. Lighting (secondary)
   Lighting is needed to compensate the lack of sun and night-time activities. Although brighter
lighting is always desirable for interior spaces, economic efficiency and energy-saving must be
taken into consideration for reasonable lighting levels. The necessary brightness level differs
according to activities, the purpose of the space, and age. Too much lighting has some negative
effects, as staying longer in a highly lit space causes disturbance in sleep cycles.
Learning activity (secondary):Compare the difference in wattage between bulbs and fluorescent
lights, and determine differences between lighting apparatus.

                                              House               Winds


                                             - 101 -
2. Housing and health           (2) Airflow and ventilation, noise issues
                                                                                      1 hour

   Understand the necessary airflow (breeze, ventilation, humidity) for a healthy and comfortable
   Students should acknowledge problems regarding their own houses and present simple
explanations of solutions to the problems.
Keywords: draft, ventilation, humidity, noises, sound-proofing
   It is comfortable to be in a house that is moisture-protected and cooled by ventilation. Mold and
other such growth depends on the amount of ventilation. Sound-proofing is especially important
in urban areas, as noisy environment causes disturbances in mental and physical health.
Learning activity (primary)
  For further study, research and discussion with family members or classmates will be helpful.
1)Airflow conditions
      ・ If there are non-ventilated rooms and if so, whether those rooms are cold or hot.
2)Acoustic conditions
      ・ When recalling bad experiences, acknowledge noise as a familiar presence.
      ・ Classify sounds considered to be noise.
      ・ Think about noise reduction measures.
      ・ Avoid making noise during rest hours so as to not be a nuisance to neighbors.
Learning activity (secondary)
   In modern dwellings, formaldehyde or carbon monoxide from combustion equipment often
pollutes the room environment. The instructor is to provide commentaries on housing ventilation
and sources of toxic substances in order for students to develop an awareness on the importance of
sufficient ventilation.
   Daily noise is a source of trouble in concentrated urban areas. Presentation of noise related
regulations may be effective.

   Japanese people have adopted the following ventilation measures against its hot and humid
climate. Various ways of adapting to the climate are also observed around the world (Ex. floor
elevation or canopies).
     ・ Use of high ceiling and porch. Avoid direct sunlight by using canopies.
     ・ Fully open room (Japanese style) which allows ventilation in all directions.
     ・ Surrounding vegetation keeps temperature low. Forests shelter against wind.
Lack of natural ventilation in many urban residences can be effectively compensated by the
following measures.
     ・ Move furniture blocking the window.
     ・ Move packages inside from the balcony to let in fresh air.
     ・ Keep two windows open for air circulation.
     ・ Provide sufficient ventilation. Natural or artificial ventilation can be used.

                                             - 102 -
3. Safety of the house         (1) Disasters and the house
                                                                                     1 hour

   Understanding construction methods to protect houses from the common natural disasters.
Students are required to understand especially the disaster phenomenon as a basic study for
earthquake and typhoon resistant construction.
Keywords: natural disaster, house safety, typhoon, earthquake, house accidents, prevention of
1. Understanding natural disasters
   The scale of the disaster and vulnerability of society are the two factors that determine the
range of the disaster damage. Students are required to learn about the importance of reducing
damage and to acquire a deeper understanding on disaster frequency/amount of typical damage
and types/locations of frequent disasters, in classifying the types of frequent disasters and
locations according to the geographic conditions. Society vulnerability depends on the local
utilities (electricity, gas, water service) and the safety of the building.
   Fire disaster is a familiar risk. Methods and daily cautions for fire prevention must be taught.
Fire disaster has been especially dreaded in Japan as there are many wooden houses. Fire
resistant materials (especially for roofs and outer walls) and flameproof devices are required, and
adequate measures have been taken in urban areas with dense populations. Comparative study of
these cases may be beneficial.
   Although a detailed study of disaster causes and solutions seems to be difficult in primary and
secondary school, it may be important to acquire some familiarity with evacuation methods and
disaster prevention measures in Japan. This may be taught with evacuation drills in elementary
and secondary school.

Learning activity (elementary)
    ・ Understand the effects and damages of earthquake, typhoons, snow pileup, mudslides,
    ・ Learn about disaster-prone areas. Ex. Valleys, damp ground, densely populated areas.
    ・ Make group presentations about past local disasters.
    ・ It is useful to ask family members or elder person about caution and measures to take.

2)Disaster resistant construction (secondary and applied)
  Following techniques are needed for disaster resistant construction.
 ・ Use of unbreakable or fire-proof materials.
 ・ Appropriate design and execution.
  Adequate design corresponding to the common disasters of each region. (Ex. Floor height and
    roof must be taken into account in typhoon-prone areas).

                                             - 103 -
3. Safety of the house        (2) Domestic accidents and security measures
                                                                                 1 hour

  Recognize the possible dangers in the house.
  Learn about the types and causes of domestic accidents to learn how to lead a safe life.
Keywords: fall, drowning, security, fire disaster, preschool child, elder person.
  There are risks of domestic accidents. Some accidents occur in the house.
  Check up causes of domestic accidents and consider how to secure safe and comfortable life.
Learning activity (elementary)
        ① Understand the types and causes of domestic accidents through teaching materials
        ② Make a list of danger spots in one’s house.
        ③ Investigate the accidents that have occurred at home.
        ④ Classify causes of the accidents.
        ⑤ Check up on security measures.

Document: Types and locations of domestic accidents.
             Location          Type
             Staircase          Fall
             Living room         Fall/stumble (bump in floor, slippery floor)
                              Scrapes(depends on stability, materials and form of furniture)
                            Falling furniture
                            Falling lighting apparatus or equipment)
                            Broken glass
             Bathroom/washroom Fall
                            Drowning(slippery floor, bathtub lid, washing machine)
             Kitchen             Intoxication(flame, hot air)
                            Electric shock, burn
                            Fire disaster
                            Cuts(knife, scissors)
             Corridor             Bumping (doors)
             Balcony      Fall

                                           - 104 -
4. Efficiency in houses         (1) Modernization of lifestyle and housework
                                    areas                                             1 hour

  Understand the characteristics of room layout for a modern lifestyle.
  Make appropriate use of space to create practical and functional housework areas.
Keywords: room layout, visitor service, central corridor, housework, separation of dining spaces
and bedrooms.
  To lead a modern life in Japan, the following transition in floor plan layouts (room layouts) took
① Reception layout Derives from old samurai residences with two separate spaces for public life
    (Hare = front) and private life (Ke = back). Emphasis was placed on Toko-no-ma room as the
    reception area where the owner received visitors. Concept of privacy was almost absent as
    priority was given towards receiving the guests over private rooms for family members.
② Central corridor layout:To resolve the problems of the reception layout. Independency of the
    rooms is kept by the central corridor layout, which ensures privacy between the family and
    the servants.
③ Separated dining room/bedroom layout:Separation of dining space and bedrooms. The
    combined dining room and kitchen, or “dining-kitchen” (DK) layout was also developed to
    compensate the limited house size with a practical room arrangement. The DK was adopted
    in Japanese public housing apartment buildings and was much admired by Japanese
    housewives at the time.
④ Contemporary layout:Traditional Japanese-style rooms are becoming less common with the
    westernization of rooms. Sitting in Western chairs takes precedence over the traditional
    Japanese way of sitting on the floor, and a distinction between private and public can be seen
    in floor plans (below).

Learning activity (elementary and secondary)
・(Elementary and secondary) : Describe the layout of your house to understand the connection
  between the rooms
・(Secondary) : Present some variations of appropriate room layout for housework purposes.

 Central corridor   layout          Separated dining room/bedroom        Contemporary layout

                                             - 105 -
4. Efficiency in houses        (2) Lifestyle space and motion lines
                                                                                   1 hour

  The usability of living space depends on motion lines. To understand our movements in the
house in order to minimize wasted movement (waste of energy) and time, and learn the
importance of a healthy and efficient lifestyle in order to make the most of our lifestyle space.
Keywords: planning of lifestyle space, motion lines, space, energy consumption, housework space
  The usability of living space depends on motion lines. To understand our movements in the
house in order to minimize wasted movement (waste of energy) and time, and learn the
importance of a healthy and efficient lifestyle in order to make the most of our lifestyle space.
Learning activity (elementary and secondary)
       ① Observe the use of the kitchen and other rooms throughout the day to find out the
           types, locations, and time frame of daily movements.
       ② Classify the movement data.
       ③ Classify the time frame data.
       ④ Classify the location data.
       ⑤ Find out the location and causes of wasted movements.
       ⑥ Find out ways of improvement.
  Focus on the observation and classification process (① to ④) during elementary school, while
the problem-finding and solution seeking process (⑤ and⑥) are to be scheduled for secondary

Notes:Motion lines are the lines of movement people make in the house. Short and practical
     motion lines must be designed, as unnecessary movement leads to waste of energy. This
     should be taught during secondary school.

                             Ex. Floor layout and circulation lines.

                                            - 106 -
5. Comfortable living          (1) Best space and layout for human movement
                                                                                    1 hour

  Understand how to plan the best housing measurements for humans to move around smoothly
and house size requirements for a healthy family life.
Keywords: human being, bodily movement, space, dimension, designs
  Human movement must be taken into account when designing residential buildings. For the
comfort of the inhabitants, the design must meet the minimum space requirements.

1. The house dimension
   A study of the relationship between the human body and house/ furniture measurement plans is
needed for user-friendly and functional housing. This study is mainly for secondary school.

Worksheet for learning activity (secondary)
  Complete the table below to understand approximate measures, rather than the exact
dimensions of each room. Students are required to learn the relationship between the human
body size and space or tools, as well as the concept of the measuring unit (foot in United States,
square meters or mat (tatami size =1.62m2 ) in Japan.

                             Name and purpose
                                                                  (m2 or feet)
                 Bedroom for adult person
                 Bedroom for adult person ( grandfather,
                 Bedroom for(name of adult person)
                 Child bedroom
                 Bathroom (toilet only)
                 Bathroom (sink only)
                 Dining room
                 Living room
                 Misc.(                 )

                                             - 107 -
2. The dimensions of each section of the house

Learning activity (secondary)
   Find the appropriate dimensions of each section of the house through measuring exercises, and
make a scheme or illustration of measurement result (for example, measurement and inclination
of one step). See document section (Home Life 1) for measurements for people in wheelchairs.

                                                              Ceiling height

                                              stair rail height

       730~900mm         900~1100mm                                 Step measurements



                            if sitting                                                  Approx 1m
                            use          Minimum width per person: 60 cm.        Bed and surrounding
                            720~         Extra space is not needed for user      space.
                            750mm        comfort.
  Food preparation
                                         Height of the dining table should be    Extra space is needed
  countertop measurements
                                         taken into account.                     for bed making
                                         Dining table(ex:4 persons)

                                               - 108 -
5. Comfortable living           (2) Comfortable living

 Understand the barriers to comfortable living and learn how to live a clean lifestyle.
 Acknowledge the values of room organization, maintenance and cleaning.
Keywords: space, tidying, maintenance, cleaning

  Organization in the house is important for a comfortable life. Students are to learn how to find
problems during elementary school, and advanced study on chemical cleaning methods during
secondary school. For applied education, the subject might develop into interior design related
  Living in a dirty and disorganized place leads to negligence and emotional disturbance. Signs of
emotional disturbance in children first appear as clutter in the classroom, which may develop into
graffiti and vandalism of public spaces. Related study on garbage issues is effective for
acknowledging the importance of cleaning, particularly in elementary school.

Document:Dirtiness in the house
   ・ Toilet:human waste, rusty mold
   ・ Living room: lint and dust, food particles, ticks, mold, cigarettes
   ・ Bathroom:fungi, soap scum, rusty mold
   ・ Kitchen:food particles, grease, burn marks, mold, oil fumes
   ・ Misc.:fingerprints on doors, door switches, and furniture

                                rusty mold          food particles, grease, burn marks, molds,
                       Toilet                       oil fumes
                                                                                          lint and dust,
                                                                                          food particles,
fungi, soap dust,                                                                         ticks,       mold,
rusty mold                                   Kitchen                                      cigarettes
                                                            Living room

Entrance hall                                                                               Furniture

                        Children’s room

                                                       lint and dust, food particles,
                                                       ticks, mold, cigarettes

                                             - 109 -
6. The house and the           (1) Looking at the community from the lifestyle
   local community                 perspective                                     1 hour

   Walk around where you live to observe and see for yourself the issues and good points of the
living environment, and think about ways of improvement. Research local facilities necessary for
your daily life, starting with your home.
Keywords: Living environment, local community, local issues, local facilities.

  Develop an insight for living environments by seeing, hearing, observing, and investigating
familiar places in your life.

Learning activity (elementary and secondary)
○Looking at local facilities.
1) Collecting documents on the local area.
     ・ Maps
     ・ Various documents (use of land, facility placement)
2) Observing the town.
     ・ Walking around and observing
     ・ Asking the neighbors
3) Find out the good points of your community and think of how to promote and maintain them.
4) Find out the issues of your community and how to resolve them.
5) Locate and mark the community facilities on the map.

○Research on the living environment・・・Local facilities.
1) Locate the facilities for daily living around your house.
2) Mark them on the map.

                                             - 110 -
6. The house and the               (2) Facilities in the community
   local community                                                                              1 hour

Contents of learning

                                                                 Special elderly care

                    Kid’s park
                                                                  Kid’s park
                                                                  Children’s center
                    Town hall
                                                                    Town hall      Library
                      Social welfare                 Home
                      facility for elderly                          Nursery school
                                  Kid’s park

                                                                                  Junior high school
           1km                                                       Kid’s park

                          Nursery school     Train station
                                Elementary school

    All kinds of people in the community must be considered as different facilities are important
for different generations (child, adult, elderly, etc.)

Document: types of local facilities
School facilities:kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school
Social welfare facilities:nursery school, children’s center, elderly care facility
Social educational facilities:assembly hall, community center, library
Health service facilities:clinic, hospital, public health center
Administrative facilities:city and town hall, post office
Transportation facilities:bus stop, subway, train station
Shopping facilities:stores, market, shopping center,
Recreational facilities:children’s playground, park

                                                      - 111 -
                    Ⅴ.Consumer life and natural resources・environment
  In elementary education, students are to understand the flow of the money that supports living from the
perspective of their own living, in order to turn their attention from their immediate living to the social
relevance in exploring the themes such as choice and purchase of products, and changes in consumer life. In
money management, students should realize the importance of “planning”; during secondary education, this
theme will be developed in adopting the concept of lifelong plan of living.
  In the section of “choice and purchase of products”, students will acquire the knowledge in the types of
commodities and services needed for daily life, as well as the variety of delivery and sales methods. They will
examine how these commodities and services have changed, and understand the structure of consumer life.
To introduce these themes, learning contents can be adapted based on the local and regional circumstances.
Students are also expected to learn to know and use necessary living information to choose the products, and
to develop an awareness that the act purchase of services and commodities, as an economic activity, has
involvement with business organizations, foreign countries, the society and environment. In secondary
education, the concept of use of living information will be extended to the consumer rights and
responsibilities. Through the study on the modalities of social system that promotes environmental
conservation activities, students are expected to develop the ability to consider and put into practice the
measures for environmental-conscious consumer life.
<Elementary education>
     Students are to understand the flow of the commodities, services and money that support living, learn
  about well-planned use of goods and money, and acquire the skills to make a purchase accordingly. They
  will learn about the commodities and services that support living and understand the sales methods, sales
  channels and methods of payment. In order to make a good purchase, they will learn how to use the living
  information and understand the fact that the act of purchase as an economic activity has an involvement
  with the society and environment. As well, they will learn about the consumer life friendly to the
  neighborhood and the environment.
<Secondary education>
     Students are expected to recognize the relationship between family finance and the society as well as the
  importance of proactive control in family finances and economic planning. They are to understand the
  changes in consumer life and methods of delivery, sales methods and sales channels of commodities and
  services needed for daily life. They are to recognize the process and importance of the decision-making in
  consumption behavior, and understand the rights and responsibilities of the consumer. They are also
  expected to recognize the issues of modern consumer life, learn about the modalities and use of living
  information needed for making purchase of products, and develop the skills for proactive judgment and
  responsible behavior as a consumer. It is also necessary to cover the questions such as ”the notion of
  contract” and “questionable sales methods”. Students are to understand the relationship between the
  modern consumer life and natural resources/environment, examine the influence that their living exerts
  on the environment, and develop the ability to explore the modalities for a environment-friendly social
<Applied education>
     Students will acquire the skills to manage family finances, not only in the short-term, but also to project
  ahead and establish a plan according to one’s own life design.
     They are to broaden awareness of the consumer’s rights and responsibilities, grasp international trends,
  and study the cases of cooperation with consumers, business organizations, administration, and even with
  foreign countries. Toward the creation of a sustainable society in which needs of people, including the
  needs of the future generation will be satisfied, students should consider the ideal future of green
                                                   - 113 -
1. Our life and money              (1) Money as life support, money management
                                   and planning
  To understand how money supports our life and to develop the skills for money management
and money planning in consideration with its value and purpose.
Keywords:Money, family budget, family budget management, income, expenditure.

1. Keeping track of the money that supports our daily life.
 ・Discuss the following points in order to provide some examples of goods and services necessary
    for daily life.
① How do we obtain daily goods and services?
         →(By exchanging money)
② Where does the money to buy them come from?
         →(Money is obtained as a compensation of work (occupational labor).
③ How are the goods or services produced?
         →(Goods and services are produced by work (occupational labor).
・By discussing ①~③, students are to understand the following scheme.

                                                              Secondary sector *2
                             Primary sector *1
                                                              Ex) home electronic appliances
                            Ex) ric production
                                                              Production of TV sets

                                            Tertiary sector *3
                                            Ex) Supermarkets

                               goods and services                   labor
         expenses                                                                              income

                                            family budget
                                             consumer life

                       Notes. *1    Primary sector:agriculture, forestry, marine industry
                              *2    Secondary sector:manufacturing (industry), construction, mining industry
                              *3    Tertiary sector:service industry, distribution and retail, finance industry.

2. Money management and planning.
  Students are required to understand the balance of income and spending, as well as its meaning
and importance.

                                                   - 114 -
1. Our life and money           (2) Living necessities and services

  Learn about the goods and services necessary to life, as well as various sales methods and
Keywords:living necessities, services, various sales methods and channels

Contents     Find some examples of goods and services necessary to our life.
  The instructor prepares the following teaching materials: photographs, paper cards for writing,
and magnets for attaching cards.
  Method ① Make a presentation using pictures of people to the students.
             ② Provide students with paper cards to fill in: students are to think up names of goods
               and services necessary to life.
             ③ Sort out the cards by the following classification : “goods produced by the seller or
               services provided by family member” “goods or services sold as commercial
             ④ Classify the cards according to sales methods (independent retail shop, mass
               retailer, group purchase, direct contract between manufacturer and consumer,
               mail-order, doorstep sales) and sales channels (local, regional, abroad).
Study points: Understand various delivery methods and sales channels for articles and goods
necessary to life.
               Example of pictures    ①

             Card examples
 Article                             Sales method                     Sales channel
 Hat                                 Independent retail shop          Domestic plant
 Cloth                               Independent retail shop          Domestic plant
 Handbag                             Independent retail shop          Local handmade
 Plastic bags                        Specialty store                  Regional plant
 Plastic basket                      Specialty store                  Abroad
 Eggs                                Street market                    Local

                                                 - 115 -
2. Changes in consumer (1) Goods and services
  Understand that daily required goods and services have evolved.
Keywords:Commodities, services, purchase, consumer society
Contents of learning:      Thinking about changes in consumer society.
The instructor prepares the following teaching materials: photographs, paper cards for writing,
                 and magnets for attaching cards.
Methods: (1) Describe the goods and services necessary to the life by looking at the picture.
         (2) Imagine how we lived without these before.
               Study point Learn about the transition from a lifestyle of self-sustenance to a society
        of consumption where the consumer purchases goods and services needed for daily life.

               Card examples
 Goods and services                 Now                                     Before
 Clothes (goods)                    Supermarket purchase                    Handmade
 Shoes (goods)                      Supermarket purchase                    Purchased at shoe-shop
 Helmet (goods)                     Specialty shop purchase                 Handmade      umbrella    was
 Broom (goods)                      Independent retail shop purchase        Handmade
 Car (goods)                        Foreign product purchase at specialty   No car. (Walking only.)

 Motorcycle (goods)                 Foreign product purchase at specialty   Purchased a domestic product

 Road sweeping (service)            Cleaning company                        Do yourself

                                                  - 116 -
2. Changes in consumer (2) Sales and payment methods
  To understand various sales and payment methods of goods and services.
Keywords:sales method, payment method
Contents: Describe sales and payment methods for goods and services.
  The instructor prepares the following materials: photographs, colored paper cards (white, pink,
yellow) for writing, and magnets for attaching cards.
Method:      ①Looking at the pictures, write down the names of goods and services necessary to our
               life on the white card.
             ②Discuss about how these goods and services were obtained in the past, and write
               down the answers on the pink card.
             ③Write down on the yellow card how we purchase these goods or services.
Study point: Our life has various methods of sales and payment.

Card examples
 Goods and services                Before                     Now
 Chopsticks      and   chopstick   Handmade                   Cash purchase at a specialty shop
 case (goods)
 Table and chair (goods)           Cash     purchase   from   Cash purchase at mass retailer
                                   furniture store
 House (goods)                     Made through community     Purchase   by     mortgage   from   a
                                   collaboration              construction company
 Lunch (goods and service)         Homemade                   Cash   purchase    from   independent
                                                              retailer on the street.
 Bicycle (goods)                   Not existed                Purchase by installments from a
                                                              bicycle shop
 Bicycle cover (commodity)         Handmade                   Cash   purchase    from   independent
                                                              retail shop

                                                 - 117 -
                                      Sales method

Over-the-counter sale         Consumer’s                 Non-retail

              Independent retail shop                             Door-to-door and street

                                                                  corner sales
                    Specialty store
                                                                         Mail order
                  Department store
                                                                      Vending machine

                                 Payment method

On the spot               Deferred payment           Advanced payment

                  Cash                     Credit Card                 Prepaid card

               Debit card                In installments

           Electronic money                  On credit


                                         - 118 -
2. Changes in consumer (3) How credit cards work
  Understand how credit cards work and proper dealings and use of the credit card.
Keywords: three-way contract, credit card functions, payment method, warnings regarding credit
card use.
Contents of learning: Understand how credit cards work.
      Understand credit card functions.
      Learn about payment methods by credit card.
      Understand the precautions of the credit card use.

1. When we buy goods,
  (1) We pay with cash to purchase goods or service, and it is called bilateral contract. Students
  are to complete the diagram below by showing what the consumer gives to the shop and what
  the shop offers to the consumer in return.




                                                         shop, store

  (2) We use the credit card to purchase goods or services. This is called a three-way contract.
  Complete the scheme below by showing the relationships between the parties.


                                                       Full payment in advance

                         money                                                   credit company

                                               - 119 -
  (3) Write down three credit card functions.




  (4) Warnings regarding credit card use.
  ○ Don’t lose the card (if you do, report immediately to the police and the card company)
  ○ Verify the credit amount before signing anything.
  ○ Verify the amount is affordable before using the card.
  ○ Payment by installments (payment by number of installments specified by the user) and
    revolving payments (fixed monthly payments) include high charges.
  ○ Keep the receipt and verify the record with the monthly bill.
  ○ Don’t let anyone use your card.
    Verify if the credit card is processed in front of you. Keep the card in a safe place to avoid
    credit card skimming.
  ○ When doing on-line shopping, verify that the website server is running in secure mode.

                 Bilateral contract                             Three-way contract

                                                      money                    goods

                                                                Full payment
              goods                 money                     代 in advance

                                                                               shop, store
                                                 credit company
                      shop, store


Credit card functions.
  ○ Form of ID
  ○ Payment (shopping on credit)
  ○ Financing means(borrowing money through card)

                                            - 120 -
2. Changes in consumer (4) Illegal business practices
    Study some cases of illegal business practice in order to know how to avoid getting caught by
consumer scams, and how to handle the situation if caught in one.
Keywords:Multi-level marketing, con tricks, lottery scams, diploma scam.
             Minor’s contract, legal protection.

Contents: Students perform a series of skits demonstrating sales persuasion.

Skit 1: Multi-level marketing (pyramid sales)
Seller: “This is a special pan for cooking. You’ll get 10 percent back if your friend buys one. Try it
         yourself first, then recommend it to your friends if you like.“
Buyer: Improvise role and dialogue.

Skit 2: Con tricks (on the street)
Seller: “You have such beautiful skin! Would you care to take a few minutes to fill out our
Buyer: “Okay.”
Seller: “Do you want to keep your skin beautiful and young? Why not join our beauty salon?”
Buyer: Improvise role and dialogue.

Skit 3: Con tricks (lottery scam)
Seller: “Congratulations! You have won a big lottery and we would like you to come and see us to
         get your prize.”
Buyer (at the seller counter): May I have my prize?
Seller: “Sure, but if you get this too your prize will be more worth it.”
Buyer: Improvise role and dialogue.

Skit 4: school scam (diploma scam)
Seller: I guarantee people will pay you more when you get this certificate. How about getting
Buyer: “Well, I need more money…”
Seller: “The first you need to do is buy course materials, because after you register for the course
         you won’t have to take the test. “
Buyer: Improvise role and dialogue.

○ About the minor’s contract.
If the contractee is minor, the law states that the contract can be dissolved by either the
contractee himself (herself) or his (her) parents if the contract is for a larger amount than the
allowance of the contractee.

In case of trouble with sales methods, find out if there are laws that protect consumers or public
institutions where you can get help.

                                               - 121 -
3. Smart shopping               (1) Using lifestyle information

     Learning how to collect and read lifestyle information critically to develop smart shopping
Keywords: information from a friend or family, reading publicity materials
1. When you want to buy a bag, how do you get information? Write down your methods on the

2. Classify the cards into different types of information
                                                                         From a friend or family

                          Product information                            From a consumer group

                                                                        From a public organization

                                                                        (national or local consumer
                                      ←                                          centers)

                                  Media types

          Printed media              Electronic media                       Mail

           Newspaper                       Radio                    Mail order, catalogs,

              Press                     Television                   coupons, brochures

3. Critical reading of information is required.
     For example, a press article might be in collaboration with a corporation, or recommend only
     popular products.

4. Before you buy a product, think about why you want it and why you need to buy it, and whether
or not you really need it.

                                                   - 122 -
3. Smart shopping                (2) Marks or labels representing security and
    Learn about security/quality marks and labels to make a good purchase.
Keywords:       Product label, product mark
Contents: Understand the marks and labels representing product security and quality.
Teaching materials: blackboard

Method    ① Students are required to bring a product with security or quality marks and labels to
             class, and write down the contents of the labeling and product marks on the
          ② Learn about the meanings of these marks and labels.

                                     Food labels

                                               Ingredients: wheat, butter,     Ingredients and substances

                                               preservatives                   Manufacturer
                                               Manufacturer:Mariy Co., Ltd.    Person who made product.

                                               Country of Origin: Singapore    Country of origin

                                               Storage method: Avoid direct    Country where the product
 Expiration date
                                               sunlight                        is made
 The date until when
                                                                               Storage method
 the product may be           Expiration date:06.5.5
                                                                               Method of handling
 safely   consumed     if
 conserved in certain
                                                                               Calories of product
                                   Clothing labels

                                               MARIY                           Textile materials
                                         100% COTTON
                                         Made in Singapore
    Handling caution               MACHIRINS WASH WARM                        Country of manufacture

                                               - 123 -
3. Smart shopping               (3) Family budget and shopping

    Understand that the economic activity of purchasing has social and environmental
Keywords: product purchase, family budget, enterprises, people of other countries.
Contents: Understand the implication of the act of purchase on the family budget.
  The act of purchase has other implications on business enterprises or people of other countries.
Teaching materials: a commercial product (bag)

Method   ①      Students complete the chart below.

                            Type of bag              Price        Materials          Purpose

                            Blue plastic bag

                            Straw bag

② Understand the relationship between the family budget and purchase of the bag, in order to
make reasonable purchases within the family budget.

                Need                                                          Want


                                           Object of desire

                                          Importance level
                                           (High or low)

                                                - 124 -
4. Rights and responsibilities (1) Shopping and the environment, shopping
of the consumer                and society
     Understand that the economic activity of purchasing has social and environmental
Keywords:      product purchase, business act, purchase and environment
Contents: Understand that an act of purchase involves enterprises and people of foreign
countries, as well as the environment.
Teaching materials: a commercial product
Method    ① Complete the chart below.

                                           Type of bag          Manufacturer           Distributor

                                           Blue plastic bag

                                           Straw bag

  ② The teacher shows how the act of purchase is linked with the enterprise or manufacturer.

                            money                                money

      Family budget                                                                (domestic or foreign)
                                         enterprise and shop         flower


    ③ Students will also understand how the act of purchase of a bag is linked with the
 Type of bag              Materials       Environmental effects caused by the disposal of the bag

 Blue plastic bag

 Straw bag

①    Domestic plant-Retail shop
     Villagers within the same country-Retail shop
③     Plastic waste cannot be decompose naturally, they must be burnt. A high temperature
                      incinerator must be used to avoid the emission of toxic gases.
     Straw waste will decompose naturally.

                                               - 125 -
4. Rights and responsibilities (2) The eight rights of the consumer
of the consumer
  Understand the Eight Rights of the Consumer presented by Consumer International (former
International Organization of Consumers Unions, IOCU) to develop the ability to exercise these
Keywords: the right to satisfaction of basic needs, the right to safety, the right to be informed, the
               right to choose, the right to be heard, the right to redress, the right to consumer
               education, the right to a healthy environment
Contents: The consumer is a person who purchases goods and services. The consumer has the
following rights.
 •the right to satisfaction of basic needs
 •the right to safety
 •the right to be informed
 •the right to choose
 •the right to be heard
 •the right to redress
 •the right to consumer education
  •the right to a healthy environment.
Teaching materials: bag,
               the Eight Rights written on paper cards, magnets, blackboard.

Method: Open a discussion on the following cases. Put the cards on blackboard using magnets,
and write down the actions the consumer should take.
     The consumer is a person who purchases goods and services, and he (she) has his (her) own
    A consumer who has just purchased a plastic bag and finds the zipper is broken
    What are his (her) rights and what actions must be taken?

          Blackboard example.
          The right to redress
          Action to take →Go back to the shop where he (or she) purchased the bag, and explain
             what happened to the bag.
          The right to safety
          Action to take→ Request exchange of the damaged bag with a new one.
          The right to be informed
          Action to take→If the shop refuses the request for the reason that the zipper of the bag is
             the consumer’s responsibility, the consumer must insist that this “must be said at
             time of purchase”, and negotiate for an exchange or refund.
          The instructor will provide commentaries on the discussion that involve the eight rights
             of the consumer.

                                               - 126 -
4. Rights and responsibilities (3) The five responsibilities of the consumer
of the consumer
  Understanding how to use lifestyle information in order to make a proper decision on what,
how, and where to buy. The five principles of the consumer responsibilities of Consumer
International must be taken into account: eradication of poverty, good governance, social justice
and respect for human rights, fair and effective market economies, protection of the environment.
Keywords: Lifestyle information, decision-making, environment-consciousness
Contents of learning
  Suppose you went shopping to buy a bag, and you found two types of bags: a straw bag and a
bleu plastic bag. Decide which one to buy. Take note of the following points (① to ⑥), and open a
group discussion about which factors must be taken into account in your decision-making.

    ②Purpose and requirements
    ③Information gathering
       To buy a bag, you gather information (③)
       in order to evaluate your motivation (①)
        and your purpose and requirements (②).
  Students must how to assume consumer responsibilities and make a proper decision (⑤)
   not just through product knowledge by considering (④) the purpose of use and budget
compatibility, but also by considering the product’s environmental load and persons that will
benefit (manufacturer and distributors) from the product purchase.
  Evaluating the usability of the bag ( ⑥ ) afterwards will lead to better choices and
decision-making at the next purchase.

   Product information is obtained by seeing the product, talking to the salesperson, seeing the
product description or manuals, and asking other customers or salespersons regarding the place
of production and the persons who will most benefit by the product purchase. Finding out related
news/reports on a regular basis and gathering information will lead to the skills and ability to
assume the five responsibilities of the consumer.

                                            - 127 -
Teaching contents.
To make a good purchase, there are points to reflect on before making your decision.

・Compatibility with the purpose of use.
・Compatibility of the price with regards to the family budget.
・ Environmental loads (the consumer must consider how to dispose the product at time of
・ Regular concern over the eradication of poverty: who benefits from the purchase of this
  product (manufacturer, distributor, or retail shop).
 <Knowledge and abilities>
・ Methods of information gathering.
・ Information literacy(knowledge of product description and quality)
Teaching steps and points.
1. To learn smart shopping skills, an environment is to be created where students can think about
making good shopping decisions. (Real products will help here, such as wrapped fruits in trays
and fruits in the basket.)

                                                          Waste on the street corner
   Tray packed vegetable and fruits at

                      Vegetable and fruit sales on the

        Students are required to note the following points and utilize decision-making
    Points for product purchase: ① Motivation ② Purpose of use ③ Information
        gathering ④Consideration ⑤Decision ⑥Evaluation

2. Open a group or classroom discussion to present these results in order to make students
    aware of viewpoints they may have missed.
3. The teacher evaluates the perspectives presented by each student group, and instructs them
    to utilize the skills in assuming the five responsibilities of the consumer. The required
    information and skills will be presented with a shopping activity case. If the “concern for
    poverty” or “environment consciousness” is absent, the teacher will add them to the case.
Smart shopping includes not only environmental consciousness, but also comprehensive judgment
  and decision making regarding the purpose. Provide an example-based explanation of the
  responsibilities of the consumer.

                                            - 128 -
5. Consumer life and                  (1) Environment-conscious consumer life
environment                                                                                     1hour

  A revision of lifestyle is needed within a system of large-scaled
production-distribution-consumption-disposal associated with the development of the society.
Students are to grasp the environment from the perspective of the consumer life, and to seek a better social
system for the protection of the environment.
Keywords:convenient life, environmental issues, globalization, business activities, green consumer.
  The modern society enables a convenient lifestyle. But once a large-scaled system of production,
distribution, consumption and disposal is established, the resulting environmental damages are serious
and they may cause global casualties such as desertification, global warming and in crease in disasters. In
developing countries, we tend to focus on the issues of how to obtain convenience in life, while we need an
approach that enables both the development of the society and the structure for the protection of the
environment at the same time. The precise cause of environmental issues is our own living. In elementary
education, a basic study associated with the daily activities is preferred; students will look for the problems
and solutions and find what they can do. In secondary education, students should look at the issues from
the viewpoint of the cultivation of educated consumers, or the green consumers. The “green consumer”
refers to the consumer who practices a lifestyle that puts less impact on the environment.
Learning activity(elementary)
  ・Make a list of the activities that may not seem to be good for the environment among your daily
     Examples:plastic shopping bag, canned drink, plastic bottle, etc.
Learning activity(secondary)
・The Five R
  How to meet the “Five R” compliances ; find the solutions.

・ Look at the pictures below, and see if the rivers are safe, and see what kind of health damage they can

・ What the recycle marks tell to you? (Use the marks adopted in your country)

                                                   - 129 -
List of the writers
Supervision    Kei Sasai, Noriko Uchino, Toshiko Tanaka, Kazue Mochizuki

1   General Structure of Handbook Noriko Uchino
2   Examples of use of Handbook     Kazue Mochizuki
Ⅰ   Family and family life           Noriko Uchino, Hiroko Iwasaki, Yuriko Momo
Ⅱ   Dietary life                     Masako Takamasu, Fumiko Iida
Ⅲ   Clothing life                    Kei Sasai, Toshiko Tanaka
Ⅳ   Dwelling Life                    Fumiko Okita, Kyoko Hirata, Mariko Sadayuki
Ⅴ   Consumer life and natural resources・environment
                                    Haruko Amano, Kazue Mochizuki, Kyoko Hirata

Members of Cooperation Bases System by MEXT(2003~2005)
Representative, Department of Clothing                                           Kei Sasai
Department of Child Studies
                              Hiroko Iwasaki, Noriko Iwasaki, Yumiko Takano, Yuriko Momo
Department of Food and Nutrition
                                        Fumiko Iida, Nguyen V.Chuyen, Chizuko Maruyama
Department of Housing and Architecture
                                               Fumiko Okita, Mariko Sadayuki, Kyoko Hirata
Department of Household Economics
                                                          Haruko Amano, Masako Takamasu
Department of Education                                                        Hideo Iwaki
Department of Studies on Contemporary Society                           Tazuko Kobayashi
Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences                          Yoshiko Arikawa
Affiliated Senior High School                                          Michiko Nakamura
Akita University                                                         Kazue Mochizuki
Former Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology    Toshiko Tanaka

Cooperator Yukiko Komeima, Madoka Suzuki, Jung Eunji, Akane Ota

Cooperation Bases System by MEXT

Educational Collaboration in Developing Countries   Handbook of Home Economics
      Published in 2007(March)
      Japan Women’s University Asian Home Economics Cooperation Project
      Representative: Kei Sasai (Department of Clothing)
      2-8-1,Mejirodai,Bunkyou-ku,Tokyo,Japan 112-8681
      Japan Women's University, Faculty of Home Economics
      Department of Clothing, Sasai Laboratory
      Tel&Fax: +81-3-5981-3485

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