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Trend 5


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									Space Support for Terrestrial Military Operations

This indicator examines the research, development, testing and deployment of space systems that aim
to advance terrestrial based military operations, particularly missile early warning, communications, and
navigation and reconnaissance and signals intelligence.

TREND 5.1: US and Russia continue to lead in deploying military space systems — By the end of the
Cold War, the US and USSR had developed extensive military space systems designed to provide military
attack warning, communications, reconnaissance, surveillance, and intelligence, as well as navigation
and weapons guidance applications. By the end of 2007 the US and USSR/Russia had launched more
than 3,000 military satellites, while the rest of the world had launched under 100.

Dedicated military spacecraft launched in 2008 by application

 2008 Developments
US faces increased demands in military satellite capabilities as it continues to upgrade its systems
The US continued to lead development of military space program in 2008, but while some major
projects progressed, others were cancelled or faced significant budget cuts. Most of the US space
programs are significantly over budget and years behind schedule, while demand, especially for secure-
communication platforms, is growing at a faster rate than supply.1 In response, the US Department of
Defense (DoD) launched a major overhaul of its acquisition policies in December 2008.2

Upgrades to the decaying military communication infrastructure was a significant focus in 2008,
especially Milstar, which provides secure communications for the US DoD. The first Advanced Extremely
High Frequency (AEHF) satellite intended to replace Milstar was scheduled for launch in 2008, but the
program continued to face cost overruns and technical delays.3 An additional $400-$500-million was
added to the program budget in 2008 following a decision by Congress to purchase a fourth satellite for
This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

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the system at a cost of $2.6-billion, bringing the total program cost to $9.9-billion.4 According to latest
indications, the launch of AEHF-1 has been moved to November 2009.5 The system is supposed to fill in
the gap before the TSAT system becomes operational, which faced a complete overhaul in 2008.6

The next-generation Transformation Satellite Communications System (TSAT) is intended to provide
protected, high-speed internet-like information availability to the military at 100 times the current
Milstar bandwidth, including laser communications in a second stage.7 However, the program has been
repeatedly delayed and the first launch has been postponed seven times from 2009 to 2019.8 The entire
program’s procurement has been priced from anywhere between $14- $25 billion by FY 2016.9 The
system faced intense scrutiny by lawmakers in 2008 following a $385-million cut to the planned Fiscal
Year 2009 budget by the DoD and $3.6-billion cut through 2013.10 However, following an authorized
budget of $786-million for 2009 and persistent claims that the technology is mature,11 the Air Force
announced on 23 December 2008 that the program had been terminated due to delays and
unsustainable cost over-runs. Requests for proposals will be released for a new restructured program
that will be “a slimmed-down” version of the original project called TSAT digital core (Block 10).12 It will
comprise of five satellites to begin launching in 2019 and “will lose the planned satellite-to-satellite laser
links and Ka-band intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support.13

US faced with potential gaps in missile warning systems
The last Defense Support Program (DSP) early-warning satellite launched in November 2007 failed in
orbit mid-September 2008 when the spacecraft stopped responding to commands. Efforts to resume
contact have failed, opening a potential gap in early-warning data in the future.14 This incident raised
security concerns and efforts to accelerate the next-generation Space Based Infrared system (SBIRS)
program designed to alert ground forces of missile launches, provide technical intelligence and support
missile defence infrastructure. On 13 March 2008 a second SBIRS sensor was put into a highly elliptical
orbit (HEO) onboard a classified reconnaissance satellite – it provides early-warning coverage of the
northern hemisphere for about twelve hours a day. 15 Nonetheless, the first dedicated satellite is not
expected to be launched until 2010 with others following in 2011, 2014 and 2016 if the program stays
on course.16 To date, launch of the first satellite has slipped from 2004 to 2010 and the program cost has
grown from $4.2-billion to well over $11-billion.17 In 2008 the Department of Defense opted to increase
the planned constellation from three to five satellites – four are necessary for global coverage – and may
add a sixth.18 But with a potential gap in early-warning capabilities looming, the US Air Force is moving
towards an interim capability to prevent potential gaps in coverage. The Infrared Augmentation Satellite
(previously the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Infrared Gap Filler System) would be launched in 2014 if
approved by the US Congress.

Congressional support continued to falter for the Third Generation Infrared Surveillance (3GIRS)
program – previously the Alternative Infrared Satellite System (AIRSS) – designed to explore alternative
missile early-warning technologies. It was deemed to be “premature” and received only $75-million of
the$149.1-million requested.19

The US military and the intelligence communities confirmed their commitment to faster20 asset
deployment, use of commercial space infrastructure,21 and design of smaller spacecraft in 2008 in an
effort towards more responsive space capabilities.22 The US Army indicated that it will launch its own
constellation of eight small satellites, called ‘cubesats.’ The $5-million project will provide the Army with
communications below brigade level in the parts of the world where the army does not posses
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SATCOMS, such as Africa.23 The TacSat satellite program also continued, but the $80-million TacSat-3
scheduled to be launched in October 2008 was delayed until 2009.24 TacSat-5 is scheduled for a 2011
launch. So far only one TacSat mission, TacSat-2, has been put into orbit.25 Most of this procurement is
done through the newly created Operationally Responsive Office (ORS) designed to quickly
accommodate the space needs of the US military.


US military spacecraft launched by application: 1957 - 2008

 2008 Developments
Additional US remote sensing projects cancelled
The US National Reconnaissance Office’s lost its authority over the procurement of imaging satellites in
200826 following reports in 2007 that its classified Future Imagery Architecture (FIA) program had been
cancelled in 2005 at a loss of at least $4-billion27 and its Misty Stealth Reconnaissance Imaging program
had been cancelled due to costs, schedule delays, and poor performance.28 In October 2008 the
replacement program called the Broad Area Satellite Imagery Collection (BASIC) program, was also
cancelled. At $1.7-billion, BASIC was intended to “collect black-and-white and color imagery through a
camera aperature 1.1 m across”29 with a capability to provide 16 inch resolution images exclusively for
the use by intelligence community.30 Both Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Director of National
Intelligence J. M. McConnell cited BASIC “as an integral element of the National Imagery Collection
Architecture” IN A September 2008 Memorandum.31 However, according to many officials, BASIC
violated both the 2003 and 2006 US National Space Policies that required the military and the
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intelligence communities to rely as much as possible on commericial satellites instead of developing
parallel capabilities.32 As some critics pointed out, DigitalGlobe’s WorldView-2 and GeoEye’s GeoEye-2
will have similar capabilities, at a cost of about $500-million.33 Congress cancelled the program in
October 2008, directing some of its e $1.7-billion budget toward a study to determine whether the US
needs more satellite imagery, and will fund new projects if needed.34

The long-anticipated Space Radar program was also cancelled in 2008. The program was a joint venture
between the NRO and the Air Force to design a space system that would detect ground movement,
provide mapping information and high resolution imagery to its users.35 In March 2008 NRO notified
Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin about the termination of their contracts for the project,
following pressure from Congress about cost over runs, schedule delays and persistent technological
problems. The first Space Radar satellite was planned to be launched around 2016.36 The total bill for
the program was estimated by the military to be between $20-$25-billion by Fiscal Year 2027.37
However, a 2007 Congressional Budget Office estimate put the total price tag beyond the $50-billion
mark.38 As some sources reveal, “90 percent of the ground and space systems of the program’s funding
comes from the Military Intelligence Program classified funding line.”39 Nonetheless, neither the Air
Force nor the NRO have given up on the Space Radar concept. A decision has been made by the DoD to
spend $40-million investigating alternatives to the discontinued program, which would entail the use of
small and less cost intensive satellites (estimates are at about $200 million a piece) that could be
delivered much sooner than the old program, while still maintaining Space Radar capabilities.40 The new
approach will reportedly “allow the Pentagon to take half the money it had planned to spend on Space
Radar and feed that money back into the budget.”41

In the meantime, the US continues to recruit allies as well as commercial vendors to fill the gaps in its
reconnaissance programs. The DoD has purchased data from Canada’s Radarsat-2, Germany’s SAR-Lupe
and Israeli’s TecSar satellites.42


. 2008 Developments
Russia ramps up investments in GLONASS again, pursues other high priority space projects
Russia continues to struggle to replace its aging Soviet-era military assets, but the conflict in Georgia in
2008 provided further impetus to improve its military space capabilities, particularly satellite navigation
and imaging.43 Russia total defense budget was $40-billion in 2008, which will soar to $94-billion in 2009
according to Prime Minister Putin.44 Glonass is Russia’s largest priority – it will receive an additional
$2.4-billion in 2009.45 Ministry of Defence officials maintain that additional defence expenditure on
satellite assets will enable the Russian forces to better monitor its borders and areas of interests. 46

The top priority of the Russian space program is the upgrading and completion of its Glonass satellite
navigation system, budgeted at roughly $418-million in 2007.47 In 2008, however, President Putin signed
a directive allocating up to $2.6-billion for the completion of the system.48 At five years, the short
lifespan of its satellites has been a major reason for the continued weakness of the system, which has
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not been able to meet the demands of the armed forces. However, the new Glonass-M satellites have a
lifespan of more than seven years, and the next-generation Glonass-K promises to have a lifespan of
more than ten years.49 Glonass requires 18 satellites to cover the entire Russian landmass and 24 to
provide global coverage.50 Russia launched six Glonass-M satellites in 2008,51 bringing the number of the
satellites in the constellation up to 20 “of which 16 are operational, two are undergoing maintenance,
and one is due to be withdrawn.”52 However, reports maintain that the “Glonass system’s quality and
capabilities…leave a lot to be desired.”53 According to the head of the Russian Space Agency
(Roscosmos), Anatoly Perminov, positioning accuracy of the Glonass will approach GPS only around

Communications and Intelligence
Russia launched five communications and two optical imaging satellites in 2008 and is finishing the
upgrade to its command and control systems. On 23 May 2008 three Gonets-class military
communications satellites were launched (Cosmos-2437, 2438, and 2439).55 They are most Rodnik series
satellites, the military counterpart of the civilian Gonets-DM communication system, which is replacing
the previous Strela-3 system.56

For the first time in seven years, Russia has instantaneous access to satellite imagery. Cosmos-2441, the
first Persona optical imaging satellite was launched on 26 July 2008 into sun-synchronous orbit.57 It is
reportedly “a high-precision imaging satellite capable of transmitting data to Earth instantly...”58 In
recent years Russia has been relying on film-based photo electronic reconnaissance systems, namely the
Kobalt, Arkon, and Orlets/Don systems. A Kobalt M4 film-re-entry satellite (Cosmos-2445) was launched
on 14 November 2008.

Images captured by Google Earth emerged in 2008 indicating that Russia has built a secret satellite
station near Pskov, which is suspected of providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). The station is located
“within the footprint of one of the most important Inmarsat satellites, Inmarsat 4-F2” carrying both
private, government, and secret voice data in the Atlantic Ocean Region-West.59

Early Warning
In June 2008, Russia launched Cosmos-2440 in circular geosynchronous orbit – a US KMO early-earning
satellite that may replace the aging US-KMO satellite Cosoms-2379, that has been working since 2001
and is approaching the end of its lifespan.60 On 2 December 2008 Russia launched Cosmos-2446, a first-
generation US-KS early-warning satellite (also known as Oko) in highly elliptical orbit (HEO).61 Russia’s
space-based early-warning satellite system now stands at five satellites: three US-KS located in HEO and
two US KMO in GEO.

Russia also continued to upgrade the ground portion of its early warning system in 2008 with the
construction of a new radar station. Russia finalized the terminated an early warning agreement with
Ukraine in January 2008, and the Ukrainian radars will be replaced with the Russian Voronezh-type radar
Armavir station, which is not yet in service despite claims that it would begin operations in 2007, and
then 2008.62 When ready, however, it should have a range of 4,000 km and should provide an early
warning coverage for the whole country.63

Russia has historically launched more satellites than any other country, and to maintain its competitive
advantage it has started construction of a new launch facility at the military Plesetsk Cosmodrone to
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launch the new Angara rocket intended for heavy payloads. The facility to scheduled to be finished in
2011. The equipment to furnish the new station will begin to arrive in 2009.64 It will reduce Russia’s
reliance on Kazakhstan for use of the Baikanur Cosmodrome.


Russian military spacecraft launched by application: 1957 - 2008

.2008 Space Security Impact.

Please comment on how developments under Trend 5.1 might impact the security of space

This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

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Trend 5.2: Europe is developing a range of dedicated military space systems - European states have
developed a range of space systems to support military operations, with France having the most
advanced and diversified independent military space capabilities. European military space spending has
recently been estimated at $1.35-billion.65 While European states have pursued independent space
capabilities for military support, many of these systems are also shared, in particular communications
and Earth observation.

2008 Developments
European states continue to cooperate on military space projects
European states continued to develop new national military space systems in 2008, and to cooperate on
projects including communications, early-warning and Earth observation.

Earth Observation
Earth observation/remote sensing projects were the major focus of European military efforts in space in
2008. Germany launched its fourth dedicated military SAR-Lupe satellite on 27 March 2008 and a fifth in
July 2008, completing the constellation.66 The satellites are equipped with synthetic aperture radars
(SAR) that produce images of up to 1-meter resolution with and all-weather, day/night capability.67 In
October 2008 Italy launched its third COSMO-SkyMed dual-use synthetic aperture radar imaging
satellite, which is part of the Orfeo satellite network developed jointly by France and Italy, and includes
France’s two optical imaging Pleiades satellites. Italy’s COSMO-SkyMed constellation is a joint venture
between the Italian space agency (ASI) and the Ministry of Defence, with a total cost of roughly €1-
billion.68 The Italian government wants to remain the leader in radar imaging satellites and plans at least
two more Cosmos spacecraft at a cost of $750-million.69

France’s Pleiades satellites are designed to have an optical imaging capability with a resolution of 70 cm
over a 20 km wide swath. They are intended for both civilian and military use. The first satellite has been
set for 2010 followed by the second Pleiades in 2011.70 In addition to the Pleiades program, France has
commissioned four Elisa microsatellites from EADS Astrium at $142.3-million each, expected to be
launched in 2009. The satellite system will elicit data from its surveillance and identify civil and military
radars before feeding the information to the military.71 At the same time France is working on the
optical Musis (Multinational Space-based Imaging System) project with seven other EU countries that
include Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, and Poland.72 The new satellite network is
designed to replace the French Helios-2 optical satellite around 2015. Musis satellites are projected to
be smaller than current Helios and cost half their price. The project will provide independent intelligence
analysis for EU and detect possible security threats.73 As one source has stated with the reference to the
war in Iraq, Musis will allow the EU to challenge the US intelligence gathering and provide an alternative
picture.74 French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced a massive investment in “space-based
intelligence” in 2008. He called for doubling of the current annual French military space budget of $585-

Spain decided to purchase its own imaging satellite from EADS-CASA in 2008 in a drive to have its own
dedicated military space program. The Spanish satellite is to be called Ingenio; it is priced at $177-million
and will provide 2.5meter resolution. The delivery date has been set for 2012.76 Spain also wants to
build a mall military radar imaging satellite (Seosar) by 2015.77 Britain is considering a new electro-
optical reconnaissance satellite project called SkySight for 2010. The first two microatellites will provide
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full-color resolution of 1.2-meters, and the second two are intended for submetric resolution. The
SkySight proposal currently stands at approximately $184-million including three years of operational

In December 2008, France, Germany, and Italy agreed to provide the EU with both free and paid access
to their military imaging satellites following years of negotiations to open access to this data. The move
is intended to contribute to EU security and defense policy.79

The UK launched the third and final X-ban Skynet-5C secure communication satellite on June 12 2008,
joing 5A and 5B launched in 2007. The system is twice as capable as the previous Skynet-5 system, and it
has the ability to focus bandwidth on particular sectors at the moments when it is needed most. The
€3.6-billion project is the largest UK space program.80 As a public-private partnership it is owned and
operated by Paradigm, a subsidiary of Astrium, and is the first example of a privately-owned secure
communications system.81

French and Italian governments are engaged in discussions to jointly procure a dual-use Ka-band
telecommunications satellite by 2012 (is this the same as the next one?). Italy is cooperating with France
on the dedicated military Sicral-2 (Sistema Italiano per Comunicazioni Riservate ed Allarmi)
communications satellite. Sicral is Italy’s first space-based communications system. The second satellite
will supply the French army with X-band signal similar to its Syracuse-3 satellite. Sicral 2 will also carry an
ultra-high frequency payload for Italian forces, similar to Sicral-1. Italy has scheduled launch of Sicral-1B
for January 2009, while France’s Syracuse-3 is not expected to be ready until 2017.82 Like the UK with
Skynet-5, France is considering a proposal by EADS to buy the Syracuse-3 satellite and lease back the
capacity.83 Skynet, Sicral, and Syracuse also provide secure communications to NATO.

Early Warning
France has spent $168-million on two experimental Spirale early warning satellites that are scheduled to
be launched in 2009 in an effort to provide France with an independent capability. Other European
states remained wary of French ambitions in 2008, however, and thus far have refused to participate or
invest in a pan-European missile-warning system.84


 2008 Developments
The European Space Agency endorses dual military use of space projects
The European Space Agency (ESA) assumed a growing role in European space-based security and
defence in 2008 when it approved its planned Galileo satellite navigation system for use by European
military and defense organizations.85 Europe’s version of GPS is the Galileo project initiated in 1999 – it
is funded by the EU and being implemented by the ESA. Following restructuring of the program in 2007
from a failed private-public partnership to a fully public system, the program started to progess in 2008.
The procurement process was launched involving €3.4-billion for 26 satellites, launches, and ground
control stations.86 Although two years behind schedule and significantly over its initial $113-million
budget, the second Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element (GIOVE-B) satellite built by Surrey Satellite
Technology Limited underwent successful testing in 2008.87 The satellite features the new hydrogen
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maser atom clock that will increase its precision. It also has a rubidium atomic clock that will be used by
the GPS 3, the U.S. navigation system in 2014.The system is scheduled for full deployment in 2013.88 Half
of the Galileo users are expected to be military and law enforcement agencies. These users will be using
the Public Regulated Service (PRS), the highly encrypted satellite signal. The PRS remains a sensitive
issue within the EU and ESA, however, with some concerns that military use will undermine the civil-only
reputation of the project. EU governments have promised that PRS will be accessible to EU-based clients
only.89 There are also concerns that the shift in ESA policy towards dual-use and military applications has
not been matched by a shift in funding, which continues to come from civilian budgets.90 Other military-
related projects approved by the ESA in 2008 include $302-million for European Data Relay Satellite
System (EDRS), which will place three sets of sensors and laser communications terminals on a
combination of commercial and dedicated data-relay satellites. €49-million was also approved towards a
European Space Situational Awareness program (see Space Systems Protection Trend 6.1).

The ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), initially a civilian project, was also
approved for dual civilian and military use in 208. The Earth observation system will eventually be
merged with other EU military reconnaissance satellites into a single system. GMES will provide data on
military-theatre management, training tools for military forces, and crisis monitoring.91 The cost of the
project is predicted to exceed €2-billion.92

Despite acknowledging the applicability of many ESA projects for military users, ESA members stressed
that military use of projects including GMES and Galileo “must be consistent with the principle that
these are civilian systems under civilian control.”93


.2008 Space Security Impacts.

Please comment on how developments under Trend 5.2 might impact the security of space

Trend 5.3: More actors are developing dual-use military space capabilities — Regional tensions are a
significant driver of military space acquisitions. Declining costs for space access and the proliferation of
space technology are enabling more states to develop and deploy their own military satellites via the
launch capabilities and manufacturing services of others, including the commercial sector.

Minimum resolutions for remote sensing target identification94
Target on the Ground           Detection            General               Precise              Technical Analysis
                                                    Identification        Identification
Vehicles                       1.5                  0.6                   0.3                  0.045
Aircraft                       4.5                  1.5                   1.0                  0.045
Nuclear weapons                2.5                  1.5                   0.3                  0.015
Rockets and artillery          1.0                  0.6                   0.15                 0.045
Command and control            3.0                  1.5                   1.0                  0.09

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Ports and harbors              30.0                 15.0                  6.0                  0.3

 2008 Developments
China continues to increase its self-reliance and expand its military presence in space
China’s space program is best described as governmental and supports both civil and military users.
Although China has never published a military space doctrine, its national defense strategy is based on
“active defense” that “aims at winning local wars in conditions of informationization” that includes
maintaining “space and electromagnetic space security.”95 In 2008, China launched a range of space-
based capabilities that may used be used to support these goals, in particular Earth imaging. China
launched four optical and one digital imaging satellite in 2008 including Yaogan-4-and-5 launched on 1
and 15 December 2008 respectively. This series of satellites is vaguely described as supporting disaster
prevention and relief. It includes the Yaogan-1 (Jian Bing-5 ) and Yaogan-3 (Jian Bing-3 ) synthetic
aperture radar satellites as well as the Yaogan-2 optical satellite. The satellites have often been
launched secretly, and the lack of information about them prompts some analysts to suspect that they
do indeed support military intelligence.e.96

China also continues to develop its regional satellite navigation system covering Asia, which is intended
to be operational by 2010 and to eventually be developed into a global system of five satellites in
geostationary orbit and 30 in medium-Earth orbit. The constellation currently contains four satellites in
GEO and one in MEO. Although Chinese officials have claimed that its system will be fully compatible
with the US GPS, European Galileo and Russian Glonass systems, China has not yet completed frequency
coordination with these states.97 This is particularly a challenge for Europe, because China has filed with
the International Telecommunications Union to use the same frequencies as Galileo. Japan is also
developing a regional satellite navigation system, the Quazi Zenith Satellite System, but the two states
have had few talks to coordinate their respective systems.98 Compass falls under China’s defense
ministry but it is intended to provide both an Open Service with position accuracy of 20 meters and an
Authorized Service that will be “highly reliable even in complex situations.”99


 2008 Developments
India and Israel cooperating on space
Evidence of a strategic partnership between Israel and India is beginning to emerge as the two countries
face similar regional security concerns.100 On 21 January 2008 India launched the Israeli military TecSar
(Polaris) satellite into polar orbit. The satellite is equipped with advanced radar synthetic aperture radar
(SAR) that is able to operate 24 hours a day and in poor weather conditions – it uses an X-band radar
capable of producing images with 10 centimeter resolution and is one of the most powerful SAR
satellites in the world.101 The satellite will have three modes of operation: spot mode for collecting high
resolution pictures; strip mode for capturing medium resolution images; and beam-scanning mode for
wide area coverage.102 Israel has promised to share some of the satellite’s data with its Indian partner.
Israel also plans to lease some of the capacity of its optical Ofeq-5 imaging satellite to India. The satellite
has been upgraded with new software that enables it to collect more imagery than previously.103 Israel is
planning to launch two more reconnaissance satellites, Ofeq-8 and TecSar-2, in the next two years.104
 This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

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India does not operate any dedicated military satellites, but it is undergoing a process of greater military
use of outer space and its space program is certainly governmental. And in 2008, the use of space for
military purposes took another step forward when the long talked about Integrated Space Cell was
formed. Under the Integrated Defence Serivces Headquarter of the Ministry of Defence, it is intended
for “more effective utilization of the nation’s space-based assets for military purposes and to counter
offensive counter-space systems,”105 acting “as a single window for integration among the armed forces,
department of space, and the Indian Space Research Organization.”106 One such area of integration
involves satellite imaging capabilities. On 20 April 2008 the civilian Indian Space Research Organization
(ISRO) launched its Cartosat-2A remote sensing satellite into sun-synchronous orbit. It has a
panchromatic camera capable of producing black-and-white pictures with a one-meter resolution and a
swath of 9.6 kilometers. ISRO has reported that data from the satellite will be made available to
interested space agencies and other civilian users, with speculation that this will include the military.107
ISRO is also developing the Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) using synthetic aperture radar that will be
able to take 3-meter resolution images in all-terrain, all-weather, day/night conditions, which is a
significant dual-use capability. The launch is scheduled for 2009.108


 2008 Developments
Japan passes law allowing military uses of space
Japan passed a new basic space law in 2008 literally translated as Japan's Fundamental Act of Outer
Space, removing a long-standing ban on military use of space, in response to what Japan calls “changing
global security situations.”109 The new law also created a new cabinet-level Strategic Headquarters for
Space Policy (SHSP). Although it has not yet identified specific missions to be developed in the future,
early warning satellites and dedicated military communications satellites are possibilities. The Ministry
of Defence requested $674-million for space related projects in 2009 that will include the establishment
of a Space Maritime Secuirty Policy Office and a Space Technology Planning Section. Plans are in place to
enhance the existing Information Gathering Satellite (IGS) Earth observation system, which managed to
by-pass the earlier ban on military use of space, including launch of an optical imaging satellite operated
by DigitalGlobe with a resolution of 61-centimetres. Additional radar and optical imaging satellites will
be launched in two or three years. The SHSP will draw up a five year plan for civil and military space
projects by May 2009. 110


 2008 Developments
Canada continues to develop dual-use space capabilities
Canada continued to expand its plans for dual-use space capabilities in 2008 including the Radarsat
remote sensing system. Initial plans to deploy a constellation of three smaller satellites to complement
Radarsat-2 launched in December 2007 have since grown to include six new satellites.111 Canada
initiated work with MacDonald Detwiller and Associates (MDA) on the initial constellation of three
satellites in 2008, valued at $580-million and scheduled for launch in 2012. Radarsat-2 uses synthetic
aperture radar to produce images with a resolution of up to one-meter. It also has a Ground Moving
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Target Indicator capability to detect and track the movement of vehicles such as ships.112 The
Department of National Defence/Canadian Forces is developing project Polar Epsilon to build dedicated
military ground station in order to make use of data from Radarsat-2.113 Due to the failure of its own
Space Radar program (see Trend 5.1), the US DoD is considering purchase of g to buy a clone of the very
successful Radarsat-2 satellite.114

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Defense Research Development Canada (DRDC) are continuing to
invest in dual-use micro-satellite projects. ComDev was awarded $8.6-million in 2008 to develop the
Maritime Monitoring and Messaging Micro-satellite (M3MSat) intended to “support Canadian
sovereignty, security, safety and communications needs within the territorial and maritime regions of
Canada and beyond.”115 The project is expected to be finished by 2010.


.2008 Space Security Impacts.

Please comment on how developments under Trend 5.3 might impact the security of space

States’ first dedicated military satellites and their function116

This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

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                               Military satellite-owning state
                               Satellite-owning state

                            Year     State/Actor      Satellite                       Description
                            1958     US               Project SCORE                   Communications and experimental satellite
                            1962     USSR             Cosmos-4                        Remote sensing (optical)
                            1969     UK               Skynet-1A                       Communications
                            1970     NATO             NATO-1                          Communications
                            1975     China            FSW-0 No. 1                     Remote sensing (optical)
                            1988     Israel           Ofeq-1                          Remote sensing (optical)
                            1995     France117        Helios-1A                       Remote sensing (optical)
                            1995     Chile            Fasat-Alfa                      Communications and remote sensing (optical)
                            1998     Thailand         TMSAT                           Communications
                            2001     Italy            Sicral                          Communications
                            2003     Australia        Optus and Defence-1             Communications
                            2003     Japan            IGS-1A and IGS-1B               Remote sensing (optical)
                            2006     Spain            Spainsat                        Communications
                            2006     Germany          SARLupe-1                       Remote sensing (radar)

                            * Note that other states have civil or commercial satellites that may be used for military purposes, as
                            described in this chapter.

            Military spacecraft launched in 2008
COSPAR       Date       Launch Vehicle      Satellite Name                   Launch State    State        Primary Function             Orbit
2008-002A    01/21/08   PSLV                TECSAR                           India           Israel       Imagery (radar)             Military
2008-010A    03/13/08   Atlas 5             NROL-28 SBIRS HEO 2              US              US           Imagery (radar)             Military
2008-012A    03/15/08   Delta-2             USA-201                          US              US           Navigation                  Military
2008-014A    03/27/08   Kosmos-3M           SAR-LUPE 4                       Russia          Germany      Imagery (radar)             Military
2008-022A    04/28/08   Zenit 3SLB          Amos 3                           Sea Launch      Israel       Communications              GEO
2008-025B    05/23/08   Rockot              Kosmos-2437 (Rodnik 2)           Russia          Russia       Communications              GEO
2008-025C    05/23/08   Rockot              Kosmos-2438 (Rodnik 3)           Russia          Russia       Communications              GEO
2008-025D    05/23/08   Rockot              Kosmos-2439 (Rodnik 4)           Russia          Russia       Communications              GEO
            This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

                                                                 Not for citation
2008-030A   06/12/08    Ariane 5          Skynet 5C                     France         UK          Communications              GEO
2008-033D   06/26/08    Proton-K          Kosmos-2440 (US-KMO 11)       Russia         Russia      Early Warning               GEO
2008-062A   12/02/08    Molniya-M         Kosmos-2446 (US-K 85)         Russia         Russia      Early Warning               Molniya
2008-017A   04/16/08    Pegasus           C/NOFS                        US             US          Experimental (ionosphere)   SSO
2008-037A   07/26/08    Soyuz 2           Kosmos-2441 (Persona 1)       Russia         Russia      Imagery (optical)           SSO
2008-014A   03/27/08    Kosmos-3M         SAR-LUPE 4                    Russia         Germany     Imagery (radar)             SSO
2008-036A   07/22/08    Kosmos-3M         SAR-LUPE 5                    Russia         Germany     Imagery (radar)             LEO
2008-002A   01/21/08    PSLV              TECSAR                        India          Israel      Imagery (radar)             LEO
2008-010A   03/13/08    Atlas 5           NROL-28 SBIRS HEO 2           US             US          Imagery (radar)             Molniya
2008-058A   11/14/08    Soyuz-U           Kosomos-2445 (Kobalt M4)      Russia         Russia      Imaging (optical)           LEO
2008-046A   09/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2442 (Uragan M15)      Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-046B   09/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2443 (Uragan M16)      Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-046C   09/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2444 (Uragan M17)      Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-067A   12/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2447 (Uragan M18       Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-067B   12/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2448 (Uragan M19)      Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-067C   12/25/08    Proton-M          Kosmos-2449 (Uragan M20)      Russia         Russia      Navigation                  MEO
2008-012A   03/15/08    Delta-2           NAVSTAR GPS48                 US             US          Navigation                  MEO
2008-059C   11/15/08    Shuttle           PSSC Testbed 1                US             US          Technology                  LEO
2008-054A   10/25/08    Delta-2           Cosmo-Skymed 3                US             Italy       Imaging (radar)             SS Polar

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                                                            Not for citation
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Team Completes On-Orbit Handover Of First HEO Payload To U.S. Air
    Force,” Lockheed Martin (5 August, 2008), online:

    This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

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   Staff Writers, “New Missile Warning Satellite Built by Lockheed Martin Progressing in Crticial Test Phase,” Space
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   William Matthews, “Smaller, Quicker, Cheaper: Military Searches for Faster, Less Expensive
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    http://spaceports.blogspot.com/2008/12/tacsat-3-light-this-candle-jan-31.html; ____,
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   Colin Clark, “Pentagon, Intelligence Community To Jointly Manage System Procurement,” Space News
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   Philip Taubman, “In Death of Spy Satellite Program, Lofty Plans and Unrealistic Bids,” New York Times (11
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   J. M. McConnell and Robert M. Gates, “Signed BASIC Systems Guidance Memorandum 08 SEP 08
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   News (10 March 2008), at ??.
   Turner Briton, “DoD Approves NRO BASIC Procurement,” Defense News (14 July 2008), at 34.
   Pamela Hess and Stephen Manning, “Congress Cancels Novel Satellite Program”, Washington Times (23
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   Colin Clark, “Failed Satellite Combined Optical, Radar-Like Imaging Capabilities,” Space News (4
   February 2008), at ??.
   Megan Scully, “NRO cancels contracts for proposed space radar project,” NextGov (04 April 2008),

 This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

                                                  Not for citation
   online: http://www.nextgov.com/nextgov/ng_20080404_4891.php.
    Megan Scully, “NRO cancels contracts for proposed space radar project,” NextGov - technology and the
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    Colin Clark , “‘Big Mistake:’ No Dough For Space Radar,” DodBuzz (5 October 2008), online:
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    Colin Clark, “‘Big Mistake:’ No Dough For Space Radar.”
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    Simon Saradzhayan and Nabi Abdullaev, “Georgian War Highlights Gaps in Russian Space
 Capabilities,” Space News (1 December 2008), at 16.
    Or 2.4 trillion roubles. Martin Sieff, “Russia Defense Watch: Boosting war budgets ,” Space Daily (6
   October 2008), online:
    Or 45 billion Roubles.
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 Satellites,” Space News (22 September 2008), at 4.
    Or 9.9 billion roubles.
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   January 2008), online: http://russianforces.org/blog/2008/01/russia_pulls_out_of_an_earlywa.shtml; Stephen
Clark, “Russian Proton Rocket Launches Military Satellite,” Space.com (30 June 2008), online:
 This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

                                                 Not for citation
    Pavel Podvig, “Angara launcher to be ready in 2011,” Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces – Blog (2
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    ____, “Third Cosmo-SkyMed Satellite Launched from California,” Telespazio (24 October 208), online:
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    ____, “Musings Over Musis Melds Into Affirmative Launch By France + EU Countries,” Satnews Daily
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    security and defence,” European Security and Defence Assembly: Fifty-Fifth Session (6 November
     2008), online: http://www.assembly-
    Pierre Tran, “France Readies Satellite Launches,” Defence News (6 November 2008), online:
    ____, “Europe tracks pirates, rebels from an unlikely place,” Physorg.com (4 December 008), online:
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    Peter B. de Selding “Remote Sensing/GIS: Spain to Buy Imaging Satellite from EADS-CASA, Astrium”,
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    Michael A. Taverna, “Imaging Ingenuity: Go-ahead for Spanish Satellites reinforces European
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    Jonathan Amos, “Final Skynet satellite launched,” BBC World (12 June 2008), online:

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                                                 Not for citation
   ____, “Skynet Military Satellite Launches,” Europcritics Magazine(30 May 2008), online:
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   Pierre Tran, “France Readies Satellite Launches,” Defence News (6 November 2008), online:
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   Peter B. de Selding, “European Leaders Endorse Military Role for Galileo,” DefenceNews (6 October
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   2008), at 46.
   Peter B. de Selding, “ESA Gives Initial Approval to Program with Military Applications,” Space News (1
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   Peter B. de Selding, “European Officials Urge Early Acceptance of Military Use of GMES,” Space News
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   ____, “Chinese SatNav to be Deployed by 2010,” Space News (5 May 2008), online:
   Dr. Jing Guifei, National Remote Sensing Center of China and the Ministry of Science and Technology, quoted in
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Compass/Beidou: Back-Track or Dual Track?” Inside GNSS (March/April 2008).

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                                                 Not for citation
    ____, “India launches Israeli satellite,” BBC World (21 January 2008), online:
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7199736.stm; Ninan Koshy, “India and Israel Eye Iran,” Foreign
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102                                       st
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    /India_to_launch_remote_sensing_satellite_this_month_999.html; Bharath Gopalaswamy, “Indian Space Policy:
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    2008), online: http://www.spacemart.com/reports/ISRO_New_Satellite_Could_See_Through
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     Hypocrisy.com (Blog) (7 November 2008), online: http://richardcochrane.hypocrisy.com
    Leo Lewis, “Change in law launches Japanese military into space,” Times Online (10 May 2008),
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    Paul Kallender-Uzemu, “Japans Gears Up for Expansion of Military pace Activities,” Space News (10
    November 2008), at A4.
    Staff Writers, “CSA Announces Design Contract With MDA For RADARSAT Constellation”,
    SpaceMart (18 November 2008), online: http://www.spacemart.com/reports/CSA_
    David Pugliese, “Canada to Launch Design Work on Radarsat,” Defence News (29 September 2008), at
    ______, “Polar Epsilon project,” National Defence of Canadian Forces, (10 January 2008), online:
    David Pugliese, “Pentagon looks to buy Canadian spy satellite technology,” The Ottawa Citizen (13
   September 2008), online: http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=111cf6c1-2334-
    ______, “Com Dev wins micro-satellite contract,” CBC News, (23 June 2008), online:
116 Fernand Verger, Isabelle Sourbès-Verger, and Raymond Ghirardi, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Space, at 72; Gunter

Dirk Krebs, “Spacecraft: Military,” Gunter’s Space Page, online: http://www.skyrocket.de/space/space.html (date
accessed: 9 February 2007); Small Satellites Home Page, “Modern Military Small Satellites,” online: Surrey Satellite
Company http://centaur.sstl.co.uk/SSHP/list/list_mil.html; Union of Concerned Scientists, “Satellite Database,”
(January 2008).
 This document is a draft for the upcoming publication Space Security 2009. Please send comments on the draft to

                                                  Not for citation
117Greece and Belgium also use the Helios satellites through their participation in the Besoin Operationnel Commune
framework agreement, but they do not have independent dedicated military satellites.

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                                                   Not for citation

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