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					Ms. Ruiz
                                        Catcher in the Rye
                                             By: J.D. Salinger

                                           Exam Study Guide

      Exam is worth a total of 200 points
      Study handouts included with answers to check your own work

                             ALL Multiple Choice QUESTIONS ON

1) PLOT (notes to study: all reading quizzes returned and two sets of 1-10 post it questions
in your book)


2) CHARACTER ANALYSIS (notes to study: character analysis handout, literary analysis
dictionary terms, chapter 3 Double Entry Journals)


3) SYMBOLISM (NOTES TO STUDY: SYMBOLISM GUIDE POST IT, SYMBOLISM POST ITS,
SYMBOLS CH. 14-17 HANDOUT)

4) FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE TERMS (NOTES TO STUDY: LITERARY TERMS AND MORE
LITERARY TERMS HANDOUTS)

5) DICTION/TONE/MOOD (NOTES TO STUDY: DICTION AS IN DICTIONARY HANDOUT AND
TONE NOTES IN NOTEBOOK)

6) THE IRONIES (NOTES TO STUDY: SEE IRONIES DEFININTIONS IN JOURNALS AND “IRONIC”
LYRICS BY ALANIS MORRISETTE PRACTICE SHEET)

7) TITLE ANALYSIS (NOTES TO STUDY: SEE TITLE ANALYSIS JOURNAL AND NOTES, ROERT

BURNS “COMIN’ THRO’ THE RYE” LYRICS)

8) THEME (NOTES TO STUDY: SEE UNIVERSAL THEME VS. THEME HANDOUT)



*Additional study materials: see all notes, journals, and returned work that is related to The Catcher in

the Rye
                                                  Welcome to the Rye!

Directions: Complete a short Literary Analysis of The Catcher in the Rye Chapter 1 by answering the following
questions in complete sentence, thorough, responses. These are not quick response questions, they required detailed
thinking, detailed analysis, and detailed explanations. Read deeply, supply textual evidence for your answers, and enjoy
what you write!

    1. What is unique about the writing style of this novel? Whose point of view is it written from? What are some things you notice
    about the diction (language) that the narrator uses?

                  Written very colloquially from the first person point of view of Holden Caulfield.

    2.   If the narrator attended Venice High, what do you think he would think about it? Who would his friends be? Where would
         he hang out? What would his best and worst subjects be and why?

                  Holden is a bit of a loner and proves his best subject is English. Writing and
                  literacy seem to run in his family

    3.   The narrator is obviously the main character and the protagonist of this novel; do you think is necessarily a “good” guy? In
         other words, are you on his side/Do you like him? Why or why not?


                  Holden is honest and trustworthy and yet, unreliable at the same time, making him
                  somewhat of a paradox. He is a cynic and a coward, which makes him difficult to
                  like but he is such a round and realistically human character that he is often
                  forgiven or excused for his skewed perspectives
    4.   As you may witness, the narrator is fairly independent and often alone both at school and in the real world. Do you think
         Holden has true long term and short term friends? Why or why not?

                  Most likely short term friends are present; he gets along with many people but
                  never gets close enough to anyone to feel loved or supported. He shys away from
                  those who have displayed concern for him, like Mr. Spencer, but moves schools so
                  often that long terms friends seem impossible.

    5.   Why do you suppose the narrator‟s strongest subject is what it is? Analyze his character in relation to his fondness of this
         subject; how do they match each other; or do they match at all?

                  He is from a family of writers, and affluent individuals who value education. He
                  has a knack for reading and writing and is highly prognostic

    6.   Symbolically (connotatively), why do you think fencing is the one activity the narrator is involved in? What does he do to
         ruin his opportunities in the one activity he is actually a part of?

               Fencing is a distinguished sport and one seen as traditionally “elitist” and
         gentleman-like. Holden cannot even succeed in this sport where socially, he should
         belong. He isn’t really on the team and manages to get ostracized by them when he
         leaves the equipment on the bus.
7.   Make some presumptions about the narrator based on his bad habits (smoking, drinking, swearing, out of shape, etc.). Does
     he have any good qualities that are recognizable at this point in the novel?

             He is carefree, and unconcerned with the norms of social etiquette and standards
             for teens. He is very “normal” and not phony.
8.   What do you suppose is the real reason why the narrator actually goes in to speak with Mr. Spencer before leaving Pencey.
     Make an inference about their relationship.


             They have a strange friendship; Holden respects Mr. Spencer, needs his advice but
             doesn’t want it, and know he will miss this teacher who actually cares about him
                       CREATING CHARACTERS: HOW DO THEY DO IT?
Writers reveal their characters‟ traits through both Direct Characterization and Indirect Characterization

Direct Characterization- when a writer simply tells us directly what the character is like

        Example: Esmeralda was the most serious person in the school. She longed for fun but was afraid of
        disappointing her very stern aunt.

Indirect Characterization- when a writer reveals a character‟s traits through more subtle ways such as

        1. Characters’ Appearances
            Example: Esmeralda, tall and thin, wore her mouse-brown hair pulled tightly back into a ponytail. She
            always dressed in a gray skirt and blouse and never wore jewelry.

        2. Dialogue
            Example: “Hey, Esmeralda, want to come with us to the movies?” Ginger asked.
                      “Oh no,” Esmeralda sighed, “I can‟t, I have a research paper to finish.”

        3. Private Thoughts- this is especially important when the narrator is the main character. We get to
           eavesdrop on the narrator‟s thoughts and discover what that character wants, worries about, and even
           fears.
            Example: I really want to be out there with everyone else, laughing, having fun with friends, going to the
            movies, just belonging; sometimes it‟s all I ever think about.

        4. Actions
            Example: Leon ran to catch up to Esmeralda as she walked home. He called her excitedly and tapped on her
            shoulder. She flinched—then looked away, blushing.

        5. Effects a characters‟ actions have on other characters
            Example: Leon, puzzled, wondered why Esmeralda was so squeamish of his friendly gesture.

More Character-Related Literary Devices/Terms
Flat Character- like a paper doll, is two-dimensional, with only one or two key personality traits
Round Character- has three dimensional qualities of real-life people, with many traits and complexities.
Stock Character- one who fits our preconceived notions about a “type” (for example, the mad scientist or the cruel-
looking villain twirling his waxed moustache)
Protagonist- the character that is meant to be the focus of our attention; the protagonist is usually a realistic, complicated
human being with just enough strengths, weaknesses, and paradoxes to remind us of ourselves
Antagonist- the character or force that blocks the protagonist from achieving goals
        Conflict- a struggle between a protagonist and an antagonist
                 External Conflict- between the protagonist and an outside person or force
                 Internal Conflict- the protagonist wrestles with his or her own fear, worry, or need. Therefore, in
                 internal conflict, the protagonist is his/her own antagonist as well
Dynamic Character- someone who changes in an important way (gains a new understanding, makes an important
decision, or takes a crucial action) during the course of the story
Static Character- a subordinate character who is exactly the same at the end of the story as he or she is at the beginning.
                           Catcher in the Rye Character Analysis Chapter 3

Directions: Read the following quotes closely and analyze the characters in bold. What is being said about
their personalities through direct characterization and indirect characterization

                        QUOTE                                           CHARACTER ANALYSIS
1. “If I‟m on my way to the store to buy a magazine, even,   HOLDEN
and somebody asks me where I‟m going, I‟m liable to say
I‟m going to the opera” (16)
                                                             Holden is a compulsive liar and like to play
                                                             psychological games with people in which he
                                                             silently chuckles at their ignorance of the
                                                             truth


2. “You should see old Ossenburger. He probably just         OSSENBURGER
shoves them in a sac and dumps them in the river….Old
Ossenburger Memorial Wing, in the new dorms” (17)
                                                             A money hungry and immoral character who
                                                             is praised for his financial success and
                                                             phoniness


3. “He was a senior, and he‟d been at Pencey the whole       ACKLEY
four years and all, but nobody ever called him anything
except “Ackley.” Not even Herb Gale, his own roommate,
ever called him „Bob‟ or even „Ack.‟ If he ever gets         A minor flat character unworthy of respect or
married, his own wife‟ll probably call him „Ackley.‟” (19)   admiration; he is an annoyance to most
                                                             people and for that reason, is almost pitiable


4. “I didn‟t look up from my book. With a guy like           ACKLEY
Ackley, if you looked up from your book you were a
goner” (20)
                                                             He is quite annoying and yet lonely and
                                                             attention hungry because he is shunned by
                                                             most people. He’ll take what he can get when
                                                             it comes to friends


5. “I started groping around in front of me, like a blind    HOLDEN
guy, but without getting up or anything. I kept saying,
„Mother darling, why won‟t you give me your hand?‟ …I
                                                             Holden is somewhat of a hypocrite, ranting
know it annoyed hell out of old Ackley. He always            about how childish and annoying Ackley is
brought out the old sadist in me” (22)                       while all the time he is quite immature and
                                                             irritating himself. The difference is, Holden
                                                             acts this way on purpose. He chooses when to
                                                             push people away

6. “He was always keeping tabs on who Stradlater was         ACKLEY AND STRADLATER
dating even though he hated Stradlater‟s guts” (23)
                                                             Ackley is a loser, Stradlater is worshiped,
                                                             popular, and envied by those like Ackley.
7. “Look. Suppose, for instance, Stradlater was wearing a      STRADLATER
tie or something that you liked. Say he had a tie on that
you liked a helluva lot—I‟m just giving you an example,
                                                               Stradlater is liked in a superficial sort of way
now. You know what he‟d do? He‟d probably take it off          for almost being too nice, and too perfect
and give it to you. He really would. Or—you know what
he‟d do? He‟d leave it on your bed or something. But
he‟d give you the goddam tie” (25)


8. “old Stradlater barged in, in a big hurry. He was always    STRADLATER
in a big hurry. Everything was a very big deal. He came
over to me and gave me these two playful as hell slaps on
                                                               He is a bit condescending and doesn’t respect
both cheeks—which is something that can be very                Holden or take him seriously enough to treat
annoying” (25)                                                 him like a “man”



9. “„How‟s a boy Ackley?‟ he said to Ackley. He was at         STRADLATER
least a pretty friendly guy, Stradlater. It was partly a
phony kind of friendly, but at least he always said hello to
                                                               Stradlater is superficial, friendly, and so nice
Ackley and all” (26)                                           and phony that Holden is irritated by him but
                                                               still likes him

10. “He always walked around in his bare torso because he      STRADLATER
though he had a damn good build” (26)

                                                               A bit conceited and definitely a flat character
              ACADEMIC LANGUAGE AND LITERARY VOCABULARY

LITERARY DEVICE - one of many rhetorical strategies used by writers in

literary works.
*Note: Literary devices are seldom purposely placed into writing. They are more often stylistic

methods that writers subconsciously use to make their works effective

            FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE- connotative language that is NOT meant

            to be interpreted denotatively
                   SIMILE- a comparison between two seemingly unalike things using the words

                    ―like‖ or ―as‖

                           Example 1: She is like a free bird.

                   METAPHOR- a comparison between two seemingly unalike things that states

                    –or insinuates—that one is the other

                           Example 1: She is a free bird.

                           *Example 2: Free birds cannot live their lives in a cage.

               *Notice that the second example does not have any key words that indicate it is

               a metaphor. Instead, as a reader, you have to read closely and interpret the

               ―hidden meaning‖ yourself.

                   IDIOM- a figure of speech that is not denotative or literal

                           Example 1: She ate it and dropped all her books in the hallway.

      ALLUSION- a reference to a another literary work of any genre (novel, short story,
      tale, fable, myth, poem, specific author, culturally famous or infamous character, graphic

      novel, newspaper, magazine, song lyrics, play, etc.). An allusion may be connotative or

      denotative.

      *The narrator assumes the reader is familiar with the work and as a reader, you must be,

      in order to understand the reference in context.

                           Example 1: The more involved I got in the situation, the further down

                           the rabbit hole I fell.
Complete the following…
1. Directions: Create a 4 term key for the given reading. Use 3 different colored highlighters for the

terms simile, metaphor, and idiom. Use an underline for the term allusion. Read the given reading and

use your key to locate the 4 literary devices being used in context.



2. What is the difference between an author and a narrator?



AUTHOR IS THE PERSON WHO WRITES THE LITERATURE. NARRATOR IS THE WRITTEN VOICE
TELLING THE NOVEL, THE SPEAKER.


3. Analyze the narrator’s use of language and literary devices. How would you describe his/her

language?



COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE AND A LOT OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE. HE IS A VERY CONNOTATIVE
SPEAKER WITH MUCH SYMBOLISM BEHIND HIS WORDS


4. Choose 5-7 words (adjectives) that would accurately describe the tone of the excerpt. How does the

narrator’s use of language, diction (or word choice), and literary devices contribute to the tone?



CYNICAL AND SARCASTIC. A LOT OF VERBAL IRONY IS USED AND A COLLOQUIAL
NONCHALANT TONE


5. (1 paragraph response) Analyze the narrator’s character. What would you think of this person if you

met him/her today and had a conversation with him/her? How do you ―see‖ this person physically,

psychologically, socially, academically? Why?



A PARIAH, A PERSON WHO PREFERS TO BE ALONE AND IS HIGHLY PROGNOSTIC
6. Describe the narrator’s relationship with his/her parents. How do you know?



NOT A STRONG RELATIONSHIP. HE KNOWS THEM ENOUGH TO SHOW THEM RESPECT BUT
DOESN’T HAVE A GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH THEM. THEY ARE NOT A CLOSE FAMILY


7. Explain what you think the narrator means by ―madman stuff‖ and what has happened to his/her life

because of it?



HE WENT CRAZY OR IS CONSIDERED PSYCHOLOGICALLY UNSTABLE


Where is the narrator currently staying and where is he/she geographically?



IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL RECEIVING HELP SOMEWHERE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CLOSE TO
HOLLYWOOD


8. Describe the narrator’s relationship with his/her brother D.B.



HE IS ANGRY WITH DB FOR GIVING UP HIS ASPIRATIONS OF WRITING CHILDRENS STORIES.
HE SEE’S HIS BROTHER AS A ―SELL OUT‖ WHO NOW WRITES SCRIPTS FOR HOLLYWOOD
MOVIES
                                 More Figurative Language!

Motif- any recurring element (SYMBOL) that has symbolic/connotative significance in a story. Through
its repetition, a motif can help produce other literary aspects such as theme or mood
       Example: In the novel, Of Mice and Men, the symbolic ―mouse‖ that Lennie always seems to kill by
       accident reoccurs several times —when not physically, it appears in dialogue or is mentioned by
       the narrator. It is for this reason that the reader may begin to infer that the ―mouse‖, in
       addition to it’s inclusion in the title, has a symbolic significance to the novel

Understatement- speaker makes a serious issue or concept sound less important than it really is by
talking about it in a restrained manner (a form of sarcasm or verbal irony)
       Example: it’s just a harmless little brain tumor

Overstatement- an exaggeration of something, generally making it sound better than it actually is
      Example: Someone donates $1.00 to a charity fund and the collector remarks, ―You are so
      amazingly generous; we would never make it without a dollar.‖

Hyperbole- speaker makes a gross exaggeration of an issue or concept in order to make it sound more
serious than it really is
       Example: I’m so hungry I could eat a horse

Euphemism- the replacement of an inoffensive word or phrase for one that is considered vulgar,
offensive, or unpleasant
       Example: the use of ―passed away‖ for ―died‖ –or-- ―had an accident‖ for ―urinated on oneself‖

Metonymy- The substituting of one word or phrase for another related word or phrase
      Example: The White House has decided to create more public service jobs. (Notice the term
      ―White House‖ is substituted for president)

Epithet- a word or phrase used in place of or corresponding with a person’s name; it is characteristic of
that person
       Example: Alexander the Great, Calamity Jane, Material Girl

Personification- literary device in which the author attributes human feelings or traits to an animal,
inanimate object or idea
       Example: The rock stubbornly refused to move
                                             Holden’s Words
Directions: Identify the type of figurative language being used by Holden Caulfield by writing the correct literary
device from the given word bank in the blank space provided for each sentence. You may use each term more than
once. Not all terms may be used.

Metaphor                      Motif                          Euphemism                      Personification

Simile                        Understatement                 Epithet                        Hyperbole

Idiom                         Overstatement                  Metonymy

1. ___Hyperbole_________If he was so goddamn stupid not to realize it was Saturday night and everybody was
out or asleep or home for the weekend, I wasn’t going to break my neck telling him (40)

2. ___Simile___________―So what?‖ I said. Cold as hell.‖ (41)

3. ___Euphemism________―What’d you do?‖ I said. ―Give her the time in Ed Banky’s goddamn car? (43)

4. ___Hyperbole_____He had hold of my wrists too, so I couldn’t take another sock at him. I’d’ve killed him. (43)

5. __Hyperbole_____…I kept calling him a sonuvabitch and all, for about ten hours (44)

6. ___Idiom________I don’t remember if he knocked me out or not but I don’t think so (45)

7. ___Overstatement__ I went over to look at my stupid face in the mirror. You never saw such gore in your
life. (45)

8. __Understatement______―I had a little goddam tiff with Stradlater,” I said. (47)

9. ___Hyperbole______―Do you happen to have any cigarettes, by any chance? –Say ‘no’ or I’ll drop dead.‖ (48)

10. __Epithet_______ But old Stradlater kept snowing her in this Abraham Lincoln, sincere voice, and finally
there’d be this terrific silence in the back of the car (49)

11.__Simile/Personification______He still didn’t hear me. He slept like a rock (50)

12. __Understatement_______ Besides, I sort of needed a little vacation (51)

13. __Metonymy______…my Gladstones kept banging the hell out of my legs…I did have a goddam Pencey sticker
on one of my Gladstones (54)

14. __Simile_____That Morrow was about as sensitive as a goddam toilet seat (55)



15. __Understatement_____It isn’t very serious, I have this tiny little tumor on the brain (58)
                                       DICTION AS IN DICTIONARY!

DICTION- an author’s choice of words

There are many different kinds of diction in literary rhetoric and in speech. Although diction can be more simply
described by choosing appropriate adjectives or describing words, the use of the following are normally used to 1)
elicit a specific reaction within the reader 2) guide the reader to make inferences about a character or 3)
establish credibility –or lack of—in a character(s):

          Archaic Words- those that are old-fashioned and no longer sound natural when used
          Example: ―I believe thee not‖ rather than ―I don’t believe you‖

          Colloquialism- informal speech that is widely accepted
          Example: ―no way‖, ―for real‖, ―get out of here‖ rather than ―I don’t believe you‖

                    Jargon (technical diction)- specialized language used by a specific group of people who use and are
                    familiar with computers and technical equipment
                    Example: override, download, upload, TAB, scroll, cut & paste

                    Profanity- language that shows disrespect for someone or something regarded as religious, holy, or
                    sacred
                    Example: ―Jesus Christ‖ used as an exclamation

                    Slang- informal language used by a particular group of people among themselves
                    Example: chill, kick it, right-on

                    Vulgarity- language that is generally considered crude, gross, and more often then not, offensive.
                    It is sometimes used in fiction to add realism to characters
                    Example: *refer to ―Catcher in the Rye‖’s narrator Holden Caulfield



          Dialect- spoken language peculiar to a specific region or specific group of people
          Examples: consider the obvious differences between British English (Dialect 1) vs. American
          English (Dialect 2)


Directions: Read the following quoted paragraph from the novel, The Catcher in the Rye. On
the back side of the page, in a one paragraph response, describe the diction Holden Caulfield
uses.

“The cab I had was a real old one that smelled like someone‟d just tossed his cookies in it. I always get those vomity kind of cabs if I go anywhere
late at night. What made it worse, it was so quiet an lonesome out. Even though it was Saturday night. I didn‟t see hardly anybody on the street.
Now and then you just saw a man and a girl crossing a street, with their arms around each other‟s waists and all, or a bunch of hoodlumy-looking
guys and their dates all of them , all of them laughing like hyenas at something you could bet wasn‟t funny. New York‟s terrible when somebody
laughs on the street very late at night. You can hear it for miles. It makes you feel so lonesome and depressed. I kept wishing I could go home and
shoot the bull for a while with old Phoebe…” (pg. 81)



          Colloquial and carefree, the words of a true cynic who pretends to not care and yet,
          somehow, cares too much.
The Catcher in the Rye Literature Circles: Part A (Indirect Character Analysis)

In the novel, Holden is constantly facing situations where he is in some way or another “rejected” by another
human being when sending a subliminal cry for help. Complete the chart below.

        PERSON              SITUATION: HOW DID                 POSSIBLE REASONS WHY    WHAT WAS THE EFFECT
                            HE/SHE “REJECT”                         CHARACTER           ON HOLDEN; DID THIS
                            HOLDEN?                             “REJECTED” HOLDEN       EVENT LEAD TO ANY
                                                                                       OTHER TRAUMATIZING
                                                                                             EVENT?
   1. STRADLATER            Holden‟s personally touching       STRADLATER IS AN        DEVASTATED, HE
                            composition about Allie‟s          INNOCENT BYSTANDER      LOSES TRUST IN A
                            baseball glove is not
                            appreciated; he is instead made
                                                               OF HOLDEN’S ANGER;      PERSON HE ALMOST
                            fun of and censured                HE DOESN’T KNOW         THOUGHT WAS HIS
                                                               ANY BETTER AND          FRIEND
                                                               DOESN’T REALLY CARE
   2. STRADLATER            Holden attempts to talk about      STRADLATER IS AN        DEVASTATED, HE
                            how important Jane is to him       INNOCENT BYSTANDER      LOSES TRUST IN A
                            but his feelings are overlooked.
                            Stradlater further crushes
                                                               OF HOLDEN’S ANGER;      PERSON HE ALMOST
                            Holden by disrespecting Jane,      HE DOESN’T KNOW         THOUGHT WAS HIS
                            first thinking her name is         ANY BETTER AND          FRIEND
                            “Jean” and then taking her on      DOESN’T REALLY CARE
                            a “parked” date in Ed Banky‟s
                            car
        3. JANE             An unanswered question             JANE HAS SO MANY        HE FEELS INSECURE
                            lingers with the reader: does a    ISSUES OF HER OWN,      AND NOT GOOD
                            possible rejection from the past
                            haunt Holden; Jane seems to be
                                                               SHE IS UNINTERESTED     ENOUGH FOR HER
                            the girl he cannot have            IN HOLDEN AS A
                                                               ROMANTIC PARTNER
                                                               AND NEVER REALLY
                                                               HAS A CHANCE TO
                                                               ALLOW A
                                                               RELATIONSHIP TO
                                                               BLOSSOM
  4. MRS. MARROW            Holden asks her to have a drink    HOLDEN IS TOO           HE GETS TURNED
     (EARNEST’S             with him on the train but she      YOUNG FOR HER,ON A      DOWN BY A WOMAN
                            turns the offer down
      MOTHER)                                                  TRAIN IN THE MIDDLE     HE IS ATTRACTED TO
                                                               OF THE NIGHT            WHICH CAUSES HIM
                                                               (OBVIOUSLY A KID        TO FEEL INADEQUATE
                                                               WITH ISSUES), AND HIS
                                                               NOSE IS SEVERELY
                                                               BLEEDING STILL
                                                               WHICH FORCES HER
                                                               TO FEEL MORE
                                                               “MATERNAL” THAN
                                                               “SEXY”
  5. CAB DRIVER #1          Holden asks if driver wants to     CAB DRIVER IS ON THE    HOLDEN WAS JUST
                            have a drink with him but is       JOB AND                 TRYING TO MAKE A
                            refused. He then asks “where
                            the ducks go”.
                                                               REALISTICALLY           FRIEND; HIS ATTEMPT
                                                               DOESN’T HAVE TIME.      LEAVES HIM LONELY
                                                               PLUS, HE DOESN’T        AND REJECTED AGAIN
                                                        KNOW HOLDEN



6. FAITH CAVENDISH   Holden asks her out but is         HOLDEN OBVIOUSLY       ANOTHER FAILED
                     refused because the date is too    SOUNDS TOO YOUNG       ATTEMPT AT FEMAL
                     last minute. She tries to
                     reschedule but Holden is
                                                        FOR HER AND            COMPANY FOR
                     uninterested.                      INEXPERIENCED; SHE     HOLDEN; HE IS LEFT
                                                        TELLS HIM IT’S TOO     DISAPPOINTED IN
                                                        LATE AND IS            HIMSELF AND IN
                                                        PARTIALLY TELLING      WOMEN IN GENERAL
                                                        THE TRUTH
7. 3 WOMEN AT THE    All three women allow Holden       HOLDEN IS TOO          THIS IS ANOTHER
 LAVENDER ROOM       to buy them drinks and they        YOUNG AND NOT          REASON FOR HOLDEN
                     briefly dance with him, but are
                     indifferent about his company
                                                        FAMOUS                 TO LOOSE FAITH IN
                                                                               WOMEN AND HUMAN
                                                                               DECENCY AS WELL
 8. CAB DRIVER #2    Holden asks if driver wants to     CAB DRIVER IS ON THE   HOLDEN WAS JUST
                     have a drink with him but is       JOB AND                TRYING TO MAKE A
                     refused. He then asks “where
                     the ducks go” and the offended
                                                        REALISTICALLY          FRIEND; HIS ATTEMPT
                     driver replies with the “fish”     DOESN’T HAVE TIME.     LEAVES HIM LONELY
                     metaphor.                          PLUS, HE DOESN’T       AND REJECTED AGAIN
                                                        KNOW HOLDEN
9. ERNIE THE PIANO   Holden asks the waiter to ask      HOLDEN IS JUST A KID   HOLDEN LIKES AND
      PLAYER         Ernie if he‟d join Holden for a    AND NO ONE TO PAY      RESPECTS ERNIE BUT
                     drink but figures the waiter
                     never delivered the message
                                                        SPECIAL ATTENTION      IS STILL ANNOYED BY
                     when Ernie doesn‟t show.           TO IN THE CROWDED      THE FACT THAT
                                                        CLUB                   A)ERNIE PLAYS TO
                                                                               APPEAL TO A PHONY
                                                                               CROWD AND B)ERNIE
                                                                               WON’T GIVE HIM THE
                                                                               TIME OF DAY
  10. SUNNY THE      Holden tries to have a civilized   SUNNY HAS A JOB TO     HOLDEN DOESN’T
   PROSTITUTE        and interesting conversation       DO AND SHE’S           JUST WANT SEX; HE
                     with Sunny but she doesn‟t
                     respond to his social courtesy.
                                                        WORKING TRYING TO      WANTS
                                                        MAKE MONEY             COMPANIONSHIP AND
                                                                               WHEN HE REALIZES
                                                                               THE REALITY OF THE
                                                                               SITUATION—THAT
                                                                               SUNNY WON’T BE HIS
                                                                               “FRIEND”—IT
                                                                               DEPRESSES HIM AND
                                                                               MAKES HIM FEEL
                                                                               LONELY
     11. JANE        Holden calls Jane. When her        JANE DOESN’T REJECT    HOLDEN DOESN’T
                     mother answers the phone, he       HOLDEN, SHE JUST       REALIZE THIS IS NOT
                     quickly hangs up.
                                                        WASN’T AVAILABLE AT    HER FAULT. HE HAD
                                                        THAT POINT IN TIME     FINALLY GATHERED
                                                                               ENOUGH COURAGE TO
                                                                               CALL HER AND AFTER
                                                                               ALL OF THE
                                                                               SUSPENSE, SHE DIDN’T
                                                                                   ANSWER THE PHONE.
                                                                                   HE FEELS LIKE HIS
                                                                                   EFFORTS WERE
                                                                                   WASTED AND, HE
                                                                                   DOESN’T REALLY LIKE
                                                                                   HER MOM
  12. ICE SKATING         Holden asks the little girl to   SHE IS SPOOKED BY       HE SEES CHILDREN AS
    LITTLE GIRL           have hot chocolate with him;     HIM BECAUSE HE IS A     BEAUTIFUL, LOVING,
                          she refuses, responding by
                          saying “[she has] to meet her
                                                           STRANGER                INNOCENT, AND
                          friend.”                                                 HARMLESS. HE FEELS
                                                                                   REJECTED BY THE
                                                                                   BEAUTIFUL, LOVING,
                                                                                   INNOCENT, AND
                                                                                   HARMLESS CHILD
                                                                                   WHO MAKES HIM FEEL
                                                                                   UNWORTHY
      13. SALLY           Holden tries to talk to Sally    SALLY KNOWS             HOLDEN FEELS
                          about how depressed he is. She   HOLDEN HAS ISSUES.      COMPLETELY
                          doesn‟t comprehend his
                          feelings. When he admits that
                                                           SHE DOESN’T CARE        MISUNDERSTOOD AND
                          something is wrong with him,     ABOUT HIS PERSONAL      DEVASTATED THAT
                          instead of caring, she simply    STRUGGLES, SHE JUST     SALLY DOES NOT CARE
                          agrees.                          WANTS HIM TO TAKE       ABOUT HIS TROUBLES
                                                           HER ON A NORMAL
                                                           DATE AND LIKE HER

How many people have accepted Holden’s “cry for help” but it ended badly? Chart it.

       PERSON               SITUATION: HOW DID              POSSIBLE REASONS WHY    EFFECT ON HOLDEN
                               HE/SHE “ACCEPT”                 THE EXPERIENCE
                             HOLDEN SITUATION:              TURNED OUT NEGATIVE
                                     HOW DID.
       14. NUNS           They accept his donation, chat   HOLDEN BLOWS             HE FEELS TERRIBLE,
                          with and have breakfast with     SMOKE IN THEIR FACE      UNETHICAL, AND
                          him. He enjoys their company
                          and brief conversation.
                                                           BY ACCIDENT              CONSIDERS GIVING
                                                                                    THEM MORE MONEY
                                                                                    TO MAKE UP FOR HIS
                                                                                    SHORTCOMINGS
      15. SALLY           Sally goes on a date with        HOLDEN IS NOT TRULY      HE IS DISAPPOINTED
                          Holden even though she is        INTERESTED IN SALLY,     NOT ONLY IN SALLY,
                          phony and clearly not too
                          interested in him.
                                                           AS A MATTER OF FACT,     BUT IN HUMANKIND
                                                           SHE GETS ON HIS          IN GENERAL. HE IS
                                                           NERVES AND HE            COMING FACE TO
                                                           FINALLY TELLS HER        FACE WITH “PHONY”
                                                           THIS ON THE DATE         AT ITS WORST STAGE:
                                                                                    SALLY HAYES.

How many people have recognized Holden’s problems and attempted to reach out to him, yet, it he
rejected their help? Chart it.

       PERSON              SITUATION: HOW DID               SITUATION: HOW DID        WHY DOES HE
                          HE/SHE “REACH OUT” TO            HOLDEN “REJECT” THIS    “REJECT” THIS HELP?
                                 HOLDEN                        HIS/HER HEP?
   16. MR. SPENCER            Has a talk with Holden and        HOLDEN DECIDES TO         HOLDEN IS TOO
                              gives him a dose of reality       MENTALLY TUNE OUT         IMMATURE TO HEAR
                              while trying to explain to him
                              that the “Game of Life” has
                                                                THE MESSAGE AND           THE TRUTH FROM
                              rules that must be followed.      THEN LIE ABOUT            SOMEONE WHOSE
                                                                HAVING SOMEWHERE          ADVISE IS TOO CLOSE
                                                                TO GO                     TO HIS OWN INNER
                                                                                          CONCIENCE. HE
                                                                                          DOESN’T WANT TO
                                                                                          HEAR THAT HE IS
                                                                                          “WRONG”
      17. LILLIAN             Asks Holden to join her and her   HOLDEN LIES ABOUT         HE WANTS TRUE
       SIMMONS                date for a drink at Ernie‟s.      HAVING SOMEWHERE          COMPANIONSHIP AND
                                                                TO GO RATHER THAN         FIRENDSHIP; HE
                                                                SHARE A DRINK WITH        DOESN’T THINK
                                                                HER ON HER INVITE         LILLIAN IS WORTH
                                                                                          SPENDING TIME WITH
                                                                                          BECAUSE HE KNOWS
                                                                                          SHE IS “PHONY”

18. How do these interactions with others affect Holden‟s mental state? How do they affect his view of the
world? Do they help or hinder him? Explain.

THEY HINDER HIS ABILITY TO SEE THE WORLD FOR IT’S TRUE BEAUTY AND RUIN HIS ABILITY TO
SEE PAST THE “PHONY” IN PEOPLE. BECAUSE OF THIS, HE IS JUDGEMENTAL AND CONSITENTLY
LONELY AND ANGRY.




       The Catcher in the Rye Literature Circles: Part B (Rhetoric and Repetition)
       Repetition is a type of rhetoric that can reveal truths about the protagonist that would otherwise not be
recognized. At this point in the novel, repetition becomes essential to Diagnosing Holden Caulfield‟s
psychological issues.


        View the given pages. List a Quote (Effect) and a Cause for every instance where Holden mentions 1) being sad
2) being depressed 3) being lonely 4) crying 5) suicide or not living anymore 6) mentions leaving the world as he
knows it and going away from “reality”—or-- getting away 7) compares his situation with death. After completing
the chart, see if you can find any patterns or make any connections.

         PG # AND DIRECT QUOTE (EFFECT)                                              CAUSE
 1) 44 “ I was almost bawling I really was”                        Argument and physical fight with
                                                                   Stradlater over Jane and composition
                                                                   about Allie’s glove
 2) 48 “Boy did I feel rotten. I felt so damn lonesome”            After fight with Stradlater, Ackley
                                                                   doesn’t almost rejects Holden by not
                                                                   allowing his stay
 3) 50 “It was even depressing out in the street. You              Laying in Ackley’s room thinking about
 couldn‟t even hear any cars anymore. I go feeling so              Stradlater on a date with Jane
 lonesome and rotten…”
4) 50 “…What‟s the routine on joining a monastery? Do         Laying in Ackley’s room thinking about
you have to be Catholic and all?”                             S’s date with Jane; Ackley falling
                                                              asleep
5) 51 “I just didn‟t want to hang around anymore. It made In Ackley’s room thinking of how
me too sad and lonesome”                                      everyone is asleep peacefully or has
                                                              something to do
6) 51-52 One thing about packing depressed me…brand           He was disappointing her by getting
new ice skates mom just sent…                                 kicked out, she sent him skates he
                                                              wouldn’t use
7) 52 I was sort of crying                                    Looking down the corridor, saying
                                                              goodbye to Pencey, leaving another
                                                              school
8) 61 I was too depressed to care whether I had a good        Just ran away and checked into a
view or not.                                                  crumby hotel
9) 61 He was even more depressing than the room was           Bell boy was 65, hopeless world of
                                                              losers
10) 75 that business about getting up early to see the first  Lavender Room girls don’t offer to pay
show at Radio City Music Hall depressed me                    for drinks and then want to go to ___in
                                                              morning
11) 75 …it makes me so depressed I can‟t stand it.            Their phony superficial, snobby, tourist
                                                              attitudes and having bad hats in NYC
12) 80 all the whory looking blondes weren‟t around           So empty in the crumby hotel, everyone
anymore, all of a sudden I felt like getting the hell out     has something to do
13) 81 it was so quiet and lonesome out…It makes you          The emptiness of the city at night,
feel so lonesome and depressed                                echoing of voices and the couple
                                                              laughing together
14) 84 damn near go my coat back and went back to the         Earnie playing to please the crowd and
hotel, but it was too early and I didn‟t feel much like being the phonies laughing in the bar
all alone
15) 90 The more I thought about my gloves and my             Imaginary interaction with the glove
yellowness, the more depressed I got                         thief and realizing what a coward he is
16) 90 I wasn‟t sleepy or anything, but I was feeling sort   Empty lobby, just threw up from too
of lousy. Depressed and all. I almost wished I was dead.     much liquor, drunk, sick, crumby hotel
                                                             smells, alone, bad night
17) 95 I felt much more depressed than sexy                  Sunny taking her clothes of suddenly,
                                                             with no intimacy or conversation, sex
                                                             for money
18) 95-96 I made me feel sort of sad when I hung it up       A nice dress on a prostitute

19) 98 Boy I felt miserable. I felt so depressed you can‟t   Sun coming up, hungover, no follow
imagine                                                      through with Sunny
20) 99 I keep thinking about it anyway, when I get very      Regrets not including Allie in activities
depressed                                                    with his friends, Regret, sadness, misses
                                                             his bro
 21) 103 All of a sudden I started to cry                     Being robbed and held against his will

 22) 103 I was still sort of crying. I was so damn mad and  Got “snapped” and calling Maurice a
 nervous and all                                            moron in defense while still pinned
                                                            against a wall
 23) 103 Only this time I thought I was dying…I thought I   Got punched in the stomach by
 was frowning or something…I could hardly breathe           Maurice, lying on the floor defeated in
                                                            agonizing pain
 24) 103-104 Sort of pretending I had a bullet in my guts   Got punched by Maurice and got the
                                                            wind knocked out of him
 25) 104 What I really felt like, though, was committing    After his bath, calming down after
 suicide. I felt like jumping out the window.               Maurice left, trying to go to sleep but
                                                            not tired
 26) 113 I was sorry anyway…Gaddam money. It always         Blew smoke in nuns faces by accident
 ends up making you blue as hell                            and then wished he gave them more
                                                            money
 27) 114 I knew it wasn‟t too important but it made me sad The fact that nuns are so humble that
 anyway                                                     they never go anywhere fancy, but he
                                                            does
 28) 115 It made me feel not so depressed anymore           Feeling down but the kidding singing
                                                            coming through the rye cheers him up
 29) 118 It made you depressed, and every once in a while   Cold day, park setting: dog poop, globs
 for no reason you got goose flesh while you walked         of spit, cigar butts, wet benches
 30) 130 Did you ever get fed up…scared that everything     Date with Sally and her dismissing his
 was going to go lousy unless you did something?...It‟s     feelings as he tries to have an in depth
 everything, I hate it…”
                                                            conversation with her and she keeps
                                                            talking about phony shallow things
 31) 131 I‟d probably be someplace way the hell off. In the Fed up and sick of the city, people,
 woods or some goddam place.                                superficialism, etc
 32) 132 How would you like to get the hell out of here     Wants to leave because he finally blows
                                                            over
 33) 133 & 133I was getting depressed as hell again.        Sally isn’t agreeing with his concept of
 She was depressing the hell out of me                      the world and his theory of leaving

34. What is medically/psychologically wrong with Holden Caulfield?

Severe Depression, suicidal, bi-polar, anxiety
35. List the things that Holden has done that would worry his loved ones about him (both past and present
mentioned by Holden as the narrator) and later convince them to seek psychological help for him.

BREAKS WINDOWS AFTER HIS BROTHER DIES, GETS KICKED OUT OF SEVERAL
SCHOOL, BAD GRADES, RUN AWAY, GET IN FIGHTS, SMOKES, DRINKS, SPENDS
GRANDMA’S MONEY, ORDERS A PROSTITUTE, GETS BEAT UP, WANDERS AROUND
NEW YORK CITY ALONE.
                    The Catcher in the Rye Literature Circles: Part C (Analysis)

      SITUATION & DIRECT QUOTE (PG#)                             QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER FOR ANALYSIS
1. AT ERNIE’S:                                                  Why do these type of people annoy Holden?
“You should‟ve heard the crowd though, when he was
finished. You would‟ve puked. They went mad. They
                                                                Explain.
were exactly the same morons that laugh like hyenas in the      THEY ARE PHONY
movies at stuff that isn‟t funny. …people always clap for
the wrong things (84)

2. AT ERNIE’S:                                                  Explain the contradiction between the two
“I ordered a Scotch and soda, which is my favorite drink,
next to frozen Daiquiris” (85)
                                                                drinks that Holden likes to order. How are
                                                                they both appropriate for him?
                                                                AN VERY SOPHISTICATED AND
                                                                MASCULINE DRINK AND A VERY FUN,
                                                                FEMININE DRINK. HOLDEN HAS A
                                                                PART OF HIM THAT IS TRYING TO BE
                                                                OLDER AND SOPHISTICATED,
                                                                PSYCHOLOGICALLY, HE IS STILL A
                                                                CHILD

3. AT ERNIES’S:                                                 What does this irony indirectly reveal about
“If I were a piano player I‟d play it in the goddamn closet.”
(84)
                                                                Holden‟s character?
                                                                A PIANO IS AN INSTRUMENT THAT IS
                                                                MEANT TO BE LOUD AND HEARD FROM
                                                                FAR DISTANCES; IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO
                                                                PLAY IN THE CLOSET. HOLDEN IS NOT
                                                                A REALIST, EVERYTHING HE WANTS
                                                                ALMOST GOES AGAINST HUMAN
                                                                NATURE AND COMMON SENSE
4. AT ERNIES’S:                                                 Consider the perspective of the host/waiter,
“They finally got me this stinking table, right up against a
wall and behind a goddam post, where you couldn‟t see
                                                                why was Holden seated at such a terrible table?
anything. It was one of those tiny little tables that if the    HE IS JUST A KID, NO ONE SPECIAL,
people at the next table don‟t get up to let you by…you         AND NO ONE THAT CAN REALLY
practically have to climb into your chair.” (84-85)             CONTRIBUTE LARGE SUMS OF MONEY
                                                                TO THE ESTABLISHMENT

5. AT ERNIE’S:                                                  What about this situation makes these two
“They were around my age, or maybe just a little older. It
was funny. You could see they were being careful as hell
                                                                characters phony?
not to drink up the minimum too fast.” (85)                     THEY CANNOT REALLY AFFORD TO
                                                                DRINK AND DINE AT ERNIE’S AND
                                                                THEY ARE PRETENDING THEY BELONG
                                                                IN THAT SOCIAL CONTEXT
6. AT ERNIE’S:                                                  What about these conversations makes these
1) Guy talking to his date about football
2) Guy talking about his roommate who almost committed
                                                                dates phony?
suicide while feeling up his date under the table (85-86)          1) IT IS A BORING DATE FOR THE
                                                                       GIRL
                                                                   2) SUICIDE IS A SENSITIVE TOPIC,
                                                                       NOT A CASUAL CONVERSATION
                                                                       TO STRIKE UP WHILE TRYING TO
                                                                       MAKE A SEXUAL PASS AT ONE’S
                                                                       DATE

7. AT ERNIE’S:                                                  Although Holden is lonely, why does he still
“I certainly began to feel like a prize horse‟s ass, though,
sitting there all by myself…
                                                                choose not to sit with Lillian and her date?
„Holden, come join us,‟ old Lillian said. „Bring your drink.‟   SHE IS PHONY AND DOESN’T LIKE HER
„I was just leaving,‟I told her. „I have to meet
somebody.‟…(87)

8. WALKING FROM ERNIE’S TO THE HOTEL:                           Define “yellow” in the context that Holden
Refer to Holden‟s imaginary situation with the stolen glove
thief and his view of himself being “yellow” on page 88-89
                                                                uses it. Consider Holden‟s explanation of this
                                                                hypothetical situation, do you think it is
                                                                hypothetical? Why or why not?

                                                                YELLOW MEANS COWARDLY. HOLDEN
                                                                WOULD NEVER STAND UP TO THE
                                                                GLOVE THEIF IN REAL LIFE. HIS
                                                                BRAVERY EXHISTS ONLY IN
                                                                HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS


9. WALKING FROM ERNIE’S TO THE HOTEL:                           Respond to this quote with a Character
“I‟m just no good at it though. I‟d rather push a guy out the
window or chop his head off with an ax than sock him in the
                                                                Analysis of Holden.
jaw. I hate fist fights.” (90)                                  A LOT OF INNER ANGER AND PENT UP
                                                                FRUSTRATION WITH PEOPLE IN
                                                                GENERAL
10. WALKING FROM ERNIE’S TO THE HOTEL:                          Explain why he didn‟t go into the bar. Then
“One thing I have, it‟s a terrific capacity. I can drink all
night and not even show it, if I‟m in the mood…anyway…I
                                                                consider,
started to go in this dumpy-looking bar, but two guys came      how true do you think Holden‟s claim to be
out, drunk as hell…he kept breathing his stinking breath in     able to “hold his liquor” is?
my face while I gave him directions. I ended up not even        HE WAS TOO DRUNK AND THE
going in the damn bar.” (90)
                                                                THOUGHT OF BEING AROUND MORE
                                                                BELLIGERANT DRUNKS PUSHED HIS
                                                                DRUNKNESS INTO NASEAU. HOLDEN
                                                                CANNOT REALLY HOLD HIS LIQUOR
11. IN THE ELEVATOR TALKING TO MAURICE:                         If Holden is so nervous about ordering a
“ „Okay,‟ I said. It was against my principles and all but I
was feeling so depressed I didn‟t even think…I was already
                                                                prostitute, and regrets it immediately, why does
                                                                he not speak up and cancel?
sort of sorry I‟d let the thing start rolling, but it was too late   HE DOES NOT ALWAYS ACT ON HIS
now.” (91)
                                                                     FEELINGS OF RIGHT VS. WRONG. HE
                                                                     ALLOWS THINGS TO HAPPEN “TO HIM”
                                                                     RATHER THAN BEING PROACTIVE IN
                                                                     HIS LIFE
12. WAITING FOR SUNNY:                                               What is your view of Holden in terms of sexual
“I was a little nervous….By the time I did get it off, she was
about ready to spit in my eye.” (92-93)
                                                                     experience? What is Holden‟s view of himself
                                                                     in terms of sexual experience?
                                                                     HE IS NOT SEXUALLY EXPERIENCED.
                                                                     HE SPEAKS AS IF HE KNOWS MORE
                                                                     THAN HE ACTUALLY DOES. DEEP
                                                                     WITHIN, HE KNOWS SEX TERRIFIES
                                                                     HIM AND HE IS TRYING TO GAIN
                                                                     EXPERIENCE WHILE AT THE SAME
                                                                     TIME STAYING AS FAR AWAY FROM
                                                                     SEX AS POSSIBLE
13. OPENING THE DOOR FOR SUNNY:                                      Explain why his stumble is a comical scene
“somebody knocked on the door, and when I went to open
it, I had my suitcase right in the way and I fell over it and
                                                                     that even he recognizes.
damn near broke my knee. ” (93)                                      HE JUST FINISHED SAYING HE WAS
                                                                     “SUAVE” BUT HE TRIPPED WHICH IS
                                                                     NOT SUAVE AT ALL
14. OPENING THE DOOR FOR SUNNY:                                      Why is he so easy going with Sunny but he is
“ „How do you do,‟ I said. Suave as hell, boy… „Come in
won‟t you?‟ I said. I was getting more and more nonchalant
                                                                     afraid to approach Jane?
as it went along. I really was.” (94)                                SUNNY IS A PROSTITUTE; HE DOESN’T
                                                                     KNOW HER OR HAVE ANY FEELINGS
                                                                     FOR HER
15. SUNNY IS IN HOLDEN’S ROOM:                                       Describe and explain what is so “depressing”
“I know you‟re supposed to feel pretty sexy when
somebody gets up and pulls their dress over their head, but I
                                                                     about this situation with Sunny? Why was he
didn‟t. Sexy was about the last thing I was feeling. I felt          “turned off” by her?
much more depressed than sexy.” (95)                                 SHE IS YOUNG—AROUND HIS AGE—
                                                                     AND A WORKING PROSTITUTE WHO IS
                                                                     UNEDUCATED AND HAS THROWN HER
                                                                     LIFE AWAY. HE IS A RUN AWAY AND
                                                                     HAS THE POTENTIAL TO DO WELL IN
                                                                     LIFE BUT IS ACTUALLY VERY CLOSE
                                                                     TO THROWING HIS LIFE AWAY AND
                                                                     CROSSING THAT THIN LINE THAT WILL
                                                                     MAKE HIM JUST LIKE HER, ANOTHER
                                                                     TEEN STATISTIC

16. SUNNY SITS ON HOLDEN’S LAP:                                      What did Sunny do that was “crude”?
Then she started getting funny. Crude and all.
“Do you mind cutting it out?” I said. “I‟m not in the mood,
                                                                     SHE TOUCHED HIM IN HIS PRIVATE
I just told you…”97                                                  AREAS BELOW THE BELT
17. AFTER SUNNY LEAVES HOLDEN’S ROOM:                             What does this apostrophe reveal about
“I felt so depressed, you can‟t imagine. What I did, I started
talking, sort of out loud, to Allie. I do that sometimes when
                                                                  Holden‟s feelings? Analyze why he always
I get very depressed…” (99)                                       thinks of the same memory with Allie.
                                                                  HE FEELS GUILTY AND REGRETFUL.
                                                                  HE IS UPSET THAT HE DIDN’T SHOW
                                                                  ALLIE LOVE AND RESPECT WHEN HE
                                                                  WAS ALIVE AND NOW ALLIE IS GONE
                                                                  FOREVER AND THINGS CANNOT BE
                                                                  CHANGED


18. CALLING SALLY FOR A DATE:                                     Holden reveals that he and Sally used to date
“First she told me about some Harvard guy…that was
rushing hell out of her…Then she told me about some other
                                                                  regularly. Why would she nonchalantly tell
guy, some West Point cadet, that was cutting his throat over      him about all these “other guys”? Does it have
her too. Big deal.” (106)                                         the effect she intends?
                                                                  SHE IS TRYING TO GET HIM JEALOUS.
                                                                  HE DOESN’T REALLY CARE THAT
                                                                  MUCH SO HER PLAN UPSETS HIM
19. A FLASHBACK ABOUT LOUIS SHANEY:                               From Holden‟s point of view, what is “wrong”
“He was enjoying the conversation about tennis and all, but
you could tell he would‟ve enjoyed it more if I was a
                                                                  with Catholics trying to find out if other people
Catholic and all. That kind of stuff drives me crazy.”(112-       are Catholic?
113)                                                              HE DOESN’T FEEL ITS RIGHT TO
                                                                  JUDGE PEOPLE’S CHARACTER AND
                                                                  WHETHER THEY’RE WORTHY OF
                                                                  BEING A FRIEND OR NOT BASED ON A
                                                                  FACTOR LIKE RELIGION
20. BUYING THEATER TICKETS FOR SALLY:                             Explain Holden‟s annoyance with actors and
“In the first place, I hate actors. They never act like people.
They just think they do. Some of the good ones do, in a
                                                                  “good actors that are too good.”
very slight way, but not in a way that‟s fun to watch.” (117)     THEY ARE PHONY


21. IN THE PARK LOOKING FOR PHOEBE:                               Compare Holden and Phoebe as little children.
“I kept walking over to the Mall anyway, because that‟s
where Phoebe usually goes when she‟s in the park. She
                                                                  Do you think he was always the way he was or
likes to skate near the bandstand. It‟s funny. That‟s the         was he more like Allie and Phoebe? Explain.
same place I used to like to skate when I was a kid.”(118)        Do you think Phoebe grow up to be like
                                                                  Holden?

                                                                  HOLDEN WAS PROBABLY LIKE ALLIE
                                                                  AND PHOEBE AS A CHILD BUT
                                                                  CHANGED AS HE GREW UP AND FACED
                                                                  THE DEATH OF HIS BROTHER. HIS
                                                                  CHILDHOOD INNOCENCE WAS
                                                                  DESTROYED. PHOEBE WILL MOST
                                                                  LIKELY NOT BE LIKE HOLDEN. SHE
                                                                  SEEMS STONGER THAN HIM EVEN
                                                                  THOUGH SHE IS YOUNGER


22. AFTER THE PLAY WITH SALLY:                                    Is Holden jealous or is he truly annoyed with
“I got bored as hell, and I said to her, „Why don‟t you go on
over and give him a big soul kiss, if you know him? He‟ll
                                                                  the unethical behavior of Sally and this
enjoy it.‟ She got sore when I said that. Finally though, the     situation? Explain your point of view.
jerk noticed her and came over and said hello.”(127)              HOLDEN IS JEALOUS

23. TALKING WITH SALLY AFTER ICE SKATING:                         Why is Holden nervous and nervously lighting
“Then I sort of started lighting matches. I do that quite a lot
when I‟m in a certain mood. I sort of let them burn down
                                                                  matches at the skate rink, why is he troubled;
till I can‟t hold them anymore, then I drop them in the           what is he thinking?
ashtray. It‟s a nervous habit.” (130)                             ALL OF HIS FRUSTRATIONS AND
                                                                  DISAPPOINTMENTS ARE STARTING TO
                                                                  “FUSE” TOGETHER AS THE BEGINNING
                                                                  OF HIS BREAKDOWN BEGINS
24. TALKING WITH SALLY AFTER ICE SKATING:                         Define Foreshadow. How does this part of the
“Did you ever get fed up?” I said. “I mean did you ever get
scared that everything was going to go lousy unless you did
                                                                  novel Foreshadow Holden‟s breakdown?
something? I mean do you like school, and all that                FORESHADOWING IS THE INTIMATION
stuff?”(130)                                                      OF A FUTURE EVENT WITHIN A PIECE
                                                                  OF LITERATURE. HOLDEN IS READY TO
                                                                  LEAVE THE WORLD AS HE KNOWS IT.
                                                                  HE IS EITHER READY TO RUN AWAY
                                                                  FOREVER/FOR GOOD OR READY FOR
                                                                  SUICIDE
25. TALKING WITH SALLY AFTER ICE SKATING:                         Explain what Holden means by this statement,
“ „I don‟t even like old cars. I mean they don‟t even interest
me. I‟d rather have a goddam horse. I horse is at least
                                                                  and what it reveals about his character. Then,
human, for God‟s sake.‟ ”(131)                                    explain the ironic non sequitar within it.
                                                                  HE APPRECIATES THE BEAUTY IN LIFE
                                                                  AND NOT JUST THE MATERIALISTIC
                                                                  THINGS. NON SEQUITAR: A HORSE IS
                                                                  NOT HUMAN
THE CATCHER IN THE RYE LITERATURE CIRCLES: PART D (LITERARY DEVICES &
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE)

Directions: Match the following terms in the box with the given quotes. There are more quotes than there are
terms so some may be repeated more than once.

Allusion                     Simile                        Idiom                        Metaphor
Personification              Overstatement                 Understatement               Hyperbole
Euphemism                    Metonymy                      Epithet                      Motif

1. ___Idiom____________“He‟s got a lot of dough now” (1)

2. ___Metaphor____________“Now he‟s out in Hollywood, D.B, being a prostitute”(2)

3. __Allusion_____________“I passed English all right …because I had all that Beowulf and Lord Randal
My Son stuff when I was at the Whooton School” (10)

4. __Understatement_____________“„Jesus!‟ he said. „What the hell happened to you?‟
                    He meant all the blood and all.
                    „I had a little goddam tiff with Stradlater,‟ I said.” (47)

5. _Metaphor______________“You’re a real prince, you’re a gentleman and a scholar, Ackley”(47)

6. __Overstatement_____“[Earnest has] never really been a terribly good mixer with the other boys”(55)

7. __Hyperbole_____________“Once I get started, I can go on for hours if I feel like it” (58)

8. __Metaphor_____________“I started giving the three witches at the next table the eye again” (70)

9. __Simile_____________“I apologized like a madman” (73)

10. ___Hyperbole___________“I’d’ve bought the whole three of them a hundred drinks if only they hadn‟t
told me that.” (75)

11. __Idiom____________“I don‟t want you to get the idea she was a goddam icicle or something, just because
we never necked or horsed around much. She wasn‟t.” (79)

12. __Idiom____________“Shoot the bull” (80)

13. _Overstatement_____________“He goes to Ernies to hear Ernie play the piano.
                    It was supposed to be something holy.” (83)

14. __Epithet_____________“Joe-Yale looking guy” (85)

15. __Simile_____________“I began to feel like a prize horses ass” (86)

16. __Epithet_____________“His name was Commander Blop or something” (86)

17. _Motif______________“I took my red hunting hat out of my pocket and put it on” (88)
18. __Idiom_____________“I knew I didn‟t have to get all dolled up for a prostitute or anything” (91)

19. ___Metonymy____________“Caulfield and his Magic Violin” (93)

20.__Allusion_____________ “ Take Eustacia Vye in the return of the native by Thomas Hardy” (110)

21. ___Idiom____________“But we chewed the fat for a little while…that is she chewed it” (106)

22.__Hyperbole_____________ “He stepped back, and stepped right on the lady‟s foot behind him. He
probably broke every toe in her body” (127)

Directions: For the following, write whether the quote represents situational, verbal, or dramatic irony.

23. __Situational_____________“I‟m the one who‟s flunking out of the…place and you‟re asking me to write
your…composition?”(28)

24. _Verbal______________“I walked all the way back to the hotel. Forty-one gorgeous blocks”(88)

25.__Situational______________ “see? All I‟m takin‟ is the five you owe me. I‟m no crook.” (103)

26. _Verbal______________“Holden Vitamin Caulfield” (108)

27. _Verbal______________“[the actor] was with some gorgeous blonde, and the two of them were trying to be
very blasé and all, like as if he didn‟t even know people were looking at him. Modest as hell. (127)

28._Dramatic_______________ “What are we going to see?” she said.
“I don‟t know. The Lunts. It‟s all I could get tickets for.”(125)
                                 UNIVERSAL THEME vs. THEME

1. UNIVERSAL THEMES (also known as Thematic Subjects or Thematic Ideas) are simply topics, which can
be stated in a single word, such as “Love.” Some examples of UNIVERSAL THEMES are listed in the
following (please note that these are not all of them):

Love                    Loss                    Money                    Friendship              Admiration
Forgiveness             Loneliness              Pride                    Innocence               Determination
Success                 Sorrow                  Honor                    Right vs. Wrong         Ambition
Loyalty                 Death                   Prejudice                Revenge                 Anger
Devotion                Hatred                  Racism                   Equality                Escape
Faith                   Fear                    Freedom                  Dishonesty              Greed
Sacrifice               Oppression              Independence             Friendship              Justice
Romance                 Truth                   Trust                    Dedication              Liberty


2. A “THEME”—on the other hand—makes a specific opinion/position statement or claim about a
UNIVERSAL THEME. Most pieces of literature—regardless of the genre—contain some sort of a greater
meaning/message/THEME that the writer expresses through the literature. For example:

          1) In John Steinbeck‟s Of Mice and Men: Often times, what we believe to be “right” is influenced by
          our personal feelings, and therefore, leads to “wrong” decisions.
          2) In William Shakespeare‟s Romeo and Juliet: Love can blossom and exist through conflict, war, or
          violence; love has no boundaries and therefore, it is stronger than hate.
          3) In Reginald Rose‟s Twelve Angry Men: Equality and justice should rely on more than just the
          personal opinion of any individual.

Directions: Complete the following table by filling in a UNIVERSAL THEME, THEME, or both in the given boxes.
Remember, a theme is overall, a generalization about life or human nature. It is a message/moral/insight about life
usually discovered through the context of a piece of literature. There is NO single way to state a theme. You and your
classmates may express a similar—or exactly the same—theme in different words.

                 UNIVERSAL THEME                                                        THEME

1.                                                             …can hurt people’s feelings.

2.                                                             …often leads to international disputes, and
                                                               sometimes even war.
3. Revenge…

4. Greed…

5.

6.
                                   CREATING A THEME GUIDE
                               HOW DO WE FIGURE OUT THE THEME?

Directions: In each box, write down questions that may lead to figuring out theme for each category.

1) How do we figure out theme by examining PLOT & CONFLICT:
WHO/WHAT IS THE PROTAGONIST AND THE ANTAGONIST
WHAT IS THE CONFLICT (INTERNAL AND/OR EXTERNAL)
HOW IS THE CONFLICT RESOLVED
WHAT IS THE CLIMAX?
WHAT IS THE RESOLUTION OF THE STORY



2) How do we figure out theme through CHARACTER ANALYSIS:

WHAT IS THE CHARACTER LIKE THROUGH DIRECT CHARACTER ANALYSIS
WHAT IS THE CHARACTER LIKE THROUGH INDIRECT CHARACTER ANALYSIS
IS THE CHARACTER A ROUND, FLAT, OR STOCK CHARACTER
IS THE CHARACTER DYNAMIC OR STATIC/DOES THE CHARACTER CHANGE OR
LEARN


3) How do we figure out theme by analyzing DICTION, TONE, & MOOD:
WHAT IS THE DICTION LIKE
ARE THERE ANY DESCRIBING WORDS OR ADJECTIVES
WHAT ASSOCIATIONS CAN YOU MAKE WITH THE WORDS THAT ARE BEING USED
ARE THERE ANY FEELINGS THAT ARE REVEALED THROUGH THE SETTING AND
IMAGERY OF THE NOVEL
HOW DOES THE READING MAKE YOU FEEL
HOW DO THE CHARACTERS FEEL IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS IN THE NOVEL


4) How do we figure out theme by analyzing SYMBOLISM, METAPHOR, & MOTIF:
WHAT DO THE SYMBOLS MEAN
WHAT SYMBOLS ARE MOTIFS
WHEN DO THE SYMBOLS APPEAR AND HOW ARE THEY RELATED TO THE
PROTAGONIST OF THE STORY
WHAT METAPHORS ARE BEING USED AND WHAT ARE THEY CONNOTATIVE FOR

5) How do we figure out theme through TITLE ANALYSIS:

WHY IS THE NOVEL TITLED THE WAY IT IS
WHAT DOES THE TITLE MEAN
WHAT ARE THE CONNOTATIONS OF THE TITLE
WHAT WOULD YOU RENAME THE NOVEL IF YOU COULD
* LAST BUT NOT LEAST! LIST THE POSSIBLE UNIVERSAL THEMES
THAT COME TO YOUR HEAD WHEN CONSIDERING ALL OF THESE
QUESTIONS. What do they make you think of (love, hate, revenge, hope,
etc.)? This is always a starting point 
                                      Pre-writing & Essay Ideas
                           The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger

Universal Themes : Circle the one(s) that strike you as worthy of writing about or create your own

Loneliness & Alienation       Rejection                   Insecurity                     Maturity or Lack of

Regret                        Rebellion                   Hatred of ―Phonies‖            Family Support or Lack of

Loss of Innocence             Anger                       Suspicion/Mistrust of Adults   Sibling Relationships

Depression                    Coping with Loss or Death   Fear                           Betrayal/Feeling Betrayed




Theme: Choose one (or combine more than one) universal theme from above and create a theme that you feel
encompasses the message/moral/insight of the entire novel. Write the theme (opinion/position statement or
claim) in this box.




Evidence: Choose and circle one of the 5 literary elements that supports and proves your theme.
1) Plot and Conflict 2) Character Analysis 3) Diction, Tone, & Mood 4) Symbolism, Metaphor, & Motif 5) Title
Analysis
- How does this element lead to your theme? Explain




Textual Evidence? List quotes, ideas, and/or page #’s that will support your theme and the element that leads to
it.




Evidence: Choose and circle a second of the 5 literary elements that supports and proves your theme.
1) Plot and Conflict 2) Character Analysis 3) Diction, Tone, & Mood 4) Symbolism, Metaphor, & Motif 5) Title
Analysis
-How does this element lead to your theme? Explain




Textual Evidence? List quotes, ideas, and/or page #’s that will support your theme and the element that leads to
it.

				
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