CDE_Jahresbericht_03_04 by wulinqing


									CDE Report 2003/2004
CDE Report 2003/2004
Cover photo: Urs Wiesmann
Photos pages 36 and 44: Hans Hurni

Centre for Development and Environment (CDE)
Institute of Geography
University of Berne
Steigerhubelstrasse 3
CH 3008 Berne
Phone: +41 31 631 88 22
Fax: +41 31 631 85 44
                                                                                                 Urs Wiesmann


Global change continues to be a major topic in the media and in public and policy debates. It

should be noted that global change goes far beyond climate change and the effects of

economic globalisation. Global change can be the result of accumulated local change, as in

natural resource change, or local social, political, institutional and demographic change.

These changes often do not receive their due attention because the effects are also local, and

global action is not perceived as necessary. Together with its partners in Switzerland and

abroad, CDE has taken up the challenge of examining the issues of global change in greater

detail, particularly within the Swiss ‘National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR)

North-South’ research programme. One of the key results of the work of the NCCR North-

South since 2001 has been a regionally adapted global list of core issues of non-sustainable

development related to global change. The list covers an impressively broad range of fields

including policy and institutions, socio-culture and economy, livelihoods, infrastructure and

services, and the environment. The challenge now is to find ways to achieve concrete

mitigation and betterment.

    There is a recent tendency for education and especially higher learning to be put higher on

    the international development agenda, both in developed and developing countries. However,

    higher education is a field not likely to show quick and easily monitorable results. Continuity,

    trusted partnership, and long-term commitment, together with appropriate learning

    approaches and relevant themes, are crucial to success. CDE is ready to take up the chal-

    lenges, and we consider ourselves well placed to make contributions in our fields of experi-

    ence, thanks to our longstanding links with partner institutions engaged in higher learning in

    countries of the South and East, and in Switzerland. It is our conviction that education derives

    much of its effectiveness from exposure to the real world.

    As in previous years, conflicts and disasters have brought hardship to hundreds of thou-

    sands in many parts of the world. CDE had the chance to make a small contribution to help

    alleviate the effects of these events, including preparation of maps to support peace building

    in the Sudan, provision of spatial data on Tsunami-affected areas in late 2004, and prepara-

    tion and field-testing of learning modules for disaster prevention in Tajikistan.

    2003 and 2004 have been important years of consolidation for CDE. With regard to research,

    the integration of the NCCR North-South was an important task. With regard to our policy

    section, the elaboration of a new overall framework for CDE’s environmental mandate for the

    Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) was another important milestone, as

    was the conclusion of new phases of several of our outreach programmes in Africa and

    Central Asia. Our engagement at the home university in Berne was enhanced through our

    participation in the development of new curricula for Bachelor’s and Master’s programmes in

    Geography within the framework of the so-called Bologna Reform. With regard to our

    operational services, translation and editing – including production of the international,

    peer-reviewed, quarterly journal Mountain Research and Development – were among the

    most important tasks, as was the production of tailor-made spatial data bases and maps for

    various internal and external customers. This all would not have been possible without our

    dedicated staff and without the trust of our funding partners in Switzerland and abroad. Our

    sincere thanks go to all of them.

    CDE Board of Directors:

    Hans Hurni, Urs Wiesmann, Andreas Kläy, Thomas Kohler, and Urs Balsiger

Foreword                                                                               3

Research                                                                                7

The NCCR North-South: Research Partnerships for Mitigating Syndroms of Global Change    7
NCCR North-South Management Centre                                                     11
Individual Project1 (IP1): Conceptual Framework and Methodologies                      12
Individual Project2 (IP2): Natural Resources and Ecology                               14
SOLES – Social Learning for Sustainability                                             15

Outreach                                                                               16

Eastern and Southern Africa Partnership Programme (ESAPP)                              16
Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLM), Eritrea                                   17
Simen Mountains Programme                                                              19
Central Asia Mountain Partnership Programme (CAMP)                                     19
Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir– Alai Mountains (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan)   21
Alpine Research: Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Natural Heritage Site (JAB)        22

Policy                                                                                 23

WOCAT – World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies                     23
Sustainable Land Management for Policy Dialogue                                        24
International Network Learning for Sustainability (ALS)                                25
International Journal Mountain Research and Development (MRD)                          25
Mountain Agenda                                                                        26
Backstopping Mandate for the Environment and Natural Resources Division of
the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)                                 27
CDE Info Service                                                                       29

University                                                                             30

Education in Geography                                                                 30
Bologna Reform                                                                         30

Operations                                                                             31

Earth Observation and Geoprocessing                                                    31
Editing and Translation                                                                33
Knowledge Management                                                                   33
Internet, Intranet and Database Development                                            34

Personnel                                                                              37

Finances                                                                               39


                                                                                                              Peter Messerli


CDE’s Research Section consists of all programmes and projects which are primarily con-
cerned with what is usually focused research, in partnership with institutions in partner
countries, and which also have an educational aim at the academic level (theses and
doctoral degrees). Resources come primarily from institutions that promote research, but
also from the realm of international cooperation.

NCCR North–South: Research                            innovative solutions, the NCCR North–South aims
Partnerships for Mitigating                           to generate new knowledge, develop research
Syndromes of Global Change                            capacities, and support societies in the South and
                                                      East as well as in Switzerland.
The NCCR North–South is one of two Swiss National
Centres of Competence in Research that are located    In particular, the NCCR North–South supports and
at the University of Berne. The programme was         promotes:
developed in 1999 and 2000 by Hans Hurni (Direc-         s high-quality disciplinary, interdisciplinary and

tor) and Urs Wiesmann (Deputy Director), together          transdisciplinary research on sustainable
with their partners in Switzerland and abroad. The         development;
programme started on 1 July 2001 as one of 14            s institutional and personal capacity develop-

NCCRs chosen from over 200 competitors.                    ment in research both in partner countries
                                                           and in Switzerland; and
Overall goal                                             s partnership actions for societal empower-

The NCCR North–South pursues the overall goal of           ment, adaptation and innovation with a view
enhancing sustainable development in selected              to addressing syndromes of global change
contexts through research partnerships involving           over the long term.
institutions in Switzerland and their partners in
developing and transition countries. By elaborating   In July 2004 the NCCR North–South entered its
an understanding of syndromes of global change,       fourth year of operation and the final year of Phase
identifying mitigation potentials, and supporting     1, which will be followed by Phase 2 lasting from

    CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                            P. Pestalozzi
    North of Mount Kenya

    2005 to 2009. By the end of 2004, the NCCR              the programme a clear orientation by applying a
    North–South involved 437 persons, of which 67%          transdisciplinary process of identification and pri-
    were of nationalities other than Swiss, and 38%         oritisation of core problems of sustainable devel-
    were women. 148 persons held post-doc and sen-          opment, as well as defining research themes that
    ior scientist positions, and 98 persons were PhD        were considered relevant to mitigating syndromes
    candidates. In addition, the programme has so far       in the given contexts and regions.
    involved 100 MSc and MA students. Structurally,
    the programme consists of a Management Centre           The genuine “Syndrome Mitigation Concept”,
    hosted by the CDE in Berne, as well as 8 Individual     which was postulated in the period of 2001–2002
    Projects (IPs), two of which are also directed by the   and marked a conceptual breakthrough for the
    CDE (see following chapters). During its fourth year    whole programme, was further refined and tested
    of operation, the programme included 116                during this reporting period. The NCCR North
    research projects in 9 Joint Areas of Case Study        –South now follows an approach that focuses on
    (JACS) worldwide. In the entire first phase, the        “patterns of problems, potentials and processes of
    NCCR North–South has held 3 Integrated Training         sustainable development” (P-PPP). Each of the IPs
    Courses (ITCs), each of which involved over 100         and JACS achieved their specific planned goals. In
    researchers. During the fourth year, programme          addition, the programme’s research is increasingly
    members published 380 papers, including 104             producing outputs relevant to specific syndrome
    peer-reviewed articles, 39 articles without a peer      contexts. In the “urban–periurban” syndrome con-
    review, 67 contributions to books, 29 book publi-       text, most research focused on health, environ-
    cations, and 141 reports; the programme was pre-        mental sanitation, livelihood insecurity, and social
    sented on 305 occasions and, in addition, realised      practices, as well as on the mitigation of associated
    99 other forms of knowledge transfer. This means        institutional problems. In the “semi-arid in transi-
    that during the fourth year an average of more than     tion” syndrome context, health intervention strate-
    1 publication was produced every day, including a       gies, conflict resolution practices, and water man-
    peer-reviewed paper every three days and a book         agement issues were at the core of research activi-
    publication every ten days.                             ties, again combined with clearly identified mitiga-
                                                            tion strategies such as “dialogue workshops”. In the
    Achievements                                            “highland–lowland” syndrome context, research
    The major outcome achieved in the reporting peri-       focused on sustainable management of natural
    od consists of a synthesis of the transdisciplinary     resources (water, soil, flora and fauna), regional
    approach as initiated at the beginning of the pro-      development planning, biodiversity management,
    gramme, as well as the publication of this synthesis    livelihood security, and institutional change. The
    in the form of a book in early 2004. During the         implementation of negotiation workshops was a
    process of synthesis development, participants at       major mitigation-oriented output.
    international workshops in all JACS regions gave


                                                                         Peter Messerli
NCCR Conference 2003, Thun, Switzerland

The reporting period saw significant progress with       Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
regard to integration in transversal topics address-     Between January and May 2004, a pre-proposal for
ing meta-conceptual issues relevant to the entire        the second phase (2005–2009) was developed. This
NCCR North–South. The most important efforts at          pre-proposal was based on the preceding internal
this level were concerned with epistemology, trans-      review process and a series of meetings, while also
disciplinarity, gender, vulnerability, and decentrali-   assuring the involvement of Regional Coordinators.
sation.                                                  The pre-proposal introduced certain structural
                                                         changes intended to enhance the aspects of gener-
During the reporting period, two international con-      alisation and integration. After an intensive review
ferences were held in Thun, Switzerland. The first       of both the pre- proposal and the entire programme,
conference in June 2003 on “Generality and               the NCCR North–South was given the go-ahead to
Complexity in Development-oriented Research”             elaborate a full proposal for Phase 2. The extended
involved an international audience and thereby pro-      Board of Directors has begun to tackle this chal-
vided a platform enabling researchers to conceptu-       lenge in early 2005. The overall programme’s key
alise their approach and methodology. The second         aim for the next two years will be the endorsement
conference in August 2004 was dedicated to the           of this full proposal and a successful transition into
issue of “Research Partnerships in International         Phase 2 of the NCCR North–South.
Cooperation: Towards an Innovative Framework in
Swiss Research and Development Policy”; the con-         Main partners
ference included presentations of NCCR researchers       North–South Partnership Institutions in
and external partners, thereby providing an oppor-       Switzerland
tunity to position the NCCR North– South as a Swiss      – Centre for Development and Environment, Insti-
and international centre of competence in the field        tute of Geography, University of Berne
of syndromes of global change. The conference also       – Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
contributed to raising awareness of the importance         (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environ-
of these issues in Switzerland and beyond.                 mental Science (EAWAG), ETHZ, Dübendorf
                                                         – Swiss Tropical Institute (STI), University of Basel,
The different Regional Coordination Offices pro-           Basel
posed numerous “Partnership Actions for Mitigating       – Lab. Sociologie Urbaine (LASUR), Institute of Terri-
Syndromes” (PAMS) projects with a view to the overall      torial Development (INTER), EPFL, Lausanne
programme objective of enhancing societal empow-         – Development Study Group (DSG), Institute of
erment. After thorough evaluation, a total of 55 PAMS      Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich
were implemented within Phase 1. The majority of         – Swiss Peace Foundation, Bern
these application-oriented projects were associated      – Institut Universitaire d'Etudes du Développement
with NCCR North–South research and included trans-         (IUED), Geneva.
disciplinary involvement of stakeholders.

     CDE Report 2003/2004

      North–South Partnership Institutions in the South

      –   Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan (AOSU), Tashkent, Uzbekistan
      –   Agroecologia Universidad Cochabamba (AGRUCO), Cochabamba, Bolivia
      –   Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI), Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
      –   Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Pathumthani, Thailand
      –   Ayuda Obrera Suiza (AOS), La Paz, Bolivia
      –   Central Department of Geography (CDG), Kathmandu, Nepal
      –   Centre de Support en Santé Internationale (CSSI), N'Djaména, Tchad
      –   Centre de Techniques, de Planification et d’Economie Appliquée (CTPEA), Haiti
      –   Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Thiruvananthapuram Kerala, India
      –   Centre for Training and Integrated Research in Arid and Semi-arid Lands
          Development (CETRAD), Nanyuki, Kenya
      –   Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques (CSRS), Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
      –   Centro Bartolomé de las Casas (CBC), Cusco, Peru
      –   Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo (CIDES-UMSA), La Paz, Bolivia
      –   City Government of Kunming, Kunming, China
      –   Directorship of the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve (DRBSM), Autlán,
      –   Ecole supérieure de sciences agronomiques (ESSA), Antananarivo, Madagascar
      –   Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO RD), Santo Domingo,
          Dominican Republic
      –   Facultad Latinoamericana en Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO-CR), San José, Costa Rica
      –   Institute of Economic Growth (IEG), New Delhi, India
      –   Instituto de Urbanismo (IU/FAU-UCV), Caracas , Venezuela
      –   Instituto Manantlán de Ecología y Conservación de la Biodiversidad (IMECBIO),
          Autlán, Mexico
      –   Journalists for Democracy and Human Rights, Pakistan (JDHR), Islamabad,
      –   Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyz-Ru.Sl.Uni.), Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic
      –   Laboratoire de Recherches Vétérinaires et Zootechniques (LVRZ), N'Djaména,
      –   Mekong River Commission (MRC), Vientiane, Lao PDR
      –   Natural Resources Monitoring, Modeling and Management Project (NRM3),
          Nanyuki, Kenya
      –   Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS), Kathmandu, Nepal
      –   Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), Islamabad, Pakistan
      –   Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
      –   Tajik Academy of Sciences (TAS), Dushanbe, Tajikistan
      –   Thai Pollution Controll Department (PCD), Bangkok, Thailand                       Contacts (NCCR in general)

      –   Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA), San Salvador, El Salvador    at CDE:

      –   Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), La Paz, Bolivia                           Hans Hurni
      –   Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS), Cochabamba, Bolivia
      –   Université de Yaoundé (DSA-UY), Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
                                                                                            Urs Wiesmann
      –   University of Dar es Salaam (DGUD), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania                       Deputy Director


                                                                                                          Peter Messerli
                        NCCR North–South participants on the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

NCCR North–South Management                            (iii)   Competence mapping: the knowledge portal
Centre                                                         includes a search for competences of NCCR
                                                               researchers with regard to specific themes,
Overall Goal                                                   topics, and regional experience.
The Management Centre (MC) is headed by Peter          (iv)    Glossary: this tool provides an online multi-
Messerli and is in charge of the operational man-              lingual database of NCCR terms with a 5-lan-
agement of the programme. Its overall goal is to               guage translation function and an interac-
support the different bodies involved and to assure            tive glossary including the most important
their coordination with regard to common goals,                scientific terms used and debated in the
activities, and outputs. The MC is also responsible            NCCR North–South.
for the Education & Training, Knowledge and Tech-      (v)     Electronic workspaces: NCCR researchers
nology Management components, as well as the                   throughout the world are given the possi-
coordination of the PAMS ("Partnership Actions for             bility to open an electronic platform on a
Mitigating Syndromes of Global Change").                       specific topic of interaction and knowledge
                                                               exchange. The workspaces contain an virtu-
Achievements                                                   al pin-board, an on-line library for docu-
The MC launched a new instrument, the so-called                ments and web resources, a discussion
“knowledge portal”, on the intranet. This tool aims            forum as well as various communication
to improve mutual learning by providing a platform             functions such as chats, e-mail lists, etc.
for knowledge exchange and discussions, and to
facilitate the overview on research activities and     Furthermore, the MC successfully implemented
competences. The knowledge portal consists of          two Integrated Training Courses (ITCs). One took
the following five features:                           place in the JACS Central Asia (2003), the other in
                                                       Schwarzsee, Switzerland (2004). Both events fos-
(i)    Key message database: this tool allows all      tered mutual learning processes among the
       involved researchers to communicate major       researchers and strengthened overall family-build-
       research findings to the NCCR team in a con-    ing in the NCCR North–South team. The 2004 ITC
       densed manner.                                  focused on discussions about integrative issues.
(ii)   Mapping of publications: important publica-
       tions are mapped by different criteria (core    Forty PAMS were carried out in 2003–2004. These
       problems, syndrome context, country, type       application-oriented and demand-driven projects
       of research, relevant scale), enabling appli-   are associated with the research of the NCCR
       cation of improved and targeted search          North–South and include transdisciplinary involve-
       functions.                                      ment of stakeholders.

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                                Peter Messerli
     Ewaso Ngiro River, Kenya

     Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)                      Individual Project 1 (IP1) :
     The Management Centre will initialise an in-depth          Conceptual Framework and
     capitalisation of PAMS experiences from the first          Methodologies
     phase, aiming to produce general insights on typi-
     cal mitigation pathways in selected contexts and           Overall goal
     on general experiences with societal learning, as          Focusing on “Conceptual Framework and Method-
     well as to contribute to the ongoing discourse on          ologies for Research on Syndrome Mitigation”, IP1
     transdisciplinarity. This capitalisation will serve as     intends to lay foundations for promoting collabora-
     a model for the future valorisation of the PAMS            tion and integration within the overall NCCR
     component within the NCCR, which will involve dif-         North–South. The IP’s objectives and activity lines
     ferent research bodies, the Management Centre,             can be grouped in four major thrusts of syndrome
     and external partners.                                     mitigation research: (1) conceptual and theoretical
                                                                advancement, (2) global and contextual position-
     With regard to Education & Training, selected topics       ing, (3) methodologies of contextual application,
     and issues of relevance for the NCCR North–South           and (4) pathways to and instruments for syndrome
     (e.g. scientific writing, knowledge management,            mitigation. In relation to the first two thrusts, IP1
     impact monitoring and assessment, etc.) will be            has developed an approach that is rather top–down
     prepared in the form of training modules and made          and comprehensive; thrusts 3 and 4 are approached
     available in regional and integrative face-to-face         in a more bottom–up and exemplary manner, with
     meetings, as well as electronically.                       specific methodological contributions and studies
                                                                in 5 JACS (East Africa, South East Asia, South Asia,
     In addition, the MC will take different measures to        South America and Alps).
     support female and male researchers in building
     their academic careers. These measures will include        Achievements
     career-building advice through electronic work-            Thrust 1: On the conceptual level, a break-
     spaces and specific career building workshops.             through was achieved by enhancing the Syndrome
                                                                Concept of the German Advisory Board on Global
                                                                Change (WGBU) and by formulating a genuine
     Contacts (Management Centre) at CDE:                       NCCR North–South syndrome mitigation concept.
     Peter Messerli              NCCR North–South Coordinator   This concept explicitly relates to the concept of
     Franziska Pfister           Deputy Coordinator             sustainable development and acknowledges its
     Frank Haupt                 Coordinator PAMS               normative dimensions. The concept can be sum-


                                                              Thrust 3: The envisaged integrative JACS approach
                                                              was further developed in JACS East Africa, where
                                                              researchers elaborated an information base refer-
                                                              ring to the different syndrome contexts. Progress
                                                              was also made with regard to interrelating data and
                                                              information at different scales from local to inter-
                                                              national, mainly through PhD studies of IP1 in
                                                              South East Asia involving production and presenta-
                                                              tion of the “Socio-economic Atlas of Vietnam”.

                                                              Thrust 4: Two major results were achieved in
                                                              research on social learning processes and syn-
                                                              drome mitigation, the first being a comparative
                                                              analysis of social learning processes in the field of
                                                              governance and biodiversity and natural resources.
                                                              The second major achievement consists of an
                                                              analysis of societal processes in the elaboration of
                                                              a management plan for the World Natural Heritage
                                                              Site in the Swiss Alps which showed that accept-
                                                              ance, ownership and motivation to actively engage
                                                              in sustainable development can only be enhanced
                                                              if democratic decision-making processes are com-
                                                              plemented by participatory stakeholder processes.

                                           Dominik Blättler
Upland area, Northern Vietnam                                 Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
                                                              IP1 has progressed according to plan in all four
                                                              thrusts and has produced some highly interesting
marised as four “P”s: Patterns of Problems, Poten-            results and outputs. Major breakthroughs were
tials and Processes. For all three of these cate-             reached at the level of the Global Overviews, in
gories, the hypothesis stands that patterns can be            concretising JACS Alps, and especially also in inte-
identified when comparing different contexts; this            grating the revised syndrome mitigation concept
in turn makes it possible to develop context-specif-          and related integrative approaches into the design
ic pathways toward more sustainable develop-                  and structure of the proposal for Phase II of the
ment, and at the same time provides a framework               NCCR North–South.
for generalisation and for linking these context-
specific patterns and pathways to supra-contextu-             Main partners
al conditions and dynamics.                                   – Centre for Training and Integrated Research in
                                                                Arid and Semi-arid Lands Development (CETRAD),
Thrust 2: Within this thrust and in collaboration               Nanyuki, Kenya
with IP2, comparative JACS databases were further             – Mekong River Commission (MRC), Vientiane, Lao
developed, interpreted and made available in vari-              PDR
ous formats. These databases are not only used in             – Natural Resources Monitoring, Modeling and
policy planning dialogues, e.g. through tools such              Management Project (NRM3 ), Nanyuki, Kenya
as the socio-economic Atlas of Vietnam, but also              – University of Dar es Salaam (DGUD), Dar es
serve as an important basis for Swiss efforts to sup-           Salaam, Tanzania.
port regions affected by the tsunami disaster of
December 2004. Furthermore, the Global Overviews
were developed into a broad global database with
an interface that allows interactive selection and
valuation of indicators of the 30 core problems of
non-sustainable development identified during the             Contacts (IP1) at CDE:
SPSP process.                                                 Urs Wiesmann             Head IP1

     CDE Report 2003/2004

     Individual Project 2 (IP2):                             modelling of land use cover change (LUCC), clearly
     Natural Resources and Ecology                           foster integrated understanding of processes relat-
                                                             ed to (un)sustainable natural resource use. Efforts
     Overall goal                                            made by IP2 to combine the individual PhD and MSc
     IP2 research efforts aim (i) to improve the under-      studies in joint study areas within the JACS (Soku-
     standing of non-sustainable use of natural              luk River Catchment, hill zone of Western Tajik-
     resources and (ii) to develop ways of restoring and     istan, Ethiopian Highlands, Mount Kenya) appear to
     maintaining the productive, ecological, habitat and     be a promising approach for generating compre-
     socio-cultural functions of natural resources. With     hensive and comparable results of high relevance.
     a view to achieving these goals, IP2 addresses the      The annual Regional Training Courses regularly
     following key questions:                                held in spring (2003 in Kyrgyzstan, 2004 in Tajik-
         s Which are the biophysical core problems con-      istan have made it possible to achieve a common
           tributing to syndromes of global change in        understanding within the JACS CAS throughout all
           the different syndrome contexts and particu-      levels, including, in particular, local supervisors,
           larly in highland–lowland systems and semi-       PhD candidates, and MSc students.
           arid areas in transition?                         In addition, a number of Partnership Actions for Mit-
         s How can the problems of land degradation,         igating Syndromes (PAMS) have been launched,
           loss of biodiversity, and mismanagement of        addressing a broad range of issues such as water
           water best be addressed and mitigation meas-      logging, reduced soil fertility and livestock produc-
           ures implemented?                                 tivity, and marginalised mountain communities.
         s How can sustainable land management best

           be promoted in precarious socio-economic,         Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
           political and ecologic settings?                  After having launched a considerable number of
                                                             PhD and MSc studies in the course of Phase 1, IP2 is
     Geographically, IP2 concentrates its main activities    expecting a considerable number of them to be
     in the JACS Central Asia, where it responsible for      completed. Particular emphasis and support will be
     coordinating all NCCR research, as well as in the       given to elaborating first specific as well as synthe-
     JACS Horn of Africa.                                    sising scientific articles based on these research
                                                             activities. With regard to various changes in Phase
     Achievements                                            2 – especially the merging of two IPs into one Work
     The PhD and MSc studies carried out so far have         Package and the introduction of transversal topics
     provided new knowledge on the status and trends         – particular efforts will be made to adjust to the
     of sustainable development at a regional level          new situation as productively as possible while
     (Tajik Pamirs, Tien Shan mountain range, Ethiopian      continuing to pursue the NCCR North–South main
     Highlands, Mount Kenya region). Outputs include         goal and the IP2 objectives.
     the construction of a GIS database, organisation of
     a regional multi-level multi-stakeholder workshop,      Main partners
     and a publication on the Tajik Pamirs. Furthermore,     – Central Asia Mountain Partnership Programme
     research has enhanced the understanding of land            (CAMP), Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
     use change, soil erosion and water use in Central       – International Centre for Research in Agro-
     Asia, the Horn of Africa, and East Africa. These           Forestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya
     activities have attracted other actors, such as the     – Kyrgyz Russian Slavic University (KRSU),
     United Nations University (UNU), with whom CDE             Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
     has received a joint Project Development Fund (PDF      – World Overview of Conservation Approaches
     Block B grant) for Central Asia from the Global Envi-      and Technologies, WOCAT.
     ronmental Facility (GEF).

     The activities carried out so far have shown that (i)
     applying and combining the multi-level multi-
     stakeholder approach, (ii) GIS data base develop-       Contacts (IP2) at CDE:
     ment, (iii) modelling of the impact of different land   Hans Hurni                Head IP2
     management systems on water and crops, and (iv)         Daniel Maselli            Coordinator


                                                                                     Urs Wiesmann               Stephan Rist
Workshop participants, South India, left; Pomari ritual, Bolivia, right

SOLES – Social Learning for                                        transformation of existing institutional
Sustainability                                                     arrangements (‘double loop learning’) have
                                                                   been identified as positive conditions for the
Overall goal                                                       enhancement of social learning processes.
Many programmes working with sustainability and                s   The effectiveness of the ALS tool (see under
transdisciplinarity face essentially new situations                Learning for Sustainability further down in
due to the normative nature of these concepts.                     this report) in launching social learning
They realise that current methods of mediation and                 processes based on ‘double loop learning’ in
negations are not adequate for dealing with these                  both community and external institutions has
approaches. Social actors, institutions, and soci-                 been confirmed in three widely different
eties must learn how to critically reflect and                     socio-cultural, historical and ecological set-
reshape their action. A social learning approach                   tings in Africa, South America, and India.
can elucidate the way in which people learn to gain
insight into, predict, and control, the manner in           Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
which actions affect natural and human life, with             s The development of new approaches and

the ultimate aim of moving towards a more sustain-              methodologies which allow upscaling of
able future. SOLES intends to contribute to such                social learning processes from micro-level to
social learning processes. The programme is a                   meso- and macro-levels, required to produce
research partnership project carried out by CDE                 effects in institutional and organisational
with partners in India, Bolivia, and Mali, and is               spheres, needs to be strengthened in future
funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation                 research. Initiatives to this effect have already
(SNSF) and the Swiss Agency for Development and                 been launched by partner organisations in
Cooperation (SDC). It was launched in 2000 and                  India and Bolivia.
was concluded in June 2004.
                                                            Main partners
Achievements                                                The main partners include SAMPARK, an Indian
  s Experience has shown that social learning               NGO; the Agro-ecology Programme of the Universi-
    forms part of long term social processes relat-         ty of Cochabamba (AGRUCO) in Bolivia; and the
    ed to ‘double loop learning’, meaning the               Network of Moderators for Autodidactic Training in
    transformation of main objectives, strategies           Mali (FAD).
    and structures underlying present institution-
    al arrangements and interrelations.
  s High levels of autonomy, self-determination,

    low levels of institutional formalisation and           Contacts at CDE:
    flexible relations between improvement of               Urs Wiesmann               Head SOLES
    performance (‘single loop learning’) and                Stephan Rist               Coordinator

     CDE Report 2003/2004


     The Outreach Section includes all programmes and projects concerned with a specific
     geographic region. The aim is to contribute to the development of the region in CDE’s
     areas of competence, and to maintain activities in concrete field contexts as the foundation
     of CDE’s competence over the long term. Our responsibilities for programme activities are
     defined by specific agreements and contracts.

     Eastern and Southern Africa                                s   Programme highlights included the rehabilita-
     Partnership Programme (ESAPP)                                  tion of four soil conservation research cen-
                                                                    tres in Ethiopia, the adaptation of the ALS
     Overall goal                                                   (Learning for Sustainability) approach to the
     ESAPP is a programme of the Swiss Agency for                   AIDS/HIV issue in Kenya, training activities in
     Development and Cooperation (SDC) and is carried               Kenya and Tanzania (drought monitoring, Arid
     out by CDE together with its regional partners. The            and Semi-Arid Lands Development, GIS), the
     programme was designed by Urs Wiesmann and                     adjustment of the SDA (Sustainable Develop-
     Hans Hurni based on CDE’s over 20 years of experi-             ment Appraisal) methodology for strategic
     ence in East Africa. The programme promotes sus-               studies at the inter-communal level in Mada-
     tainable land management and sustainable regional              gascar, and the testing of an approach combin-
     development by means of integrated concepts and                ing local and external knowledge for the pro-
     innovative tools, research and research partner-               motion of indigenous plants in Mozambique.
     ships, capacity building, and development support.
     It is based on partnership activities involving indi-   Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
     viduals and institutions inside and outside the           s To improve the visibility of ESAPP, as well as

     region.                                                     communication to its partners and the gener-
                                                                 al public, and in parallel, to further rationalise
     Achievements                                                its management by creating a new homepage
       s In 2003, ESAPP worked on a total of 9 continu-          linked to a database.
         ous activities of the basic mandate and 20            s To enhance the programme’s overall knowl-

         specific activity lines and priority action proj-       edge management, with the intention of facil-
         ects in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Tanzania,             itating a return of experiences from individual
         Madagascar, and Mozambique. 15 additional               projects to CDE and other organisations.
         specific activity lines and priority actions          s To foster the links with SDC country program-

         were approved in November 2003 for the first            mes, and more specifically to contribute to
         round of 2004.                                          the Rural Livelihoods Development Program-
       s A third regional coordination office was estab-         me in Central Tanzania and the Rural Develop-
         lished with the appointment of Development              ment Programme in Northern Mozambique.
         Environment Consult (DEC) as the representa-          s To further strengthen the programme’s pres-

         tive for Madagascar, and the reported period            ence in Mozambique by developing two activ-
         saw an overall strengthening of the role of the         ity lines (integrated river basin management
         Regional Coordination Offices, allowing for             and rural development) and establishing new
         increased decentralisation of the programme’s           partnerships.
         steering, as well as for an improved coher-
         ence in regional strategies.


                                                              Markus Giger                                 Felix Nicolier
Lake Itasy region, Madagascar                                                Irrigation works, Eritrea

Main partners                                         Sustainable Land Management
The programme entertains close ties with a num-       Programme (SLM) Eritrea
ber of partner institutions in Eastern and Southern
Africa. During the reported period, these included:   Overall goal
– Kenya: CETRAD & network; University of Nairobi;     The overall goal of the programme is to support
  KWS; LWF; ITDG                                      Eritrea in its efforts towards sustainable land man-
– Tanzania: CETRAD & network; University of Dar       agement, improved food security, and improved
  Es Salaam; Mikocheni Institute                      rural livelihoods, through the following three pro-
– Ethiopia: Mekelle University; ARARI; SARI; Sus-     gramme clusters:
 tainable Land Use Forum                                  s strengthening agricultural production and

– Eritrea: Zoba Maekel Administration, University           soil and water conservation, with a view to
 of Asmara; AEAS                                            increasing food production and safeguarding
– Madagascar: DEC; DERAD; Savaivo; CODE; Tam-               the natural production base;
 bohitravo Malagasy; ANGAP                                s strengthening      capacity building through
– Mozambique: Helvetas; Impacto; Gecorena;                  human resource development, especially
  Acção Agrária Alemã; SADC.                                development of skills relating to issues,
                                                            approaches, and tools, in sustainable land
Contacts at CDE:                                          s supporting regional and local development,

Urs Wiesmann               Head ESAPP                       through targeted research and practical
Hans Hurni                 Deputy Head                      action, with a view to improving rural liveli-
Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel   Coordinator                      hoods and planning capabilities of pro-
                                                            gramme partners.

Regional Coordinators:                                These three clusters are mutually reinforcing,
Boniface Kiteme            CETRAD East Africa         meaning that there is a potential for creating syner-
Berhanu Debele             Horn of Africa             gies between them.
Jürg Brand                 DEC Madagascar
                                                        s A new millet crossbreed variety was devel-

                                                          oped which improved yields by 30% in on-sta-
                                                          tion trials. First field tests at community level
                                                          showed encouraging results, including high
                                                          acceptance of this new variety of what is
                                                          Eritrea’s second most important staple crop.

     CDE Report 2003/2004

            Agricultural and                    Programme
                                               coordination                    Local and regional
              research and

                                            Capacity building:
                                             human resource
            Eritrean partners,               and institutional                 Programme com-
             other partners                      support                       mittee: SFSA, CDE,
                                                                               Eritrean partners

     SLM Programme clusters and programme organisation

        s    Together with ESAPP (see contribution in this    Main partners
             report), SLM funded the first national work-     Institutionally, the programme is based on multiple
             shop on irrigation development.                  partnership, involving key government, academic,
        s    The University of Asmara completed the           and civil society institutions in Eritrea. The main
             installation of its new SLM-funded GIS lab.      partners are the Ministry of Agriculture, the Univer-
        s    Several local development activities co-fund-    sity of Asmara, and two local NGOs (VISION Eritrea
             ed with local partners and communities were      and HABEN). Other partners include international
             completed, including schools, village water      development agencies such GTZ, relief agencies
             supply, and rural electrification.               (Swiss Humanitarian Aid and ICRC), international
        s   Policy advice: SLM was asked to comment on        research institutions (ICRISAT), and institutions of
            food security and poverty alleviation policy      the UN system. On the Swiss side, SLM Eritrea is
            drafts, and was involved in MSc curricula         jointly coordinated by CDE and the Syngenta Foun-
            development at the University of Asmara.          dation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA) in Basle,
        s   SLM staff produced a nationwide map for the       which also provides the funding for the pro-
            Eritrean Landmine Survey, a UN-funded proj-       gramme’s core activities. SLM Eritrea is a member
            ect in support of humanitarian demining.          of the Swiss consortium for Eritrea, an informal net-
                                                              work of Swiss institutions that are active in Eritrea.
     Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
       s The upgrade of Afdeyu research station will be

         completed, making it possible to tackle water-
         shed management in a specific local setting.
       s The newly established Master programme at            Contacts at CDE:
         the University of Asmara will allow for a deeper     Hans Hurni                  Head SLM
         involvement of the SLM programme in capacity         Thomas Kohler               Deputy Head
         building, moving from GIS into thematic fields
         (resource management, livelihoods).                  Contacts at SFSA:
       s Thanks to the new 5-year agreement for               Felix Nicolier              Programme Coordinator SFSA
         Phase II (2005–2009), the programme has the
         potential of developing into a small platform        Country Office Asmara:
         for sharing experience and promoting innova-         Robert Burtscher            Country Coordinator
         tion in sustainable land management in Eritrea.      Paul Roden                  Programme Officer


                                                                                   Hans Hurni, Bernhard Nievergelt, Eva Ludi
Impressions of soil degradation, wildlife, and landscape in the Simen Mountains
World Heritage Site, Ethiopia

Simen Mountains Programme                                     vation of natural resources and on park man-
                                                              agement; communication for sustainable devel-
The Simen Mountains National Park was included                opment; attitudes towards soil and water
as a first Natural Site in the World Heritage List in         conservation; landscape changes between 1904
1977, based on an initiative by Hans Hurni.                   and 2004, based on a photo-monitoring; and
                                                              success and failures of decentralisation.
Overall goal
10 years after the Baseline Study, the Amhara           Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI),         s Finalisation of MSc theses

the Parks Development and Protection Authority of         s Production of a synthesis report

Amhara Region and the Swiss National Centre of            s Contribution to the formulation of projects

Competence in Research (NCCR) North–South jointly           aiming to achieve sustainable regional devel-
launched a new research project in the Simen Mount-         opment, as well as preservation and improve-
ains National Park and surrounding areas. The goal          ment of the Simen Mountains National Park
of this new study is to provide decision-making sup-        and World Heritage Site.
port for the park administration, line agencies and
development projects by collecting and presenting       Contacts at CDE:
data for strategic planning of targeted activities.     Hans Hurni                Head of Programme
                                                        Eva Ludi                  Coordinator
  s Field work for the Simen Mountains Study 2004

    was completed by the end of 2004. Six MSc stu-
    dents and 5 researchers from Ethiopia and           Central Asia Mountain
    Switzerland, along with an additional team of       Partnership Programme (CAMP)
    more than 10 supervisors, translators and sup-
    port staff, stayed in the Simen Mountains           Overall goal
    National Park from October to December 2004.        CAMP is financed by the Swiss Agency for Develop-
    Study themes included: the current number,          ment and Cooperation (SDC) and implemented by
    distribution and behaviour of Walya ibex; actu-     the Centre for Development and Environment
    al and potential habitats for endangere species;    (CDE). CAMP is a long-term programme planned to
    options for sustainable livestock management;       last for a period of 10 to 15 years. Since its incep-
    options for sustainable forest management; the      tion in 2000, its bottom-up approach has helped
    political situation and its impact on the conser-   support the transition process in rural and mountain

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                                               Heino Meessen
     Energy-saving construction, Kyrgyzstan

     regions of Central Asia. The programme is charac-          developed in Kazakhstan will be developed on a
     terised by a mixture of capacity development activi-       more limited scale. Synergies and complementari-
     ties and a selection of small-scale projects at the com-   ties with the Swiss National Centre of Competence
     munity level focusing on economic development.             in Research (NCCR) North–South will be exploited
                                                                more fully than in the past.
       s One of the CAMP focal activities was to initiate       Partners in Central Asia
         the development of energy-saving techniques            CAMP priority partners are village communities in
         based on locally available insulation material.        Central Asian mountain regions; CAMP supports
       s Another important activity related to capacity         their concrete local projects. The most important
         building for the production and marketing of           international partners include:
         local handicrafts.                                     – The German Ministry for Environment, which
       s The programme highlight was the inaugura-                supports the alliance of Central Asian mountain
         tion of the DOM VODY (House of Water) in                 villages an the Transfer of CAMP approaches to
         Dushanbe in connection with the IYFW (Inter-             other mountain regions of the Commonwealth of
         national Year of Freshwater) 2003. Again                 Independent states (CIS)
         relating to the IYFW, CAMP helped to organise          – The Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
         the Dushanbe Water Forum. DOM VODY also                  (GtZ), which supports CAMP activities in connec-
         served as a platform for discussing local-level          tion with the CCD process
         water needs, leading to the dissemination of           – SECO, a branch of the Swiss Foreign Ministry that
         best practices to village water users. Partners          cooperates with CAMP to support demand-side
         for these activities included SDC, OXFAM,                management in the energy sector in mountain
         UNDP, the World Bank, OSCE, SECO, CARITAS,               regions (insulation of private and communal
         the Aga Khan Development Network, and GtZ.               buildings)
       s Yet another highlight was the very positive            – The World Bank’s Village Investment Programme
         result of an external evaluation commissioned            (VIP), which contracted CAMP/CDE for the joint
         by SDC.                                                  development of a participatory tool for Village
                                                                  Development Planning.
         Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
     With regard to its activities in the Kyrgyz Republic,
     the programme will develop an adequate institu-
     tional structure and set-up to ensure continuation
     of activities once the programme and SDC support           Contacts at CDE:
     will have been phased out. Capacity building will          Andreas Kläy               Head CAMP
     be continued in Tajikistan, which has been a CAMP          Heino Meessen              Coordinator
     priority country since 2003. The volume of activi-
     ties will be extended up to the level attained in the      Regional Office Bishkek:
     Kyrgyz Republic. The resources and know-how                Regula Imhof               Regional Coordinator


                                                                                                        Daniel Maselli
              Extreme living conditions for people in the Pamir Mountains in Eastern Tajikistan

Sustainable Land Management                                 s   Preparation and implementation of training
in the Pamir–Alai Mountains                                     courses for the collection of baseline informa-
(Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan)                                     tion
                                                            s   Extension of GIS database coverage.

In 2003, the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP) came to an     Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
end. A proposal for a follow-up project was elabo-         s In-depth insights on land management issues

rated on behalf of the United Nations University,            and entry points for improvement
building on the comprehensive spatial database             s Implementation of immediate measures to

and summary report (The Tajik Pamirs, available in           address the effects of land degradation
English and Russian) produced by the PSP. In               s Awareness creation on sustainable land man-

November 2003, the Global Environment Facility               agement within government line agencies
(GEF) approved a project development fund enti-            s Approval of a full GEF Programme with a dura-

tled “Sustainable Land Management in the High                tion of 8 years for the Pamir–Alai region.
Pamir and Pamir–Alai Mountains: An Integrated and
Transboundary Initiative in Central Asia”, with a        Main partners
total budget of 650,000 USD.                             – Global Environment Facility (GEF) as the funding
Overall goal                                             – United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
In the preparatory phase, the objective is to elabo-       as the implementing agency
rate concrete activities and contact partners for the    – United Nations University (UNU) as the executing
full project by the end of 2005. The goal of the full      agency. UNU has a cooperation agreement with
project will be to develop and implement land man-         the University of Berne since 1981.
agement systems that are adequate for preserving
and rehabilitating this fragile mountain ecosystem,
ultimately benefiting the local population.

  s Approval of the project proposal by GEF

  s Contractual agreement with United Nations            Contacts at CDE
    University: acceptance of CDE as the main            Hans Hurni                 Head of Programme
    consultant                                           Thomas Breu                Coordinator

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                                                                           Hanspeter Liniger
     The Aletsch region, part of the JAB World Heritage Site

     Alpine Research:                                                  ing processes that tried to identify changes
     Jungfrau–Aletsch–Bietschhorn                                      of knowledge, attitudes, values, and actions
     World Natural Heritage Site (JAB)                                 of participants as a result of the negotiations.
                                                                   s   Establishment of a database for the World Nat-
     Overall goal                                                      ural Heritage Site (GIS and remote sensing
     The overall goal of this programme is to make a                   data, documents, tables).
     concrete contribution to sustainable regional devel-
     opment by guiding the preparation of an integrated        Perspectives and key aims (2005-2006)
     and broadly negotiated management plan for the              s Finalisation of the management plan for the

     World Natural Heritage Site, which is the first in the        World Natural Heritage Site
     European Alps. This mandate is a result of CDE’s            s Further extension of the database

     (Urs Wiesmann) long-term involvement in regional            s Further development of the research platform

     development in the JAB area within the frame of the         s Initiation of and assistance to the project

     MAB Programme.                                                groups that emerged out of the participatory
       s Contributions to the formulation of a draft           Main partners
         management plan for the World Natural Her-            Management Centre of the
         itage Site.                                           Jungfrau–Aletsch–Bietschhorn World Natural
       s Establishment of a research platform in order         Heritage Site,
         to include the research community into this
       s Launching of a participatory dialogue in

         order to give local people the opportunity to
         take part in the formulation of the manage-           Contacts at CDE:
         ment plan: in a 6-month negotiation process           Urs Wiesmann                Director of Management Centre
         involving more than 200 representatives,              Karina Liechti              Scientific Expert
         development and conservation goals were
         formulated, measures identified, and con-
         crete pathways of action defined. This process
         was accompanied by a study on social learn-



             Work in the Policy Section focuses on policy advice and awareness raising for implement-
             ing agencies, and is carried out by CDE in the context of its own programmes and under
             mandates for partner institutions. Included here are programmes, networks and man-
             dates that develop services and products for general application in international

WOCAT – World Overview of                              Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
Conservation Approaches and                              s WOCAT will focus increasingly on output gen-

Technologies                                               eration. Highest on the agenda is the comple-
                                                           tion of WOCAT’s global overview book, along
WOCAT was initiated by the World Association of            with the initiation of a global map on achieve-
Soil and Water Conservation on an initiative of Hans       ments in SWC.
Hurni in 1992, who was then president of the Asso-       s Quality management will remain a high priori-

ciation.                                                   ty, with the aim of enhancing data quality,
                                                           additional data collection, evaluation, and use.
Overall goal                                             s Networking will be continued with a view to

WOCAT is a global network of specialists in soil           bringing WOCAT closer to other global initia-
and water conservation. Its objective is to docu-          tives such as environmental conventions,
ment existing experience on a global basis and to          land degradation and rehabilitation program-
make it available for improved land management             mes, and other global or continental networks.
worldwide.                                               s Capacity    building will remain important,
                                                           especially provision of backstopping and
Achievements                                               training support for national and regional ini-
  s WOCAT has produced a new CD-ROM (Version               tiatives in SWC.
    3), which is distributed within the FAO Digital      s Tools for knowledge exchange and decision-

    Media Series.                                          making support will be revised and further
  s WOCAT has improved its quality control by              developed.
    addressing knowledge gaps in its data bank
    more systematically.                               Main partners
  s The programme has established closer collab-       WOCAT is organised as an international consortium,
    oration with applied research networks such        coordinated by a management group, and supported
    as NCCR North–South (Eastern Africa, Horn of       by the secretariat (Hanspeter Liniger and his team),
    Africa, Central Asia), EU projects (SOWAP), and    which is located at CDE. The WOCAT network consists
    the International Atomic Energy Agency             of over 40 organisations worldwide including SDC,
    (IAEA), in order to fill spatial knowledge gaps.   FAO, ISRIC, DANIDA, UNEP, ICARDA, ICIMOD, the
  s As in the previous years, WOCAT held an            Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture, and
    Annual International Workshop and Steering         national institutions in WOCAT’s partner countries.
    Committee Meeting in Oct–Nov 2004 in Kath-
    mandu, Nepal.
  s Several training workshops were carried out,       Contacts at CDE:
    among others in Nepal (twice), India, and          Hanspeter Liniger        Coordinator of WOCAT
    Bangladesh.                                        Gudrun Schwilch          Scientific Expert

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                                                       Hanspeter Liniger
     Terraces in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

     Sustainable Land Management                                 s   The outcomes of the Freiburg event were
     for Policy Dialogue                                             analysed and published in a workshop report.

     Overall goal                                             Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
     The overall goal of this programme supported by            s The SLM mandate will continue to support the

     the Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera-                IASUS Working Group within the International
     tion (SDC) is to integrate SLM-related issues into           Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS).
     strategic international programmes and the global          s The mandate will produce specific reports

     policy dialogue by strengthening the capacity of a           according to the needs and requirements of
     selected group of soil scientists and specialists in         international programmes dealing with soil
     SLM and thus facilitating the delivery of policy-rele-       conservation and management.
     vant contributions.                                        s A major contribution is planned in relation

                                                                  with the International Year of Deserts and
     Achievements                                                 Desertification in 2006.
       s Organisation of an international IASUS work-           s Results of the IASUS working group will be

         shop in September 2004 in Freiburg im Breis-             presented in selected international policy
         gau, Germany, entitled: “Putting soils higher            events.
         on the international agenda: New mechanisms
         in support of sustainable land management.”          Main partners
         The symposium brought together representa-           SDC, IUSS, EU, German Advisory Council on Global
         tives of major international organisations and       Change, German Ministry for the Environment, GEF,
         provided information on their work in relation       FAO, UNEP, ISRIC, and WOCAT (see previous contri-
         to soil and land use issues. One of the main         bution in this report).
         aims of this workshop was to discuss the
         need for further action with regard to soil
         degradation and sustainable land manage-
         ment, as proposed by the “World Soils Agenda”        Contacts at CDE:
         adopted by the IUSS General Assembly at the          Hans Hurni         Head of Programme
         17th World Congress of Soil Science in 2002.         Markus Giger       Coordinator


International Network
Learning for Sustainability (ALS)

ALS was developed by a team headed by Andreas
Kläy and Ernst Gabathuler, following a strategic
workshop of CDE in 1994/95.

Overall goal
This international network of institutions which are
competent in facilitating learning processes for
SLM provides a basis for linking conceptual and
methodological work with the operational level in
specific societal and environmental contexts.

  s Five years after initial steps were taken to

    launch an ALS-training programme in Thai-
                                                                                                Felicitas Bachmann
    land, a follow-up visit revealed that the Com-
    munity Development Department of the Thai
    Ministry of the Interior has adopted the ALS       Contacts at CDE:
    approach and methodology for its training          Andreas Kläy         Head of ALS
    activities in natural resources management.        Ernst Gabathuler     Coordinator
    Within two years, as many as 150 workshops         Felicitas Bachmann   Scientific Expert
    based on the Thai adaptation of the ALS mod-
    ule on sustainable management of natural
    resources have been conducted in 75
    provinces of the country.
  s An electronic forum for experience exchange        International Journal
    and discussion on issues related to learning       Mountain Research and
    approaches and ALS has been established.           Development (MRD)
  s In different regional contexts, efforts are

    made towards improving the institutional           Overall Goal
    basis for better implementation and dissemi-       Mountain Research and Development, a peer-
    nation of the ALS approach.                        reviewed journal focusing on the world’s mountain
                                                       regions, has been edited in a new format at CDE
Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)                  since 2000. MRD presents research as well as
  s The future of the ALS network will have to be      development-related issues by authors from every
    renegotiated due to structural changes in the      continent and mountain region of the world. MRD
    backstopping mandate from Swiss Agency for         also collaborates closely with Mountain Forum (MF)
    Development and Cooperation (SDC) of which         and has become an active member of the Interna-
    ALS is a part.                                     tional Partnership for Sustainable Development in
  s There is an increasing demand for specific         Mountain Regions.
    thematic learning modules from several SDC
    programmes, including humanitarian aid pro-        Achievements
    grammes. Themes include risk assessment              s MRD has retained important backing from the

    and disaster prevention, conflict transforma-          International Mountain Society (IMS), the jour-
    tion, and others.                                      nal’s co-copyright holder, whose members
                                                           provide financial and editorial support; WWF
Main partners                                              International joined as a new member.
The main partners of the network are a number of         s MRD was represented at the First Global Meet-

selected NGOs and governmental organisations in            ing of Members of the Mountain Partnership
countries of Africa, Asia and South America.               at Merano, Italy, in 2003, and, through special

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                       Robert Burtscher                                                          Thomas Kohler
     Mother and child, Eritrea                                            Village in the Eritrean Highlands

             presentations, at the annual meeting of the                  Mountain Agenda
             American Association of Geographers in 2004.
         s   CDE increased its commitment beyond mem-                     Overall goal
             bership in the IMS to become a donor in 2004;                The overall goal of Mountain Agenda is to enhance
             major donors indicated their intention to con-               the position of mountains on the global develop-
             tinue their support into 2005 and beyond.                    ment agenda. CDE hosts the secretariat of this
                                                                          informal global network of personalities from the
     Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)                                research and development communities. Mountain
       s MRD will collaborate on several special issues                   Agenda is also the heading under which CDE’s own
         with external financial support, including one                   mountain activities are coordinated.
         with the Swiss National Centre of Competence
         in Research (NCCR) North–South (see Research                     Achievements
         Section of this report).                                           s CDE has been accepted as a lead institution

       s Commitment from major donors – most impor-                           for the Research Initiative of the International
         tantly the Swiss Agency for Development and                          Mountain Partnership;
         Cooperation (SDC) – for a new phase will be pur-                   s In preparation of this Initiative, CDE has

         sued, and MRD will focus more closely on collab-                     organised a pre-conference workshop jointly
         oration with MF and the Mountain Partnership.                        with the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI)
                                                                              prior to the second global meeting of the
     Main Partners                                                            International Mountain Partnership in Cusco
     Main partners are the 8 members of the IMS: SDC,                         in October 2004.
     the United Nations University (UNU), ICIMOD, FAO,                      s Within the frame of a mandate given to CDE by

     CIP–CONDESAN, WWF International, Mountain                                the Swiss Agency for Development and Coop-
     Research Initiative (MRI), and CDE. Other important                      eration (SDC), staff members provided back-
     partners are the Mountain Forum and the Interna-                         stopping services to SDC, including policy
     tional Mountain Partnership. The major donor is                          advice and representation in international
     SDC, followed by UNU, ICIMOD, and CDE.                                   forums.
                                                                            s Within CDE, 2004 saw the formation of a

     The journal’s copyright is held jointly by the IMS                       mountain focus group that has the aim to dis-
     and the UNU.                                                             cuss strategic issues relating to our involve-
                                                                              ment in mountain research and mountain
     Contacts at CDE:                                                         development, and to coordinate activities in
     Hans Hurni                  Editor-in-Chief                              these fields.
     Theodore Wachs              Managing Editor
     Anne Zimmermann             Assistant Editor                         Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
     Susanne Wymann              Assistant Editor                           s Following the mandate received at Cusco, and

     Monika Iseli-Felder         Editorial Assistant                          jointly with MRI, Mountain Agenda will pre-


                                                                                                           Sabine Brüschweiler
                   From Lake Titicaca, Andes

        pare a “who is who” in mountain research,       Backstopping Mandate for the
        along with a survey on mountain research        Environment and Natural
        issues among the members of the Internation-    Resources Division of the Swiss
        al Mountain Partnership.                        Agency for Development and
    s   Mountain Agenda will continue to provide        Cooperation (SDC)
        backstopping services to SDC, with a focus on
        policy advice and representation.               This programme was initiated jointly by CDE and
    s   Mountain Agenda aims to take a more active      SDC in 1989 in order to strengthen environmental
        stance with regard to education and training    concerns in international development.
        for mountain matters. This will be done
        through university education, curricula for-    Overall goals
        mulation, and, if possible, in-employment       CDE provides backstopping services related to pol-
        training programmes and seminars including      icy development and international conventions
        field exposure.                                 and agreements, as well as thematic and opera-
                                                        tional backstopping for specific SDC programmes.
Main partners                                           The overall objective is to support the Environment
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation            and Natural Resources Division of SDC in achieving
(SDC); International Mountain Partnership (FAO);        its stated goal of improving livelihoods through
International Mountain Society (IMS); International     sustainable resource management regimes.
Journal Mountain Research and Development;
Mountain Research Initiative (MRI).                     Achievements
                                                        The team of the Mandate, coordinated by Markus
                                                        Giger, provided a wide range of backstopping serv-
                                                        ices, of which the following are worth mentioning:
Contacts at CDE:                                           s Support of the elaboration of a new SDC water

Thomas Kohler               Head of Programme                 strategy based on the concept of Integrated
Susanne Wymann              Scientific Expert                 Water Resource Management (IWRM).
Daniel Maselli              Scientific Expert              s Organisation and implementation of two sem-

                                                              inars relating to “Forests and Water”, in collab-
                                                              oration with a pluri-disciplinary working group
                                                              named “Forests and Trees in Development
                                                              Cooperation”, and SDC. The two seminars
                                                              focussed on “multifunctionality in the forest

     CDE Report 2003/2004

                                                                  The Mandate has increasingly become involved in
                                                                  collaboration with other Swiss and international
                                                                     s A project proposal was prepared in a joint

                                                                       venture with IIED, dealing with commodity
                                                                       production and markets and their links with
                                                                       poverty reduction and environmental issues.
                                                                     s In collaboration with IC and IUCN, SDC was

                                                                       supported in formulating its agenda regard-
                                                                       ing economic issues in natural resource man-
                                                                       agement. This work has shown that a success-
                                                                       ful collaboration between several centres of
                                                                       competence on behalf of SDC is possible and
                                                                       should, therefore, be further developed.
                                                   Stephan Rist
     Drafting solutions
                                                                  Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
                                                                    s The objectives of our collaboration will con-

            and water context” and on the potential of                tinue to focus on the conceptual and opera-
            “payments for environmental services” in an               tional needs of SDC and its Environment and
            effort to establish more sustainable natural              Natural Resources Division in particular. Col-
            resource management regimes.                              laboration with the operational divisions of
        s   Drafting and publication of a brochure on                 SDC, their coordination offices in partner coun-
            “Forests and Water: Managing Interrelations”.             tries, and with other centres of competence in
            The brochure provides an extended synthesis               Switzerland and abroad will be intensified.
            of the results and conclusions of the two sem-          s Another important aim for the coming years is

            inars mentioned above.                                    to improve sharing and exchange within CDE
        s   Support provided to SDC in two review rounds              with a view to strengthen research–advise– im-
            of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.                   plementation linkages. Sharing and exchange
            Chapters 13 and 20 were reviewed during the               will also be important with regard to external
            two official reviews of the Assessment.                   partners.
        s   Consultancy services regarding Impact Moni-             s We will continue to focus on current and inno-

            toring and Assessment were provided to HEL-               vative topics such as economic issues in sus-
            VETAS, a Swiss NGO, in Vietnam, based on a                tainable use of natural resources, sustainable
            co-financing agreement.                                   land and soil management, GIS for rural devel-
                                                                      opment, impact monitoring and assessment,
     Apart from these backstopping services to SDC, a                 and sustainable mountain development. The
     range of services were provided for other partners               approach will be integrative and based on the
     upon request from SDC:                                           notion of multifunctionality of natural resourc-
        s An e-learning course on impact monitoring                   es. Capacity-building at different levels with
          and assessment was carried out in collabora-                the aim of increasing coherence of natural
          tion with another SDC project specialising on               resource management regimes will be anoth-
          e-learning tools and approaches.                            er important objective.
        s The Forum “Sustainable Land Management” held

          a workshop on “Learning Approaches for Sus-             Main partners
          tainable Land Management”. Another Forum                SDC, HELVETAS, INTERCOOPERATION, IIED.
          concentrated on synergies between the Rio Con-
          ventions and their relevance for SLM projects.
        s A pilot training course on “Promotion of Inno-

          vations in Sustainable Land Management” was
          held and a draft of workshop guidelines and             Contacts at CDE:
          handbooks were tested in collaboration with             Hans Hurni         Head of Mandate
          MASAL, an SDC-funded project in Peru carried            Andreas Kläy       Deputy Head
          out by INTERCOOPERATION (IC), a Swiss NGO.              Markus Giger       Coordinator


CDE Info Service                                      Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
                                                        s We stay committed to supplying high-quality

Overall goal                                              products, and to implementing recommenda-
The main objective of the Info Service, a mandate         tions made by “InfoResources” users.
entrusted to CDE by the Swiss Agency for Develop-       s We aim to intensify networking activities,

ment and Cooperation (SDC), is to provide informa-        especially with the main target audience.
tion on topical issues in the field of environment      s We will elaborate the next phase of our man-

and natural resources for a development audience.         date with SDC jointly with partners from both
The Info Service team draws from competences              within and outside CDE.
within CDE, and collaborates with two other Swiss-      s We will need to seek replacement for our cur-

based information and documentation centres,              rent bibliography software.
InfoAgrar and Inforest, under the common label of
“InfoResources”. Five times a year, this platform     Main partners
publishes the “InfoResources News” newsletter.          s InfoAgrar, hosted by the Swiss College of

This is complemented by “InfoResources Focus”, a          Agriculture
publication offering more in-depth information on       s Inforest, hosted by INTERCOOPERATION, a

specific issues three times a year. Alongside these       Swiss NGO.
tasks, Info Service supports CDE staff by managing
the CDE library and providing documentation serv-
ices, as well as by playing an active role in CDE’s   Contacts at CDE:
knowledge management scheme.                          Fani Kakridi Enz       Coordinator Info Service
                                                      Susanne Wymann         Scientific Expert
  s Info Service established operational proce-

    dures and a corporate design (logo, website)
    for InfoResources jointly with InfoAgrar and
  s Info Services published six issues of “InfoRe-

    sources News”, and one issue of “InfoRe-
    sources Focus” dealing with Integrated Water
    Resources Management.
  s An external assessment confirmed the useful-

    ness of the InfoResources products as seen by
  s Info Services processed a great number of

    search requests, provided library and docu-
    mentation services, and supported CDE’s know-
    ledge management activities.

     CDE Report 2003/2004


     The University Section consists of all teaching-related functions at university level,
     including supervision of work done by students from the undergraduate to the post-doc
     level. This involves CDE and its colleagues at the Institute of Geography at the University of
     Berne, of which CDE is a department, as well as people at other institutions of higher

     Education in Geography                                  (c)   an inter-university, specialised Master study
                                                                   programme in sustainable development re-
     Being one of the four departments of the Institute            search, to be taught in English.
     of Geography (GIUB) of the University of Berne,
     CDE offers formal education as a part of the Geog-      Study programmes (a) and (b) will begin in the fall
     raphy Curriculum (major and minor), particularly        of 2005. Programme (c) is expected to start two
     relating to                                             years later, in the fall of 2007, within an inter-uni-
     (a) sustainable regional development,                   versity agreement on cooperation to be estab-
     (b) natural resource management, and                    lished between the universities of Basle, Berne,
     (c) aspects of international cooperation.               Geneva and Zurich. This latter initiative will be
                                                             based on the needs and experiences of the NCCR
     Professors Urs Wiesmann and Hans Hurni are main-        North– South (see under Section Research in the
     ly responsible for this formal education, supported     present report), as well as a forerunner programme
     by a selected number of CDE staff. Their lectures       to be initiated by the University of Basle in the fall
     form part of the course programme for each semes-       of 2005.
     ter (see under

     The bulk of educational work in 2003 and 2004,          Contacts at CDE:
     however, consisted of tutorials for diploma and         Hans Hurni                Professor
     PhD theses: during the reporting period, CDE was        Urs Wiesmann              Professor
     in charge of 25 diploma students and an equal
     number of PhD students. CDE also contributed to
     advanced training courses in the field of sustain-
     able development in collaboration with the Inter-
     faculty Coordination for Ecology at the University
     of Berne (see under

     Bologna Reform

     In preparation of the shift in educational structures
     from Diploma studies to Bachelor and Master stud-
     ies, CDE was actively involved in shaping the new
     curricula for
     (a) a new Bachelor study programme in Geography,
                                                                                                          Urs Wiesmann
     (b) a new Master study programme in Geography,          Students on excursion


                                                                                                    Sabine Brueschweiler


The Operations Section consists of all units that provide a technical service. Priority is
given to services for CDE. Services are also increasingly provided for external parties,
especially so in editing and translation, and in geoprocessing/earth observation.

Earth Observation and                                     s Development of tailor-made solutions for spa-
Geoprocessing                                               tial data processing and management
                                                          s Capacity-building and training in GIS, Remote

Overall goal                                                Sensing and Satellite Surveying
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Earth            s Backstopping in project planning, implemen-

Observation are important methods within the                tation and monitoring.
research and development approach of CDE. The
geoprocessing team coordinated by Jürg Krauer          Achievements
offers a broad range of services both to in-house         s Compilation of several geodatabases and

programmes and projects and to external clients in          topographic map series for the peace building
Switzerland and in partner countries. In the context        process in Sudan (Darfur, Southern Kordofan,
of natural resource management, sustainable region-         Southern Blue Nile) for the humanitarian com-
al development, crisis management, and humani-              munity, initialised by the Swiss Department of
tarian aid, CDE’s geoprocessing unit aims to pro-           Foreign Affairs (DFA).
vide tailor-made solutions in the following fields:       s Initialisation of an institutional development

                                                            process within the municipality of Asmara,
   s Compilation of topographic and thematic                Eritrea, towards common data handling, start-
     maps based on analogue and digital spatial             ing with the compilation of common spatial
     data sets, processed satellite images, and             reference in collaboration with the Depart-
     field surveys                                          ment of Infrastructural Services (DIS) of the
   s Analysis, modelling and visualisation of spa-          municipality.
     tial biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics          s Development of a countrywide geodatabase

     CDE Report 2003/2004

          for the Landmine Impact Survey in Eritrea,               related international organisations such as
          commissioned by the United Nations Develop-              UNITAR, UNOPS, UNEP, UNOSAT, ICRC etc.
          ment Programme (UNDP) and the Eritrean Soli-           s Initialisation of a closer collaboration with the

          darity and Cooperation Association (ESCA).               humanitarian community.
        s Realisation of comprehensive capacity-build-           s Processing and capitalisation of existing (geo-)

          ing and on-the-job trainings for PhD students of         databases to support decision-making process-
          the NCCR North–South.                                    es, e.g. in the fields of natural resource manage-
        s Conceptualisation and realisation of the pilot           ment and crisis management.
          phase of a backstopping mandate for the                s Development of web-based data platforms to

          Swiss Agency for Development and Coopera-                enable specific user groups or the public to
          tion (SDC), which has now been transformed               view, analyse, exchange or print data sets.
          into a three-year mandate.
                                                             Main partners
     Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)                   – SDC
        s Gain further experience in applied research        – DFA
          by developing and using GIS and Remote             – ESAPP
          Sensing methods and tools, as well as inte-        – NCCR
          grated approaches to GIS and Remote Sensing.       – Bodies of the UNO.
        s Systematic capitalisation of relevant experi-

          ence, lessons learnt, and proven practices for
          SDC in the field of geoprocessing and interna-     Contacts at CDE:
          tional cooperation.                                Jürg Krauer          Coordinator
        s Maintenance and extension of networks with         Thomas Gurtner       Deputy Coordinator

                                                                           Spatial Information System of the Tajik
                                                                           Pamirs: Interactive Web Application


Editing and Translation                                 Knowledge Management

Overall Goal                                            Overall goal
The primary goal of CDE’s editing and translation       Information and knowledge generated within CDE
service is to ensure that translations and editing of   are available in documents and in people’s minds.
texts produced by non-native English-speaking           With a growing number of programmes and staff,
authors for final publication are done with maximum     the amount of knowledge constantly increases,
care and accuracy. Recently, we have focused more       while the time to share and use it becomes more
closely on CDE-internal work, particularly publica-     scarce. Therefore, existing platforms of knowledge
tions produced by the Swiss National Centre of Com-     sharing, such as the coordinators’ or team meet-
petence in Research (NCCR) North– South. Work for       ings, are being adapted and complemented by
external customers continues, however. Requests         electronic components.
are regularly received for editing or translation of
publications produced by organisations involved in      Achievements
development- or environment-related work, includ-          s The knowledge management team has insti-

ing KFPE (Swiss Commission for Research Partner-             tutionalised a display corner showing an
ship with Developing Countries), CARITAS, and Swiss          updated selection of the most important doc-
Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).                uments relevant for our key topics.
                                                           s The team has produced a CDE competence

Achievements                                                 map as an effective means to search for and
   s We continue to translate occasional signifi-            contact knowledgeable staff members.
     cant SDC publications, including SDC’s global         s A collection of key messages was put together,

     Newsletter.                                             summarising the essential statements result-
   s In-house French and Russian language services           ing from working groups, forums, studies, etc.
     have been expanded, including conversation            s A management assistant tool was made avail-

     courses in both languages, thanks to staff mem-         able to staff members, containing checklists
     bers with the respective language competence.           and experience with regard to efficient proj-
   s Coordination of activities has improved with            ect acquisition, preparation, management,
     3 staff members now involved, and occasion-             reporting, etc.
     al outside help from a professional translator.
                                                        Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)
Perspectives and key aims (2005–2006)                   In the short term, the knowledge management
   s Coordination of work within CDE will be            team aims to establish all necessary components
     addressed more closely, given the growth of        for a comprehensive database and to integrate data
     the group and the accompanying increase in         input and output into existing workflows of CDE
     the complexity of ensuring efficient workflow.     staff. A web-based application with the possibility
   s Internal and external demand will be assessed      to store and retrieve knowledge-relevant informa-
     and assigned accordingly. Our team is confi-       tion, such as articles, documents, pictures, persons
     dent that language editing and translation         (networking) and more has been developed with
     will remain services that are much sought-         external support. Its build is modular, enabling easy
     after in the coming years.                         customising in response to growing future needs.

Main Partners                                           Contacts at CDE:
Our main partners are CDE’s own programmes and          Fani Kakridi             Coordinator
mandates, the Swiss Agency for Development and          Karl Herweg              Scientific Expert
Cooperation (SDC), and a number of other external       Marc Buchser             Programmer
clients from the Swiss development and environ-
mental community, such as CARITAS Switzerland
and the Swiss Commission for Research Partner-
ships with Developing Countries.

Contacts at CDE:
Theodore Wachs           Coordinator

     CDE Report 2003/2004

     Internet, Intranet and Database                            ers; the tool allows them to track human hours
     Development                                                spent in CDE on specific assignments.

     The relaunch of the CDE Internet Site is in progress;      Tools developed for the National
     the kick-off is planned for April 2005. In a first step,   Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR)
     most pages will remain static. A Content Manage-           North–South
     ment System that will allow CDE staff and other            Several new tools have been prepared for the NCCR
     authorised persons to change the content dynami-           Web and the NCCR database front end, now known
     cally, will later be implemented step by step for          as Knowledge Portal (NCCR: see Section Research
     those pages that require frequent updates.                 in the present report).

     The format of the CDE Intranet is currently being          In addition to this, the internal section (which con-
     discussed and will be redesigned in line with              tains the knowledge portal) was redesigned to give
     knowledge management tools. On the Intranet ver-           coordinators and members of the board of direc-
     sion currently in place, two new tools were made           tors easier access to information. The following
     available alongside the existing ones (Timereport,         tools are available for NCCR team members:
     WebEdit, Webmail and IT-Infos). These new tools are:
         s The Forum (an easy-to-use blackboard and             Publication Map: Makes it possible search for NCCR
           discussion platform)                                 publications by country, by clicking on a world
         s Webspace (for the transfer of large data packs       map, and to search for specific types and combina-
           from/to partners worldwide).                         tions of scientific research carried out within the
     Time reporting
     This internal system has been active for over a year       Competence Search: A feature to quickly find and
     now. The user response is positive and the tool is         contact people with specific competence and
     well accepted. Some feature implementations have           knowledge in particular fields.
     been carried out this year, as well as some bug-fix-
     ing, so that it runs now in version number 1.06.           Key Messages: A collection of concise statements
     The most important new feature is the new admin-           presenting the main findings of research carried
     istration menu that is available for all project lead-     out by NCCR North–South members. These state-

                                                                             Hanspeter Liniger
     Databanking. Nanyuki, Kenya


ments refer to thematic, theoretical and method-          bookshelf, and a forum, through which workspace
ological issues, as well as practical implications of     members can easily communicate and collaborate
these issues for non-scientific stakeholders. NCCR        in a transdisciplinary way.
North–South aims to collate all of its main findings
as key messages. This shall provide an efficient          Glossary and Translation Tool: Consists of a
overview of all lessons learnt in the process of          searchable glossary with key terms and their defi-
transdisciplinary NCCR North–South research,              nitions, and a multilingual database of terms and
which strives for mitigation of syndromes of global       abbreviations in five languages (English, French,
change.                                                   Spanish, Russian, and German). NCCR members
                                                          are encouraged to submit terms and definitions!
Workspaces: This essential new main feature of the        The Glossary Tool was made operational on
Knowledge Portal consists of digital workspaces           December 1, 2004.
that enable collaboration and communication
across all continents, within either a closed or a
public digital space. The workspaces make it possi-
ble to bridge temporal and geographical gaps
between the different dimensions of the NCCR.
Each Workspace has a pin board – a special feature
for arranging and re-arranging key messages virtu-        Contacts at CDE
ally; but there is also an emailing function, a virtual   Marc Buchser            Programmer

                                                                                                     Hans Hurni
Ficus trees are important shadow places for markets in Ethiopia

(as per 31 December 2004)

Board of Directors
Name                 First name   Position
Hurni                Hans         Prof., geographer; (100%)
Kläy                 Andreas      Forest engineer; (80%)
Kohler               Thomas       PhD, geographer; (80%)
Wiesmann             Urs          Prof., geographer; (100%)
Balsiger             Urs          MBA, economist; (80%)

Programme Staff
Name                 First name   Position
Bachmann             Felicitas    MA, anthropologist; (70%)
Bichsel              Christine    MSc, human geographer; (25%); plus PhD cand.
Breu                 Thomas       MSc, human geographer; (25%); plus PhD cand.
Brüschweiler         Sabine       MSc, ethno-botanist; (80%)
Burtscher*           Robert       MSc, physical geographer; (100%)
Cassel-Gintz         Martin       PhD, geo-scientist; (50%); Post-doc.
Ehrensperger**       Albrecht     MSc, geographer; (25%); plus PhD cand.
Gabathuler           Ernst        MA, social pedagogue/agronomist; (100%)
Gallati              Justus       MSc, physicist; PhD cand.
Gämperli Krauer      Ulla         MSc, human geographer; (25%)
Gerber               Kurt         MSc, GIS/IT specialist; (80%)
Giger                Markus       Agroeconomist; (80%)
Gräub                Andreas      MSc, human geographer; (25%)
Guinand              Yves         PhD, human geographer; (100%)
Gurtner              Matthias     MSc, soil conservation specialist; (100%)
Gurtner              Tom          MSc, geographer; (80%)
Haupt                Frank        Civil engineer; (80%)
Heinimann            Andreas      MSc, environmental scientist; (25%); plus PhD cand.
Hergarten            Christian    MSc, geoprocessing specialist; (80%)
Herweg               Karl         PhD, physical geographer; (80%)
Hoeggel              Udo          MSc, environmental economist; (100%)
Imhof***             Regula       Forest engineer; (100%)
Krauer               Jürg         MSc, GIS/IT specialist; (90%)
Ledermann            Thomas       MSc, physical geographer; (50%)
Liechti              Karina       MSc, human geographer; (80%)
Liniger              Hanspeter    PhD, physical geographer; (100%)
Ludi                 Eva          PhD, human geographer; (20%)
Maselli              Daniel       PhD, biologist/ecologist; (100%)
Mathez-Stiefel       Sarah-Lan    MSc, ethno-botanist; (70%)

     Meessen                  Heino          PhD, landscape ecologist; (60%)
     Mekdaschi                Rima           PhD, agronomist; (50%)
     Messerli                 Peter          PhD, geographer; (100%)
     Müller                   Christine      PhD, sociologist; (50%)
     Niederer***              Peter          MSc, physical geographer; (80%)
     Ott                      Cordula        MA, anthropologist; (60%)
     Pfister                  Franziska      PhD, environmental scientist; (80%)
     Rist                     Stephan        PhD, agronomist; (95%)
     Roden*                   Paul           MSc, human geographer; (100%)
     Schichler                Barbara        MSc, physical geographer;(40%)
     Schwilch                 Gudrun         MSc, IT specialist; (60%)
     Stillhardt               Brigitta       MSc, soil scientist; (60%)
     Wachs                    Ted            PhD, historian/editor; (100%)
     Wirth                    Andrea         MSc, physical geographer; (40%)
     Wolfgramm                Bettina        MSc, environmental scientist; PhD cand.
     Wymann                   Susanne        MSc, physical geographer; (40%)
     Zimmermann               Anne           PhD, language scientist/editor; (90%)

     Service Unit Staff
     Name                     First name     Position
     Aerni                    Isabel         Assistant, MSc candidate; (25%)
     Balsiger                 Nicole         Financial administrator; (30%)
     Buchser                  Marc           Programmer; (70%)
     Dällenbach               Erika          Secretary; (80%)
     Heierle                  Emanuel        IT coordinator; (80%)
     Hett                     Cornelia       Assistant, MSc candidate; (25%)
     Hoppler                  Jöri           Assistant, MSc candidate; (25%)
     Hösli                    Christoph      Assistant, MSc candidate; (20%)
     Hurni                    Kaspar         Assistant, MSc candidate; (25%)
     Iseli                    Monika         Editorial assistant; (40%)
     Jöhr                     Franziska      Secretary; (80%)
     Jost                     Anita          Secretary; (50%)
     Kakridi                  Fani           Documentalist; (60%)
     Kummer                   Simone         Desk-top publishing specialist; (60%)
     Kummer                   Tiziano        IT assistant; (40%)
     Portner                  Brigitte       Assistant, MSc candidate; (25%)
     Schnegg                  Ralph          Librarian; (30%)
     Thibault                 Marlène        Assistant, translation services; (40%)
     Vollenwyder              Barbara        Secretary; (90%)
     Willi                    Barbara        Administrative assistant; (40%)

     * duty station: Asmara, Eritrea
     ** duty station: Nakuru, Kenya
38   *** duty station: Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Financial Account 2003 (CHF)*

External funds
Programme income                                        3’522’097.00

Other income (service units, etc.)                         575’519.10
Subtotal                                                4’097’616.10

University funds**
Contribution to office rent                                186'000.00
Contribution to personnel expenditures                     490'000.00
Contribution to operating expenses                          47’900.00
Subtotal                                                   723’900.00
TOTAL INCOME                                                                                                  4’821’516.10

Salaries                                                3’672’078.65
Social benefits                                            477’351.10
Subtotal                                                4’149’429.75

Other expenditures
Office rent                                                217’502.40
Office operating expenses                                   67’525.85
Printing/literature                                         43’431.09
Travel                                                      10’959.85
Miscellaneous                                               57’685.35
IT (CDE share)                                             164’402.75
Subtotal                                                   561’507.29
TOTAL EXPENDITURES                                      4’710’937.04             4’710’937.04

Surplus                                                                          110’579.06
TOTAL                                                                         4’821’516.10                 4’821’516.10

* in CHF; funds managed through CDE account at headquarters in Berne
** University of Berne. In compensation for services rendered in teaching, supervision, general university functions

     Total Entrusted Funds 2003

     Outreach Programmes                                   Total funds              Funds CH*          Entrusted funds
     ESAPP                                                 1’065’000.00              475’000.00                  590’000.00
     SLM, Eritrea                                            600’000.00              300’000.00                  300’000.00
     Simen Mountains Programme, Ethiopia                       10’000.00               10’000.00                          0.00
     Central Asia Mountain Programme (CAMP)                  850’000.00              350’000.00                  500’000.00
     Pamir Strategy Project, Tajikistan                      130’000.00              130’000.00                           0.00
     Alpine Research, (JAB)                                    30’000.00               30’000.00                          0.00

     Research Programmes (NCCR North-South)
     Management Centre                                       900’000.00              500’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Project 1                                    800’000.00              400’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Project 2                                    800’000.00              400’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Projects 3-8                               4’800’000.00                       0.00             4’800’000.00

     Policy Mandates
     WOCAT                                                   465’000.00              365’000.00                  100’000.00
     SLM, Policy Initiative                                  100’000.00              100’000.00                           0.00
     Social Learning for Sustainability (SOLES)              100’000.00                50’000.00                   50’000.00
     Mountain Research and Development                       460’000.00              460’000.00                           0.00
     Backstopping Mandate, SDC                               900’000.00              900’000.00                           0.00
     Development and Environment Info Service                250’000.00              250’000.00                           0.00

     Editing and Translation                                   50’000.00               50’000.00                          0.00
     Earth Observation/Geoprocessing                         440’000.00              440’000.00                           0.00

     University Funds
     University Funds**                                      723’900.00              723’900.00                           0.00

     Overall Total                                     13’473’900.00            5’933’900.00                7’540’000.00

     * funds managed by CDE Headquarters in Berne (CDE account plus project accounts)
     ** University of Berne. In compensation for services in teaching, supervision, general university functions, and support for NCCR
     North South

Financial Account 2004 (CHF)*

External funds
Programme income                                        3’776’000.00

Other income (service units, etc.)                         602’000.00
Subtotal                                                4’378’000.00

University funds**
Contribution to office rent                                186'000.00
Contribution to personnel expenditures                     490'000.00
Contribution to operating expenses                          37’000.00
Subtotal                                                   713’000.00
TOTAL INCOME                                                                                                  5’091’000.00

Salaries                                                4’128’000.00
Social benefits                                            523’000.00
Subtotal                                                4’651’000.00

Other expenditures
Office rent                                                211’000.00
Office operating expenses                                   43’000.00
Printing/literature                                         27’000.00
Travel                                                      45’000.00
Miscellaneous                                              266’000.00
IT (CDE share)                                             103’000.00
Subtotal                                                   695’000.00
TOTAL EXPENDITURES                                      5’346’000.00             5’346’000.00

Deficit                                                                         -255’000.00
TOTAL                                                                         5’091’000.00                 5’091’000.00

* in CHF; funds managed through CDE account at headquarters in Berne
** University of Berne. In compensation for services rendered in teaching, supervision, general university functions

     Total Entrusted Funds 2004

     Outreach Programmes                                   Total funds               Funds CH*          Entrusted funds
     ESAPP                                                    783’000.00              432’000.00                  351’000.00
     SLM, Eritrea                                             657’000.00              300’000.00                  357’500.00
     Simen Mountains Programme, Ethiopia                      110’000.00              110’000.00                            0.00
     Central Asia Mountain Programme (CAMP)                   850’000.00              350’000.00                  500’000.00
     Exhibition Central Asia                                  120’000.00              120’000.00                            0.00
     ALS in Tajikstan                                         215’000.00                85’000.00                 130’000.00
     GEF-Pamir                                                100’000.00              100’000.00                            0.00
     Alpine Research, (JAB)                                     30’000.00               30’000.00                           0.00

     Research Programmes (NCCR North-South)
     Management Centre                                        900’000.00              500’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Project 1                                     800’000.00              400’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Project 2                                     800’000.00              400’000.00                  400’000.00
     Individual Projects 3-8                                4’800’000.00                       0.00             4’800’000.00

     Policy Mandates
     WOCAT                                                    465’000.00              365’000.00                  100’000.00
     SLM, Policy Initiative                                   100’000.00              100’000.00                            0.00
     Social Learning for Sustainability (SOLES)                 70’000.00               50’000.00                   20’000.00
     Mountain Research and Development                        416’000.00              416’000.00                            0.00
     Backstopping Mandate, SDC                                885’000.00              885’000.00                            0.00
     Development and Environment Info Service                 250’000.00              250’000.00                            0.00

     Editing and Translation                                    50’000.00               50’000.00                           0.00
     Earth Observation/Geoprocessing                          550’000.00              550’000.00                            0.00

     University Funds
     University Funds**                                       713’000.00              713’000.00                            0.00

     Overall Total                                     13’664’500.00             6’206’000.00                 7’458’500.00

     * funds managed by CDE Headquarters in Berne (CDE account plus project accounts)
     ** University of Berne. In compensation for services in teaching, supervision, general university functions, and support for
     NCCR North South

CDE Balance of Accounts as per December 2004 (rounded)*

Current assets
Liquid funds                                       2,333,000
Accounts receivable                                 -372,000
Advance disbursements                                 1,000
Total current assets                              1,962,000

Fixed assets
EDP equipment                                        17,000
Furniture                                            65,000
Total fixed assets                                   82,000
TOTAL ASSETS                                      2,044,000

Current liabilities
Accounts payable                                      -5,000
Project accounts payable                            -621,000
Staff accounts payable                                -1,000
Prepaid income                                      180,000
Total current liabilities                          -447,000

Equity capital
Capital                                           2,027,000
General reserves                                    399,000
Tied reserves                                       320,000
Profit/loss                                        -255,000
Total equity capital                              2,491,000
TOTAL LIABILITIES                                 2,044,000

* Figures in CHF


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