Poverty and Starvation in Paris
Resenting the Rich
Fashion is Politics
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
(Nobility and Clergy vs. Everyone Else)
Aristocrats and the Sans Culottes
Storming the Bastille, 1789
The Great Fear
The Rights of Man
1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social
distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.
2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the
natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are
liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the
nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which
does not proceed directly from the nation.
4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures
no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man
has no limits except those which assure to the other members of
the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can
only be determined by law . . .
Robespierre and the Reign of Terror
Robespierre on Virtue and Terror
This great purity of the French revolution's basis, the very sublimity of its
objective, is precisely what causes both our strength and our weakness. Our
strength, because it gives to us truth's ascendancy over imposture, and the rights
of the public interest over private interests; our weakness, because it rallies all
vicious men against us, all those who in their hearts contemplated despoiling the
people and all those who intend to let it be despoiled with impunity, both those
who have rejected freedom as a personal calamity and those who have embraced
the revolution as a career and the Republic as prey. Hence the defection of so
many ambitious or greedy men who since the point of departure have
abandoned us along the way because they did not begin the journey with the
same destination in view. The two opposing spirits that have been represented in
a struggle to rule nature might be said to be fighting in this great period of
human history to fix irrevocably the world's destinies, and France is the scene of
this fearful combat. Without, all the tyrants encircle you; within, all tyranny's
friends conspire; they will conspire until hope is wrested from crime. We must
smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now
in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by
reason and the people's enemies by terror.
20 th-Century Reigns of Terror
Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1791)
The fresh ruins of France, which shock our feelings wherever we can turn our eyes, are
not the devastation of civil war; they are the sad but instructive monuments of rash and
ignorant counsel in time of profound peace. They are the display of inconsiderate and
presumptuous, because unresisted and irresistible, authority. The persons who have thus
squandered away the precious treasure of their crimes, the persons who have made this
prodigal and wild waste of public evils, (the last stage reserved for the ultimate ransom of
the state), have met in their progress with little, or rather with no opposition at all. Their
whole march was more like a triumphal procession, than the progress of a war. Their
pioneers have gone before them, and demolished and laid everything level at their feet.
Not one drop of their blood have they shed in the cause of the country they have ruined.
They have made no sacrifices to their projects of greater consequence than their
shoe-buckles, whilst they were imprisoning their king, murdering their fellow citizens,
and bathing in tears, and plunging in poverty and distress, thousands of worthy men and
worthy families. Their cruelty has not even been the base result of fear. It has been the
effect of their sense of perfect safety, in authorizing treasons, robberies, rapes,
assassinations, slaughters, and burnings, throughout their harassed land. But the cause of
all was plain from the beginning.
• How important is military technology?
• Fortress, Crossbow, Cavalry, Ships-of-the-Line, Cannons,
Muskets, Rifles, Revolvers, Iron-Clads, Machine Guns,
Dreadnoughts, Submarines, High Explosives, Tanks, Aerial
Bombardment, Poison Gas, Mechanized Infantry,
Radar/Sonar, Aircraft Carrier, Paratroopers, Nuclear Weapons,
High-Altitude Bombing, Missiles, Stealth, Drones, Satellite
Intelligence, Computer-aided Infantry.
• How important are battles and generals? Everything and
• Austerlitz, Waterloo, Gettysburg, Battle of the Somme, D-Day
• Napoleon, Wellington, Grant, Lee, Pershing, Eisenhower?
• What happened to military history?
Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa by Gros
Study of Napoleon by David
Napoleon Crossing the Alps by David
The Egyptian Revival
The Rosetta Stone
The Coronation of Napoleon
Arc de Triumph (1806)
Goya, The Third of May, 1808
The Russian Campaign (1812)
Napoleon at Elba
The Battle of Waterloo
At Saint Helena
The Pantheon, Paris