Practice in durian nursery in the Southern Viet Nam.
Nguyen Minh Chau, Huynh Van Tan, Huynh Van Thanh.
The Southern Fruit Research Institute,
Box 203, My tho, Tien Giang, Viet nam
Cho Lach district Ben Tre province in the MeKong Delta is well known for its
production of fruit tree saplings in the Southern part of Viet Nam. The Cho Lach people
produce more than 20 million citrus, durian, mango, mangosteen and rambutan saplings
In general, the quality of the sapling is good, as the nurserymen are skillful and
Around 6 years ago, the traditional budding technique was replaced by the U-
grafting technique, which allows 4 to 5 times higher in the number of saplings produced per
budwood than the budding technique. The U-grafting technique is much easier to do than
The U-grafting technique is applied for once rootstock sapling, while the cleft graft
technique is used for two-rootstock sapling. Saplings with two rootstocks grow faster than
the single rootstock saplings.
It is important that more attention is paid to produce disease-free planting stock in
the future to prevent the spread of diseases. As the investigations showed a high percentage
of current planting stocks were susceptible to the Phytophthora disease, in potting mix, in
the grafting point of durian saplings. The application of fungicides showed very useful to
control the Phytophthora during the nursery stage.
Durian is considered as one of the important fruit crops in the southern part of Viet
Nam. It is grown up to higher than 900m of sea level to lowland in the Mekong Delta of
Nursery practices of fruit trees are very important as they might carry the diseases
and insects to a new place. Hence, the nursery practices at Cho Lach, Ben Tre province
were studied on:
- Method of propagations
- Effect of one and two rootstocks on the growth of saplings in the nursery and at
one year after planting
- Effect of some factors that are related to saplings quality
Materials and methods
1. Methods of propagation were investigated at the nurserymen in Cho Lach:
- Marcotting method
- Budding method
- Grafting method: U-grafting and cleft- grafting.
2. The effects of one and two- rootstocks systems on the growth of durian saplings
3. Effect of some factors that related to the saplings quality were investigated from 10
- The components of potting mix and its relation to Phytophthora fungi were
- The kinds of fungus presence in the nursery.
- The effect of some factor like:
Density of saplings in the nursery, fungicides, on the percentage of the pots having
Phytophthora fungi were recorded.
4. Ten nurserymen were surveyed, 200 potting mix samples were taken, and 100 saplings
were sampled for identification the presence of Phytophthora palmivora.
. Phytophthora was isolated at SOFRI (Thanh, 2000,2001,2002) and identified at
Cooperative Res. Centre for Tropical Plant Pathology (Andre, 2002,2001).
-Duration of investigation: 1997-2002
-Location of nurserymen involved in the survey: Cho Lach District, Ben Tre
. t- test was used to analyze the data.
1. Propagation methods
Several vegetative propagation techniques for durian have been investigated: marcotting
(air layering), budding and grafting.
- Healthy stem with length from 80 to 100 cm selected.
- Girdling the stem to peel of the bark.
- After of the bark was peeled, kept 2-3 weeks, wrapped with moist medium (water
hyacinth roots) to initiate roots.
- After 45-50 days, if the roots developed then the cutting can be done.
- Keep the newly rooted saplings under the shade.
- Success: 40- 50%
- Good time to do marcotting Mar/Apr.
Budding was practiced for a long time in Viet Nam. Around 6 years ago, it was
replaced by graft techniques. This is because, in budding the scion has to be selected and
taken very carefully and also because the budding technique is more difficult to do than the
The steps in budding were as follows:
- Rootstocks at the age of 18-24 months, 2.5-3cm in the diameter and healthy
rootstocks were selected
- Cut U-shape
- The bud (1 eye) selected, and cut from 2.5 to 3 cm long
- Inserted the bud (1 eye) into the rootstock
- The budding graft was covered with coconut leaf
- The graft wrapped with polyethylene, keep in the shade for 3 weeks, and then
remove the polyethylene
- The newly budding plants were kept under the shade
- The best time for budding: Oct/Nov
- Success from 50 to 70%.
This method has been used widely since 6 years ago, as these techniques are much
easier to do than the budding technique. There are two kinds of grafting technique being
applied for durian.
- U-grafting technique
- Cleft grafting technique
The steps in U-grafting technique was as follows:
- Rootstock at the age of 18-24 months old was selected
- Its barks were cut like ∩, at 0,8-1cm wide, 2,5-3cm lengths
- Cutting the mature budwood into 4-5 scions, each with one bud (1 eye) and 1/3 of
leaf prepared Scion
- Scion was inserted into the rootstock
- Wrapping the scion and the rootstock
- The grafted plant was covered with polyethylene bag
- Kept under the shade (50% sunshine)
The U-grafting technique being applied to produce the one-rootstock durian
- Success percentage is around 90%
- Good grafting time good in May/June.
Cleft grafting technique
The cleft grafting technique widely used in Viet Nam to produce two- rootstocks
saplings of durian. The steps involved in cleft grafting technique were as follows:
- Two-rootstocks at the age of 5-6 weeks old were grafted first
- Then the top of united rootstock was cut, and then the central of the united
rootstock was opened with a sharp blade so that the scion can be inserted into the
- Scion was prepared like U-grafting technique. However, at the base of the scion,
the cut was made V shape so that it can be fixed into the rootstock
- Inserted the scion into the rootstock
- Wrapping tidily the scion and the rootstock
- Cover the grafted plant with polyethylene bag
- Keep the grafted plant under the shade (50% sunshine)
- The cleft grafting being applied to produce two-rootstock durian sapling – one
family can produce 20,000 saplings by cleft grafting technique annually
- Success percentage is around 80-90%
- Best time to graft in May-June
2. The effects of one and two rootstocks system on the growth of durian saplings
- Plant height and number of primary branches: after 9 months of grafting. The data showed
that saplings with two- rootstocks saplings recorded a significantly higher in plant height
and number of primary branch as compared with that in one- rootstock sapling (table 1).
Table1: Plant height and number of primary branches
Plant height (cm) Primary branch (branch)
One- rootstock Two- rootstock One- rootstock Two- rootstock
1 70 60 8 4
2 67 61 7 5
3 67 64 9 4
4 65 60 8 6
5 64 62 8 4
6 66 58 8 5
7 64 59 9 5
8 75 54 6 4
9 61 60 7 4
10 62 63 9 4
Average 67,1 60,1 7,9 4,5
t- test 3,6228 9,1599
- Plant height after one year of planting of one- rootstock and two-rootstocks saplings:
The data showed that the sapling of two-rootstock sapling recorded a significant higher in
plant height as compared with that in the one-rootstock saplings (table 2).
Table 2: Plant height after 12 months of planting.
Plant height (cm)
One- rootstock Two- rootstocks
1 183 160
2 185 157
3 187 161
4 184 162
5 186 157
6 188 156
7 190 152
8 190 154
9 188 150
10 190 150
Average 187,1 155,9
t- test 15,0343
The two-rootstock saplings were not only need less time to produce (12-14 months)
than the one-rootstock saplings (2 years), but also grew faster in the nursery stage and at
one year after plantings. The price of two- rootstocks saplings also cheaper than one-
SOFRI recommends farmers to use the two-rootstock saplings.
3. Effects of some factors that related to the saplings quality (in relation to
Components of potting mix and its relation to Phytophthora:
+ Two kinds of potting mix were noted as follows:
*Burned rice husk+ compost rice husk+ soil dried+ some bat manure (3: 1: 1)
*Burned rice husk+ compost rice husk+ soil dried+ Coconut fibre+ some bat manure
(3: 1: 1: 1)
+ The potting components were taken for identification the presence of Phytophthora-
palmivora, the data recorded showed that:
. Burned rice husk: No Phytophthora palmivora.
. Compost rice husk: 5% samples having found Phytophthora palmivora.
. Dried soil: No Phytophthora palmivora found.
. Bat manure: No Phytophthora palmivora
. Coconut fibre: 20% samples found Phytophthora palmivora.
Hence, Coconut fibre and compost rice husk should not be used as potting mix,
because they might have Phytophtora palmivora.
* Effect of with and without fungicides application on the percentage of disease
. Hexaconazol (Anvil 5SC) 40ml/8 litres or Copper oxychlorid 85% (CoC 85)
25g/8 litres or Fosetyl- Aluminium (Aliette 80 WP) 20g/8 litres or Metalaxyl (Ridomyl
MZ- 72 WP) 30g/8 litres were used as alternative, at 15 days interval. 200 ml Fosetyl-
Aluminium (Aliette 80 WP) 20g/8 litres was also irrigated into the pot, when of putting the
rootstock into the pot.
. Rhizoctonia solani, Phomopsis sp., Collectotrichum ziberthinum and
Phytophthora palmivora were recorded in the pots. However, the percentage of disease
saplings was higher in without fungicide application pots as compared with pots with
irrigation and spray fungicides. (Table3)
Table 3: Effect of with and without fungicides applications
on the percentage of disease sapling
Percentage of disease sapling (%)
With fungicides Without fungicide
1 Collectotrichum ziberthinum 1,5 7,5
2 Phomopsis sp. 7,5 35.0
3 Rhizoctonia solani 1,5 32,5
4 Phytophthora palmivora 4,0 55,0
Note: Average from10 nurserymen
The data showed that the applications of different fungicides as sprays at 15 days
interval irrigation into the pots were necessary to control fungi.
All the nurserymen applied the fungicides at 15-day intervals after grafting had
* Effect of saplings density in the nursery on the percentage of pots with
Table 4: Effect of saplings density in the nursery
on the percentage of pot having Phytophthora
No Density Percentage of pot found Phytophthora
1 16 saplings/m2 3,5
2 25 saplings/m2 7,5
The data showed that high density had a higher percentage of pots found
Phytophthora palmivora as compared with low density (table 4).
* The samples at the grafting points of one rootstock and two rootstock saplings
were taken for identification of Phytophthora palmivora.
It was recorded that the Phytophthora- palmivora also presence at the grafting point
(5% of saplings).
Hence, the scion and scion branch might also be the sources of Phytophthora disease
• The U-grafting technique being used for one- rootstock sapling production while the
cleft grafting technique being used for two-rootstock saplings production.
• The two-rootstock saplings grew faster than the one-rootstock saplings.
• 5-10% saplings in the nursery stage were susceptible to Phytophthora palmivora,
depend on the application of fungicides, the saplings density in the nursery, the
components of potting mix, the source of scions.
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