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Be familiar with Be familiar with Be familiar with Be familiar

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									                       Sociology 130                                            Sociology 130
                   Rural Institutions                                       Rural Institutions
                   and Organizations                                        and Organizations

                                                                                      Assigned readings not responsible for on
                                                                                      Exam 1
                              •Culture
                                                                                      •Ensuring level playing field (pp.41-42)
                                                                                      •Farm Policy for rest of us (pp. 43-47)
                                                                                      •Bill seeks records secret (p. 83)
                              •Exam week from today                                   •Prejudice against country people pp. (92-94)
                                                                                      •Why American’s value rural life (pp. 101-104)
                                                                                      •Field of Battle (pp. 105-109)
                                                                                      •$11.5M Lawsuit (p. 110)
                                                                                      •Tolerance softened (pp. 113-115)
                                                                                      ------------------------------------------
                                                                                      Postville: responsible thru page 160.
  September 26,                                            September 21,
      2006                                                     2006




                     Be familiar with:                                        Be familiar with:
                                                         •Dependent variable                 •Gemeinschaft
•Abstract                     •Classical liberalism      •Division of Labor                  •Gesellschaft
•Achieved status              •Comte, Auguste            •Dysfunction                        •Globalization
•Anomie                       •Conflict perspective      •Durkheim, Emile                    •Great transformation
•Ascribed status              •Control group             •Empirical                          •Hatch Act of 1887
•Assumptions                  •Country Life Commission   •Ethnocentrism                      •Homestead Act
•Beliefs                      •Creative class            •Experiment                         •Human Ecology
•Bourgeoisie                  •Creativity                •Experimental group                 •Hypothesis
•Capitalism                   •Critical thinking         •False consciousness                •Independent Variable
•Cause                        •Cultural integration      •“Flattened” world                  •Innovation
•Class (Marxist)              •Cultural relativism       •Folkways                           •Interactionist perspective
•Class conflict (Marxist)     •Cultural universals       •Function                           •Latent functions
•Class consciousness          •Cultural lag              •Functionalist perspective          •Laws
•Classical conservatism       •Culture                                                       •Macrosociology




                     Be familiar with:                                        Be familiar with:
•Manifest function            •Norms                     •Reliability                        •Social class

•Martineau, Harriet           •Organic solidarity        •Representative sample              •Social institution

•Marx, Karl                   •Organization              •Research design                    •Society

•Master status                •Participant observation   •Role                               •Sociological imagination

•Material culture             •Population                •Rural                              •Sociology

•Mechanical Solidarity        •Power                     •Rural sociology                    •Stereotypes

•Microsociology               •Purnell Act               •Sanctions                          •Structural-functionalism

•Mores                        •Predestination            •Scientific method                  •Subculture

•Morrill Act of 1862          •Prejudice                 •Secondary Analysis                 •Survey

•Morrill Act of 1890          •Proletariat               •Self-fulfilling                    •Taboo
                                                             prophesy
•Multiculturalism             •Protestant ethic                                              •Technology
                                                         •Smith-Lever Act
•Nonmaterial culture          •Random sample                                                 •Theory
                                                                                             •Toennies, Ferdinand




                                                                                                                                       1
                     Be familiar with:               Be familiar with people/ideas:
•Total institution
•Unit of analysis                        •Historical development          •Modern Context       •Rural Sociology
•Validity                                   •August Comte                    •Thomas Friedman
•Values                                     •Harriet Martineau               •Richard Florida      •Ryan & Gross
•Weber, Max                                 •Emile Durkheim
                                                                                                   •Goldschmidt
                                            •Ferdinand Tönnies
                                                                                                   •Hightower
                                            •Max Weber
                                            •Karl Marx


                                            •Ibn Khaldun




               Be familiar with dates:                   Be familiar with statistics:

          Homestead Act         1862                 Percent population rural
          Morrill Act           1862                          •    World              2/3
          Morrill Act           1890                          •    U.S.               1/5 (20%)
          3rd Wave Land Grant   1994                          •    Iowa               2/5 (40%)

                                                     Land area rural
                                                              •    World              85%+
                                                              •    U.S.               85%+




                                                                    Six Questions

          Culture and                    1. What is society and what is culture?
                                         2. Why do humans societies have culture and

            Society                         other species do not?
                                         3. What are characteristics and components of
                                            culture?
                                         4. Is “rural culture” a meaningful concept
                                            today? How do we arrive at an answer?
                                         5. What are underlying themes of a rural
                                            culture?
                                         6. How do cultures change?




                                                                                                                   2
                                                      1. Why do human societies have culture
1. What is society and what is culture?               and other species do not?

 Society          A grouping of people (or other         A. Physical and biological
                  social animals) that is organized         characteristics
                  in a cooperative manner to carry
                  out the major functions of life.        -Erect posture           -Voice capability
                                                          -Stereoscopic vision     -Minimal instincts
                                                          -Structure of the hand -Relatively long
                                                                                  life span
 Culture         What’s left after the people are
                 removed; that is, culture is all         -Flexible shoulder
                 the creations of people.
                                                          -Sexuality




1. Why do human societies have culture                2. What are important characteristics
and other species do not?                             of culture?
   B. Mental capacity and ability to                   •Product of society
       symbol
     Symbol - Something that represents/
                                                       •Learned and transmitted - it is not
         stands for something else.                        genetic
       (Abstractions for ideas as well as for the
        empirical )                                    •Cumulative
               - Linkage is arbitrary                  •Expands human freedom
                -Language is a system of               •Limits human freedom
                 symbols
     Sign -   Direct linkage between sign and
               meaning




 2. What are important characteristics                3. What are the components of
 of culture?                                          culture?
  • Defines what is “natural”/ “unnatural”
  • Pervasive in understanding “reality”
                                                            Material             Nonmaterial
  • Give us a moral perspective
                                                            Culture                Culture
    (right/wrong)
  • All people are ethnocentric (to some
    extent)




                                                                                                        3
   Elements of Culture:Material Culture             Elements of Culture:Material Culture


                     artifacts, art,                                  artifacts, art,
                     architecture, and other                          architecture, and other
      Material       physical objects that a          Material        physical objects that a
      Culture        society creates and to           Culture         society creates and to
                     which it applies meaning.                        which it applies meaning.


  Rural Culture Examples:                          Rural Culture Icons (traditional):
                                                   Hoe Plow Farmstead Dinnerbell




   Elements of Culture:Material Culture          3. What are the components of
                                                 culture?

                     artifacts, art,
                     architecture, and other
                     physical objects that a             Material           Nonmaterial
      Material                                           Culture              Culture
      Culture        society creates and to
                     which it applies meaning.


  Rural Culture Icons (modern day):
  Pick ups, 4x4, “Big Iron”




 Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture         Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture

                                                                            (1)

                                                                         Cognitive


     Nonmaterial                                      Nonmaterial
       Culture                                          Culture




Three Interrelated                               Three Interrelated
Systems                                          Systems




                                                                                                  4
 Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture              Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture

                           (1)                                                       (1)

                        Cognitive                                                Cognitive
                                 Signs/Symbols
                                                                                           Language
     Nonmaterial
                                 Gestures                                                  • System of symbols
       Culture
                                 Language                                                  • Allows culture to be
                                                                                              cumulative
                                 Beliefs
                                                                                           • Basis for “thinking”
Three Interrelated               Knowledge            Three Interrelated
Systems                                               Systems                              • Frees one from
                                 Technology                                                    “present”




 Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture              Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture

                           (1)                                                       (2)

                          Cognitive                                             Ideological
                                                                                           Values
                            Language                        Nonmaterial
                                                                                           Ethics
                                                              Culture
                            • Language more than
                              system of symbols
                            • Language provides our
Three Interrelated            consciousness
                                                      Three Interrelated
Systems                     • No symbol/Not real      Systems




Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture              Values that describe American Culture?
                          Values                      Robin Williams (1965)(Still quoted in 2006 texts)
                           Abstract ideas about       -Achievement and success             -Material comfort
                            - good/bad
                                                      -Individualism                       -Humanitarianism
    (2)
                            - right/wrong
    Ideological
                            - desirable/              -Activity and work                    -Freedom
                              undesirable
                            - important/              -Efficiency and practicality          -Democracy
                              unimportant             -Science and Technology               -Equality
                           Broad standards;           -Progress                            -Racism/Group
                           ultimate goals
Values change slowly,                                                                       superiority
                           Image of what is
are stable over time       good, right, beautiful,
                           desirable




                                                                                                                    5
Values that describe American Culture?
                                                        Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture
             New and Emerging Values

                                                                                         Value clusters
-Leisure
-Physical fitness                                            (2)                         •5 values that
-Self-fulfillment                                            Ideological                  define self
-Concern for the environment                                                             •What 5 values
                                                                                          define yourself?
-Others???
                                                        Three Interrelated
                                                        Systems




                                                           “My behavior with Ms. Lewinsky was
                                                           inappropriate.”
                                                                   -William Jefferson Clinton, 1998
                                         (3)
                                      Normative            “Your behavior was immoral”
     Nonmaterial                                                -Joseph Leibermann, 1998
     Culture                          Rules/guides         “I made the mistake of adultery”
        -Cognitive                    for behavior              -Kobe Bryant, 2003
       -Ideological
       -Normative                                          “I made the mistake of wearing brown socks
                                                           with black shoes”
                                 Folkways                       -Steve Padgitt, 2003
Three Interrelated
                                 Mores         Taboos      Folkway versus More ?
Systems
                                 Laws                      Cognitive versus Normative versus Ideological?




                      Six Questions
                                                          Culture:
1. What is society and what is culture?
                                                          Interrelated                  Cognitive
2. Why do humans societies have culture and
   other species do not?                                  Systems
3. What are characteristics and components of                                Material                  Normative
   culture?
4. Is “rural culture” a meaningful concept
   today? How do we arrive at an answer?
                                                                                         Ideological
5. What are underlying themes of a rural
   culture?
6. How do cultures change




                                                                                                                   6
                                                              Classical article:
Culture:                        Cognitive
                                                              Lauriston Sharp
Interrelated                                                                                Cognitive
                                                              “Introduction of
Systems                                                       Steel axes for
                                                              Stone-age
            Material                            Normative                        Material                  Normative
                                                              Australians”



                                Ideological                                                  Ideological

   Less stability when systems start to pull in different
   directions…disequilibrium




                                                                Cultural Lag and Cultural Lead
Are there any                                                              concepts
“steel axes” in                                   Normative
today’s settings?            Cognitive                             There are “parts” of culture
                                                                   The parts fit together in a meaningful way
                                                                          organized and in “equilibrium”
         Material
         Culture                                                   Change doesn’t occur consistently/equally
                                                                             among the parts
                               Ideological                         Result is: disequilibrium, disorganization,
                                                                               cultural lag, cultural lead




             1. Identify from Postville’s “Culture Clashes”


                            “Local”           Hassidic Jew
     Material culture
       element (icons)
     Nonmaterial culture
       elements
        -Cognitive
        -Ideological
        -Normative
 2. “Be prepared” to tell how elements are interrelated
 3. “Be prepared” to tell how elements clash




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