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Sociology 130 Sociology 130 Rural Institutions Rural Institutions and Organizations and Organizations Assigned readings not responsible for on Exam 1 •Culture •Ensuring level playing field (pp.41-42) •Farm Policy for rest of us (pp. 43-47) •Bill seeks records secret (p. 83) •Exam week from today •Prejudice against country people pp. (92-94) •Why American’s value rural life (pp. 101-104) •Field of Battle (pp. 105-109) •$11.5M Lawsuit (p. 110) •Tolerance softened (pp. 113-115) ------------------------------------------ Postville: responsible thru page 160. September 26, September 21, 2006 2006 Be familiar with: Be familiar with: •Dependent variable •Gemeinschaft •Abstract •Classical liberalism •Division of Labor •Gesellschaft •Achieved status •Comte, Auguste •Dysfunction •Globalization •Anomie •Conflict perspective •Durkheim, Emile •Great transformation •Ascribed status •Control group •Empirical •Hatch Act of 1887 •Assumptions •Country Life Commission •Ethnocentrism •Homestead Act •Beliefs •Creative class •Experiment •Human Ecology •Bourgeoisie •Creativity •Experimental group •Hypothesis •Capitalism •Critical thinking •False consciousness •Independent Variable •Cause •Cultural integration •“Flattened” world •Innovation •Class (Marxist) •Cultural relativism •Folkways •Interactionist perspective •Class conflict (Marxist) •Cultural universals •Function •Latent functions •Class consciousness •Cultural lag •Functionalist perspective •Laws •Classical conservatism •Culture •Macrosociology Be familiar with: Be familiar with: •Manifest function •Norms •Reliability •Social class •Martineau, Harriet •Organic solidarity •Representative sample •Social institution •Marx, Karl •Organization •Research design •Society •Master status •Participant observation •Role •Sociological imagination •Material culture •Population •Rural •Sociology •Mechanical Solidarity •Power •Rural sociology •Stereotypes •Microsociology •Purnell Act •Sanctions •Structural-functionalism •Mores •Predestination •Scientific method •Subculture •Morrill Act of 1862 •Prejudice •Secondary Analysis •Survey •Morrill Act of 1890 •Proletariat •Self-fulfilling •Taboo prophesy •Multiculturalism •Protestant ethic •Technology •Smith-Lever Act •Nonmaterial culture •Random sample •Theory •Toennies, Ferdinand 1 Be familiar with: Be familiar with people/ideas: •Total institution •Unit of analysis •Historical development •Modern Context •Rural Sociology •Validity •August Comte •Thomas Friedman •Values •Harriet Martineau •Richard Florida •Ryan & Gross •Weber, Max •Emile Durkheim •Goldschmidt •Ferdinand Tönnies •Hightower •Max Weber •Karl Marx •Ibn Khaldun Be familiar with dates: Be familiar with statistics: Homestead Act 1862 Percent population rural Morrill Act 1862 • World 2/3 Morrill Act 1890 • U.S. 1/5 (20%) 3rd Wave Land Grant 1994 • Iowa 2/5 (40%) Land area rural • World 85%+ • U.S. 85%+ Six Questions Culture and 1. What is society and what is culture? 2. Why do humans societies have culture and Society other species do not? 3. What are characteristics and components of culture? 4. Is “rural culture” a meaningful concept today? How do we arrive at an answer? 5. What are underlying themes of a rural culture? 6. How do cultures change? 2 1. Why do human societies have culture 1. What is society and what is culture? and other species do not? Society A grouping of people (or other A. Physical and biological social animals) that is organized characteristics in a cooperative manner to carry out the major functions of life. -Erect posture -Voice capability -Stereoscopic vision -Minimal instincts -Structure of the hand -Relatively long life span Culture What’s left after the people are removed; that is, culture is all -Flexible shoulder the creations of people. -Sexuality 1. Why do human societies have culture 2. What are important characteristics and other species do not? of culture? B. Mental capacity and ability to •Product of society symbol Symbol - Something that represents/ •Learned and transmitted - it is not stands for something else. genetic (Abstractions for ideas as well as for the empirical ) •Cumulative - Linkage is arbitrary •Expands human freedom -Language is a system of •Limits human freedom symbols Sign - Direct linkage between sign and meaning 2. What are important characteristics 3. What are the components of of culture? culture? • Defines what is “natural”/ “unnatural” • Pervasive in understanding “reality” Material Nonmaterial • Give us a moral perspective Culture Culture (right/wrong) • All people are ethnocentric (to some extent) 3 Elements of Culture:Material Culture Elements of Culture:Material Culture artifacts, art, artifacts, art, architecture, and other architecture, and other Material physical objects that a Material physical objects that a Culture society creates and to Culture society creates and to which it applies meaning. which it applies meaning. Rural Culture Examples: Rural Culture Icons (traditional): Hoe Plow Farmstead Dinnerbell Elements of Culture:Material Culture 3. What are the components of culture? artifacts, art, architecture, and other physical objects that a Material Nonmaterial Material Culture Culture Culture society creates and to which it applies meaning. Rural Culture Icons (modern day): Pick ups, 4x4, “Big Iron” Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture (1) Cognitive Nonmaterial Nonmaterial Culture Culture Three Interrelated Three Interrelated Systems Systems 4 Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture (1) (1) Cognitive Cognitive Signs/Symbols Language Nonmaterial Gestures • System of symbols Culture Language • Allows culture to be cumulative Beliefs • Basis for “thinking” Three Interrelated Knowledge Three Interrelated Systems Systems • Frees one from Technology “present” Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture (1) (2) Cognitive Ideological Values Language Nonmaterial Ethics Culture • Language more than system of symbols • Language provides our Three Interrelated consciousness Three Interrelated Systems • No symbol/Not real Systems Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture Values that describe American Culture? Values Robin Williams (1965)(Still quoted in 2006 texts) Abstract ideas about -Achievement and success -Material comfort - good/bad -Individualism -Humanitarianism (2) - right/wrong Ideological - desirable/ -Activity and work -Freedom undesirable - important/ -Efficiency and practicality -Democracy unimportant -Science and Technology -Equality Broad standards; -Progress -Racism/Group ultimate goals Values change slowly, superiority Image of what is are stable over time good, right, beautiful, desirable 5 Values that describe American Culture? Elements of Culture: Nonmaterial Culture New and Emerging Values Value clusters -Leisure -Physical fitness (2) •5 values that -Self-fulfillment Ideological define self -Concern for the environment •What 5 values define yourself? -Others??? Three Interrelated Systems “My behavior with Ms. Lewinsky was inappropriate.” -William Jefferson Clinton, 1998 (3) Normative “Your behavior was immoral” Nonmaterial -Joseph Leibermann, 1998 Culture Rules/guides “I made the mistake of adultery” -Cognitive for behavior -Kobe Bryant, 2003 -Ideological -Normative “I made the mistake of wearing brown socks with black shoes” Folkways -Steve Padgitt, 2003 Three Interrelated Mores Taboos Folkway versus More ? Systems Laws Cognitive versus Normative versus Ideological? Six Questions Culture: 1. What is society and what is culture? Interrelated Cognitive 2. Why do humans societies have culture and other species do not? Systems 3. What are characteristics and components of Material Normative culture? 4. Is “rural culture” a meaningful concept today? How do we arrive at an answer? Ideological 5. What are underlying themes of a rural culture? 6. How do cultures change 6 Classical article: Culture: Cognitive Lauriston Sharp Interrelated Cognitive “Introduction of Systems Steel axes for Stone-age Material Normative Material Normative Australians” Ideological Ideological Less stability when systems start to pull in different directions…disequilibrium Cultural Lag and Cultural Lead Are there any concepts “steel axes” in Normative today’s settings? Cognitive There are “parts” of culture The parts fit together in a meaningful way organized and in “equilibrium” Material Culture Change doesn’t occur consistently/equally among the parts Ideological Result is: disequilibrium, disorganization, cultural lag, cultural lead 1. Identify from Postville’s “Culture Clashes” “Local” Hassidic Jew Material culture element (icons) Nonmaterial culture elements -Cognitive -Ideological -Normative 2. “Be prepared” to tell how elements are interrelated 3. “Be prepared” to tell how elements clash 7
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