July | August Feature heading: Feed Management Feature title: Global challenges
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
ACQUACOLTURA MED 2009
Mediterranean Expo-Conference on Sustainable Aquaculture & Seafood
irect and i n d i r e c t nutritional inputs, such as aquafeeds and fertilizers, into aquaculture production systems are key to sustaining, improving and optimising fish production. In recent years, significant progress has been made in improving feed quality and performance and in securing a diverse basket of evaluated raw ingredients for aquafeed manufacture. The biological and economic performance of these aquafeeds in context farming systems however, will determine the overall acceptability and affordability of aqua feeds. International Aquafeed will develop these themes through sharing experiences on how various types of aquafeeds, ranging from farm-made feeds to industrially manufactured feeds perform at farm level and how feed management
Verona (Italy), 22 - 23 October 2009
GROWING THE FISH VALUE CHAIN FROM INNOVATION TO MARKET
practices, including the use of feeds as delivery systems for enhancing survival and growth, and how management of the culture environment across the continents are used to optimise or improve the value and costs of feeds. This is a new section in IAF that looks specifically at feed management on farm. The first feature is an introductory article that presents an overall view of aquaculture and identifies some major challenges facing the sector.
Professor Krishen Rana
Professor Krishen Rana is a lecturer in Sustainable Aquaculture Development at the University of Stirling, Scotland. Professor Rana joins International Aquafeed magazine as Associate Editor - Feed Management and Sustainability from this month. Professor Rana has a BSc in Environmental Biology from the University of London and a PhD from the University of Stirling in aquaculture. He has worked in the field of aquaculture in reproduction and genetics and in aquaculture systems development for 30 years, 26 of these at the Institute of Aquaculture where he has held posts ranging from post-doctoral research fellow through research lecturer and currently lecturer. He was seconded to FAO Fisheries Department for nearly five years addressing global issues on aquaculture development including the FAO ‘Code of Conduct on Aquaculture’ and is currently a visiting Professor on Sustainable Aquaculture at the Division of Genetics, Stellenbosch University in South Africa. His research interests and activities encompass aspects on genetics, especially management of hatchery stocks and seed production, reproduction of warm water species, feed management and onfarm aquafeeds and farming systems development and management of fish for food and ornamental purposes. Current interests include development of appropriate intensification systems recirculation systems, water management, including aquaponics and entrepreneurship development in aquaculture in African countries. Professor Rana has over 25 years overseas project experience and has authored/co-authored more than 100 publications linked to sustainable aquaculture.
Global challenges facing the industry and primary issues and challenges in aquafeeds
It is now widely recognised that to meet rising demand for aquatic products, aquaculture will have to meet shortfalls in predicted supply, but is aquaculture growth adequate to meet this challenge? Data from FAO confirm that the contribution of aquaculture to total fishery products - excluding plants - has steady increased form four percent in 1970 to account for 36 percent in 2006. According to FAO, the global production from aquaculture reached 66.7 million tonnes in 2006. This global output, however, is signifi-
• OPENING SESSION:
a. sustainability and environment b. feed, nutrition and well-being; • TECHNOLOGY FOCUS: innovative technologies in ﬁsh farming; • TRADE&MARKET: processing; • TRADE&MARKET: distribution and consumption. ACQUACOLTURA MED is an event inspired by the needs of the market that focuses on the market itself, thanks to two days of theme-based update workshops, professional networking and a show area designed to ensure meetings with buyers and qualiﬁed operators. For more information about attendance by sponsors and visitors: NEW TEAM - via Ghiretti 2, 43100 Parma, tel. 0521 293913 - Fax 0521 294036 or the internet site www.acquacoltura.info
Table 1: Growth rate of aquaculture in key regions
in cooperation with:
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The rate of growth of the sector has shown signs of slowing down indicating that we may be approaching the production capacity (Table 1) under current conditions. In the last five reporting years (2001-2006), increased production from Thailand, Indonesia,Vietnam and Philippines has boosted growth in Asia, but overall growth rates are still slowing down whilst aquaculture expansion has stagnated in Europe.
Good Agricultural Practice
GLOBALG.A.P. I Nairobi I Montevideo I Kuala Lumpur I Washington, DC I Athens
Marine Raw Materials
Vegetable Raw Materials
What options do we have to increase production from aquaculture and their implications for feeds?
Countries have two principle options: 1) increase land and water area under culture and avail access to these resources and, in tandem 2) intensify production and improve productivity. Both these approaches pose significant challenges for the sector. Aquaculture, which is dependent on water either seawater or inland fresh water and on land resources, competes with other users for other economic purposes such as recreation, urbanisation, industry traditional agriculture and livestock, domestic and direct consumption, and infrastructure development. For fresh water aquaculture, access will also be governed and limited by the scarcity of water resource especially if national withdrawal exceeds a quarter of actual renewable water resources (that is critical ratio is equal to 25 percent). This is further complicated by the degree of dependency of a country on waters originating form outside their national boundaries (dependency ratio). The high percentage water withdrawal indicator (critical ratio) among the leading aquaculture countries in Asia points to a possible water limiting factor for aquaculture development in China, India, Thailand and Japan. The high dependency ratio indicator, for Bangladesh (91 percent) and Vietnam (60 percent) may suggest increased competition from other sectors and countries with which they shares this resource. In the light of probable increased competition for land and water throughout many major aquaculture producing countries, especially in Asia, there will inevitably be increasing pressure to increase production through intensification.
Vitamin Premixes etc
Figure 1: Major ingredients used in aqua feed production. The supply chains and on-farm performance of industrial and on-farm ‘made’ aquafeeds using these ingredients will be featured in forthcoming issues
In Collaboration with our local partners FPEAK (Nairobi), INAC (Montevideo), qa plus (Kuala Lumpur) and Agron (Athens)
TOUR 2009 will be where You are!
Your opportunity to learn about latest developments of GLOBALGAP and have an input into the Standard! 1. Join in and have your say on the revised content for the next version of the GLOBALGAP Standard! 2. Deepen your knowledge by visiting on site exhibitors! 3. Discover the latest news on GLOBALGAP! 4. Explore, discuss and debate Good Agricultural Practices - risks and challenges! 5. Network with many experts from around the world! 6. Visit one of our interesting destinations close to your home country! Nairobi, Kenya – 15th September 2009 Montevideo, Uruguay – 24th/25th September 2009 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia – 14th/15th October 2009 Washington, DC, USA – 29th October 2009 Athens, Greece – 11th/12th November 2009 More Information on Programme, Fees and Details for Registration are available on www.tour2009.org
Figure 2: A breakdown of production costs of industrial feed in Europe. Raw materials account for approximately 75 percent of the overall production cost. In 2007, approximately 62 percent of raw material costs were for proteins and 25 percent for oils. Even although premixes are around one percent by volume they account for 13 percent of costs cantly influenced by China, which accounted for 45 million - or 70 percent - of global production in 2006 and this masks the heterogeneity of development, and opportunities and challenges especially for the aquafeed industry that will have to play a key and increasing role in securing expected production targets. In the recent past (1986-2000) the average annual global aquaculture growth rate was an impressive 19 percent - but without China, the annual growth achieved was only 5.5 percent.
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and much of this cost is passed on to farmers who saw an equivalent increase in the price of Figure 3: The difference their feed (Figure 2). between bFCR and eFCF Irrespective of can be large and represents whether aquafeeds are a measure of inefficiency, industrial or on-farm sub-optimal performance of production system and aquafeeds, the costs of reduced survivability. We are feed inputs account for challenged to reduce eFCR 50-70 percent of proto bFCR through improved duction costs. management of culture Therefore, to ensure environment and better feeding management to reduce economic viability and feed usage and cost and environmental sustainimprove sustainability ability from a range of production systems it is imperative that on-farm feed utilisation and management is optimised for ducted to reduce the dependence of on growth and economic sustainability. These ingredients of marine origin in fish diets. challenges and knowledge for optimisation In species, such as almonids fishmeal from across the continents will be evaluated has been almost halved from around 55 and shared in subsequent issues. percent inclusion level in 1995 to around 28 The performance of diets is typipercent in 2007 and similarly fish oils have cally evaluated by bFCR (Biological Food been reduced by some 10 percent over the Conversion Ratio), that is how much feed same period. intake (in kgs) is used to produce one kg Further progress has since been made of fish. Under farming conditions the eFCR to reduce the inclusion levels further under (Economic Food Conversion Ration) is of EU funded initiatives such as AQUAMAX practical use and defines how much feed and reports are emerging of completely is used overall to produce and harvest a vegetarian diets for salmons. tonne of fish. This eFCR is generally larger that bFCR Research on substitutes (see Figure 3) and challenges we face as an Research focus on substitutes addressing industry and as farmers is to reduce the the sustainable use of marine ingredients overlap between eFCR and bFCR. has consequently placed greater pressure Addressing mortality reduction will on securing raw ingredients from land. make significant contribution to efficiency The reduction in fishmeal and oil in of production through ensuring a greater aquafeeds has meant that over half of the harvest. One effective way of reducing bulk ingredients will have to be source mortality and enhancing fish growth as elsewhere (Figure 1). part of farm management will be to use For every tonne of aquafeed produced, diets as vehicles to administer nutricals or over half a tonne will be of vegetable origin. medicines to enhance growth and reduce In Europe alone, were aquafeed producmortality. tion is estimated of 1.4 million tonnes in 2007, around 750,000 tonnes of ingredients of vegetable origin will have to be secured. Substitution, however, may not mean for More inforMation: reduced prices. Since 2005, the price index Professor Krishen Rana of soymeal, maize and wheat increased University of Stirling by 150 to 225 percent. The dynamics of Stirling K9 4LA the costs of these and other and raw Scotland ingredients for aquafeeds will be featured Tel: +44 1786 467920 in future issues. Fax: +44 1786 472133 According to some large European feed Email: email@example.com manufactures, the cost of raw ingredients has increased by 25 percent since 2005
This trend is already evident. Regards low value herbivores and omnivores species, production is migrating rapidly from extensive to semi-intensive methods using low-cost farm-made aquafeeds. Recent global aquafeed production and number of farms dependent on aquafeeds illustrate this. In 2003, global aquafeed production was estimated at approximately 19.5 million tonnes, but expected to increase to over 37.0 million tonnes by the end of this decade.
Feed ingredients to service intensification
The assured supply of raw ingredients, at an acceptable price, quality and performance, is critical for global aquaculture expansion and therefore the issues and challenges that influence sustainability, availability, quality, price of these ingredients and the performance of diets using these ingredients at the ‘coal front’ will be explored in future issues. Aquaculture is reliant on a basket of common input ingredients, such as soy, corn, fishmeal, fish oil, rice and wheat, for which it competes in the market place with other animal protein production sectors such as beef, poultry and pork as well with direct human consumption. Many of these key ingredients are traditionally used in recipes for commercial or on-farm aquaculture feeds are internationally traded commodities and therefore aquafeed production is also subjected to any global market shocks and volatility. Considerable research has been con-
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