Prof. Fernando R. Pedrosa, Ph.D.
Professor-in-charge, Socio-Anthro.
   The long and complicated process of
    social interaction through which the child
    learns the intellectual, physical, and social
    skills needed to function as a member of
 A process of mutual influence between a
  person and his/her fellowmen.
 A process that results in an adaptation to,
  the patterns of social behavior. (Fichter)
 Product of socialization
 Ety. –”per” (through); “sonare”
 Real – the sum total of the physical,
          mental, emotional, and social
          characteristics of an individual.
* A well-rounded person has a rich personality and
  has varied interests and purposes.
 Personality as a product of socialization,
  arises from the result of the interplay of
  various      variables,  e.g.    heredity,
  environment – geographical, social,
  economic, and cultural.
 The interplay of these factors immensely
  shapes the development of an individual’s
   Factors of Personality Development:
    1. Heredity (nature) – a child’s physical build
          and its facial appearance are complex
          creations of fused genes.
    2. Environment (nurture) – constitutes the
          aggregate of surrounding things and
          conditions, and greatly affects personality
          as a result of a long gradual process.
- The “self” is achieved through a long,
 slow process of growth and involves the
 breaking of undesirable habits and
 formation of desirable ones.
- The environment provides formative
 influences in the shaping of the foundation
 of personality that is the result of the
 wonders of the genes.
- The environment, as a determining factor
  in personality formation, includes:
  geographic, cultural, and social aspects.
- Geographic environment is
  characterized by the location, climate,
  topography and natural resources.
-Cultural environment includes the mode
  of living, the norms of behavior, the
  folkways, mores, laws, and customs,
  values and ideas and other established
  patterned ways of the social group.
- Social environment is characterized by the
  various groups of people interacting with one
  another in a social situation.
 * A child normally joins various groups and each
  group improves certain norms and sets of
  expectations on every member that influence
  personality formation. For every action perceived
  by the child from another, he/she gives meaning
  and interprets it according to his/her own
* The nature of the child’s interpersonal
experiences in relation to the structure
and background of his family will also
influence    the   shaping    of  his/her
personality. For ex. – an only child who
comes from a rich family will have
different experiences from one who comes
from a poor and big family.
* The different social processes, e.g.,
 cooperation, competition, conflict, and
 differentiation   and      other    social
 experiences in the social environment will
 certainly exert a tremendous influence
 upon the individual.
   Personality/Social Self relates appropriately to the poem

    If a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn;
    If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight;
    If a child lives with ridicule, he learns to be shy;
    If a child lives with shame, he learns to feel guilty;
    If a child lives with tolerance, he learns to be patient;
    If a child lives with encouragement, he learns confidence;
    If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate;
    If a child lives with fairness, he learns justice;
    If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith;
    If a child lives with approval, he learns to like himself;
    If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he learns to
    find love in the world.
   Socialization is described from points:
    1. Objective socialization
       - refers to the society acting upon the
    2. Subjective socialization
       - process by which society transmits its
         culture from one generation to the next,
         and adapts the individual to the accepted
         and approved ways of organized social life.
     Importance of Socialization
   It is vital to:
    1. Culture
    2. Personality
    3. Sex role differentiation
    Vital to culture – it is through this
     process of socialization that every society
     transmits its culture to succeeding
    - through this continuing process, each
     generation acquires the elements of its
     society’s culture – its knowledge, symbols,
     values, norms, beliefs, and others.
- Socialization is the vital link to cultures.
- If this process of cultural transmission is
  disrupted, a culture disintegrates or even
   Vital to personality
    - The process of socialization also plays a
    very vital role in personality formation and
    - The training of every child received
    through the process of socialization greatly
    affects his personality. Human infants
    develop social attachments when they
    learn to feel others and see that others
    care for them.
   Vital to sex role differentiation
    - Socialization provides every individual
    the expected role he/she is to play in the
    society according to their sexes.
    - In the early years, it was believed that
    differences in behavior between boys and
    girls, men and women, were “inborn” and
    - Biological factors determine the abilities,
    interests, and traits of the sexes.
    Some of the numerous sub-
    processes of social learning
 Imitation
  - the human action by which one tends to
    duplicate more or less, or exactly, the
    behavior of others.
 Suggestion
  - is found in the works and actions of those who
    are attempting to change the behavior of the
   Competition
    - a stimulative process in which two or
      more individuals vie with one another in
      achieving knowledge.
   Components of Socialization:
    1. Goals/Motivations
       - the state of affairs one wishes to
    2. Contexts
       - where a social interaction takes place
         makes a difference.(place, environment,
        activities surrounding the interaction)
3. Norms
   - refer to the rules that regulate the
     process of social interaction.
   - it is patterned; quite predictable.
    Types of social interaction
 Focused
  - when two or more individuals agree (explicitly
  or implicitly) to sustain an interaction with one
  or more particular goals in mind.
 Unfocused
  - this happen simply because two or more
  persons happen to be in each other’s presence.
  (impressions of individuals for another)
   Four basic types of focused
    1. Exchange
    2. Cooperation
    3. Conflict
    4. Competition
   Exchange
    - when people do something for another
    with the expressed purpose of receiving a
    reward or return.
   Cooperation
    - people act together to promote common
    interests or achieve shared goals.
Types of cooperation:
1. Spontaneous - instantaneous
2. Traditional – cultural (customary
3. Directed – planned/organized
4. Contractual – obligatory due to contract
   Conflict
    - people struggle with one another for
      some commonly prized object or value.
   Coercion
    - a kind of conflict that can occur when
    one of the parties in a conflict is much
    stronger than the other.
   Competition
    - individuals or groups confine their
      conflict within agreed upon rules.
    Dynamics of Socialization
   Functionalism (Functional Approach)
    - We gain the image of people adapting to
    the attitudes of others, conforming to the
    role expectations, and internalizing the
    norms and values of the community.
    - We develop our “social self” that reflects
    the society in which we live.
    - People are passive beings who are
    programmed in the ways of their society.
   Symbolic Interaction
    - People employ symbols to convey
    meanings to one another.
    - They define situations, negotiate
    interaction and order, and construct
    - We not only attribute meanings to other
    people and the world about us, but we
    also attribute meanings to ourselves.
- Looking-glass-self
  * We mentally assume the stance of other
  people and look at ourselves as we believe
  these others see us.
  * We acquire our sense of self by seeing
  ourselves reflected in the behavior of
  others and their attitudes toward us, and
  by imagining others think about us.
*According to Cooley, the looking-glass-
 self involves three processes:
 1. presentation
 2. identification
 3. subjective interpretation
*We start the way we appear to others,
 then we identify with how we imagine
 others judge that appearance, and we
 finally interpret those judgments for our
   Conflict Theory and Socialization
    - This takes note of how social customs and
    institutions are arranged to perpetuate class
    - This theory argues that child rearing practices
    vary by social class and affect the life chances of
    those being socialized.
    - Children are treated differently form different
    social classes, thereby perpetuating the
    domination of one social class over another in a
    subtle and powerful way.
- For Karl Marx, capitalist society is torn by
  a fundamental conflict of interest between
  capitalists and workers.
- He contends that institutions such as the
  educational system and other forms of
  communication are employed by the
  capitalist class to foster a false
  consciousness among the masses.
   Social and Biological Conflict
    - According to Sigmund Freud, conflict is
    not so much among classes but between
    society and the primal biological drives of
    sex and aggression.
    - He believed that every society has to
    repress and channel the primitive drives of
    people, otherwise – civilization will be
-   Freud formulated a comprehensive theory
    of socialization and personality and
    explained its development.
-   His theory states that socialization, as a
    process, is characterized by the internal
    struggle     between      the      biological
    components         and        social-cultural
    environment of the individual.
-   Freud stressed that personality consisted
    of three major systems:
    1. Id – biological component of the self
            which is the source of a number of
            drives and urges.
          - it is unconscious, illogical and
 2. Ego – the component of the self that
          represents reason and sanity.
      - mediates between the needs of the
individual and the world of reality and
strives to delay tensions by way of waiting
for a suitable environment to exist.
3. Superego – the carrier of the ideals,
        customs, traditions, and mores of
      Stages of Development
   Oral stage (from birth to one year)
    - Eating is the major source of
    satisfaction.   Frustration   and    over-
    indulgence at this stage may lead to over-
    eating or alcoholism during adulthood.
   Anal stage (one-three years)
    - toilet training at this stage constitutes an
    influencing      factor      in    personality
   Phallic stage (three-six years)
    - the greatest source of pleasure of the
    child comes from the sex organs.
   Latency stage (six years-adolescence)
    - in this stage, children turn their attention
    to people outside their families; e.g.
    friends, teachers, and neighbors.
   Genital stage (adolescence and beyond)
    - the sexual impulses become active again
    and the individual focuses on the opposite
    sex, looks around for a future partner, and
    prepares      for  marriage    and    adult
    Stages of Socialization
 Several authorities have been noted in
  their     contributions as far as social
  development is concerned. Some of them
  are the following:
1. Erik Erikson
2. Sigmund Freud
3. Jean Piaget
4. George H. Mead
5. Lawrence Kohlberg
1.   Erik Erikson (Psychological development)
     -His major concern is twith the feelings
     people toward themselves and the world
     around them.
     -In his book “Childhood and Society,” he
     described eight stages of human
     development which he referred to as
     crises – periods when one confronts
     major issues of life.
- Growth and successful resolution at each
   stage depend on the growth and degree
   of resolution at each stage.
 - The eight periods are the following:
    1) Infancy – trust vs. mistrust;
    2) Early childhood – autonomy vs. shame
                           and doubt;
    3) Play stage – initiative vs. guilt;
    4) School age – industry vs. inferiority;
5) Adolescence – identity vs. role confusion;
6) Young adulthood – intimacy vs. isolation;
7) Middle adulthood – generativity vs.
8) Old age – integrity vs. despair.
2. Sigmund Freud (Austrian MD.)
   - noted for his theory of psychoanalysis;
   - concluded that what happens to people
     during childhood affects them later as
   - according to him, if problems during
     early stages (oral and anal) are not
     satisfactorily resolved, a person could
     become arrested (fixed) at that stage.
3. Jean Piaget
   - focused on thinking or cognitive
     development stages;
   - according to him, through interaction
     with their environment, children acquire
     new ways of thinking and new schemes;
- all children move through stages of
  cognitive development that involve
  increasingly greater complexity of
  thought and shift from egocentric
  perspective to perspective which take
  others into account.
- he was one of the first to recognize that
  cognitive development – the process of
  learning to talk, to think, and to reason -
  is a social as well as psychological
- he outlined the process and stages into
  the following:
1. sensorimotor
2. language acquisition
3. concrete operations
4. abstract thinking
4. George H. Mead
   - founder of symbolic interaction
     perspective in sociology;
   - argues that early in life children appear
     to be unable to understand anyone else
     perspective except their own;
   - after acquiring some mastery of
     language, they learn their names and
     some of the expectations other people
     have about how they should behave.
- further, he said that children recognize
  that they are distinct from other people,
  and it is generally easy to recognize
  that they have difficulty distinguishing
  their own perspectives.
- points out the stages (play and game)
  involved in being able to maintain a
  personal perspective and at the same
  time to take others’ perspectives into
- children go through a play stage during
  which they act as if they were other
- play therefore, is a stage of social
  development when a child can imitate
  or play at being another person;
- hence, it is that stage when they are
  able to understand multiple
5. Lawrence Kohlberg
   - noted for his theory of moral
   - formulated six stages of moral
1. A child first judges the morality of an act
   by its physical consequences; if doing
   something leads to punishment, then it
   should not be done.
2. The child begins to realize that
   conforming to rules can bring rewards,
   not just the avoidance of punishment.
3. The child progresses to a level known as
  “good child morality’ – when they judge
  the morality of an act according to how
  much it conforms to the standards of
  other individuals, thereby gaining their
  approval and good will; ideas about right
  and wrong behavior develop.
4. The stage that emphasizes law and order,
  strict compliance and conformity to the
  social order is accepted as right and any
  deviation as wrong; emphasis is on one’s
  doing his/her duty.
5. The person recognizes that while it is
  important to adhere to social rules, it is
  also possible to change those rules if such
  a change would benefit greater number of
 - here, morality is seen as rooted in basic
   human rights such as life and liberty.

5. A person internalizes ideals of justice,
  compassion, and equality and conforms
  both to these ideals and to social

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