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					Study techniques




              Study techniques & Academic Argumentation
                                  #1




                   Lise Mark




                   Online study plan:
                   http://sprog.asb.dk/lma/study_tech/index.htm
Study techniques



>> Presentation
Today’s Agenda
1. Presentation (Lecturer and Course)

2. Introduction to Study Techniques:
      - What are good study skills based on?
     - ambition, motivation, acquisition and implementation

3. Basic Study Skills:

     -Reading techniques – active reading/listening, taking notes
     -Critical thinking & reviewing

4. Summing Up: Basic Study Skills

Highly recommended reading:
-   Reading Skills for University

-   Successful Self Management (Palgrave)
Study techniques

>> Presentation
Upcoming lectures. Focus on written assignments

  Week 38: Academic Conventions for Written Assignments
  •General requirements (Read the study guide carefully)
  •Objectivity
  •Structuring
  •Quoting
  •References
  •Form & layout

  Week 39: Academic Argumentation in Written Assignments

  •   The main body
  •   Strengthening of argumentation cp Toulmin's model of argumentation
  •   Writing problem statements / introductions
  •   Optimizing structuring and argumentation in reports/papers etc.
Study techniques



>> Presentation
Lecturer & Course Objective

  Lise Mark
  •MA in Art History and English from University of Aarhus
  •Pedagogical competence from Danish Ministry of Education
  •Lecturer at the ASB Centre of Business Communication
  •I was examiner on 60 exam papers in Discourse Analysis this summer
  •I teach at some of your other courses
  •I hope to see your apply your learning there 

  Course Objective:

  “The aim of the course is to introduce to useful study techniques and
  methods in relation to project writing and academic argumentation”

                                                          (Study Guide)
Study techniques


>>presentation
Study technique – Why?




  •You don’t need a course

  •You need to reflect on your own working methods

  •It is not enough to know what to study

  •You also need to know how

                   It is all about learning how to learn
Study techniques




>> Presentation:
In depth explanation:

  From the viewpoint of ASB:
  •To minimize the number of drop-outs
  •To improve the grade average


  Learning skills are considered an asset in professional business:
  •Interest in study technique is a part of business management
  •In organisational development it plays a major role, too


  The Historical/Cultural perspective:
  •Transformation of society into a post-modern age of information
  •New educations with focus on methods and flexibility.
  •From knowledge to know how
  •Life as a learning lab : the ability to learn is a core competence
Study techniques



>> Introduction to Study Techniques
What are good study skills based on?



   1. Ambition/Motivation


   2. Acquisition


   3. Implementation
Study techniques



>> Introduction to Study Techniques:
Motivation and Ambition


                   Internal                           External

   •Your personal interests             •Expectations (friends, family etc.)

   •Your desire to learn and grow       •Status (material)

                                        • A successful career

4 questions:

• What are your motivations and ambitions?
• How much is internal and how much is external?
• Why are you studying HERE?
• Why are you studying the INTERNATIONAL (English) BA? (for the Danes only)
Study techniques


>> Introduction to Study Techniques>>Basic Study Skills
Acquisition: Learning Basic Study Skills


   Basic skills: 4 keywords

   •Persistence (self-assessment and self-improvement)

   •Planning (organising your time)

   •Concentration/ Focus (active reading, listening, critical thinking)

   •Confidence (keeping up the enthusiasm individually and in teams)


   Why are these basic skills important?
Study techniques



>>Introduction to Study Techniques>>Basic Study Skills>>Persistence
Persistent self-assessment increases learning

  Identify your weak and strong sides

  •Creative?
  •Team player?
  •Ambitious?
  •Work-a-holic?
  •Organisational talent?
  •Writing skills?
  •Speaking skills?
  •English skills

  What is your learning style ?

  •Attend the lectures on learning styles by Ole Lauridsen
  • Take the test he offers to you
  •Reflect on its results
Study techniques



 >>Introduction to Study Techniques>>Basic Study Skills>>Persistence
From study skills to professional competence

   •What you read ABOUT (and analyse) is important in your future career

   •So is the way you communicate as a student!

   •Your line of education requires excellent communicative competence

   •Why not make the “best practice” you read and analyse YOUR practice?


   Questions for personal reflection:

   •Which methodical competences are valuable in businesses?

   •Which methodical competences do I expect to learn at ASB?

   •How can I improve my competences to match “best practice”?
 Study techniques


>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Planning
Planning: To plan or not to plan – that is the question


   • Independent study is a must in higher education
   • So is structuring and planning

   1. Organize your day, week, term, study, job etc.
   2. Adjust your study effort to reflect your objectives/ambitions
   3. Make a schedule of a typical week
        - How much time do you spend studying?
        - How much time for working?
        - How much for leisure?

                      Do you have a 40 hour study week?
Study techniques


 >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading
Reading Techniques


   Teach yourself to read
   • Strategically
   • Actively
   • Critically

   Five reading steps of active reading

   1.   Preview the text (pre-reading)
   2.   Question the text (pre- and while-reading)
   3.   Take notes to the text (while reading)
   4.   Summarise after reading text (post-reading)
   5.   Reflect on- and review - the text critically (post-reading)
Study techniques

 >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading, step 1
Previewing the text (Pre-reading)
   •Memorize the title

   •Note the writer’s name

   •Note the date and place of publication

   •Read the introductory paragraph completely

   •Read sub-headings and first sentences of paragraphs

   •While skimming the text, pick up main ideas & keywords (who, what,
   when, where, how many, how much) and transition markers (words
   like however, additionally, alternatively, nevertheless, etc.)

   • Highlight main clauses, to let the text structure guide you to its main
   points
Study techniques

 >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading, step 1
Speed Reading Tips (Pre-reading)




  1. Try not to ”say” the words to yourself (even mentally) while
     reading

  2. Pay special attention to keywords in each sentence and less to
     articles, conjunctions etc.

  3. Use your hand or a finger to trace a path for your eyes
Study techniques


  >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
  Active Reading, step 1-2
  Question the text (Pre- and While-Reading)

   Ask Wh-questions to the text:

   •Why am I reading this?
   •What is the main idea/theme of the text?
   •Who is the author?
   •What is the main argument of the text?

   •Consult a dictionary when you don’t understand a word, phrase, etc.


   The purpose of previewing and questioning a text:
   To determine the writer’s main idea/thesis prior to in-depth reading
Study techniques

>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading, step 3
Notes (While-reading)
   • Write in– or take notes to - the text (if you own the book/copy)

   1. It makes you an active reader
   2. It focuses your attention
   3. It gives you a tool to analyse the writer’s assumptions and rhetoric

   • Preferably, take notes on a separate piece of paper
       It provides you with a personal summary of the material you have read


   • Always record bibliographical data
       You might need it for later reference

   • Leave a wide margin for comments and references
       Something new may come up in class, at lectures, or during revision

   • Rephrase headings, subheadings and explanations
       Make the text YOUR project
Study techniques

>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>> >>
Active Listening/reading, step 3
Taking notes during lectures and classes
  Always take notes during lectures or classes,
  even if you receive pre-fabricated handouts


  Two strategies:

  1. A traditional linear/chronological approach
  - Emphasizes chronology and progress
  - Good at representing logical and argumentative structures



  2. Mind-mapping
  - Visualisation provides a general overview of key ideas
     & their mutual relations
  - Requires creative and independent reflection
  - Emphasizes often thematic coherence more than “A-to-B” logic
Study techniques

>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Listening & Reading, step 3
  What are good notes and what to do with them?

• Never make word-for-word transcriptions!
    Focus on keywords, concepts and definitions


• Note-revision is worth the effort

1. Review your notes again when you get home/when you’ve read a text
2. Better yet, explain to your girlfriend or room mate what you heard/read


• Reviewing adds levels to your understanding /memory capacity

• Reviewing prepares you better for upcoming lectures
Study techniques


 >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading>> Summarise (step 4)
Summarise (post-reading/ or post listening)

  • Close the text book
  • Answer the typical summary + definition Wh-questions;
        - what, who, when, how much, how many, etc.

      NB. Read more on Summary & Definition Questions here


  • Make a summary based on your notes only (written or oral)

  1. Explain with your own words what the text is about (rephrasing)

  2. Practise using new words/concepts in an independent manner
Study techniques

>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>> >>
Active Reading>> Exercise A
Active Reading Exercise




                          “ On Liberty”
                           John Stuart Mill, 1859
                           See handouts, Exercise A
Study techniques


>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>

Active Reading>>   Task Description Exercise A

1. Use the sentence structures of this difficult piece to make sense of it.
   You can do so by highlighting main clauses (perhaps a few sub clauses).
   This helps you to identify the MAIN IDEAS in the text

2. Based on the highlighted text, make a list (e.g. a bulleted list) of topic
   sentences in which you simplify the highlighted passages into
   rephrased topic sentences in your own words.
   Compare your sentences to the original text by Stuart Mill to check that
   you have captured his main ideas.

3. Finally, write a summary in your own words and syntax based on your
   bulleted list of topic sentences.
   You may find these (and other) typical “summary questions” useful:

Summary and Definition Questions:
•What is (are)...?
•Who...?
•When...?
•How much...?
•How many...?
•What is an example of...?....etc.
Study techniques


>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
Active Reading and Listening>> Review/Reflection (step 5)
Review and reflect on that which you heard/read
  If you want to capitalise of the time spent on reading/listening,
  remember to review and reflect on what you read/heard!

  • Answer the ANALYTICAL, HYPOTHETICAL and EVALUATIVE
    questions you posed while reading a text or listening to a
    lecture

  • Evaluation:

  1. Is it informative? (why/why not?)
  2. Is it relevant? (why/why not?)
  3. How is the line of argumentation?
     (convincing?, unconvincing?, why?, where?)
  Study techniques

  >> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Concentration/ Focus>>
   Active Reading>> Review/Reflection (step 5)

  Exercise B         Which Questions apply to the Stuart-Mill text?
                                                   Hypothesis Questions
Analytical Questions
•how?, why...?                                     •if...occurs, then what happens...?
•what are the types of...?                         •if ...had happened, then what would be
•what are the functions of...?                     different...?
•what is the process of...?                        •what does theory x predict will happen...?
•what other examples of...?                        Evaluation Questions:
•what are the causes/ results of...?
•what is the relationship between ...and ...?      •is...good or bad...?
•what is the similarity or difference between...   .....correct or incorrect...?
and...?                                            .....effective or ineffective...?
•how does ...apply to ...?.                        .....relevant or irrelevant...?
•what is (are) the problems or conflicts or
issues...?                                         .....clear or unclear...?
•what are possible solutions/ resolutions to       .....logical or illogical...?
these problems or conflicts or issues...?          .....applicable or not applicable...?
•what is the main argument or thesis of...?
•how is this argument developed...?                .....proven or not proven...?
•what evidence or proof or support is              .....ethical or unethical...?
offered...?                                        •what are the advantages or disadvantages?
•what are other theories/arguments from other      •what are the pros or cons of...?
authors...?
                                                   •what is the best solution to the problem?
                                                   •what should or should not happen...?
                                                   •do I agree or disagree ...?
                                                   •what is my support for my opinion...?
Study techniques



>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Confidence

Teamwork – Making it function effectively
   Use your differences of opinion and your different roles as an
   ASSET rather than an obstruction!

   •Respect others, be fair and constructive in your criticism and
   participation.

   •Make sure all group members agree on the physical and temporal limits:
   When do you plan to meet next?, Where?, What you will be doing?, How
   much time should be spent on this or that problem? Who prepares what?

   •A significant part of team work is individual effort and responsibility and
    mutual confidence

   Team competence is an asset to any business –
   Out there, in real life, you very rarely work alone!
Study techniques



>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills >>Confidence

Enthusiasm: Refresh Your Motivations & Ambitions

   Don't forget to stay enthusiastic!

   •Studying is about discovering new worlds, remember to enjoy the journey.

   •Be enthusiastic, pick subjects that inspires you.

   •Think of yourself as a specialist
    (“I know a lot about political communication and spin doctoring”)

   •Don’t let your studying spoil your delight in taking an education

   •Do you choose to see school as a torture chamber or a shrine of inspiration
   and knowledge?
Study techniques


>> Introduction to Study Techniques>> Basic Study Skills>>Summing up
”Study technique skills” include:


  •Planning, structuring and making priorities

  •Reading and listening strategically, actively and effectively

  •Participating actively at lectures, in class-discussions and in teamwork

  •Critical Revision of your notes, what you read, of lectures

  •Learning in a professional group or study environment (teambuilding)

  •Learning on your own, with discipline and motivation

  •Critically evaluating your own efforts and improving them accordingly

				
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