Beholding Salvation

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					Beholding Salvation
   Images of Christ
    November 17, 2006 - JuNe 16, 2007
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Beholding Salvation: Images of Christ

Table of Contents




Introduction  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2


Interpreting Symbols and Making Meaning  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5


Enrichment Supplement One: Symbols in Art . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7


Enrichment Supplement Two: The Act of Beholding—Finding Personal Meaning in Christian Art  .  .  .  . 19


Appendix A: “Symbols in Art and Scripture” Chart  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 25


Appendix B: Adaptations for Children .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 32


Appendix C: Pronunciation Guide .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 34


 Appendix D: Image Index .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 35




On the Cover
Circle .of .Rembrandt, .The Head of Christ, .17th .century, .Oil .on .panel, .
24 .3/8 .x .19 .3/16 .inches . . .Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .
gift .of .Vivian .Vicondo .
Beholding Salvation: Images of Christ

Introduction




Objectives
   To .introduce .the .concept .of .symbolism .and .the .conven-
• . .
   tional .interpretations .of .symbols .in .works .of .art

   To .facilitate .personal .understanding .of .the .spiritual .con-
• . .
   cepts .underlying .the .symbols




“It is in and through symbolism that                                       Introduction
                                                                           This .packet, .aligned .with .the .Brigham .Young .University .
man consciously or unconsciously                                           Museum .of .Art .exhibition .Beholding Salvation: Images
                                                                           of Christ, .presents .the .opportunity .to .explore .the .
lives, works, and has his being.                                           ways .in .which .visual .symbolism .can .be .a .pathway .to .
                                                                           understanding .truths .of .the .gospel . .An .awareness .of .
Those ages, moreover, are accounted                                        the .conventional .cultural .and .scriptural .interpretations .
                                                                           of .symbols .can .help .us .begin .the .process .of .deriving .
the noblest which can best recog-                                          personal .meaning .and .application .from .the .greater .truths .
                                                                           these .works .embody . .
nize symbolical worth, and prize it
the highest.”                                                              Symbol: .A .concrete .object .or .image .used .to .represent .an .
                                                                           abstract .idea .or .concept .

                                      —Thomas Carlyle                      Why Symbols?
             19th century Scottish historian and essayist                  Symbols .are .important .because .“they .direct, .concentrate, .
                                                                           discipline, .and .inform .the .thought .”1 .In .addition .to .
                                                                           studying .the .traditional .significance .of .the .symbols, .
                                                                           we .will .focus .on .the .process .of .meaning making: .
                                                                           the .personal .meaning .derived .from .thoughtful .
                                                                           contemplation .of .the .“mighty .realities .for .which .the .




                                                                       2
symbols .stand .”2 .Regardless .of .the .specific .tenets .that .               religious .works .of .art .it .is .possible .to .“liken” .their .messages .
these .art .works .were .intended .to .express, .viewers .can .                 “unto .us, .that .[they] .might .be .for .our .profit .and .learning” .
ascribe .personal .understanding .to .the .images .and .thus .                  (1 .Nephi .19:23) . .
transcend .doctrinal .and/or .cultural .differences .
                                                                                Sometimes .a .lack .of .familiarity .with .visual .symbols .
Apostle .Bruce .R . .McConkie .pointed .out .that .when .                       undermines .the .viewer’s .ability .to .make .meaning . .
discernment .is .earnestly .sought, .“[gospel] .understanding .                 An .elderly .temple .worker .once .commented .to .an .art .
and .literature .is .gloriously .enhanced .and .beautified .by .the .           history .teacher .that .he .was .concerned .that .many .of .
abundant .use .of .symbols .and .figurative .expressions . .Since .             the .young .men .and .women .visiting .the .temple .for .the .
Christ .is .the .center .of .the .gospel .and .the .one .through .              first .time .were .unprepared .for .the .manner .in .which .
whom .salvation .comes, .most .of .the .basic .symbolic .                       the .Lord .used .visual .symbolism .to .reveal .sacred .truths . .
representations .tie .into .him .and .his .atoning .sacrifice .3 .              He .proceeded .to .encourage .her .to .“teach .our .youth .to .
‘Behold, .all .things .have .their .likeness, .and .all .things .are .          engage .meaningfully .with .visual .symbols” .in .order .to .
created .and .made .to .bear .record .of .me…’ .(Moses .6:63) .” .              prepare .them .to .enter .the .House .of .the .Lord .and .there .
                                                                                be .taught .in .His .ways .
Seeking .discernment .of .the .symbols .in .Christian .art .yields .
similar .rewards . .Our .understanding .of .the .mission .of .the .
Savior .is .broadened .and .enriched .

Symbols, Images, and LDS Belief
Many .of .the .works .in .this .collection .were .produced .by .
European .artists .working .in .former .times .under .the .
auspices .of .the .Catholic .Church, .a .powerful .patron .of .the .
arts .for .many .centuries . .Others .were .created .to .further .the .
teachings .of .the .Protestant .reformers . .While .the .Catholic .
Church .sanctioned .imagery .as .an .aid .to .communicating .
with .Deity, .many .Protestant .leaders .believed .that .
images .would .lead .to .idolatry . .During .the .16th .century, .
altarpieces .and .sculptures .were .destroyed .or .removed .
from .many .Protestant .churches, .and .religious .imagery .
became .the .prerogative .of .private .devotion . .

LDS .cultural .viewpoints .regarding .visual .art .evolved .
from .a .predominantly .Protestant .heritage .that .often .
rejected .the .use .of .images .in .places .of .worship . .Most .LDS .
chapels .contain .few .visual .adornments .such .as .paintings .
or .sculptures . .Yet .visual .symbolism .is .employed .in .other .
parts .of .Mormon .religious .practice . .In .sacred .moments .
of .devotion .such .as .our .temple .experience .and .our .
weekly .taking .of .the .sacrament, .symbols .are .employed .to .
represent .profound .underlying .truths . .Several .tools .are .                1
                                                                                  .Hugh .Nibley, .Temple and Cosmos: Beyond This Ignorant Present. The
available .to .help .us .understand .visual .symbols, .whether .                Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, Vol. 12: Ancient History (Salt .Lake .City: .
used .in .religious .rituals .or .in .religious .art . .Sensitivity .to .       Deseret .Book .Company, .1992), .p . .14 .

the .communications .of .the .Spirit .enhances .our .ability .to .               .John .A . .Widtsoe, .“ Temple .Worship,” .The Utah Genealogical and Historical
                                                                                2

                                                                                Magazine .12 .[April .1921], .p . .62 .
appreciate .the .value .of .visual .symbols .and .to .relate .those .           3
                                                                                  .Bruce .R . .McConkie, .Mormon Doctrine . .2nd .ed . .(Salt .Lake .City: .Bookcraft, .
values .to .scripture . .Through .thoughtful .engagement .with .                1966), .p . .533 .




                                                                            3
3
The Process

Interpreting Symbols
and Making Meaning




The .process .outlined .below .is .a .general .guideline .for .engaging .with .symbols .in .works .of .art .from .the .exhibition .Beholding
Salvation . .It .may .be .adapted .according .to .the .age .and .particular .needs .and .abilities .of .those .in .your .group:

   Show .a .work .of .art .(from .the .transparencies .or .CD .included .in .this .packet) .and .identify .the .subject matter .of .the .work .
• . .

   Carefully .examine .the .image .to .discover .the .traditional .objects .or .symbols .(described .in .the .“Symbols .in .Art” .list .in . .
• . .
   Appendix .A) .that .the .artist .has .incorporated .as .clues .to .meaning .in .the .work .

   Read .the .scriptural reference .included .with .the .“Symbols .in .Art” .list . .and .consider .the .relationship .between .the .
• . .
   scriptural .reference .and .the .artistic .interpretation .

   Consider .context—when .and .where .the .work .was .produced . . .What .do .we .know .about .the .culture .of .that .time .that .
• . .
   might .help .us .understand .the .meaning .of .the .work?

   Ask .the .members .of .your .group .what .meanings .and .interpretations .they .find .most .compelling .in .the .work . .To .aid .this .
• . .
   personal .search .for .meaning, .the .following .sequence .of .questions .might .prove .helpful:

     ■     What .am .I .thinking .and/or .feeling .about .this .work?
          . .

     ■     What .about .the .work .(colors, .composition, .subject .matter, .personal .experience) .is .making .me .think .or .feel .that .way?
          . .

     ■     What .more .would .I .like .to .know .about .this .work .(the .artist, .his .time .period, .the .style, .the .biblical .subject)? .Where .
          . .
           can .I .find .more .information?

     ■     What .does .the .work .mean .to .me? .How .is .it .related .to .my .personal .life .experiences?
          . .




                                                                            5
3
Beholding Salvation: Images of Christ

Enrichment Supplement One
Symbols in Art



Images
Master .of .Apollo .and .Daphne, .The Annunciation, .early .16th .century
Attributed .to .Eustache .Le .Sueur, .Adoration of the Shepherds, .late .17th .century
John .Rogers .Herbert, .Our Saviour Subject to His Parents in Nazareth, .1860
Carl .Bloch, .Christ Healing the Sick at Bethesda, .1883
Bernard .Sleigh, .The Crucifixion, .1906




“There is a language for these                                         Introduction
                                                                       A .poet .must .have .a .vocabulary .before .he .can .assemble .
experiences. It is called the                                          the .words .to .create .a .poem . . .Likewise, .a .painter .must .
                                                                       have .a .vocabulary—of .a .different .kind—to .compose .an .
language of the sign and the                                           artwork . .In .the .works .of .art .we .will .discuss .in .this .lesson, .
                                                                       the .artists .have .used .the .“vocabulary .of .symbolism” .to .
symbol, the outward and visible                                        convey .meaning . .Through .understanding .the .conven-
                                                                       tional .religious .symbols .used .by .artists .past .and .pres-
form through which is revealed the                                     ent, .we .can .better .begin .to .apply .their .meanings .to .our .
                                                                       personal .experience .
inward and invisible reality that
moves and directs the soul of man…”                                    Engagement
                                                                       Ask .students, .“ What .is .a .symbol?” .Their .responses .may .
                                                                       include .a .variety .of .definitions .with .this .main .idea: .a .
                                   —George Ferguson                    symbol .is .something .that .stands .for .or .suggests .an-
                      Signs and Symbols in Christian Art               other .thing, .especially .an .object .used .to .represent .an .
                                                                       abstract .idea .




                                                                   7
Work to Consider

The Annunciation




The .Master .of .Apollo .and .Daphne, .The Annunciation, early .16th .century, .oil .on .panel, .35 .3/8 .x .22 .1/4 .inches . .Gift .
of .Mr . .Val .A . .Browning, .from .the .Permanent .Collection .of .the .Utah .Museum .of .Fine .Art .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                              Depicted .with .simplicity .and .serenity, .The Annunciation .is .
The .subject .matter .of .this .painting .is .the .Angel .Gabriel’s .                                                         a .fine .example .of .the .renewed .interest .in .classical .ideals .
announcement .(Annunciation) .to .Mary .proclaiming .that .                                                                   and .forms . .The .figures .of .Mary .and .the .angel .are .rendered .
she .has .been .chosen .as .the .mother .of .the .Messiah . .The .                                                            with .great .elegance .and .consummate .care, .befitting .
painting .includes .numerous .objects .that .represent .some .                                                                the .sacred .nature .of .the .occasion . .The .composition .also .
of .Mary’s .virtues .and .aspects .of .her .divine .experience .                                                              suggests .an .increased .attention .to .perspective, .which .is .
                                                                                                                              characteristic .of .the .transition .from .medieval .to .Renais-
■ BACKGROUND                                                                                                                  sance .art . .
The .anonymous .artist .known .as .the .Master .of .Apollo .and .
Daphne .was .active .in .late .15th- .and .early .16th-century .Flor-                                                         ■ SYMBOLS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
ence . .Although .we .do .not .know .his .name, .the .artist’s .style .                                                       Ask .those .in .your .group .to .study .the .painting .and .make .
and .subject .matter .are .consistent .enough .to .be .depend-                                                                a .list .of .as .many .individual .objects .as .they .can .discover .in .
ably .identified .in .other .works . .He .specialized .in .painting .both .                                                   the .painting . .The .objects .might .include: .the .lily, .the .dove, .
mythological .and .religious .scenes, .typical .of .many .Renais-                                                             the .lectern .(or .pulpit) .with .the .book .(Bible), .the .shoes .
sance .artists .who .mingled .sacred .and .secular .themes .                                                                  by .the .bed, .the .towels .strung .across .the .back .wall, .etc . .




                                                                                                                        8
Consult .“Symbols .in .Art .and .Scripture” .(Appendix .A) .for .a .
complete .listing .                                                            UNDERLYING MEANING

The .Annunciation .is .often .portrayed .in .a .domestic .or .                    What .do .these .symbols .suggest .about .Mary’s .personality .and .
                                                                               • . .
ecclesiastical .interior, .a .protected .place .that .figuratively .              character?
separates .the .sacred .event .from .the .secular .world . .Such .a .
                                                                                  Consider .Mary’s .life .before .the .Annunciation . .How .would .it .
                                                                               • . .
setting .signals .to .viewers .that .hallowed .experiences .can .
                                                                                  change .following .this .revelation? .How .had .Mary .prepared .
take .place .in .an .intimate .space .like .the .home, .transforming .
                                                                                  herself .to .receive .this .message .from .God? .What .does .the .
it .into .a .holy .place . .In .The Annunciation, .Mary .has .removed .           placement .of .this .scene .in .her .home .suggest .about .“holy .
the .shoes .from .her .feet, .further .signifying .that .this .quiet .            places”? .How .does .Mary .respond .to .the .angel’s .news?
bedchamber .has .become .a .holy .place .as .a .result .of .the .
angelic .visitation . .The .scene .shows .Mary .humbly .accepting .
the .will .of .God: .“Behold .the .handmaid .of .the .Lord; .be .it .
unto .me .according .to .thy .word” .(Luke .1:38) .

Honoring .a .tradition .popularized .by .St . .Bernard, .Abbot .
of .Clairvaux .(AD .1090–1153), .Mary .is .posed .at .her .lectern .
reading .Isaiah’s .Messianic .prophecy .declaring .that .Christ .
would .be .born .of .a .virgin .(see .Isaiah .7:14) . .White .lilies, .
either .held .by .Gabriel .or .placed .in .a .vase, .represent .Mary’s .
purity . .Other .symbols .of .her .chastity .and .domesticity .
include .towels, .a .candle, .an .enclosed .garden, .sinks, .fire .
screens, .and .even .polished .pots . .

A .dove .frequently .accompanies .the .angelic .visitor .in .this .
scene . .Here, .it .descends .on .a .ray .of .light .that .emanates .          PERSONAL MEANING
from .God .the .Father .and .touches .Mary . .This .suggests .the .
moment .when .Gabriel .announces .to .Mary: .“ The .Holy .
                                                                               Encourage .students .to .make .associations .between .the .underlying .
Ghost .shall .come .upon .thee, .and .the .power .of .the .Highest .           meanings .in .The Annunciation .and .their .own .life .experiences .
shall .overshadow .thee” .(Luke .1:35) .
                                                                                  How .can .we .prepare .to .receive .revelation? .What .“holy .places” .
                                                                               • . .
                                                                                  can .we .recognize .in .our .own .spiritual .experiences? .How .do .we .
Ask .students .to .look .up .some .of .the .other .scriptural .refer-
                                                                                  respond .to .personal .revelation? .What .kinds .of .lessons .can .we .
ences .in .the .appendix .and .suggest .how .the .artist .has .used .
                                                                                  learn .from .Mary’s .experience .that .will .help .us .develop .greater .
symbolic .representations .to .highlight .certain .concepts .                     spiritual .responsiveness .in .our .own .lives?

As .time .allows, .have .group .members .look .up .and .discuss .
other .scriptural .references .listed .in .the .“Symbols .in .Art .and .
Scripture” .(Appendix .A) . .




                                                                           9
Work to Consider

Adoration of the Shepherds




Attributed .to .Eustache .Le .Sueur, .Adoration of the Shepherds, .mid-17th .century, .oil .on .canvas, .38 .1/2 .x .53 .1/4 .inches . .Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .purchase/gift .from .Gloria .Teichert, .
funds .provided .by .Jack .R . .and .Mary .Lois .Wheatley .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                         and .church .ornamentation, .he .later .became .one .of .the .
This .image .represents .one .of .the .most .popular .of .all .                                                          founders .of .the .Royal .Academy .of .Painting .and .Sculpture .
scenes .of .the .Savior’s .life—the .birth .or .nativity . .Children .                                                   in .France . .Le .Sueur .dedicated .himself .to .a .pious .lifestyle, .
and .adults .enjoy .the .warm, .harmonious .welcome .of .man .                                                           eschewing .the .rampant .immorality .of .his .contemporaries .
and .beast .to .the .newborn .Babe . .The .scene .generally .
shows .a .gathering .of .shepherds .around .Joseph, .Mary, .and .                                                        The .Adoration of the Shepherds .is .exemplary .of .the .Baroque .
the .Christ .Child . .Sometimes .the .angels .are .shown .singing .                                                      style .known .for .its .dynamic .emotion, .theatricality, .and .
heavenly .praises; .other .scenes .include .the .wise .men . .                                                           elaborate .ornamentation—a .dramatic .departure .from .
                                                                                                                         the .earlier .classical .Renaissance .style . .Le .Sueur .combines .
■ BACKGROUND                                                                                                             scriptural .and .imaginative .elements .in .a .harmonious .
Eustache .Le .Sueur .was .a .seventeenth-century .French .                                                               scene .conveying .the .adoration .of .both .heavenly .and .
artist .known .for .his .decorative .religious .paintings . .He .was .                                                   earthly .worshipers .
considered .a .child .prodigy .and .was .admitted .at .a .young .
age .into .the .guild .of .master .painters . .Brought .to .the .at-                                                     ■ SYMBOLS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
tention .of .the .public .through .his .graceful .tapestry .designs .                                                    The .primary .focus .of .most .nativity .scenes .is .the .worshipful . .




                                                                                                                   10
attitude .of .those .attending .the .Child, .embodied .in .the .
humble, .downward .glances .of .worshipers .on .bended .                     UNDERLYING MEANING
knee . .Artists .have .often .used .the .nativity .to .create .a .
more .sophisticated .parallel .symbolism .to .the .Crucifixion .                What .do .the .attitudes .of .those .attending .the .Christ .Child .sug-
                                                                             • . .
by .using .an .altar-like .manger .with .a .white .sheet, .alluding .           gest .about .their .humility .and .reverence .for .His .earthly .advent? .
to .the .table .of .the .Lord’s .sacrament .and .suggesting .
                                                                                 .
                                                                             • .How .does .the .white .sheet .wrapped .around .the .Child .foreshadow .
His .future .sacrifice . .Nativity .scenes .were .also .popular .
                                                                                the .burial .shroud .of .His .death?
because .they .testified .of .Jesus .as .the .Messiah . .The .
presence .of .the .ox .and .the .ass .in .these .scenes .refers .to .           Mary’s .gaze .captures .the .attention .of .the .viewer .as .she .displays .
                                                                             • . .
the .scripture .in .Isaiah .1:3, .“ The .ox .knoweth .his .owner, .             the .Christ .Child .against .the .backdrop .of .the .cloth, .recalling .
and .the .ass .his .master’s .crib: .but .Israel .does .not .know .             mourning .(Lamentation) .scenes .in .which .the .body .of .Jesus .is .
                                                                                presented .to .the .viewer . .How .does .this .connection .give .more .
[its .Lord] .” .Oftentimes .the .scenes .take .place .in .ruined .
                                                                                meaning .to .the .nativity .scene?
buildings .and .include .broken .columns .symbolizing .the .
demise .of .the .Mosaic .Law . .                                                The .ruined .columns .suggest .the .passing .of .the .Mosaic .Law . .
                                                                             • . .
                                                                                Why .might .architectural .elements .be .used .to .symbolize .this?

                                                                                Many .nativity .scenes .include .the .lambs .of .the .shepherds . .How .
                                                                             • . .
                                                                                do .lambs .symbolize .the .Savior?




                                                                             PERSONAL MEANING


                                                                                 .
                                                                             • .While .considering .the .Adoration of the Shepherds, .have .students .
                                                                                ponder .their .own .reactions .to .this .marvelous .event .had .they .
                                                                                been .present . .What .might .they .have .felt?

                                                                                How .might .Mary’s .response .to .the .miraculous .birth .be .different .
                                                                             • . .
                                                                                from .anyone .else’s?

                                                                                How .does .our .understanding .of .the .Savior’s .mission .intensify .
                                                                             • . .
                                                                                our .emotions .concerning .His .birth?




                                                                        11
Work to Consider

Our Saviour Subject to
His Parents at Nazareth




John .Rogers .Herbert .R .A ., .Our Saviour Subject to His Parents at Nazareth, .1860, .oil .on .canvas, .40 .1/4 .x .62 .1/4 .inches . .Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .purchased .with .funds .provided .by .Jack .R . .and .
Mary .Lois .Wheatley .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                          in .his .use .of .the .hard .outlines .and .rich .colors .of .medieval .
This .image .represents .an .imagined .scene .from .the .child-                                                           religious .art . .
hood .of .the .Savior . .Other .than .a .few .brief .asides .recorded .
by .the .Gospel .of .Luke, .not .many .scriptural .references .exist .                                                    At .a .time .of .Victorian .controversy .about .the .authenticity .
that .refer .to .Jesus’ .infancy .and .childhood . .Matthew .notes .                                                      of .the .Bible .and .the .value .of .religion .in .general, .many .
the .young .Child’s .journey .to .Egypt .and .Luke .to .His .experi-                                                      19th-century .scholars .and .artists, .such .as .Herbert, .traveled .
ence .at .the .temple, .but .then .Luke .abruptly .summarizes: .                                                          to .the .Holy .Land .to .record .authentic .surroundings .in .
“And .Jesus .increased .in .wisdom .and .stature, .and .in .favour .                                                      which .to .portray .nonidealized .depictions .of .Christ . .Such .
with .God .and .man” .(Luke .2:52) .                                                                                      topographical .authenticity, .combined .with .domestic .
                                                                                                                          settings, .made .sacred .scenes .depicted .in .the .Bible .more .
■ BACKGROUND                                                                                                              plausible .as .actual .historical .events .
The .artist, .John .Rogers .Herbert .(1810-1890), .studied .at .
the .Royal .Academy .in .London .in .the .early .19th .century . .                                                        ■ SYMBOLS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
After .he .converted .to .Roman .Catholicism, .his .work .began .                                                         Herbert, .like .many .other .artists .of .the .period, .concen-
to .reflect .his .religious .devotion . .Herbert .adopted .the .                                                          trated .on .singular .scriptural .details .for .inspiration . .
style .of .a .brotherhood .of .German .painters, .the .Nazarenes, .                                                       References .to .Jesus .as .the .“carpenter’s .son” .(Matthew .



                                                                                                                    12
13:55) .inspired .Herbert’s .painting . .Herbert’s .work .also .
includes .symbolic .references .to .other .events .from .                     UNDERLYING MEANING
Christ’s .life . .The .two .birds .near .the .doorway .likely .refer .
to .the .“pair .of .turtledoves, .or .two .young .pigeons” .of-                  What .ideas .about .the .Savior’s .character .and .lifestyle .do .the .
                                                                              • . .
fered .as .a .sacrifice .when .the .forty-day-old .Jesus .was .                  symbols .(doves, .cross-shaped .wood .shavings, .red .jug, .win-
presented .at .the .temple .(see .Luke .2:24) . .The .flat .win-                 nowing .basket, .canopy .of .palm .branches, .spindle) .in .this . .
nowing .basket .suggests .the .sifting .of .wheat .from .the .                   painting .suggest? .
chaff .(see .Matthew .3:12), .and .the .red .jug .in .the .lower .
                                                                                 What .do .you .think .Jesus .might .be .looking .at .and .contemplating? .
                                                                              • . .
left .anticipates .the .miracle .of .turning .water .into .wine .
(see .John .2:1-11) . .Joseph .works .on .a .plow .(see .Isaiah .                How .does .the .concept .of .the .Savior .being .“subject” .to .His .
                                                                              • . .
2:4) .underneath .a .bower .of .branches .similar .to .those .                   earthly .parents, .indicated .in .the .title .of .the .work, .align .with . .
                                                                                 the .characteristic .of .faithful .submission .suggested .in .His .
constructed .at .the .Feast .of .Tabernacles .or .Booths .(see .
                                                                                 declaration, .“I .seek .not .mine .own .will, .but .the .will .of .the .Father .
Nehemiah .8: .14–17) .commemorating .the .wandering .of .                        which .hath .sent .me” .(John .5:30)?
the .Children .of .Israel .in .the .wilderness .for .forty .years .
under .Jehovah’s .protective .care . .Mary .holds .a .spindle, .                 Does .He .seem .to .understand .the .significance .of .the .cross .and .
                                                                              • . .
                                                                                 His .mission?
which .is .a .Byzantine .motif .inspired .by .the .apocryphal .
story .of .the .young .Virgin .spinning .thread .for .the .veil .                 .
                                                                              • .What .is .Mary .looking .at .and .pondering? .What .concerns .might .
of .the .temple .in .Jerusalem, .the .same .veil .that .would .                  she .have .about .her .Son?
rend .at .the .moment .of .Christ’s .death .on .the .cross . .Mary .
interrupts .her .task .to .gaze .pensively .at .her .Son .as .He .
looks .at .the .cross .formed .by .the .wood .scraps .that .fore-
shadow .His .crucifixion .




                                                                              PERSONAL MEANING


                                                                              Encourage .those .in .your .group .to .ponder .the .relationships .and .
                                                                              behaviors .of .the .individuals .in .the .painting .with .regard .to .their .
                                                                              own .lives .

                                                                                 How .is .the .concept .of .submissiveness .looked .upon .in .the .world .
                                                                              • . .
                                                                                 today? .How .can .the .Savior’s .submissiveness .in .all .things .be .
                                                                                 relevant .to .our .own .lives?

                                                                                 How .can .our .relationships .with .our .parents .and/or .children .be .
                                                                              • . .
                                                                                 enhanced .by .reflecting .on .the .Savior’s .behavior .and .attitude .as .
                                                                                 represented .in .the .painting?

                                                                                 How .do .we .feel .when .we .suspect .harm .or .difficult .trials .for .our .
                                                                              • . .
                                                                                 loved .ones, .as .Mary’s .thoughtful .look .might .suggest .she .felt .
                                                                                 about .her .Son?

                                                                                 How .can .the .aspects .of .Mary’s, .Joseph’s, .and .Jesus’ .character, .
                                                                              • . .
                                                                                 as .represented .in .this .work .of .art, .have .relevance .to .our .rela-
                                                                                 tionships .with .others?




                                                                         13
Work to Consider

Christ Healing the Sick at Bethesda




Carl .Bloch, .Christ Healing the Sick at Bethesda, .1883, .oil .on .canvas, .110 .13/16 .x .125 .13/16 .inches . .Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .purchased .with .funds .provided .by .
Jack .R . .and .Mary .Lois .Wheatley . .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                        ■ BACKGROUND
This .painting .captures .a .moment .during .the .Savior’s .                                                            Carl .Bloch .was .born .in .Copenhagen, .Denmark .in .1834 . .
ministry .when .He .heals .a .man .who .had .been .an .invalid .for .                                                   His .father .was .a .successful .businessman .and .wanted .
38 .years . .The .account .in .John .5:1-9 .tells .us .that .the .Savior .                                              young .Carl .to .become .an .officer .in .the .navy . .Although .
went .up .to .Jerusalem .and .there .visited .a .pool .called .                                                         Bloch .did .spend .time .in .naval .training, .he .eventually .
Bethesda . .The .pool .was .located .near .the .sheep .market .                                                         convinced .his .parents .to .allow .him .to .pursue .an .art .
and .was .the .site .where .individuals .would .gather .to .be .                                                        career . .At .the .age .of .15 .he .entered .the .Royal .Academy .
healed, .according .to .the .superstitious .belief .of .the .time, .                                                    of .Art .in .Copenhagen . .His .great .talent .was .soon .recog-
when .an .“angel .troubled .the .water” .(v . .4) . .In .this .scene .we .                                              nized, .and .after .winning .a .prestigious .prize .and .studying .
see .a .crowd .of .the .sick .and .maimed .waiting .for .the .moving .                                                  in .Rome .he .began .to .receive .important .commissions .in .
of .the .waters .when .one .of .them .should .enter .the .pool .and .                                                   his .native .Denmark .
be .healed . .The .belief .was .that .the .first .one .to .enter .would .
receive .this .blessing . .Carl .Bloch, .the .artist, .captures .the .                                                  This .work .was .painted .for .the .chapel .of .the .Bethesda .
moment .when .the .Savior .approaches .the .invalid .and .asks .                                                        Indre .Mission, .the .headquarters .building .for .organizing .
“Wilt .thou .be .made .whole” .(v . .6)? .We .are .left .to .envision .                                                 Lutheran .charitable .activities .throughout .the .country . .
the .miracle .of .healing .that .follows .Bloch’s .depiction .                                                          In .recent .years, .the .Indre .Mission .decided .to .emphasize .



                                                                                                                  14
its .social .and .recreational .programs .for .the .neighbor- .
hood, .and .chapel .services .were .discontinued . .As .mission .                             UNDERLYING MEANING
leaders .made .plans .for .a .major .renovation .of .their .
facilities, .they .considered .selling .the .painting .to .raise .                               How .do .the .curved .steps .that .appear .to .extend .beyond .the .
                                                                                              • . .
needed .funds . .After .months .of .negotiations, .they .                                        canvas .include .the .viewer .in .this .miraculous .event? .What .might .
agreed .to .sell .the .painting .to .the .Brigham .Young .Uni-                                   that .suggest .about .all .of .us?
versity .Museum .of .Art . .It .arrived .safely .at .the .Museum .
                                                                                                 How .has .Bloch .called .our .attention .to .the .Savior? .How .does .the .
                                                                                              • . .
on .September .10, .2001 . .
                                                                                                 contrast .of .light .and .dark .emphasize .Him .as .the .focal .point?

Carl .Bloch’s .Christ Healing the Sick at Bethesda .reminds .                                    Who .in .the .painting .is .paying .attention .to .the .Savior?
                                                                                              • . .
viewers .of .the .Savior’s .power .to .heal .not .only .physically .
                                                                                                 Notice .that .the .red-turbaned .man .is .also .a .focal .point . .Why .
                                                                                              • . .
but .spiritually . .Former .BYU .President .Elder .Merrill .J . .Bateman .                       does .he .stare? .What .is .his .relationship .to .the .viewer? .What .does .
has .a .particular .fondness .for .the .painting .and .frequently .                              his .position .next .to .the .pool .suggest .about .his .own .motives? .
brought .groups .to .the .Museum .of .Art .to .view .it . .Elder .
                                                                                                 Think .about .still .water .in .the .pool . .Why .did .Bloch .paint .it . .
                                                                                              • . .
Bateman .stressed .the .Savior’s .power .to .feel, .as .well .as .
                                                                                                 untroubled .and .clear? .
to .heal .our .afflictions: .“ Through .Christ .broken .hearts .
are .mended .and .peace .replaces .anxiety .and .sorrow… . .                                     How .does .the .idea .of .Christ .as .“living .water” .relate .to .the .scene?
                                                                                              • . .
Whatever .the .source .of .pain, .Jesus .understands .and .can .
heal .the .spirit .as .well .as .the .body .”4 . .Elder .Bateman .also .
reminds .us .that .this .painting .is .about .the .Resurrection: .
“When .our .day .comes .and .we .are .told .to .take .up .our .bed .
and .walk, .we .will .not .be .able .to .say .we .have .no .man .to .
help .us—because .of .the .Atonement .” .5

                                                                                              PERSONAL MEANING
■ SYMBOLS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
In .this .work .Bloch .has .included .a .number .of .conventional .
artistic .symbols .while .depicting .a .scene .of .miraculous .                                  In .what .ways .do .we .often .find .ourselves .in .darkness .and .in .
                                                                                              • . .
healing . .Look .over .the .list .in .the .“Symbols .in .Art .and .                              need .of .healing? .How .could .it .be .said .that .we .sometimes .fail .
Scripture” .(Appendix .A) .and .notice .the .artist’s .use .of .sym-                             to .acknowledge .the .true .source .of .healing .and .turn, .instead, .to .
bols .in .recreating .this .miraculous .event . .The .pool .of .water .                          the .“arm .of .flesh”? .(2 .Chronicles .32:8)
brings .to .mind .the .underlying .concept .of .cleansing .and .                                 Do .we .sometimes .selfishly .inch .closer .to .the .pool .to .save . .
                                                                                              • . .
baptism .(John .3:5) . .The .idea .of .light .is .represented .in .the .                         ourselves .rather .than .reach .out .to .assist .others .who .could . .
Savior’s .white .robe .and .the .contrast .it .presents .to .the .                               use .our .help?
darkness .in .which .the .invalid .is .hidden . .Gathered .around .
                                                                                                 Notice .how .many .individuals .in .the .painting .are .unaware .of .
                                                                                              • . .
the .pool .are .others .of .the .maimed .and .halt .reminding .us .                              the .miraculous .event .taking .place .nearby . .How .often .do .we .
that .we .are .“all .beggars” .before .God .(Mosiah .4:19) .                                     become .distracted .with .daily .life .and .activities .and .forget .to .
                                                                                                 recognize .the .voice .of .the .Spirit .in .prompting .our .awareness . .
                                                                                                 of .sacred .things?

                                                                                                 Do .we .have .the .faith .to .“take .up .our .beds .and .walk” .when .
                                                                                              • . .
                                                                                                 touched .by .the .Savior’s .healing .power .and .atonement? .How .do .
                                                                                                 we .undermine .the .effect .of .these .great .gifts .by .doubt .and .fear? .
                                                                                                 How .do .we .feel .when .we .acknowledge .Christ .for .His .healing .
                                                                                                 influence .in .our .lives?


 Merrill .J . .Bateman, .“ The .Power .to .Heal .from .Within,” .Ensign, .May .1995, .
4 .

p . .13 .
5
   .Bateman, .“ The .Art .of .Faith,” .BYU Magazine, .Winter .2002, .p . .12 .




                                                                                         15
Work to Consider

The Crucifixion—A Triptych




Bernard .Sleigh, .The Crucifixion—A Triptych, .1906, .oil .on .canvas, .84 .x .32 .inches . .Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .purchased .with .funds .provided .by .the .Campbell .
Family .Foundation .and .Verla .Birrell .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                       a .spiritual .and .physical .sacrifice .was .made .on .our .behalf . .
The .subject .matter .of .this .painting .is .the .Crucifixion .of .                                                   Pondering .the .total .redemptive .experience, .we .can .have .
the .Savior, .an .essential .part .of .Christ’s .sacrifice . .Although .                                               a .deeper, .more .profound .appreciation .for .the .cost .that .
Latter-day .Saints .generally .place .more .emphasis .on .the .                                                        was .paid .for .our .souls . .When .we .take .the .Sacrament .of .the .
Savior’s .experience .in .the .Garden .of .Gethsemane .and .                                                           Lord’s .Supper .we .can .ponder .the .taking .of .the .bread .and .
on .the .Resurrection, .important .meanings .are .revealed .                                                           water .in .a .much .more .insightful .way .
through .consideration .of .the .symbols .associated .with .His .
death .on .the .cross .(D&C .112:14, .“take .up .your .cross, .follow .                                                ■ BACKGROUND
me, .and .feed .my .sheep”; .3 .Nephi .12:30, .“For .it .is .better .                                                  This .triptych .(three-paneled .altarpiece) .was .com-
that .ye .should .deny .yourselves .of .these .things, .wherein .                                                      missioned .in .the .early .20th .century .for .the .chapel .in .
ye .will .take .up .your .cross,…”; .and .Jacob .1:8, .“… .believe .in .                                               London’s .Holloway .Prison . .The .artist, .Bernard .Sleigh, .
Christ, .and .view .his .death, .and .suffer .his .cross .and .bear .                                                  personalized .the .work .by .including .himself .in .the .paint-
the .shame .of .the .world…”) . .What .began .in .the .Garden .of .                                                    ing .as .a .shepherd .(directly .left .with .brown .hat) . .His .wife .
Gethsemane .was .consummated .on .the .cross .when .the .                                                              and .two .children .are .placed .in .the .right .panel . .The .work .
Savior, .by .choice, .“gave .up .the .ghost” .(Luke .23:46) . .There, .                                                was .painted .in .a .medieval .revival .style .popularized .by .




                                                                                                                16
the .Victorian .Pre-Raphaelite .Brotherhood . .It .exhibits .flat, .
bold .colors .and .abundance .of .gold .decoration .reminis-                          UNDERLYING MEANING
cent .of .works .from .an .earlier .Age .of .Faith .
                                                                                      Encourage .students .to .ponder .the .meaning .of .the .gathering .of .
■ SYMBOLS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE                                                        the .faithful .around .the .foot .of .the .cross .in .Sleigh’s .painting .
Have .group .members .identify .some .of .the .symbols .in .the .
                                                                                         How .does .the .subject .matter .of .the .Crucifixion .with .its .inscription .
                                                                                      • . .
painting .from .the .list .in .Appendix .A .and .search .the .scrip-
                                                                                         at .the .head .of .the .cross, .“ THE .LORD .HATH .LAID .ON .HIM .THE .
tural .references .on .the .same .page . .Read .the .description .                       INIQUITY .OF .US .ALL,” .have .special .relevance .to .the .work’s .location .
of .the .Crucifixion .in .Matthew .27:22–50 . .Now .consider .the .                      in .a .prison?
way .Sleigh .incorporates .the .scriptural .and .visual .symbols .
                                                                                         Why .do .you .think .Sleigh .includes .both .historical .and .symbolic .
                                                                                      • . .
into .the .painting . .Note .the .prisoner .in .chains . .What .do .
                                                                                         figures .dressed .in .contemporary .costume? .How .does .this .sug-
chains .generally .signify .(see .2 .Nephi .1:13)? .Remember .this .                     gest .“timelessness”?
painting .was .hung .in .a .prison . .
                                                                                         Why .do .you .think .Sleigh .included .the .concourse .of .angels .as .
                                                                                      • . .
                                                                                         witnesses .to .the .scene? .
In .the .painting .Sleigh .includes .four .figures .symbolic .of .key .
roles .in .society: .a .knight .(military), .a .judge .(law), .a .king .                 If .
                                                                                      • . . we .note .in .the .“Symbols .in .Art .and .Scripture” .chart .(Appendix .A) .
(government), .and .a .bishop .(religion) . .Each .bows .the .head .                     that .the .vine .is .a .symbol .used .to .represent .God’s .relationship .to .
or .the .knee .to .the .Savior, .offering .up .his .emblem .of .earth-                   his .children .(see .John .15:5) .and .that .Christ .is .occasionally .called .
ly .power .and .authority . .Other .interesting .symbols .in .the .                      the .“Keeper .of .the .Vineyard,” .how .might .the .concept .of .eternal .
                                                                                         life .relate .to .the .vine .entwining .the .cross?
painting .include .the .broken .sword, .the .bowed .heads .and .
knees, .the .torn .scroll, .and .the .displaced .crown . .The .knight .                  What .does .the .submissive .attitude .of .the .great .and .noble .
                                                                                      • . .
holds .out .his .broken .sword, .which .is .symbolic .of .the .end .                     individuals .in .the .painting .suggest? .Be .aware .of .the .pictorial .
of .all .war .(see .Isaiah .2:4) . .A .torn .scroll .is .placed .before .the .           fulfillment .of .the .words .in .Isaiah .45:23 .“ That .unto .me .every .
                                                                                         knee .shall .bow… .”
judge, .and .the .king .has .removed .his .crown .in .order .to .
signify .Christ .as .the .new .Judge, .Lawgiver, .and .King .(see .                      What .general .feeling .do .you .derive .from .the .whole .body .of .the .
                                                                                      • . .
Isaiah .33:22) . .The .bishop .too .removes .his .miter .(crown) .                       faithful .gathered .around .the .cross? .Is .it .mournful? .Reverent? .
and .lowers .his .crosier .(staff ), .submitting .to .the .supreme .                     Loving? .Appreciative? .Contrite? .
“Bishop .of…souls” .(1 .Peter .2:25) . .Although .this .particular .
painting .does .not .include .the .skull .of .Adam .at .the .foot .of .
the .cross, .many .other .crucifixion .scenes .do .include .this .
symbol, .tying .the .Fall .and .Resurrection .together: .“For .as .
in .Adam .all .die, .even .so .in .Christ .shall .all .be .made .alive” .(1 .
Corinthians .15:22) .

                                                                                      PERSONAL MEANING


                                                                                         If .Sleigh .had .included .your .portrait .in .this .painting, .how .would .
                                                                                      • . .
                                                                                         you .like .to .be .represented?

                                                                                         What .would .your .feelings .be .like .had .you .been .present .at .this .
                                                                                      • . .
                                                                                         sacred .event?

                                                                                         How .does .the .principle .of .sacrifice .manifest .itself .in .your .daily .life?
                                                                                      • . .

                                                                                         How .do .we .feel .when .we .begin .to .recognize .the .power .of .the .
                                                                                      • . .
                                                                                         Atonement .in .our .own .lives? .




                                                                                 17
3
Beholding Salvation: Images of Christ

Enrichment Supplement Two
The Act of Beholding—Finding Personal Meaning
in Christian Art

Images                                                            Introduction
Sir .Edward .John .Poynter, .The Prodigal’s Return, .1869         In .the .previous .lesson .we .introduced .symbols .in .art .and .
                                                                  the .idea .that .symbols .hold .certain .conventional .meanings .
Minerva .Teichert, .Rescue of the Lost Lamb, .c . .1939–40
                                                                  that .can .also .have .personal .relevance .when .explored .in .
Giuseppe .Mazzola, .Adoration, .1829                              the .context .of .scripture .and .gospel .understanding . .For .
Ridolfo .Ghirlandaio, .Madonna and Child, .16th .century          this .lesson .we .continue .to .develop .the .idea .of .symbolic .
                                                                  meaning; .however, .there .are .fewer .concrete .symbols . .The .
Circle .of .Rembrandt, .Head of Christ, .17th .century
                                                                  symbolic .representations .become .metaphors .for .impor-
Ron .Richmond, .Exchange No. 8, .2004                             tant .gospel .concepts .including .parental .love, .the .Savior’s .
                                                                  love, .and .His .atoning .sacrifice . .

                                                                  When .viewers .begin .to .understand .that .“beholding” .is .
                                                                  more .than .merely .“looking,” .they .are .able .to .find .more .
                                                                  personal .meaning .in .the .works .of .art .and .the .stories .de-
                                                                  picted . .“Beholding” .involves .considering .and .contemplat-
                                                                  ing, .understanding .and .interpreting, .receiving .knowledge .
“Beholding requires more than                                     and .holding .in .remembrance . .When .Nephi .saw .his .vision .
                                                                  of .the .life .of .the .Savior, .the .angel .asked .him .not .only .to .
merely looking: it involves                                       look, .but .to .“Behold .the .Lamb .of .God, .yea, .even .the .Son .
                                                                  of .the .Eternal .Father!” .(1 .Nephi .11:21) . .We .invite .you .and .
considering and contemplating,                                    your .students .to .ponder .the .symbols .and .meanings .in .the .
understanding and interpreting,                                   unique .pairings .of .the .following .works .from .the .exhibition .
                                                                  Beholding Salvation: Images of Christ.
receiving knowledge and holding
                                                                  Denotation: .The .most .specific .or .direct .meaning .of .a .
in remembrance.”                                                  word, .in .contrast .to .its .figurative .or .associated .meanings

                                                                  Connotation: .An .idea .or .meaning .suggested .by, .or .associ-
                                —Dawn Pheysey
                                                                  ated .with, .a .word .or .thing
            Beholding Salvation: The Life of Christ
                              in Word and Image
                                                                  “Denote” .and .“connote” .are .often .confused . .Denote .means .
                                                                  “to .signify .directly .or .literally” .and .describes .the .relation .
                                                                  between .the .word .and .the .thing .it .names . .Connote .means .
                                                                  “to .signify .indirectly, .suggest, .or .imply” .and .describes .the .
                                                                  relation .between .the .word .and .the .images .or .associations .
                                                                  it .evokes . .Thus, .the .word .“river” .denotes .a .moving .body .of .
                                                                  water .and .may .connote .such .things .as .the .relentlessness .
                                                                  of .time .and .the .changing .nature .of .life .



                                                             19
Works to Compare

Rescue of the Lost Lamb
The Prodigal’s Return




Minerva .K . .Teichert, .Rescue of the Lost Lamb, .ca . .1939–40, .Oil .on .canvas, .48 .x .48 .inches . .The .Church .        Sir .Edward .John .Poynter .P . .R . .A ., .The Prodigal’s Return, .1869, .Oil .on .canvas, .47 .1/4 .x .36 .inches . .Brigham .
of .Jesus .Christ .of .Latter-day .Saints, .Salt .Lake .City .Bonneville .Stake .                                              Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .purchased .with .funds .provided .by .Ira .A . .and .Mary .Lou .Fulton .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                               Henri’s .counsel .to .paint .subjects .from .her .Mormon .and .
Ask .students .to .consider .how .Teichert’s .Rescue of the Lost                                                               religious .heritage, .she .produced .many .works .of .faith .and .
Lamb .is .similar .in .subject .matter .to .Poynter’s .The Prodigal’s                                                          devotion .throughout .her .career .
Return . .In .both .cases .a .lost .one .returns .to .the .arms .of .one .
who .cares .for .them .and .loves .them .deeply .                                                                              Her .lifelong .experience .on .cattle .ranches .enhanced .her .
                                                                                                                               familiarity .with .the .nurturing .of .young .animals . .This .sensi-
RESCUE OF THE LOST LAMB, MINERVA K. TEICHERT                                                                                   bility .is .evident .in .her .depiction .of .the .Savior’s .gentle .em-
Minerva .Teichert’s .painting .of .Rescue of the Lost Lamb .                                                                   brace .of .the .lost .lamb . .As .the .ninety .and .nine .look .on, .the .
depicts .an .image .of .the .Savior .gently .cradling .the .newly .                                                            Good .Shepherd .reminds .us .of .the .Lord’s .tender .care .and .
found .lamb .that .had .been .lost .from .the .“ninety .and .nine” .                                                           mercy .extended .to .all .mankind, .whatever .their .condition .
gathered .in .the .background . .
                                                                                                                               ■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
■ BACKGROUND                                                                                                                   What .meaning .for .lamb .is .indicated .on .the .chart .“Symbols .in .Art .
Minerva .Teichert .was .an .early .twentieth-century .Latter-day .                                                             and .Scripture” .(Appendix .A)? .What .deeper .levels .of .meaning, .
Saint .artist . .She .had .received .her .training .at .the .prestigious .                                                     or .connotations, .does .this .symbol .carry .with .it? .In .scripture, .
Art .Students .League .in .New .York .City .under .the .tutelage .                                                             the .metaphor .of .a .lost .lamb .can .refer .to .those .of .us .who .have .
of .acclaimed .artist .and .teacher .Robert .Henri . .Inspired .by .                                                           gone .astray . . .“All .we .like .sheep .have .gone .astray… .(Isaiah .53:6) .”


                                                                                                                          20
It .is .interesting .to .ponder .that .Christ, .besides .being .
called .“ The .Good .Shepherd,” .is .frequently .referred .to .as .               EXPLORING MEANING
the .“Lamb .of .God” .(John .1:29) . .Why .a .lamb? .The .lamb .is .              RESCUE OF THE LOST LAMB
also .a .sacrificial .animal, .brought .to .the .altar .quiet .and .
                                                                                     How .does .Teichert’s .painting .convey .the .love .that .is .shown .
                                                                                  • . .
submissive . .With .obedient .acceptance, .Christ .sacrificed .
                                                                                     when .a .lost .lamb .is .returned .to .the .arms .of .its .Shepherd? .What .
willingly .for .us .without .complaint . .In .Isaiah .53:7 .we .read, .              does .it .suggest .in .a .more .general .way .about .the .return .of .any .
“He .[Christ] .was .oppressed, .and .he .was .afflicted, .yet .he .                  lost .one .to .the .fold?
opened .not .his .mouth: .he .is .brought .as .a .lamb .to .the .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                  • .What .does .the .concept .of .the .dark, .or .black .sheep .suggest .
slaughter, .and .as .a .sheep .before .her .shearers .is .dumb, .so .
                                                                                     about .the .feelings .and .attitudes .of .those .who .find .themselves .
he .openeth .not .his .mouth .” .In .Exodus .12:5 .Christ .institutes .
                                                                                     lost .and .those .“white” .sheep .still .in .the .fold?
the .Passover .and .requires .a .sacrifice .of .a .“lamb .without .
blemish .” .Christ .was .the .perfect .example .of .a .flawless .                     .
                                                                                  • .What .do .the .Savior’s .embrace .and .loving .countenance .suggest .
sacrifice . .The .wool .of .a .lamb .is .also .referenced .with .repen-              about .His .willingness .as .the .Good .Shepherd .to .accept .any .lost .
                                                                                     lamb .back .into .the .fold?
tance . .In .Isaiah .1:18 .the .Lord .says, .“…though .your .sins .be .
as .scarlet, .they .shall .be .as .white .as .snow; .though .they .be .               .
                                                                                  • .What .does .the .gathering .of .the .ninety .and .nine .around .Him .
red .like .crimson, .they .shall .be .as .wool .”                                    suggest?

                                                                                     What .could .the .general .light .and .luminosity .of .the .painting .
                                                                                  • . .
THE PRODIGAL’S RETURN, SIR EDWARD JOHN POYNTER                                       indicate .about .the .glorious .nature .of .the .return .of .each .lost .
■ BACKGROUND                                                                         lamb?
The .Victorian .painter, .Edward .Poynter, .belongs .to .a .group .
of .artists .frequently .referred .to .as .“Olympians” .in .refer-
ence .to .their .neo-classical .style—a .style .characterized .by .
well-sculpted .human .forms .and .idealized .scenes .from .myth .
and .history . .After .training .in .Paris .as .a .young .man, .Poynter .
eventually .began .exhibiting .his .work .to .enthusiastic .praise .
in .London . .He .received .numerous .honors .and .became .the .
President .of .the .Royal .Academy .of .Art .in .London .in .1896 .               EXPLORING MEANING
                                                                                  THE PRODIGAL’S RETURN
Poynter .frequently .chose .mythological, .historical, .or .
                                                                                     If .plants .and .vines .symbolize .new .growth .(the .corn—the .errant .
                                                                                  • . .
religious .subject .matter .for .his .works . .The .incorporation .of .              son’s .life .among .the .swine, .the .color .red—atonement, .and .the .
accurate .archaeological .detail .also .became .a .hallmark .of .                    stairs—the .father’s .descent .to .reach .the .son), .how .do .these .
his .style . .The .painting .of .The Prodigal’s Return .indicates .the .             symbols .become .metaphors .for .Heavenly .Father’s .acceptance .
strong .emphasis .on .the .classically .modeled .human .form .                       of .those .who .repent .and .seek .to .return .to .Him?
as .evidenced .by .the .son’s .perfectly .rendered .straining . .
                                                                                     How .does .the .loving, .yet .awkward .embrace .represent .attitudes .
                                                                                  • . .
muscles . .For .much .of .the .twentieth-century .Victorian .                        of .the .one .forgiving .and .the .one .forgiven? .In .what .ways .do .we .
works .were .dismissed .for .their .overly .sentimental .subject .                   frequently .find .ourselves .in .both .roles? .
matter .and .narrative .aspects . .A .revival .of .interest .in .the .
                                                                                     Bare .feet .usually .symbolize .“standing .in .holy .places” .(see .Acts .
                                                                                  • . .
late .twentieth .century .suggests .a .renewed .appreciation .
                                                                                     7:33 .and .D&C .87:8) . .How .has .the .Prodigal .Son’s .experience .
for .the .skills .of .these .nineteenth-century .masters .                           prepared .him .to .return .to .a .sacred .home .environment? .

                                                                                     How .is .the .welcomed .embrace .of .the .father .similar .to .that .
                                                                                  • . .
■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
                                                                                     promised .by .our .Heavenly .Father .(see .2 .Nephi .1:15; .Alma .34:16) .
Poynter’s .work .contains .some .of .the .traditional .symbolism .
                                                                                     if .we .repent .and .return .to .Him? .How .is .this .scene .representative .
found .in .other .religious .works . .See .the .“Symbols .in .Art .and .             of .“standing .in .holy .places” .and .the .blessing .of .eternal .life .that .
Scripture” .chart .(Appendix .A) .to .find .meanings .for .plants .                  is .extended .to .us .through .the .Atonement .made .for .our .sins?
and .vines, .the .color .red .of .the .father’s .headdress, .the .stairs .
down .which .the .father .has .descended .to .greet .his .returning . .
son, .the .ears .of .corn .hanging .along .the .wall, .and .the .son’s .
bare .feet .


                                                                             21
Works to Compare

Madonna and Child
Adoration




Ridolfo .Ghirlandaio, .Madonna and Child, .c . .1520–35, .Oil .on .panel, .33 .9/16 .x .24 .1/2 .inches .        Giuseppe .Mazzola, .Adoration, .c . .1829, .Oil .on .panel, .31 .9/16 .x .22 .13/16 .inches . .Brigham .
Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .gift .of .Mrs . .Hazel .Anna .Smith .                              Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .gift .of .Stanford .C . .Stoddard .in .memory .of .his .late .wife, .
                                                                                                                 Ann .Dietrich .Stoddard .



■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                 devised .to .indelibly .establish .Mary .as .the .chosen .vessel .
Both .of .these .works .depict .scenes .of .Mary .holding .her .                                                 through .which .the .“ Word .was .made .flesh” .(John .1:14) . .
infant .son, .Jesus . .The .Ghirlandaio .work .pictures .the .mother .
and .child .in .an .intimate .indoor .setting, .while .the .Mazzola .                                            Although .LDS .theology .and .doctrine .regard .Mary .different-
painting .places .the .pair .outdoors, .where .heavenly .and .                                                   ly .than .some .other .Christian .religions, .we .still .acknowledge .
earthly .visitors .join .together .in .adoration .                                                               her .vital .role .in .the .Savior’s .mortality .as .His .mother .and .
                                                                                                                 devoted .disciple . .Scriptural .accounts .of .Mary’s .attributes .
Second .only .to .Christ’s .image, .Mary’s .likeness .dominates .                                                are .recorded .in .both .the .Bible .and .the .Book .of .Mormon .
pre-Reformation .Christian .art . .Her .pervasive .image .testi-                                                 (see .Luke .1:28; .2:19; .Alma .7:10), .prompting .us .to .value .her .
fied .of .the .doctrine .of .incarnation, .which .declared .that .                                               purity, .discipleship, .and .dedication .as .a .mother .
the .divine .Christ .took .upon .Himself .the .physical .nature .
and .form .of .a .mortal .man . .As .evidence .of .Christ’s .human-                                              MADONNA AND CHILD, RIDOLFO GHIRLANDAIO
ity, .the .presence .of .Mary .assumed .vital .significance .in .                                                ■ BACKGROUND
Christian .art, .whether .depicted .in .a .“Madonna .and .Child” .                                               Ridolfo .Ghirlandaio .came .from .a .very .talented .family .of .
composition, .or .narrative .cycles .of .her .life, .or .as .part .of .a .                                       late .fifteenth-century .Italian .artists . .As .the .son .of .the .noted .
Holy .Family .portrait . .These .portrayals .of .the .Virgin .were .                                             painter .Domenico .Ghirlandaio, .Ridolfo .most .likely .learned .



                                                                                                            22
his .craft .in .his .father’s .workshop . .The .Renaissance .biogra-
pher .Giorgio .Vasari .outlines .the .conditions .of .the .appren-                 EXPLORING MEANING
tice .system .where .young .artists .had .the .opportunity .to .                   MADONNA AND CHILD
work .on .sections .of .the .masters’ .paintings . .It .is .possible .to .
                                                                                      How .does .Mary’s .contemplative .look .suggest .her .under-
                                                                                   • . .
recognize .stylistic .differences .in .single .works .according .to .                 standing .of .the .eternal .role .her .Child .will .play .in .the .lives .of .
the .various .artists .that .worked .on .them . .Ghirlandaio’s .use .of .             Heavenly .Father’s .children? .What .might .she .be .thinking .in .
light .and .mystical .landscapes .also .suggests .influences .from .                  quiet .moments .with .her .Son? .How .is .her .look .similar .to .that .of .
other .masters .of .the .period .                                                     any .caring .mother?

                                                                                       .
                                                                                   • .What .aspects .of .holiness .do .the .halos .convey? .How .could .the .
■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE                                          halos .be .considered .crowns .of .glory? .How .might .you .convey .
As .group .members .ponder .the .painting .by .Ghirlandaio, .have .                   holiness .and .the .Light .of .the .Lord .in .a .pictorial .representation? .
them .consider .Mary’s .role .as .“handmaiden” .of .the .Lord .(Luke .
                                                                                      Note .that .the .color .of .Mary’s .clothes .(blue) .is .often .considered .
                                                                                   • . .
1:48) .and .mother .to .the .Holy .Child .Jesus . .Consider .the .symbols .
                                                                                      a .symbol .of .truth, .fidelity, .or .heaven . .What .does .this .symbol .
associated .with .Mary .in .the .“Symbols .in .Art .and .Scripture” . .               convey .about .Mary’s .earthly .heritage .as .well .as .her .heavenly .
(Appendix .A) . .How .do .these .provide .a .foundation .for .further .               one? .What .about .her .character?
exploration .of .images .of .the .mother .of .the .Savior?
                                                                                      How .might .the .tree .and .pathway .visible .through .the .window .
                                                                                   • . .
                                                                                      foreshadow .the .Savior’s .crucifixion? .At .this .point .Mary .may .
ADORATION, GIUSEPPE MAZZOLA
                                                                                      not .fully .understand .that .implication, .but .her .lowered .eyes .
■ BACKGROUND                                                                          are .certainly .a .sign .of .humility .and .pondering .in .her .heart .(see .
Although .little .biographical .information .is .available .for . .                   Luke .2:19) . .
Giuseppe .Mazzola, .his .work .reflects .many .of .the .general . .
                                                                                      How .can .depictions .of .Mary .and .the .Infant .Jesus .encourage .
                                                                                   • . .
artistic .conventions .of .the .early .nineteenth .century . .During . .
                                                                                      us .to .ponder .more .deeply .our .own .relationships .with .parents .
this .time .artists .began .to .revisit .traditional .biblical .themes .              and .children?
while .incorporating .a .new .sensibility .about .nature . .
Manifest .as .Romanticism .in .many .European .countries, .
the .newly .realized .attention .to .nature .caused .artists .to .
reconsider .the .relationships .between .human .beings .and .
their .surroundings . .Mazzola’s .family .portrait .conveys .some .
overtly .sentimental .aspects .which .were .also .characteristic .
of .the .period .such .as .overwrought .emotion, .pastel .colors, .
and .wistful, .longing .gazes .                                                    EXPLORING MEANING
                                                                                   ADORATION
■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
Mazzola’s .setting .is .quite .different .than .Ghirlandaio’s .in .that .             How .does .this .more .pastoral .scene .still .reflect .the .thoughtful, .
                                                                                   • . .
                                                                                      contemplative .attitude .of .the .Madonna .and .Child .seen .in .the .
he .places .the .Mother .and .Child .in .an .outdoor .scene .where .
                                                                                      previous .painting .by .Ghirlandaio? .What .is .Mary’s .attitude .to .the .
heavenly .and .earthly .visitors .join .together .in .adoration . .                   child .and .His .visitors? .How .are .the .Savior’s .attributes .of .holiness .
Ponder .the .symbolism .of .specific .details .in .the .“Symbols .                    and .caring .portrayed .in .this .painting?
in .Art .and .Scripture” .chart .(Appendix .A) . .Winged .angels .
represent .the .heavenly .hosts .attending .him; .Joseph .and .                       How .can .parental .nurturing .and .recognition .by .a .parent .of .a .
                                                                                   • . .
                                                                                      Child’s .divine .mission .affect .the .childhood .experience? .Notice .
Mary .complete .the .loving .family .scene; .a .young .John .the .
                                                                                      the .Savior’s .loving .response .to .John .as .His .cousin .reaches .to .
Baptist .kisses .the .Child’s .hand, .representing .the .role .he .will .             touch .Him .
play .as .the .messenger .to .prepare .the .way .of .the .Lord; .Anne, .
the .apocryphal .mother .of .Mary, .adores .the .Infant .Jesus; .                     How .does .the .artist .suggest .that .nature .can .be .a .safe .and .beau-
                                                                                   • . .
                                                                                      tiful .place .in .which .to .ponder .sacred .things? .What .meaning .can .
and .the .prevalence .of .vegetation .(signs .of .abundance) .and .
                                                                                      we .find .in .the .willingness .of .all .things .to .praise .and .adore .him .
the .rabbits .(signs .of .fertility .and .new .life) .suggest .that .even .           (D&C .128:23)?
nature .worships .at .the .feet .of .the .Lord . .
                                                                                      How .can .images .of .Mary, .Joseph, .and .the .Child .Jesus .invite .us .
                                                                                   • . .
                                                                                      to .ponder .our .own .familial .relationships .and .attitudes .of .rever-
                                                                                      ence .and .holiness .for .them?


                                                                              23
Works to Compare

The Head of Christ
Exchange No. 8




Circle .of .Rembrandt, .The Head of Christ, .17th .century, .Oil .on .panel, .24 .3/8 .x .19 .3/16 .inches . . .        Ron .Richmond, .Exchange No. 8, .2003–04, .Oil .on .canvas, .60 .1/8 .x .60 .3/16 .inches . .Brigham .Young .
Brigham .Young .University .Museum .of .Art, .gift .of .Vivian .Vicondo .                                               University .Museum .of .Art, .purchased .with .funds .provided .by .Lew .and .Gail .Burnham .




■ SUBJECT MATTER                                                                                                        HEAD OF CHRIST, CIRCLE OF REMBRANDT
The .subjects .of .these .two .paintings .might .initially .                                                            ■ BACKGROUND
appear .to .be .totally .different . .But .if .we .shift .our .focus .                                                  The .attribution .of .The Head of Christ .to .the .“Circle .of .
from .what .each .painting .is .of .(a .portrait .of .the .Savior .                                                     Rembrandt” .means .that .the .work .was .produced .by .an .
on .one .hand .and .a .depiction .of .chairs .draped .with .                                                            artist .who .was .closely .associated .with .Rembrandt .and .his .
fabric .on .the .other) .to .what .both .paintings .are .about, .a .                                                    studio . .It .conveys .powerful .concentrations .of .light .and .
striking .similarity .becomes .clear . .These .last .two .works .                                                       meaning .upon .the .Savior’s .face, .characteristic .of .many .of .
are .from .different .time .periods .but .represent .the .same .                                                        Rembrandt’s .own .paintings . .Richmond’s .work .presents .a .
metaphors .of .light, .holiness, .atonement, .and .redemp-                                                              metaphor .for .the .Savior .as .Redeemer .and .Judge, .full .of .
tion .that .others .in .these .lessons .have .suggested . .The                                                          light .and .truth, .having .atoned .for .our .sins . .Invite .students .
Head of Christ, .Circle .of .Rembrandt, .and .Exchange No. 8 .                                                          to .consider .both .representations .of .Christ .together .and .
by .contemporary .artist .Ron .Richmond .invite .the .viewer .                                                          then .introduce .the .individual .paintings .
to .contemplate .the .divine .nature .and .mission .of .the .
Son .of .God .                                                                                                          ■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
                                                                                                                        Although .The Head of Christ .does .not .seem .to .incorporate .




                                                                                                                   24
many .of .the .conventional .symbols .we .have .looked .at .previ-
ously, .it .does .convey .the .rich .coloring .and .light-enhanced .           EXPLORING MEANING
facial .characteristic .of .many .portraits .depicting .holy .persons .        THE HEAD OF CHRIST

                                                                               Invite .those .in .your .group .to .ponder .the .work .attributed .to .the .
EXCHANGE No. 8, RON RICHMOND                                                   Circle .of .Rembrandt . .Head of Christ .is .more .personal .than .other .
■ BACKGROUND                                                                   depictions .of .the .Savior .we .have .discussed .in .the .exhibition . .
Over .the .centuries, .the .visual .and .textual .representations .            Rembrandt .is .known .for .his .ability .to .illuminate .the .soul .of .his .
of .Christ .have .reflected .shifts .of .emphasis .in .Christian .             subject . .How .is .this .evident .in .this .particular .work? .
thought . .In .the .twentieth .and .twenty-first .centuries, .
                                                                                  How .has .the .artist .called .attention .to .the .Savior’s .face? .What .
                                                                               • . .
conceptual .works .supplement .more .traditional .renderings .                    is .the .effect?
by .focusing .on .ideas .rather .than .on .objects .or .narrative .
representations . .Often .the .figure .of .Christ .is .not .even .pres-           How .does .the .contrast .of .light .and .dark .intensify .our .response? .
                                                                               • . .
                                                                                  How .does .color .contribute .to .that .response?
ent .in .the .work . .Signs .and .symbols .replace .the .human . .
form, .as .in .Ron .Richmond’s .painting .Exchange No. 8, .a .                     .
                                                                               • .What .might .the .Savior .be .pondering?
powerful .work .that .references .the .Atonement .and .the .
Last .Judgment . .Here .the .chairs .and .cloths .represent .the .
manifold .roles .of .Christ .as .Advocate, .Judge, .Intercessor, .
and .Resurrected .Savior . .

■ SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS IN ART AND SCRIPTURE
The .title .of .Ron .Richmond’s .work, .Exchange No. 8, .suggests .
some .very .important .symbolic .meanings . .The .word .“exchange” .           EXPLORING MEANING
brings .to .mind .the .giving .or .taking .of .one .thing .in .return .        EXCHANGE No. 8
for .another . .It .can .also .indicate .that .a .substitution .has .
                                                                                  What .does .the .symbol .of .a .chair .suggest .about .the .Savior’s .
                                                                               • . .
been .made . .The .number .eight .has .traditionally .been .                      authority? .As .judge? .As .king? .Why .do .you .think .the .one .chair .
symbolic .of .cleansing .or .rebirth .such .as .the .eight .persons .             is .overturned?
who .were .saved .in .Noah’s .ark .or .the .age .at .which .baptism .
takes .place . .Richmond .also .frequently .indicates .in .the .title .           The .intense .colors .of .the .robes .might .indicate .different .facets .
                                                                               • . .
                                                                                  of .the .Savior’s .mission .on .the .earth . .Read .Isaiah .1:18 .as .you .
the .number .of .times .he .has .painted .similar .subject .matter .
                                                                                  ponder .these .meanings .
 .
                                                                                  In .many .of .the .works .in .this .exhibition .the .Savior .is .portrayed .
                                                                               • . .
                                                                                  with .a .golden .halo .around .His .head . .If .you .look .closely, .Ron .
Jesus, the very thought of thee                                                   Richmond .has .echoed .the .halo .icon .by .the .faint .circle .circum-
                                                                                  scribing .the .objects .in .the .painting . .What .meanings .can .we .
With Sweetness fills my breast;                                                   ascribe .to .this .artistic .decision?
But sweeter far thy face to see                                                   Finally, .look .at .both .representations .of .the .Savior .in .these .works .
                                                                               • . .
And in thy presence rest.                                                         of .art . .What .are .the .essential .qualities .and .characteristics .that .
                                                                                  the .artists .address? .How .can .pondering .these .symbols .and .
                                                                                  meanings .direct .our .focus .and .thoughts .so .that .we .more .readily .
                   —St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153 A.D.)
                                                                                  “rejoice .in .Christ” .(2 .Nephi .25:26) .and .consider .His .redeeming .
 .                                                                                sacrifice .for .us?

We hope that these explorations into art and meaning,
centered on the life and mission of the Savior, provide
spiritual insights and moments of contemplation that
will bless the lives of you and those in your group as you
join with us in Beholding Salvation.




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