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Deploying Exchange Server 2010

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									Deploying Exchange Server 2010

                                 James Oryszczyn
                                 President, JSO Technology LLC
               Flexible and Reliable
Provide the flexibility needed to operate a scalable, high performing,
          and easy to administer messaging infrastructure

   Delivered in Exchange Server 2007
    Improved Installation and deployment experience
    High Availability through Continuous Replication
    Simplified management console and command line shell

   Building on these Investments in Exchange Server 2010
    Single platform for High Availability and Disaster Recovery
    Role-based admin, web-based management, and user self-service
    Choice of storage hardware from SAN to low-cost DAS options

•   Single platform for availability, backup, and recovery
•   Online mailbox moves keep users connected

•   Role-based administration and user self-service
•   Web-based management and remote PowerShell

•   Choice of storage from SAN to low-cost DAS
•   Modular server roles ease deployment

  Deliver Deployment Flexibility
Greater Range of Storage Options Through Performance

  Storage Area        Direct Attached w/       Direct Attached w/   JBOD SATA
 Network (SAN)             SAS Disks               SATA Disks       (RAID-less)


• 70% reduction in IOPS                                                 E2K7
• Smoother IO patterns
• Resilience against corruption            Read IOPS   Write IOPS
Requirements to Deploy Exchange 2010

  Exchange 2010 System Requirements
Supported Operating Systems
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 Standard with Service Pack 2 (SP2)
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise with SP2
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise

Supported Systems for Exchange Management Tools
Windows Vista with SP2 for management tools only installation
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 Standard with SP2
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise with SP2
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard
64-bit edition of Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
64-bit edition of Windows 7

                    Outlook Requirements
Exchange 2010 supports the following versions of Microsoft Office Outlook

Outlook 2010
Outlook 2007
Outlook 2003
Entourage 2008 for Mac, Web Services Edition

                   Outlook 2003 Notes
On clients running Outlook 2003, you may notice that folder updates don't occur
automatically in a timely manner. This situation occurs because User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) notifications aren't supported in Exchange 2010.

For more information about resolving this issue, see Knowledge Base article 2009942, In
Outlook 2003, e-mail messages take a long time to send and receive when you use an
Exchange 2010 mailbox.
However, Outlook 2007 and Outlook 2010 are automatically compatible with this change.
Exchange 2010 RTM:

Clients running Outlook 2003 don’t use RPC encryption, which RPC Client Access
requires by default. You will either need to turn off the RPC encryption requirement or
configure Outlook 2003 to use RPC encryption. However, Outlook 2007 and later versions
are automatically compatible with the change to RPC Client Access because they support
RPC encryption by default. For more information, see Understanding RPC Client Access.

Exchange 2010 SP1: In Exchange 2010 SP1, the RPC encryption requirement is disabled
by default. Any new Client Access Servers (CAS) deployed in the organization will not
require encryption. However, any CAS servers deployed prior to Exchange 2010 SP1, or
upgraded to Exchange 2010 SP1, will retain the existing RPC encryption requirement
setting.                                                                                  8
         Server Virtualization Support
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008

Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2

VMWARE 4.0 or later with Patch 1

Any third-party hypervisor that has been validated under the Windows Server
Virtualization Validation Program.

The Exchange guest virtual machine:
Is running Microsoft Exchange 2010.

Is deployed on the Windows Server 2008 with SP2 or Windows Server 2008 R2 operating

Doesn't have the Unified Messaging server role installed. All Exchange 2010 server
roles, except for the Unified Messaging server role, are supported in a virtualization
environment. This is due to the real-time response requirements associated with voice
communications with the Unified Messaging server role.

           Active Directory Requirements
   Make sure that the functional level of your forest is at least Windows Server 2003, and
   that the schema master is running Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) or

   No Windows 2000 Domain Controllers

   Must run domain prep and Forest prep to Prepare the Domain for Exchange 2010

     Exchange 2010 Editions and Licenses
Standard and Enterprise

Big Difference is Enterprise Exchange supports 50+ Mailboxes, Standard supports 5

Standard and Enterprise CAL

Enterprise CAL includes Email Archiving and spam filtering

Must buy both the Standard and Enterprise CAL’s. They are not an either/or. It is a
Standard plus Enterprise

         Exchange 2010 HA Requirements
Windows 2008 SP2 or Windows 2008 R2 Enterprise Edition Required

Can use the Standard or Enterprise Edition of Exchange Server

A SAN or Shared Storage is not required, can run on JBOD (Just a Bunch of Disks)

More about this Topic in the next Section

              Exchange 2010 Server Rolls
Mailbox Server
• Holds the Exchange Mailbox data and also Public Folders

Hub Transport
• Handles routing email in/out of the Exchange Organization

Client Access
• All access to the Exchange Mailbox Database comes via the Client Access
• Change from prior Versions of Exchange, they connected directly to the
   Exchange server database. Why is this? HA is why. We will explain this better
   later in the presentation
Unified Messaging
• Allows Phone systems to store Voice Messages

Edge Transport
• I do not use this roll, sits in DMZ for Mail routing and spam filtering
Exchange 2003 to Exchange 2010 Upgrade
Exchange 2003 organization must be in Native Mode and Have SP2 installed

Exchange 2010 OWA will not Proxy back to Exchange 2003 mailboxes

Will need to run OWA in parallel

Deploy Exchange 2010 servers in this order:
Client Access

Hub Transport

Unified Messaging


Move mailboxes from Exchange 2003 to Exchange 2010
Exchange 2007 to Exchange 2010 Upgrade
Upgrade existing Exchange 2007 servers to Exchange 2007 Service Pack 2 (SP2).

Deploy Exchange 2010 servers in this order:
Client Access

Hub Transport

Unified Messaging


Move mailboxes from Exchange 2007 to Exchange 2010

To the Cloud… Demo on Installed Exchange
 2010 Hub Transport and Mailbox Server

High Availability

                                                         Manual                   AD site: Dallas
                                                      “activation” of
                                                                                       Client Access
                                                     remote mailbox                        Server             DB4
        Outlook (MAPI)        OWA, ActiveSync, or         server
             client           Outlook Anywhere
                                                                                         Server               DB6
AD site: San Jose                                   Mailbox server
                                                     can’t co-exist
                              Client Access
                                  Server            with other roles

                                                                                                       SCR managed
              CCR #1              CCR #1                               CCR #2
                                                                                                       separately; no
                                                     CCR #2
              Node A              Node B             Node A            Node B                              GUI

                      Windows cluster                     Windows cluster                        Clustering
                DB1                     DB1             DB4                 DB4                   required

                DB2                     DB2             DB5                 DB5               Database failure
                                                                                              requires server
                DB3                     DB3                                 DB6
       Core Architectural Shift
Active Manager   Database Availability Group
      SAM                                        DAG Networks

                   Windows Failover Cluster

                 Default Cluster Group

                      Cluster IP Address    Cluster
                        Cluster Name       Database
                       Cluster Quorum

   Core Architectural Shift
                Windows Failover Cluster
Default Cluster                      Clustered Mailbox
    Group                              Server (CMS)

• Cluster IP Address                    • CMS IP Address
   • Cluster Name                          • CMS Name
 • Cluster Quorum                  • CMS resources (exres.dll)
                                      • CMS disk resources


                 Core Architectural Shift
                            Database Availability Group
 Mailbox Server                    Mailbox Server              Mailbox Server

          Get-                              Get-                        Get-
MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus         MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus   MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus

       Move-                             Move-                       Move-
ActiveMailboxDatabase             ActiveMailboxDatabase       ActiveMailboxDatabase

Primary Active Manager            Standby Active Manager      Standby Active Manager

      Storage                           Storage                     Storage

             Enable Continuous Availability
 Simplified Mailbox High Availability and Disaster Recovery with New
                          Unified Platform
                        San Jose                                    New York

                    Mailbox   Mailbox                                 Mailbox
                    Server    Server                                  Server
                     DB1           DB1                                 DB1
 Recover quickly     DB2           DB2                                 DB2
   from disk and     DB3           DB3                                 DB3
database failures    DB4           DB4                                 DB4
                     DB5           DB5                                 DB5

  •    Evolution of Continuous Replication technology
  •    Easier than traditional clustering to deploy and manage
  •    Allows each database to have 16 replicated copies
  •    Provides full redundancy of Exchange roles on as few as two servers
  •    Capabilities of CCR and SCR combined into one platform
                   Continuous Availability
Limit User Disruption During Mailbox Moves
             and Maintenance
                   E-Mail Client

                                                         Users stay connected and
                                                          productive as mailboxes are
                                                          moved between servers
                                                            Send messages
              Client Access Server                          Receive messages
                                                            Access entire mailbox

                                                         Administrators can perform
                                                          migration and maintenance
Mailbox Server 1                     Mailbox Server 2
                                                          during regular hours
    Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
                Database Availability Group
• A group of up to 16 servers hosting a set of replicated
• Wraps a Windows Failover Cluster
   – Manages servers’ membership in the group
   – Heartbeats servers, quorum, cluster database
• Defines the boundary of database replication
• Defines the boundary of failover/switchover
• Defines boundary for DAG’s Active Manager
    Mailbox    Mailbox      Mailbox     Mailbox        Mailbox
    Server 1   Server 2     Server 3    Server 4      Server 16

     Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
• Unit of membership for a DAG
• Hosts the active and passive copies of multiple mailbox databases
• Executes Information Store, CI, Assistants, etc., services on active mailbox
  database copies
• Executes replication services on passive mailbox database copies
                       Mailbox      Mailbox      Mailbox
                       Server 1     Server 2     Server 3

                          DB1          DB4          DB3
                         DB2          DB1          DB4
                         DB3          DB2

    Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
                   Mailbox Database
• A database has 1 active copy – active copy can be
  mounted or dismounted
• Maximum # of passive copies == # servers in DAG – 1

                Mailbox    Mailbox    Mailbox
                Server 1   Server 2   Server 3

                  DB1        DB4        DB3
                  DB2        DB1        DB4
                  DB3        DB2        DB1

  Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
            Mailbox Database (Continued)
– ~30 seconds database
– Server failover/switchover involves moving all active
  databases to one or more other servers
– Database names are unique across a forest
– Defines properties relevant at the database level
 »   Globally Unique Identifier (GUID): a Database’s unique ID
 »   EdbFilePath: path at which copies are located
 »   Servers: list of servers hosting copies

         Exchange Server 2010 High
          Availability Fundamentals
                   Continuous Replication

• Continuous replication has the following basic steps:
   –   Database copy seeding of target
   –   Log copying from source to target
   –   Log inspection at target
   –   Log replay into database copy

        Exchange Server 2010 High
         Availability Fundamentals
                        Database Seeding
• There are three ways to seed the target instance:
   – Automatic Seeding
       • Requires 1st log file containing CreateDB record
   – Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet
       • Can be performed from active or passive copies
   – Manually copy the database

   Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
                         Log Shipping
• Log shipping in Exchange Server 2010 leverages Transmission
  Control Protocol (TCP) sockets
   – Supports encryption and compression
   – Administrator can set TCP port to be used
• Replication service on target notifies the active instance the
  next log file it expects
   – Based on last log file which it inspected
• Replication service on source responds by sending the required
  log file(s)
• Copied log files are placed in the target’s Inspector directory
      Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
                 Log Inspection
• The following actions are performed to verify the log
  file before replay:
   – Physical integrity inspection
   – Header inspection
   – Move any Exx.log files to ExxOutofDate folder that exist on
     target if it was previously a source
• If inspection fails, the file will be recopied and
  inspected (up to 3 times)
• If the log file passes inspection it is moved into the
  database copy’s log directory                                    30
    Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
       Fundamentals Incremental Resync
• Incremental reseed scenario
    – Active DB1 on server1 fails
    – Passive DB1 on server3 takes over service
    – Sometime later, failed DB1 on server1 comes back as passive – contains
      inconsistent data
    – Make DB1 on server1 consistent with new active
• Transaction logs of active and failed copy are compared to find divergence
• Determines from logs the database pages that changed after divergent point
• Copies database pages from active to failed copy, then play new logs, until in-
  sync                                     Mailbox    Mailbox       Mailbox
• Replaces Exchange Server                Server 1    Server 2      Server 3
  2007’s Lost Log Resilience (LLR)
    – LLR is set to 1                         X
                                              DB1           DB1           DB1
                                                                            31   31
     Exchange Server 2010 HA Goals
 •   Reduce complexity
 •   Reduce cost
 •   Native solution - no single point of failure
 •   Improve recovery times
 •   Support larger mailboxes
Make High Availability Exchange deployments
    Exchange Server 2010 High Availability
           Fundamentals Backups
•   Streaming backup APIs for public use have been cut, must use Volume Shadow Copy
    Service (VSS) for backups
     – Backup from any copy of the database/logs
     – Always choose Passive (or Active) copy
     – Backup an entire server
     – Designate a dedicated backup server for a given database
•   Restore from any of these backups scenarios

               Mailbox      Mailbox      Mailbox
               Server 1                  Server 3    Database Availability Group
                            Server 2

                DB1          DB1           DB1
                DB2          DB2           DB2
                DB3          DB3           DB3
                                                                  VSS requestor
       Multiple Database Copies Enable
         Backupless Configurations
Site/server/disk failure                           •    Exchange Server 2010 HA
Archiving/compliance                               •    E-mail archive
Recover deleted items                              •    Extended/protected dumpster

          Database Availability Group

               Mailbox                  Mailbox    Mailbox
               Server 1                 Server 2   Server 3

                                                                    7-14 day lag copy

                  DB1                     DB1          DB1
                  DB2                    DB2           DB2

                  DB3                    DB3           DB3

         Backupless Configuration

• JSO does not recommend the Backup less configuration

• Database corruption could destroy your Exchange database

• If you do not have archiving, restoring Individual emails could be a

• If you have your servers in the same Datacenter, a natural disaster could
destroy your Exchange

    JSO Approved Backup Solution
• Already Supports Exchange Server2010

• Offers individual Email restore without using Microsoft’s API (uses On
track Power Control)

• Also provides Bare Metal restore, allowing for quick Exchange server
recovery from a crash. Can restore to different hardware

• Can also aid with server Virtualization.

To the Cloud… Setup HA in Exchange 2010

Client Access Role

Client Access Server
 Overview of Client Access Server (CAS)
 Remote procedure call (RPC) Client Access
 Exchange Web Services (EWS)
 Offline Address Book Functionality
 Topology scenarios
 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and certificate

                    What Client Access Servers Do
                                         Client Access Server

Microsoft® Internet Explorer®, Mozilla      OWA & ECP
                     Firefox™, Safari®
                      Mobile Devices            EAS                                  Mailbox
     Outlook®, Entourage®, LOB apps             EWS               Lightweight
                 Outlook, Entourage,                            Directory Access
  Line-of-Business (LOB) apps, Mobile                           Protocol (LDAP)
                              Devices                                               Domain
                                          Offline Address                          Controller
                                          Book download
            Outlook from the Internet         Outlook           HyperText Transfer
                                            Anywhere             Protocol (HTTP)
                       Thunderbird           POP/IMAP                              Other
       Outlook from the intranet            RPC Client                             Server
                                          Access Service                                        40
                              Store Access Paths
   All Roads Go Through the Client Access Server
Exchange Components               Outlook, other         Entourage, 3rd
(EWS, ActiveSync, Unified     Messaging Application                              Exchange Components
                                                          party apps
Messaging (UM), Outlook       Programming Interface                                (EWS, ActiveSync, UM,
Web App (OWA), Mailbox            (MAPI) clients                                   OWA, Mailbox Agents,
Agents, Transport Agents)                                Outlook, other              Transport Agents)
                                                          MAPI clients

            Exchange                                                     MAPI, RFR** Exchange

                                    Entourage,3rd                         & NSPI*** Business


                                     party apps                              RPC       Logic
                                                                              Exchange Core
                                                                              Business Logic

                   MAPI RPC         DAV*

                                                                               MAPI RPC

                            Store                                                 Store

            Request for Response                      Distributed Authoring and Versioning (DAV)
          Exchange Server 2010 Middle Tier
                    What is it?       Outlook Clients
• New services in Exchange Server 2010
  that reside on CAS
   – Restrict all Outlook data access to a single
     common path by migrating Mailbox and
     Directory endpoints to CAS
                                                    Exchange CAS Array
• What it handles:
   – Outlook data connections go to RPC
     Client Access Service on CAS instead of
     connecting to Mailbox servers
   – Address Book Service on CAS replaces           MBX            GC
     DSProxy interface, handles all Outlook
     Directory connections
   – Public folder connections connect directly
     to the Mailbox server, but through RPC
     Client Access Service running on backend                            42
             RPC Client Access Service
                               The Why
• Provides a better client experience during switchovers/failovers
   – When a Mailbox (MBX) server fails over, Outlook client will only see ~30
     sec disconnect, as compared to 1-Time to Live (TTL) min before
• Uses the same business logic for Outlook and CAS clients
   –   Data validation, especially Calendar logging + repair
   –   Compliance
   –   Archive mailbox infrastructure
   –   Content/body conversion
• Scaling mailbox connections
   – More concurrent connections / mailboxes per Mailbox server
• Reduces code and client logic in Exchange Store process for
  increased reliability
                Data Validation and Compliance
                                Exchange                         • New Calendar Validation and
                               Components                          Compliance features require
                             (EWS, ActiveSync,
                                UM, OWA,                           acting on items as they are
              Client saves
               item (new      Mailbox Agents,                      saved
              or existing)   Transport Agents)
                                                                     – Calendar Logging – capture
                                                                       the state of items as they
                                                                       are saved, for diagnostics
          MAPI, RFR Exchange
                                                                       and repair
           & NSPI Business                                           – Dumpster – keep deleted

            RPC       Logic                                            items around so they may
            Exchange Core                                              be restored
            Business Logic
                                                                     – Retention – keep deleted
                                                                       items around for per
              MAPI RPC

                                  On Save:
                                  • If it’s a meeting message,         retention policy
                                  make a copy in the Calendar
                  Store           Logging folder                 • Can support these features
                                  • If the Save is a Delete,
                                  make a copy in the               for all clients without any
                                  Recoverable Items folder
                                                                   client changes using Middle
                                                                   Tier “magic”                44
               Client Access
       Scaling Mailbox Connections    60K outbound          60K outbound
                                    connections/CAS IP    connections/MBX
                                         (W2K8)                server
Outlook Anywhere Clients            CAS             MBX           GC

                     Exchange Server 2007

                           65K connections/MBX server

  Outlook Clients                                 MBX

                     Exchange Server 2007
                RPC Client Access Service
 How Directory Referral Connections Work
1.     Outlook calls get Address Book server                                        4
       application program interface (API)                           1     3
2.     CAS queries AD DS

                                                        AD DS Site
     a.     Mailbox location (AD DS site)

                                                                                        AD DS Site
     b.     Mailbox version
     c.     RpcClientAccessServer property of mailbox
                                                                     CAS 2010

            database                                                                                 CAS 2010

3.     CAS tells Outlook which CAS server or array
       should be used for directory requests
4.     Outlook connects to the appropriate CAS

                                                          MBX 2010             GC         MBX 2010         GC

 •   If mailbox is moved back to 2003/2007, CAS will redirect the client to the mailbox
     server so that it can provide a referral to a global catalog server
 •   Otherwise, all legacy mailboxes will get directory referrals from mailbox server

                      RPC Client Access Array                                                           CAS
Point of Failure                  Failure Mitigation
MDB (Data access)                 Create DAGs* that have multiple copies of the MDB
MBX Server (Data access)          Create DAGs that span multiple servers
CAS Server (Outlook RPC access)   Create Client Access array
                                                       * DAG = Database Availability Group

•    Prevents single point of failure for RPC Client access
•    Enables DB-level high availability

• Load balancer
       – Windows NLB, any software LB for small
         deployments                                                                         Load Balancer
       – Any hardware LB for larger deployments
           – A10 Networks make a Great Load Balancer                                         Exchange CAS Array
•    User affinity (source IP or otherwise)
       – Session-based clients

Load Balancing and Server Affinity                                            Client

•   OWA and EWS require server affinity
     – During a session, all client requests must go to the same CAS            NLB using Client IP or
         server                                                                  3rd party cookie LB

     – Other CAS services do not require client-server affinity
•   Client IP-based load balancing
•   Cookie-based load balancing                                      UAG
            • “Poor man’s” solution                                  array
•   Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB)
     – Affinity fails if client IP changes during session
     – Does not work behind reverse proxies like Internet Security                 UAG cookie LB
         and Acceleration (ISA) since the client IP is masked by the
         reverse proxy
            • ISA 2006 and Unified Access Gateway (UAG) can do
               client IP LB for servers behind it                      CAS
     – “No hassle” solution
     – ISA 2006, UAG or 3rd party Load Balancers                                                   48
    Microsoft Recommends a Hardware Load
           Balancing for a CAS Array
•JSO recommended solution for Exchange 2010 CAS Load Balancing is
                       A10 networks AX Series
 •A10 includes all Features in their products, no add-on license fee’s

   •Works well with Microsoft and numerous additional products

   •Can use with other products besides Microsoft Exchange 2010

                 •If interested in a demo, contact us


Exchange storage background
Disk storage technology 2010+
Microsoft® Exchange Server 2010 storage
   Store innovations
   Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) database
Exchange Server 2010 storage design
 Exchange Server 2007 Storage
• Significant innovation in Exchange Server 2007
   – Reduce storage input/output (I/O) (70%)
   – Use large amounts of memory (64 bit)
   – Increased page size (4 kilobyte (KB) -> 8 KB)
   – Lower storage costs
   – Support large mailboxes (> 1 gigabyte (GB))
   – Provide fast search (CI)
   – Continuous replication (log shipping)
   – High Availability (HA) + fast recovery
   – Eliminate single points of failure

                Disk Technology Futures
SATA (3.5")                        2006        2010        2013

Drive Capacity (GB)                750         2,000       8,000
RPM                                7.2K        7.2K        10k
Transfer Rate (Mb/sec)             930         2,000       5,000

Read Seek Time (ms)                8           7.2         6.5
FC/SAS (3.5”)                      2006        2010        2013

Drive Capacity (GB)                300         600         2,400
RPM                                15K         15K         15K
Transfer Rate (Mb/sec)             975         2,000       4,000

Read Seek Time (ms)                3.7         3.3         2.8

  • Disk capacity trend predicted to continue
  • Sequential throughput increasing linearly based on areal density (2010
    Serial ATA (SATA) = 250 megabytes (MB)/sec)
  • Random I/O performance not expected to improve substantially
      Random vs. Sequential Disk I/O
• Random I/O
   – Disk head has to move to process          Disk Head
     subsequent I/O
   – Head movement = High I/O latency
   – Seek Latency limits
     I/O per second (IOPS)
• Sequential I/O
   – Disk head does not move to process
     subsequent I/O
   – Stationary head = low I/O latency
   – Disk revolutions per minute (RPM) speed
     limits I/O per second (IOPS)
                                   7.2K SATA Disk (20ms Latency)
                                   Random = 50 IOPS
                                   Sequential = +300 IOPS          54
           FLASH/Solid State Drive (SSD): Exchange
                  Server 2010 Scenarios
                               Flash best utilized by Exchange Server 2010 (RC)
         NAND                  when used as a cache within storage stack

                                                HBA /

                                                               Exchange Server
                                                                2010 Mailbox

 Enterprise SAN
                                       HDD                                                        55
*Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)                            ** Solid State Drive
    Exchange Server 2010 Storage
               Vision     SATA/Tier 2
 I/O Reduction
Sequential I/O                           Disk

                 Large, Fast, Low-
                  cost Mailboxes
Storage Design                         Storage
   Flexibility                         (JBOD*)

     I/O Reduction: Store Schema Changes
• Store schema = the way the store organizes data in the ESE Database
• Exchange Server 2010: One simple theme
    – Move away from doing many, random, small size, disk I/Os to doing fewer, sequential,
      large size, disk I/O's
• Significant Benefits
    – Fast/efficient…
         • Outlook Web App (OWA)/Outlook Online Mode
              –    End user viewing for “cold” states/first time view creation
              –    Calendar operations
              –    Search performance

         • Outlook cached mode/Exchange Active Sync
              –    OST sync = sequential I/O
              –    Exchange ActiveSync Server (EAS) sync = sequential I/O

         • Server management
              –    Move mailbox
              –    Content Index Crawls
       I/O Reduction: Database Table Architecture
                       Store                Per Folder

                                                 Message Table                                 Message/Folder
             Mailbox Table    Folders Table                       Attachments Table
                                                 (Msg)                                         Table (MFT)

Exchange     Jeff’s Mbx       Jeff:Inbox         Joe:Msg10         Jeff:Excel.xls              Joe:Inbox:H1
erver 2007
             Ann’s Mbx        Ann:Drafts         Jeff:Msg32       Ann:Pic.bmp                  Joe:Inbox:H2

             Joe’s Mbx        Joe:Unread         Ann:Msg180       Joe:Help.doc                 Joe:Inbox:H3
                                                                                      Secondary Indexes used for Views

             Per Database                        Per Mailbox                                      Per View

                                                   Message                                    View Tables (e.g.
              Mailbox Table      Folders Table                         Body Table
                                                   Header Table                               From)
 Server        Jeff’s Mbx        Joe:Inbox          Joe:H10          Joe:Msg10                  Joe:H920
2010 (RC)
              Ann’s Mbx          Joe:Drafts        Joe:H302         Joe:Help.doc                Joe:H302

               Joe’s Mbx        Joe:Unread         Joe:H920         Joe:Msg302                   Joe:H10            58
    Store Schema Changes: Physical
 Exchange                                          B+ Tree
  Server      1078     92      4577     6          872      7210     3278       21      9346

                                                                     Many, small size, I/Os (1 per 8K page)

                                                    B+ Tree
Server 2010     1078    1079     1080       1081     1082     1083     3456      3457     3458


                                                                            Fewer, larger size, sequential I/Os
    I/O Reduction: Store Schema Elements
    • How do you move from random I/O to sequential I/O?

     Element             Exchange Server 2007                Exchange Server 2010 (RC)

                      Poor physical contiguity of leaf     Excellent physical contiguity of
Physical Contiguity
                      pages—hence many, small size,        leaf pages—so fewer, large size
(ESE)                 IOs (1 for each page)                IOs, spanning N pages (N ≈100)

                                                          Headers for an entire mailbox
                      Headers for each folder kept in
 Logical Contiguity                                       kept in a single table—hence
                      separate table—so many, small
 (Store)              size, IOs spread over many tables
                                                          fewer, large sized, IOs on a single

                      All views and indexes updated       Views and indexes updated only
Temporal Contiguity   each time a mail is delivered—so    when they are accessed by user—
(View)                many, small size, IOs spread over   so fewer, large sized, IOs done
                      time                                together
     I/O Reduction: Maintain Contiguity Over
New Database Maintenance Architecture:
       ESE Function          Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 1 (SP1)                  Exchange Server 2010

Cleanup                     Cleanup performed during Online Defrag       Cleanup performed at run time (when hard delete
(deleted items/mailboxes)   (OLD) which occurs during Online             occurs)—happens during Store dumpster cleanup
                            Maintenance (OLM) time window                (OLM), pages are zeroed by default
Space Compaction            Database is compacted and space reclaimed    Database is compacted and space reclaimed at run-
                            during Online Defrag (OLD)                   time—auto-throttled
Maintain Contiguity         N/A: Contiguity is compromised by space      Database is analyzed for contiguity and space at run
(defragmentation)           compaction                                   time and is defragmented in the background
                                                                         (B+Tree Defrag/OLD2)—auto-throttled

Database Checksum           When configured, ½ of OLD maintenance        Two options (both Active and Passive copies):
                            window reserved for sequential scan          1. Run DB Checksum in the background 24x7
                            (Checksum), manual throttle—active DB copy        (default). Sequential I/O
                            only                                         2. Run DB Checksum during OLM window.
                                                                              Sequential I/O

Database B+Tree Defragmentation (aka OLD2):
Background/throttled process that maintains space and contiguity of database tables
 I/O Reduction: Database Contiguity Results
Exchange Server 2007 Message Header Table (aka MFT)
                                                                          DB Page

                                             Random deletes at the tail
Exchange Server 2010 Message Header Table (aka MsgHeader)

*Production/Dogfood database analysis
                                               Blue = contiguous (good)
                                               Red = fragmented (bad)          62
      Mitigate DB Space Growth: Database
                         Compression Defrag and 32 KB page size
Problem: Store Schema change, space hints, B+Tree
    combine to increase DB file size by 20%
Solution: Growth is 100% mitigated by Database Compression
       Targeted compression for message headers and text/html bodies (7bit/Express)
DB File Size Comparison                                              DB Space Analysis

1.50                                                                         Counts       E2K7 SP1    E2010
                    1.20                                            Mailbox Count               750       750

          1.00                1.00                                  Tables                    14754     92435
1.00                                      0.88                      Secondary Indexes         85784      4557
                                                                                                                Msg Views
                                                                    Pages                  28486144   5814032
                                                                    Used Pages (%)            85.7%     86.7%

0.50                                                                Available Pages (%)       14.3%     13.3%
                                                                                                                32KB Pages
                                                                    Msg Table (% space)       84.9%     80.0%

         E2K7/RTF   E14/RTF   E14/Mix   E14/HTML

                                          1 Database, 750 x 250MB mailboxes
                               RTF = RTF Compressed, Mix = 77% HTML, 15% RTF, 8% Text                              63
                                              Avg. Message size = ~50KB
Putting It All Together: Mailboxes/Disk
                                             Mailboxes/Disk (7.2K SATA)

         +4X Mailboxes/Disk!


    Exchange Server 2007                  Exchange Server 2010
                     250 MB Mailbox Size, 3MB DB Cache/user, 12 x 7.2k SATA
                     disks (DB/Logs on same spindles), Loadgen Outlook 2007
                     Online Very Heavy Profile, measured at <20ms RPC Average
                     latency                                                    64
            Exchange Server 2010 HA Storage Design Flexibility

    SAN                               DAS (SAS)                     DAS (SATA)                        JBOD (SATA)
HA = Shared Storage Clustering
+1.0 IOPS/Mailbox                 HA = CCR
3.5” 15K 146GB FC Disks                                           HA = DAG (2 DB copies)               HA = DAG (3+ DB copies)
                                  .33 IOPS/Mailbox
RAID10 for DB & Logs                                              .11 IOPS/Mailbox                     .11 IOPS/Mailbox
                                  2.5” 146GB 10K SAS Disks
Dedicated Spindles                                                3.5” 2TB 7.2K SATA/SAS Disks         3.5” 2TB 7.2K SATA/SAS Disks
                                  RAID5 for DB
Multi-path (HBA’s, FC Switches,                                   RAID10 for DB & Logs                 1 DB = 1 Disk
                                  RAID10 for Logs
SAN array controllers)                                            SAS Array Controller (/w BBU)        SAS Array Controller (/w BBU)
                                  SAS Array Controller (/w BBU)
Backup = Streaming off active                                     Backup = Optional/VSS                Backup = Optional/VSS
                                  Backup = VSS Snapshot
Fast Recovery = Hardware VSS                                      Fast Recovery = Database Failover    Fast Recovery = Database
                                  Fast Recovery = CCR
(Snapshots/Clones)                                                                                     Failover

                                  More options to reduce storage cost                                                    65
                   Exchange Server 2010 Storage
                    Requirements/Best Practices
       Storage Guidance        Stand Alone           Exchange Server (RC)      Exchange Server 2010
                                                      2010 HA (2 copies)        (RC) HA (3+ copies)
Storage Type                Direct attached storage (DAS), Storage Area Network (SAN) (Fibre
                            Channel, iSCSI)
Disk Type                   Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), Fibre Channel, Serial ATA (SATA) , SSD
RAID                        Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)       RAID optional
RAID Type                   RAID-1/0, RAID-5, RAID-6                          JBOD
DB/Log Isolation            Best Practice           Not required
Windows Disk Type           Basic (recommended), Dynamic
Partition Type              GUID Partition Table (GPT) (recommended), Master Boot Record (MBR)
Partition Alignment         Windows 2008 Default (1 MB)
File System                 NT File System (NTFS)
NTFS Allocation Unit Size   64 KB for both database and log volumes
Encryption Support          Outlook Protection Rules, Bitlocker                                  66
• Exchange Server 2010 store has…
  – Reduced DB IOPS by +70%...again!
  – Optimized for large mailboxes (+10 GB) and 100K
    item counts
  – Optimized for large/slow/low-cost disks
  – Made JBOD/RAID-less storage a viable option
  – Enables unmatched storage flexibility to push
    storage Capex costs down
Mailbox and Administration Improvements

                           Email Trends
   • IT organizations need to…
     – Maximize efficiency
     – Reduce cost
The annual cost of helpdesk support staff for e-mail
systems with 7,500 mailboxes is approximately
$20/mailbox. This cost goes up the smaller the
 (“Email Support Staff Requirements and Costs: A Survey of 136 Organizations”,
Ferris Research, June 2008).

              Simplify Administration
Empower Specialist Users to Perform Specific Tasks with Role-
                    based Administration
        Compliance Officer    Human Resources    Help Desk Staff

       Conduct Mailbox       Update Employee
                                                Manage Mailbox
        Searches for         Info in Company
       Legal Discovery           Directory
           Management GUIs

EMC                             ECP
• Primarily for on-premise IT   • Primarily for
  pros                            • Tenant Administrators
• Requires client side            • Specialists (helpdesk,
  installation                      discovery, etc)
                                  • End Users (message tracking,
                                    DGs, OWA options, etc
                                • Web Browser based

            Existing Management Tools


                       Cmdlets (Business logic)

Process /
Machine                                     IIS
Boundary                                 Metabase
               Store                                Machine

 The annual cost of helpdesk support staff for e-mail systems with 7,500 mailboxes is
 approximately $20/mailbox. This cost goes up the smaller the organization.
 (“Email Support Staff Requirements and Costs: A Survey of 136 Organizations”, Ferris Research, June 2008).

Empower Specialist Users
     −       Compliance Officer – Conducts Legal Discovery Searches
     −       HR Officer - Updates Employee Info in Company Directory

Lower Support Costs
     −       End-Users can Track Status of sent messages
     −       End-Users can Create and Manage Distribution Lists

Email Access From Anywhere

                   Anywhere Access
Help manage communication overload by offering an easy to navigate,
        universal inbox with advanced messaging features
   Delivered in Exchange Server 2007
    Outlook experience on the web, phone, and mobile device
    Single inbox for voice mail, e-mail, and more
    Increased productivity with improved calendar experience

   Building on these Investments in Exchange Server 2010
    Easier Inbox navigation with enhanced conversation view
    Voice mail with text preview and customizable call answering
    Access from virtually any platform, Web browser or device
To the Cloud… Exchange 2010
     Management Tools

                Manage Inbox Overload
  Organize and Navigate with Ease Using Enhanced
          Conversation View and Filtering

                                                Conversation View

Instant Messaging

                          Ignore Conversation

        Manage Inbox Overload
Help Reduce Unnecessary and Undeliverable E-Mail
         Through New Sender MailTips

            Enhance Voice Mail
Quickly Triage and Take Action on Messages with
               Voice Mail Preview

                      Audio Playback

                                   Contextual Contact
Text Preview                            Actions
of Voice Mail
                 Enhance Voice Mail
 Create Customized Voice Mail Menus and Call
Answer Rules to Give Important Calls Top Priority

 Text Preview
 of Voice Mail

                                      Defining a Custom
                                      Voice Mail Menu
Managing Call
Answer Rules
    Collaborate Effectively
A Familiar and Rich Outlook Experience Across
        Clients, Devices and Platforms

Desktop            Web              Mobile

Compliance and E-Mail Archiving

          Protection and Compliance
Achieve increased IT governance compliance with integrated tools to
      preserve, protect and discover e-mail communications

  Delivered in Exchange Server 2007
   On-premises and hosted protection from virus and spam
   Compliance to corporate and government regulations
   Mobile device security and management policies

  Building on these Investments in Exchange Server 2010
   Integrated archiving capabilities
   Rules-based protection of e-mail and voice mail messages
   Granular retention policies and powerful multi-mailbox search
              E-Mail Archiving
   Preserve and Discover E-mail Data Without
    Changing the User or IT Pro Experience

                   Preserve                            Discover

  Personal          Move and                           Multi-Mailbox
                                      Hold Policy
  Archive         Delete Policies                         Search

 Seamless integrated experience in Outlook and Outlook Web App
 Granular retention policies that do not disrupt user workflow
 Powerful and easy to use web-based e-Discovery tools             85
To the Cloud… Setting Up Exchange 2010
            Email Archiving

 Protect Communications
     Automatically Protect Messages
With Centralized Rights Management Rules

  Automatic Content-Based Protection:
  • Transport Rule action to apply RMS template to e-mail or voice mail
  • Support for scanning of attachments and searching of protected mail
  • Internet Confidential and Do Not Forward Policies available out of box
  • Information protection cross PC, web, and mobile device                  87
                     Advanced Security
 Stop Malicious Software and Spam from Entering into the
                   Messaging Environment
  Hosted Service                                    On-Premise Software

   Internet   SMTP

                                 Hub Transport Server   Mailbox Server         Client Access Server

                                                           Antivirus and anti-spam protection for Exchange
                                                           Server 2010 Server Roles

 Multiple scan engines throughout the corporate infrastructure
 Tight integration with Exchange maximizes availability and performance
 Easy-to-use management console for central configuration and operation
             Federation Scenarios
• Federation and Free/Busy
• How Federated Sharing Works in Microsoft®
  Exchange Server 2010
  – Free/Busy
  – Calendar and contact sharing
  – Sharing policy
• Federation and Exchange Online

Federation Services

Federation Objectives
 How data in Exchange is shared across
 organizations using federation technology
 Controls around exposing data outside the
 Exchange organization
 Role of the Microsoft Federation Gateway for
 data sharing across Exchange organizations

 What this presentation is not about:
 Federated Sharing is not about user single-
 sign-on to the Exchange mailbox in the cloud
 This presentation is not about hosted Exchange

 Exchange Server 2010 Sharing Goals
• Make it convenient
                               Sharing Relationships
  – Users can share easily
                                 Mary                          Joe
  – Low administration                         people

    overhead              orgs

  – Leverage relationships

                                        Sharing Dial
• Make it secure                            MANAGE DISCOVER

  – Set the sharing dial
  – Allow admin to scope                     EDIT       VIEW

  – Avoid exposure
     How Should Free/Busy Work?
Viewing Free/Busy for someone else should be as simple as typing in
                       their e-mail address.


  Cross Organization Free/Busy Solutions
              Outlook®         Exchange Server           Exchange Server        Exchange Server
             2003/2007            2000/2003                   2007                   2010
                Internet        Public Folders and   Web Services and Service   Web Services and
             Clearinghouse       Service Account            Account               Federation



Secure                       Solve it once for all clients


  Free/Busy – Internet Clearinghouse
                  Outlook 2003/2007
   Fabrikam                   Clearinghouse

Mary             mary23                 joe72

                 Required LiveId, client always on

                No administrator action required
                 Must know other people’s LiveIds

                       No administrator control
                       Free/Busy – Public Folders
                                    Exchange Server 2003
           Fabrikam                                                          Contoso

   Mary                                                                                     Joe
                                           No user action required                          contoso\joe
                                     Service accounts, PF/AD replication

                                             No per-user access
                                                                           Public Folders      Mailbox
                   Public Folders
                                        Admin selects organizations
Active Directory® Domain Services
             (AD DS)                                                             AD DS             96
                Free/Busy – Web Services (WS)
                                     Exchange Server 2007
        Fabrikam                                                                           Contoso

    Mary                             Convenient                                                           Joe
                     Free/Busy request
                    No user action required
                                                             Free/Busy response
                                                           DS replication
                                     Service accounts,
                Client Access                                                     Client Access
                                       Default permission applies externally

                    Org Info          Administrator selects organizations
                   contoso endpt

           AD DS                                                                                  AD DS
         Free/Busy – WS and Federation
                               Exchange Server 2010
      Fabrikam                                                                              Contoso
                       No user action or
                       client publishing
  Mary                                                                                                  Joe
                    Free/Busy request

                                                                 Free/Busy response
                                         No user action required
fabrikam\mary                                                                                        Administrator
                                                                                                     controls which
                               No service accounts, no replication
                                       Token:                                          users
  No directory Client Access                                                    Client Access
   replication            Secure
                                      Federated token
                              No AD trusts or          
                                       Can specify external users
                Organization                            service accounts           Organization
                Relationship                                                       Relationship
                               Administrator can control per               user controls which
                                                                             Admin                      Mailbox
                                                                              orgs have access
     Federated Trust                                                                        Federated Trust
Benefits of Exchange Server 2010 Federation
• Federated Sharing provides
   – Easy setup of external data sharing
   – Broader reach without additional steps to setup
   – More secure with controls for administrators and users
• Federated Sharing possible through
   – Server can act on behalf of specific user
      • Specific user identified by e-mail address
      • User not prompted for credentials
   – Microsoft Federation Gateway acting as a trust broker
      • Reduces explicit point-to-point trust management
      • No AD DS trusts, service or cloud accounts to manage
      • Minimizes certificate exchanges
      • Verifies domain ownership
Establishing Federation in Exchange Server 2010
                                One-Time Setup
      Fabrikam                   Federation Gateway                Contoso
       Certificate                   Certificate                  Certificate

    Federation trust                                             Federation trust
                                   Organization Id: A154…
    Organization ID: C293…                                       Organization ID: A154…
    URL: http://...                                              URL: http://...

                                   Organization Id: C293…
      DNS Record                   Domains:          DNS Record TXT appId= C293…                      TXT appId= A154…

              Step 1 – Create trust with certificate exchange
              Step 2 – Prove domain ownership
              Step 3 – Add domains                                                        100
           Federation Gateway
• Broker services only for the trusts between Exchange
• No cached credentials in the cloud
• Not a Microsoft passport / Windows live credential
• Hosted in the Microsoft “Cloud” data centre
• Client access server (CAS) needs to reach Microsoft
  Federation Gateway (MFG) via the Internet
   – Can’t be hosted in an isolated network

• Lower IT costs with a Flexible and Reliable
  messaging platform

                     Additional Resources
•   Exchange 2010 site




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