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THINKING

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					 THINKING


        BY
DR . MANAL ELATTAR
 M.D PSYCHAITRY
         Introduction

  Thinking is included in all our •
activities . I t is the language of •
the mind •
Definition

 It is a mental activity which •
does not depend directly upon
sensory or motor contact with
the present circumstances .
Anatomical sites
concerned with thinking
1) Cerebral cortex . •
2) Limbic system . •
3) Reticular activating system . •
Tools of thinking
- Concepts •
-Combinations of concepts :rules ,laws and •
principles
- Language symbols : vocal and written •
expressions
- Diagrams •
-Images : a mental representation of visual •
information
- Cognitive maps : a mental representation •
of familiar parts of the environment
- Theories •
What is concept ?

A concept is a mental event used to •
represent a category ,class or group
of actions or objects , not just
individual cases .
It is to know the common            •
properties and the rule that relate
them.
It is one of the higher cognitive •
functions
Why do we need
concepts ?
- Knowledge of the common •
properties has great impact on
how we deal with the objects
around us.
- Concepts enable us to go •
beyond the information we
perceive . Having some visible
properties of an object allow us
to infer properties that r not
visible . This ability is
fundamental to thought .
Concepts allow us to apply the •
common properties that we
already know to objects or
people we encounter for the
first time .
             •
Concepts of widely used •
activities such as eating ,
abstract things such as truth or
justice or states as being old
allow us to communicate
quickly about things that occur
frequently.
- If we had no way to organize •
or classify our experiences , our
impressions of our environment
and of ourselves would be
chaotic .
                    •
Phases of concept
formation :
1. Generalization . •
2. Differentiation . •
3. Abstraction . •
 Generalization •
Inability to differentiate •
between familiar and non familiar      •
objects .

Differentiation •
Distinction between different items. •

Abstraction •
Inability to grasp the essentials of a •
whole
It is tested by proverbs •
  Combination of concepts
Combined concepts guide thoughts and •
actions . Rules , laws, and principles
combine so many concepts in certain
relationships .
Although our concepts , principles and •
beliefs may guide our thinking , personal
feelings and prejudices may falsify our
ideas and lead to erroneous conclusions .
practicing good observations and •
straight thinking decrease such errors .
Factors playing a role in
concept formation
Your own concept of a certain •
thing may not agree in all
respects with the standard
definition as your own concept
consists of what you know or
believe about this thing and its
interaction with your
personality .
Types of concepts

1) Inborn •
2) Acquired •
   or •
1) Formal ( classical ) •
  All the members have all attributes •
2) Natural ( real ) •
 Often cant be easily defined (fuzzy ) •
, with ill defined attributes and rules
 - Prototype •
it is the member of a concept that best •
typifies or represents that concept or
properties to describe the best examples
It is a way to help us better define natural •
concepts

 - Core •
 The properties that are the most essential •
for being a member of the concept
Types of thinking :

 1. Autistic thinking .. •
2 . Purposive thinking. •
     a) Problem solving. •
     b) Logical thinking. •
3. Creative thinking . •
4.Concrete and abstract •
thinking .
    Autistic thinking
-Does not go with the real world or its  •


facts.
- Not directed towards any purpose. •
- Passive , does not need any attention. •
- does not lead to any mental •
exhaustion .
- Forms : imaginative play in children •
and daydreams
- Beneficial if it is moderate ( escape or •
gratification of certain desires .
-Pathological if the whole thinking is •
directed through this
unrealistic way as in schizophrenia.
It leads to withdrawal from reality and •
Purposive thinking

- Controlled and goal directed •
- Uses concepts and its •
combinations of rules and
principles
- Uses vocal and written •
language symbols
 Problem solving
It is the process of seeking and finding the •
ways and means to solve a problem .
It is an active process •
It is a higher cognitive function . •
problems are usually solved by a mixture of : •
Trial and error •
Insight learning •

we may solve the problem by trial and error •
then gain insight retrospectively how it was
solved
Steps of problem solving
- -Initiation phase •
Recognition of the problem and definition of the   •
goal

- -Information gathering •
Gathering relevant information to the problem •

- -Solving state •
.Using tools of thinking •
.Putting alternative solutions •
.Elimination of the irrelevant solution •
.Revising previously solved similar problems   •

- -Evaluation state •
.Assessment of the result   •
.Self criticism •
Problem solving
strategies
Definition •
Strategy is a systematic plan for generating possible •
solutions that can be tested to see if they are correct.

Types of strategies •
1)Algorithms : evaluating all possible solutions   •

2)Heuristics : evaluating probabilities that you think to be       •
more reasonable .

3)Reduction : dividing the problem into small sub -    •
problems more easier to manage

4)Finding analogue : finding the similarities between the      •
current problems and previous problems .
 Barriers for effective
 problem solving
1) Indefinite goal •
2) Insufficient or irrelevant data •
3) Mental set : tendency to perceive or •
respond in a particular way
    .distractibility •
   .Lack of motivation •
   . Failure to retrieve memory •
   . Inability to control emotional factors   •
4) Attitude :inflexibility •
5) Using incorrect strategies •
6) Insufficient tools of thinking or •
unclear concepts
Trial and error
A rat in a maze•


After many trials of exploration , •
the rat reaches the food box .
The rat learned the direction of the
goal in a situation with which it
has become familiar
                            ` –
Insight learning
 A chimpanzees and a
bunch of banana .
Insight means planning the
solution on a mental level
beforehand .
insight is affected by past
experience and full
information about the
problem
Logical thinking

It is to reach an accepted or •
probable conclusion by using
relevant data .

The opposite is illogical or loose •
thinking ; using irrelevant data
to reach unaccepted conclusion
Creative thinking

Controlled •
Goal directed •
Happens in arts and inventive •
productions
Has 4 phases •
Phases of creative
thinking
1.Preparation phase •
Data collection and understanding all about the       •
problem.
2.Incubation phase •
It is a waiting period . Work is neglected •
consciously but unconscious work is done .
3.Inspiration or illumination phase •
The solution comes suddenly out of the blue .     •
4.Verification phase •
Testing the solution •
Experimental work to verify scientific hypothesis •
Concrete and abstract
thinking
Concrete thinking •
inability to understand the •
meaning behind a word or
statement .
Abstract thinking •
Ability to understand the •
essentials and hidden meaning
behind a word or a statement
Disorders of thinking

1)   Disorders   of   the   stream •
2)   Disorders   of   the   control •
3)   Disorders   of   the   content •
4)   Disorders   of   the   form •
Disorders of stream

Rapid thinking and flight of •
ideas : mania

Slow retarded thinking : •
depression

Thought block : schizophrenia •
Disorders of control

Thought reading •

Thought insertion •

Thought broadcasting •

Thought withdrawal •
Disorders of content
Preoccupation with obsessions , fears ,and suicidal   •
thoughts .

Overvalued ideas    •

Delusions •
 In schizophrenia •
   Bizarre •
   Persecutory •
   Delusions of reference •
   Delusions of infidelity •
     •
In depression •
   Delusions of nihilism •
   Delusions of hypochondraisis   •
Somatic delusions •

In mania •
   Delusions of grandiosity   •

				
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