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Dear MMUN Advisors and Students_


									Advisor Resource Guide
    This packet contains the following information:

     Welcome to MMUN 2005
          Welcome Letters
     Conference Schedule and Information
          Participating Schools and Advisor List
     MMUN Registration Forms
          Credentials Sheet
          Registration Form
          Meal Plan Form
     Committee Information
          Committee Description and Room Assignments
          Committee Topic List
          MMUN Staff List
     MMUN Delegate Preparation and Research Guides
     MMUN Workshop Information
          Travelling Workshop Information
          Overview of Expectations
          Position Paper Writing Guide
          Resolution Writing Guide
          Rules of Procedure Guide
     Advisor Survey
Dear MMUN Advisors and Students,

Welcome to the 41st annual 2005 Montana Model U.N. (MMUN) Conference hosted by the
University of Montana. Over 300 students representing 20 schools from across Montana and
Idaho are registered this year. We have made some improvements to the conference this year
that we hope reflect our continued and growing commitment to provide both students and
advisors with an exciting and comprehensive experience.

This Conference Manual has been compiled by our High School Liaisons, Greg Robitaille and
Chris Groen. It is a new attempt to deliver preparation materials, Conference details and
additional information in an effective and timely manner. We have done this so that research
and preparation leading up to the actual Conference becomes easier to obtain and organize,
especially for those schools with less MMUN experience. Although most of this information is
available on our website, we feel strongly the disbursement of this manual will help expedite the
search for research options, conference materials, preparation suggestions and necessary

As your High School Liaisons, it is our responsibility to help ensure effective communication
and assistance before, during and after the MMUN Conference. Please don’t hesitate to contact
either Greg Robitaille at (546-2659) or Chris Groen at (360-303-7430) with any questions, concerns or comments you may
have in the upcoming month. We are in daily contact with one another leading up to the
Conference and are committed to prompt replies and/or solutions to your queries. If we are
unable to answer the question, we will have the appropriate MMUN staff representative contact
you immediately.

Ultimately, the effort that we put in here at the University is for you, the attendees of the
Conference. The MMUN Conference is a creative and dynamic partnership that we create
together and it is imperative we receive your ideas and comments so that we may continue to
improve on the quality of this educational experience for everyone involved. We look forward to
meeting all of you and wish all the advisors and delegates the best of luck next month in


Greg Robitaille
Chris Groen
2005 MMUN High School Liaisons
Dear Participants and Advisors,

Welcome to the 2005 Montana Model United Nations Conference at the University of Montana.
We are excited to welcome back all returning schools, as well as new schools from across
Montana, and new to this year, Idaho. We have been working hard to make this year’s
conference better than ever. Our staff has working on our topics which will both interesting and
educational for all participants.

Model United Nations is a challenging opportunity for students to learn new skill through a
realistic simulation. Diplomacy, knowledge of international relations, negotiation and
persuasive communications are a just a few of the skills reinforced through the Model United
Nations experience.

This year, we have modified the conference, creating a completely separate crisis simulation of
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In addition to this crisis committee, the MMUN will
simulate the following committees:
     General Assembly Plenary (GAP)
     General Assembly 1 (GA1)
     Security Council (SC)
     Economic and Social (ECOSOC) Plenary
     North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Crisis
     United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
     The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
     The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ)

We have been especially focused on facilitating student preparation for this conference and as a
result, we have developed some new operations promising to enable participation and skill-
building. We will be offering three pre-conference training sessions to be held in Missoula,
Helena, and Great Falls. These training sessions will cover position papers, resolution writing
and committee procedures. We will also have regional and country ambassadors available for
student reference on pertinent issues at the conference.

I am honored to serve as your Secretary-General for this year’s MMUN conference and would
like to introduce Professor Karen Ruth Adams of the Political Science Department, who is our
new Faculty Advisor. Professor Adams is new to our conference with previous Model United
Nations experience at Louisiana State University. Jessica Reynolds is our Assistant Secretary
General and will serve as our contact for high school advisors. Her email address is

We greatly anticipate welcoming you to our campus and community in November!


Rob Killian
Secretary General – Montana Model United Nations
Conference Information
          2005 Montana Model U.N. Schedule

Monday, November 21

7:30 – 8:30 a.m.: Registration, (Lobby, University Theatre, Fine Arts Building)
8:35 – 10 a.m.: Combined General Assembly Plenary (University Theatre, Fine Arts Building)
10:10 – 11:45 a.m.: Session I (Individual Committees)
11:45 – 12:55 p.m.: Lunch*
1:00 – 3:45 p.m.: Session II
3:45 – 4 p.m.: Break
4 – 5:40 p.m.: Session III
5:45 – 7:30 p.m.: Dinner*
7:30 – 8:30 p.m.: Session IV
7:30 – 8:30 p.m.: Advisor/Staff Meeting
8:30 – 9:30 p.m.: Ice Cream Social

Tuesday, November 22

9:10 – 11:30 a.m.: Session V
11:45 – 12:45 p.m.: Lunch*
1:10 – 3:30 p.m.: Session VI
3:30 – 4 p.m.: Break
4 – 4:30 p.m.: Combined General Assembly Plenary (University Theatre, Fine Arts Building)
4:30 – 5 p.m.: Awards Ceremony
5 p.m.: Adjournment of 2005 MMUN

*Delegations eating in the Lodge cafeteria (Food Zoo) are asked to enter on the north side with
the rest of their delegation for ease and speed.

Please note that these times may be subject to small changes.
2005 Participating Schools and Advisor Lists
        Anaconda High School           Angela McLean
                                      Mary Jean Ferguson
         Big Sky High School            Janice Bishop

        Bozeman High School             Bill Stoddart
                                          Beth Pfaff
     Butte Central Catholic School    David Stonehocker
                                      Loralee Davenport
         Capital High School             Jason Neiffer

       C.M. Russell High School         Tom Cubbage

  The Coeur d'Alene Charter Academy   Karen Coughenour

         Corvalis High School          Doug McConnaha

       Frenchtown High School            Meggen Ryan

       Great Falls High School         Suzanne Sturges
                                        Susan Quinn
         Helena High School              Don Pogreba

         Hellgate High School            Patty Hixson

        Jefferson High School             Fritz Bieler
                                       Diane Thompson
      Missoula Home Educators            Terri Ricker

       Park Senior High School          John Feckanin

         Sentinel High School          Margo Duneman

       St. Ignatius High School           Tim Biggs

        Superior High School             Colin Bishop

            Twin Bridges                David Whitesell
                                     MMUN 2005 Credentials Sheet
                      (All Credentials must be received by NOVEMBER 11, 2005)
                                            Please type or print legibly

   Country:                                            Ambassador:(same as GA Plen)

   School:                                             Advisor:

 General Assembly Plenary [same as Ambassador]:                 Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR       SO     JR     SR

 General Assembly 1st Committee:                                        Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR      SO       JR    SR

 Economic & Social Council (ECO SOC):                                   Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR      SO       JR    SR

 Conference on Trade & Development:                             Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR       SO     JR     SR

 Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW):           Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR       SO     JR     SR

 Crime Prevention & Criminal Justice (CCPCJ):                           Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR      SO       JR    SR

 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):                     Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR       SO     JR     SR

 Security Council (SC):                                         Year in School: (circle one)
 Delegate:                                                                      FR       SO     JR     SR

NOTE: Please be sure of your students’ commitment to the conference; you will not be reimbursed for students who have decided
not to attend MMUN. Thank you. Please download this form and either mail, FAX, or e-mail as an attachment to:

                 Montana Model United Nations                   Attn: Dani McLaughlin
                 c/o College of Arts and Sciences                       FAX: (406) 243-4076
                 The University of Montana                              E-mail:
                 Missoula, MT 59812-5544
                        2005 MMUN Fee Registration

                               Download this form and mail to:
                               Montana Model United Nations
                               c/o College of Arts and Sciences
                                  The University of Montana
                    Missoula, MT 59812-5544 OR FAX to (406) 243-4076
                          OR e-mail to

                  School Name: ____________________________________

                  Advisor:       ____________________________________

                  E-mail:        ____________________________________

                        ($50/SCHOOL)                       $ 50.00
                   Individual Registration Fee
                   (_______ students x $7.00)

                                     Method of Payment:

                              Cash                  __________

                              Check No.             __________

                              Purchase Order No.    __________

Payment of School/Individual fees entitles participation in Montana Model United Nations and
access to all committees, Council and Court meetings, topic speeches and other special
presentations on Monday and Tuesday, November 21-22, 2005,

Receipt of payment will either be given to the advisor at Registration on November 21, 2005 or
mailed to the school following the conference.

NOTE: Please make sure that your students are committed to attending MMUN. Once
registered, you will not receive any reimbursement of fees.
 2005 Montana Model United Nations Committee
       Descriptions & Room Assignments
General Assembly Plenary (GA) – The General Assembly deals with resolutions of the
greatest importance: all others are referred to one of the committees below. The GA is the
committee that each nation’s ambassador to the UN attends.
       Membership: All member nations
       Meeting Room: UC Ballroom North

General Assembly 1st Committee (GA1) – The General Assembly 1st Committee deals with
issues that relate to disarmament and weapons security.
        Membership: All member nations
        Meeting Room: UC Ballroom South

Security Council (SC) – This council discusses issues of weapons, warfare and the
authorization of military force. It consists of 5 permanent members with power of veto (US, UK,
France, China, Russian Federation) and 10 rotating, non-permanent members.
       Membership: 5 permanent member nations, 10 rotating member nations
       Meeting Room: UC 331

Economic and Social (ECOSOC) Plenary – This commission deals with issues that relate
to the social development of underdeveloped nations.
        Membership: 54 member nations
        Meeting Room: UC 326/327

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Crisis – This is a unique crisis committee
with a fictional situation evolving during the conference. This committee will require students
to immediately react to and diffuse an international crisis.
        Membership: 26 member nations and the Russian Federation will be observing
        Meeting Room: UC 330

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – This committee
will focus on international economics and development of fair trade policies.
        Membership: All member nations
        Meeting Room: UC Theatre

The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) –
This Committee deals with issues pertaining to discrimination and the advancement of women.
       Membership: 23 member nations
       Meeting Room: UC 332

The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) – This
committee is part of the UN Office of Drugs and Crime and deals with issues relating to the stop
of international organized crime and drug trafficking.
        Membership: 40 member nations
        Meeting Room: UC 333
   Committee Topics for Montana Model UN
        - Order of agenda items in each committee to be determined at conference -

GA Plenary
  1. Reforming Membership & Voting on the Security Council.
  2. Integrating Security and Development Initiatives in Africa.
  3. Establishing a Human Rights Council.

GA 1
  1. Strengthening and Enforcing the Convention on Biological Weapons.
  2. Reducing Military Budgets.
  3. Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone in the Middle East.

  1. Evaluating International Food Aid.
  2. Preventing a Pandemic of Avian Flu.
  3. Eliminating Child Labor.

  1. Defining and Developing a Fair Trade Policy.
  2. Creating a Global Consensus on Intellectual Property Rights and Patents.
  3. Reviewing and Unifying Foreign Aid Criteria.

Security Council
   1. Dedication of Peacekeeping Forces to the Gaza Strip.
   2. Defining and Eradicating Terrorism.
   3. The Situation in Sudan.

  1. Examining the Role of Women in Military Conflict.
  2. The Role of the State and International Organizations in Family Planning.
  3. Improving Female Literacy.

  1. Strengthening and Enforcing the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
  2. The Application of United Nations Standards and Norms in Extradition to Persons Facing
      the Death Penalty.
  3. Strengthening International Cooperation and Technical Assistance in Reducing the
      International Trade in Drugs.

  1. Russian Integration into NATO.
  2005 Montana Model U.N. Committee Staff List

General Assembly Plenary (GAP)
Cassidy O’Connell, chair
David Wallace, vice chair

General Assembly First Committee (GA1)
Steve Hurin, chair
Ryan Knobloch, vice chair

Security Council (SC)
Sam Trammell, chair
Jake Pipinich, vice chair

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Plenary
Leslie Venetz, chair
Paul Moe, vice chair

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Kristin Sheehy, chair
Jesse Mahugh, vice chair

The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ)
Jim Zadick, chair
Matt Ferguson, vice chair

The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
Kaylee Lodge, chair
Tim Gotta, vice chair

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
John Spalding, chair
Gavin Oss, vice chair
 MMUN Recommended Research Quick Guide (2005)
                                   -With web addresses-

Countries:    1. CIA World Factbook –
              2. Country Reports –
              3. Library of Congress –
              4. University of Michigan Documents –
              5. Specific country official websites

UN:           1. United Nations Homepage –
              2. United Nations Newswire –
                  o Note: free registration required
              3. United Nations Documentation Centre –
              4. Montana Model U.N. Website -

World Issues: 1. United Nations Daily News –
              2. World Press –
              3. New York Times –
              4. The Economist –
              5. British Broadcasting Company –
              6. Time World -
                   Delegate Preparation Guide

Getting to Know Your Country

Learn the basics about your country, such as languages, demographic, geography, exports,
imports, political system, culture, history and general information.
    An excellent source for this information is the CIA World Factbook, at
    It is also a good idea to write to the embassy you are representing for information. The
       addresses of various embassies are on the MMUN website under Research Tools in the
       Tools for Delegates section. A formal letter requesting information accompanied by a list
       of topics will usually get a response. Some embassies are well-staffed and very
       cooperative, but for those nations that are not we recommend writing as soon as your
       delegation is set up.
    If you are unable to contact the embassy of the country you are representing, they may
       have an English-language website or English language newspapers which can serve as an
       excellent online resource.

Research the Topics

It is important to know your country’s position on the topics you will be discussing at the
conference in your committee. This can be done by reading up on current events and academic
journals. Some excellent periodicals include:
      The New York Times
      The London Guardian
      ITAR-TASS (a Russian news source)
      The Economist
      Foreign Affairs
      US News and World Report
      Newsweek
      Foreign Policy
      The Washington Post
If your country’s position is unclear, or you are unable to find information on their stance on
particular subject, couple knowledge of the general topic with knowledge about your nation
(customs, history, etc) to deduce your country’s position. Knowing your country’s position is an
essential part of representing your country on resolutions, when forming alliances and in formal

It is very important to keep up with current events, so try to read periodicals frequently.


During your research and preparation, it is important for delegates to meet regularly to share
and discuss the materials that they have gathered. During these discussions, you should
establish a consensus on the positions and issues, as they tend to overlap with regards to the
committees’ agendas. Sharing position papers can be useful to this end.
Know Who Your Allies Are

In the UN and Model UN, it is important to know who your allies are. It allows you to develop
establish voting blocks for resolutions, and strategize more effectively. To learn more about who
your allies are, research typical voting blocks within the UN, read periodicals to establish who
your country sides with most frequently on issues, and visit the homepage of your government.

Information Sources

These information sources are good starting points for your research:

1. Your country’s embassy
2. Your country’s Permanent Mission at the United Nations un New York
3. Books on your country and the region
4. Indexes on literature (under topic and/or country):
     Business Periodicals Readers
     Guide to Periodic Literature
     Federal Broadcast Information
     Service Social Science Index
     US Department of State Publications and Policies
     Publications Reference File
     US Government Documents Monthly Catalog
     Public Affairs Information Service
5. Reference materials:
     Yearbook of International Trade Statistics
     Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics
     Kessing Contemporary Archives
     Facts on File
6. Journals and Periodicals:
     New York Times
     London Guardian
     BBC News
     Washington Post
     The Economist
     US News and World Report
     Newsweek
     Time
     Foreign Affairs
     Foreign Policy
     International Affairs, London
     Journal of International Affairs, NY
     Current History
     Department of State
     Journal of Peace Studies
     Orbis
     Third World Quarterly
     United Nations Monthly Chronicle
     World Development
     World Politics
7. US Government Documents
     Area Handbook
     Background Notes (State Department)
     International Trade Statistics
     Overseas Business Reports
     US Department of Commerce
     Foreign Economic Trends (Commerce Department)
8. Internet:
     The United Nations Homepage
     CIA Factbook
     International Relations and Security Network
     Avalon Project
     CNN Interactive
     Project Ploughshares

If your school has access to internet databases, use these to gather information. The topic
backgrounders posted on the MMUN site are also helpful in guiding your research. If you are
still having trouble locating information, contact you chair or vice chair; their contact
information will be listed on the webpage.
                         Traveling Workshops

In response to feedback from both Advisors and student participants for improved background
information, we are offering MMUN Traveling Workshops in three regional locations
throughout the state prior to the MMUN Conference. We firmly believe these workshops will be
interesting, helpful and exciting, and should prove to be an invaluable teaching/learning tool in
providing some additional knowledge and insight for everyone involved in the MMUN

Each workshop will reflect the needs and numbers of the participating attendees. You can expect
the Traveling Workshops to include presentations on some or all of the following:

      Expectations for the participants of both the Conference itself and what they may
       expect from the UM staff coordinating the event.
      Tips on how to effectively research your assigned country
      Writing a position paper: helpful strategies and formatting
      The art of Negotiating and Caucusing
      Writing Resolution Papers
      The Rules of Parliamentary Procedure
      MMUN mock Simulation with and for the students.
      A brief Video Presentation of a previous MMUN Conference to enhance the
       students’ image of what to expect. (2006)

The purpose of these Traveling Workshops is certainly not to replace your own conference
preparation. They are intended to be supplemental and should provide both the Advisors and
students an opportunity to ask questions and gain some valuable insight into what they might
encounter at the actual conference. By hosting these Traveling Workshops, our purpose is to
assist participating schools with their ability to prepare effectively for the MMUN Conference.

Include herein are some outline documents pertaining to the Traveling Workshops.

                              Workshop Dates and Locations

November 6, 2005 – Great Falls. (GFHS, Room 104B) 1-4 p.m.

November 6, 2005 – Helena. (Helena High, Room 14) 1-4 p.m.

November 10, 2005 – Missoula. (Urey Lecture Hall – UM campus). 6-9 p.m.
                    Overview of Expectations
MMUN Conference

Every year in late November, high school students from across Montana and Northern
Idaho meet in Missoula to put into practice extensive country and issue research
through a simulation of United Nations committees such as the Security Council and the
General Assembly Plenary. Like all Model UN conferences, MMUN is designed to teach
students about international events and organizations, mediation, conflict resolution,
negotiation and the United Nations. Through a two-day simulation, students gain an
understanding of international events and crises, as well as an insight into the United
Nations and international diplomacy.

In the 41 years the conference has taken place, international issues have constantly and
continually changed. Every year at MMUN is different depending on the committees
simulated, the countries represented, the topics on the agenda and the students in
attendance. However, the importance of diplomacy and negotiation remain steadfast.


MMUN expects all student delegates to act diplomatically, or in other words, to conduct
oneself with tact and behave respectfully while interacting with other delegates, staff
and advisors. Also, diplomats consider the welfare and best interests of their country as
the principal goal, but are willing to hear others opinions. This is an educational
conference, and the purpose of MMUN is to achieve a greater understanding of
international issues and the United Nations. This goal is best accomplished through
mutual respect.

Diplomacy should be evident in position papers, procedural motions, formal and
informal debate, caucusing, resolution writing and voting procedure. Remember, model
UN requires students to role-play, or act as a representative from a UN member state. In
committee sessions, students do not represent their own beliefs and opinions, but rather
the interests of the nation they have been assigned. Therefore, it is important to
properly represent one’s country by behaving in the same way that a real UN delegate
would behave. Acting diplomatically will help students negotiate with others, while
keeping the welfare of their represented nation in mind.


Negotiation is the key to achieving real action in committee sessions. The goal of all
United Nations committees is to make decisions through consensus, or unanimous
agreement. Consensus building requires adept discussion, deliberation and
compromise. Through negotiation and bargaining, all delegates can weigh in on
important issues, and draft resolutions accordingly. It is important to remember to be
friendly, personable and calm. Negotiations require delegates to sell their ideas, listen to
others suggestions, and compromise.
                 Position Paper Writing Guide
Introduction and General Guidelines

A position paper is a diplomatic statement of your country’s position on the issues before your
individual committee. For example, if you are the delegate representing Romania in the General
Assembly First Committee, you will write a paper detailing Romania’s position on the three
topics before the GA1. Other delegates from your team will write on the three topics before their

Position papers serve as a valuable instrument in preparing delegates and MMUN teams for the
conference. They involve researching all aspect of your country’s history and background, from
politics and geography to economics and allies. Once country research is complete, students
must use their knowledge of the country’s background information to write a position paper on
the topics before their individual committee.

Position papers are a tool used to clarify a country’s position, provide ideas for negotiation,
examine all sides of the issue and practice written diplomacy. Position papers not only help
delegates understand committee topics and a country’s position, but they also assist conference
organizers in evaluating a delegate’s understanding of their country as a whole.

Generally, a position paper must meet the following format requirements:
    No more than two pages in length
    Single-spaced, 10 or 12 font
    Divided by topic segments

Each country should submit a separate position paper for each committee on which they are
represented by 5 p.m. on November 17, 2005. If a country serves on all eight committees,
eight separate position papers must be submitted. All position papers should be sent
electronically in a PC Microsoft Word document to and The subject of the email should be your committee name
and country (Romania, GA1). If you do not have access to e-mail, a hard copy can be mailed or
faxed to Dani McLaughlin at the College of Arts and Sciences, (406) 243-4076, and must be
received by November 17.

How to Write a Position Paper

Each position paper should be written by topic, using diplomatic language. There should be a
short introductory paragraph, followed by three paragraphs on each topic. Each topic should
address the following three areas, each of which are one paragraph each:

   1. History and information on the topic
         a. This section should include a short introduction to the topic, and some important
             documents or past resolutions that your country has supported.
         b. These documents can be used as evidence in formal debate, preambular clauses
             in resolutions and as insight for other delegates as to your position on the topic.
         c. This section should provide a short background which helps delegates
             understand what has previously been resolved on the topic.
         d. Conclude with your country’s basic position on the topic.
   2. Your country’s position on the topic and work on the issue
         a. Your country’s position should be stated in diplomatic terms.
         b. Your country’s work on the issue should cover what your country has done within
             its borders (if applicable), with allies and with regional partners.
         c. What has your country done within the world community?
         d. Why is your country a shining example, needs assistance, has made progress, or
             can help other countries on this topic?
    3. What you propose to do in the future
         a. You should revisit your countries position.
         b. Assess the progress that has been made on this issue.
         c. Propose what your country would like to do in the future. Are there any
             upcoming conferences or summits?
         d. Make a proposal for what the world community should do (these statements can
             later be used in your resolution).
         e. Conclude.

Format and Style

The heading of each position paper should include the official country name, the name of the
school representing the country, and the name of the individual serving as a delegate for that
committee. Additionally, the topics should be ordered as they are listed in the committee topic
background guides, which can be found online. Each individual topic heading should be bolded
and centered. The three paragraphs should be single spaced, with a space between each
paragraph. Below is a sample position paper1 formatted to fit MMUN specifications:

  Please note that this position paper has been blended from a sample position paper available on the UNA-USA web
site ( and a position paper drafted by the
University of Idaho collegiate team representing Costa Rica. The structure and format are correct.
Kingdom of Denmark                                                                Represented by
Shelly High School                                                                Jane Doe

                               Position Paper for the Commission on Human Rights

The issues before the Commission on Human Rights are: Violence against Women, Reforming the Juvenile Justice
System, Cybercrime. The Kingdom of Denmark, being a member of bodies such as the United Nations (UN),
Interpol, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Labor
Organization, and being party to such documents as the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Highly Indebted Poor
Countries Initiative and Criminal Convention on Election believes that such issues are vital to increasing and
upholding justice and the standards of living in the global community. The Kingdom of Denmark energetically
strives toward further international progress in the following areas:

                                            I. Violence Against Women

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, “no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.” Although this doctrine was adopted in 1948, the world has fallen quite short of
this goal. Violence against women pervades all states and it is the duty of the international community to ensure that
all persons are afforded equality and respect. Despite cooperative efforts at combating gross human rights abuses,
such as the adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the United Nations has not
been able to alleviate the injustice women worldwide experience daily.

The Kingdom of Denmark believes that in order to end violence against women, nations must look to empower
women in all aspects of society. Women are invaluable to Denmark’s society and have achieved significant
economic and social gains in the 20th century. This includes promoting equal gender roles in government, civil
society, education and business. However, Denmark also recognizes the need to combat human rights abuses against
women as they occur, and no nation is immune to gender violence. In 2002, the Danish Government launched an
extensive action plan to combat domestic violence against women, which includes measures to help treat abused
women, identify and prosecute the perpetrators, and incorporate professional medical and psychological staff into
the rehabilitation process. Additionally, the Danish Centre for Human Rights in Copenhagen, Denmark’s foremost
national human rights institution, also promotes and protects human rights. Based on the Centre’s
research, Denmark’s parliament can promote human rights-based legislation and education/awareness programs
throughout the nation. It is important to note that Denmark has no record of committing major human rights
violations, most importantly, any targeted at women. In its 2003 Annual Report, Amnesty International also found
no human rights violations against Danish women.

Denmark is confident that this Commission can bring about an end to violence against women without
compromising the sovereignty of member states. Education remains perhaps the most useful tool in protecting
victims of gender-based violence. Governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can plan
a coordinated campaign that educates national populations on the various ways women are violently targeted.
Similarly, harmful traditions, such as honor killings and female genital mutilation, must be stopped by reforming
traditional views of women in society. Children of both sexes need to be taught at an early age to value the rights of
women in order to prevent such violence in their generation. In order to prevent gender violence, nations must work
together to build a culture of support, equality and community. As such, the Kingdom of Denmark looks forward to
offering its support, in whatever form possible, to nations firmly committed to ending violence against women in all
its forms.

                                     I. Reforming the Juvenile Justice System

The Kingdom of Denmark strongly supports such resolutions as The Convention on the Rights of the Child
(A/RES/44/25) and the efforts of groups like UNICEF. In its search for justice, the world community must
vigorously seek to reform issues throughout the juvenile justice system; it is necessary that the United Nations renew
its dedication towards justice, children, and beneficial social reform by finding new methods of decreasing juvenile
crime and furthering the implementation of UN approved methods.
Denmark understands that juvenile offenders must be treated differently than adult offenders. We advanced our
domestic policy in order to adhere to relevant international guidelines - which we aided in establishing - and to be a
positive example of reform in the region. Denmark emphasizes that justice must be held paramount without
sacrificing human rights or compromising the differences between prosecuting juveniles and adults. Denmark has
regularly worked through the Committee on the Rights of the Child and will continue to make efforts to comply with
standards such as the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice of 1985

Denmark believes that the implementation of current standards worldwide and new standards in the areas of
resocialization and rehabilitation is fundamental. UN Member States must take strong measures to improve and
uphold the just rule of law, and its application to juveniles. As a leader in reform and policy implementation, Costa
Rica continually strives to set an example for Latin America and the world community, as well as continually aiding
further international implementation.

                                                  II. Cybercrime

The Kingdom of Denmark, participating in the crafting of documents such as the Final Report on the Meetings of
Government Experts on Cybercrime (OEA/Ser.GGE/REMJA/doc.51/99), understands the international concern
generated by cybercrime, and endeavors to create collaborative new solutions to cybercrime. Denmark maintains
that cybercrime demands an international effort; passing through borders and often uncontrolled by domestic law,
cybercrime requires united action.

Denmark has had few occurrences of cybercrime, yet continues to work towards a means of prevention. The most
difficult arena of prosecuting and deterring cybercrime is investigation, and Denmark supports the creation of the
24-Hour/7-Day a Week Point of Contact Group, as recommended by the Organization of American States in the
Final Report on the Meetings of Government Experts on Cyber Crime. Costa Rica also supports a system of
information sharing and joint work to prosecute cybercrime. International cooperation is necessary, as well as the
incumbency of Member States to set up such a system internally and to establish the internal legal framework.

Denmark believes that a system for joint protection against cybercrime requires several steps. Nations need to
create or review laws dealing with cybercrime to allow for bilateral and multilateral information and technology
exchange related to apprehending those who violate the law. As technology availability increases, the potential to
do serious damage to the infrastructure that technology supports increases. Many developing countries cannot
balance the increases in technology growth and the ability to do harm with the ability to protect themselves and
others from cybercrime. It is the position of Denmark that these concerns must be solved immediately as new
technological developments make cybercrime an increasingly alarming issue. Although access to technology is
harder to obtain for developing countries, Denmark recognizes that production, business and communication have
been revolutionized. Denmark stresses the importance that the national policies of UN Member States against these
kinds of crimes becomes aggressive and that international cooperation is emphasized.
                Resolution Writing - Key Terms
Working paper: Working papers are the first stage of the resolution writing process and are any sort of
document which have not been submitted and approved the dais.

Dais: The Chair, Assistant Chair and Rapp who run the committee session.

Sponsors: Sponsors are the principal authors of a working paper. They not only agree with content and
substance, but sponsors control the working paper through the stages of becoming a resolution. Since
sponsors have collaborated on a document, they cooperate and compromise with each other and generally
will vote to pass the resolution through committee.

Signatories: A combined number of sponsors and signatories are needed before a country can submit a
working paper to the dais. Unlike sponsors, signatories can either agree or disagree with substance, but
sign the document because they want to see it reach the floor.

Draft Resolutions: A properly formatted working paper, with the requisite number of sponsors and
signatories is submitted to the dais for approval and once approved becomes a draft resolution

Resolutions: After all amendments, both friendly and unfriendly, have been either incorporated or
dismissed, the committee votes on the draft resolution. If the draft resolution fails, it disappears. If the
draft resolution passes, it becomes a resolution of the body. Once approved by the committee, a resolution
has become the tangible product of a committee's deliberations, and serve as a general statement or
instruction to specific organizations, UN bodies or states on the topic at hand.

Friendly amendments: Friendly amendments are changes or revisions made to the draft resolution that
are approved by all sponsors.

Unfriendly amendments: Unfriendly amendments are not supported by all sponsors and must be voted
on by the committee.

Preambulatory clauses: These clauses are substantive, begin a resolution and cannot be amended. They
serve as overview of the problem and past actions taken, may stress particular aspects of a problem and
are typically historic justifications and terms which frame the issue.
         Examples of common preambulatory clauses: Affirming, Alarmed by, Bearing in mind,
         Emphasizing, Fully aware, Guided by, Noting with deep concern, Observing, Recalling,
         Taking note, Welcoming.

Operative clauses: These clauses are amendable, contain the real content and action of a resolution, begin
with a verb and conclude a resolution.
        Examples of common operative clauses are: Accepts, Authorizes, Calls upon, Condemns,
        Deplores, Encourages, Proclaims, Requests, Trusts, Urges.
                      Resolution Writing Guide
Introduction and General Guidelines

As the tangible product of a committee's deliberations, resolutions are a general statement or
instruction to specific organizations, UN bodies or states on the topic at hand. Resolutions are
the result of writing, negotiation, discussion and debate. Essentially, resolutions are the goal of
committee work, and serve as a statement of resolve to, as a body, progress in a specific matter
outlined in the resolution. All Member States present at the Montana Model United Nations
(MMUN) conference will work to create resolutions throughout the week which determine the
future actions of not only the committee, but the world community.

While the diversity of topics, and thus the diversity of resolution content, will vary from
committee to committee, the resolution format is universally applied at MMUN. Resolutions
must be clear, concise, and relevant to the topic, within the jurisdiction of the committee and in
the format shown in the Sample Resolution.

Some general content guidelines should also be observed. Many resolutions are written to be
cure-alls, which try to do far too much. Try to keep resolutions within the bounds of realistic
action; looking at past UN resolutions may provide a sense of what committees are likely to be
able (or want) to do. Some committees also have particular, well-defined limits; for example,
only the Security Council may send UN troops or condemn nations, and no committee can
command another (non-UN) body to do something. Also, be mindful explicitly detailing certain
aspects of action; for example, funding should only be in a resolution if it is a natural part of the
solution to the problem. In this same vein, avoid creating extraneous panels, committees, or
special agencies to examine United Nations topics. In all likelihood, there is already an actual
United Nations committee charged with examining the specific issue delegates encounter during
a simulation.

Stages of a Resolution

Before a resolution becomes an official document of the committee, it must go through three
distinct stages. During each stage, all speeches and debate must refer to the resolution with the
applicable term, otherwise, delegates are considered out of order.

The first stage of a resolution is the working paper stage. A working paper is developed in the
early sessions of a committee meeting. Working papers are a tool for discussion and debate, and
can be used in forming group consensus. Some working papers may be one sentence, or a
concept, others may be fully formed draft resolutions. Working papers are any sort of document
which have not been submitted and approved the dais. Before working papers can be submitted,
they must be in proper format, and have the required number of sponsors and signatories.

As a general rule, 20 percent of Member States present in the committee meeting must be
sponsors or signatories. Sponsors are the principal authors of a working paper. They not only
agree with content and substance, but sponsors control the working paper through the stages of
becoming a resolution. Since sponsors have collaborated on a document, they cooperate and
compromise with each other and generally will vote to pass the resolution through committee.
On the other hand, signatories can either agree or disagree with substance, but sign the
document because they want to see it reach the floor.

After the working paper has been properly formatted and has the requisite number of sponsors
and signatories, it can be submitted to the dais for approval. Once approved, it becomes a draft
resolution. The resolution is either copied, posted or read before the committee, and is subject
to review by all delegates. Once delegates have reviewed the document, the draft resolution may
be amended. Amendments strengthen consensus by adding, deleting or revising portions of a
resolution’s operative clauses. Please note that entire operative clauses cannot be deleted via an
amendment, but can be divided out during voting procedure with a motion to divide the
question. If changes to clauses are necessary through the use of amendments, they can be made
with friendly and unfriendly amendments. Friendly amendments are changes or revisions
made to the draft resolution that are approved by all sponsors. Once all sponsors have approved
the changes, the chair must also approve the changes and they are immediately incorporated
into resolution. In contrast, unfriendly amendments are not supported by all sponsors and
must be voted on by the committee. Typically, the author of the amendment must gather the
requisite number of sponsors or signatories to introduce amendment. After amendments are
submitted, the committee votes on unfriendly amendments prior to voting on the final draft

After all amendments, both friendly and unfriendly, have been either incorporated or dismissed,
the committee votes on the draft resolution. If the draft resolution fails, it disappears. If the
draft resolution passes, it becomes a resolution of the body.

Format and Style

Stylistically, a resolution can be divided into two parts: the heading and the body. The heading is
the administrative/organizational portion of a resolution and contains the name of the
committee, the topic, and the names of the sponsoring nations, the nations who are signatories
and the committee code. The body of a resolution is written as a long sentence, and starts with
the name of the committee, followed by a comma. The remainder of the body of a resolution is
divided into two parts: preambulatory clauses and operative clauses.

Preambulatory Clauses

Preambulatory clauses are similar to an overview of the problem and past actions taken, and
may stress particular aspects of a problem. Typically, preambular clauses are historic
justifications and terms which frame the issue. For example, they may reference any of the
following: the Charter, i.e. “Noting Article I of the United Nations Charter…, ” United Nations
treaties, resolutions, documents, press releases, i.e. “Remembering the Kyoto
Protocol…,”statements by the SG, UN bodies or agencies, i.e. “Recalling Honorable Kofi Annan’s
statement at the Millennium Conference…,” or recognition of efforts by organizations or nations,
i.e. “Recognizing Guatemala’s successful integration of the Multi-lateral Evaluation
Mechanism.” Preambulatory clauses are substantive and cannot be amended, so they should be
chosen carefully. Each clause starts with a one or two word preambulatory phrase, which is
underlined, followed by the remainder of the clause, and a comma. The following is a list of
common preambulatory phrases that could be used to construct a resolution. Please note that
this list is not exhaustive, and most participles qualify as preambulatory clauses.
            Acknowledging         Deeply convinced            Having adopted
            Affirming             Deeply disturbed            Having considered
                                                              Having considered
            Alarmed by            Deeply regretting
                                                              Having devoted
            Approving             Desiring
            Aware of              Emphasizing                 Having examined
            Believing             Expecting                   Having heard
            Bearing in mind       Expressing its satisfaction Having received
            Cognizant of          Fulfilling                  Having studied
            Confident             Fully alarmed               Hoping
            Contemplating         Fully aware                 Keeping in mind
            Convinced             Fully believing             Noting with regret
            Declaring             Further deploring           Noting with satisfaction
                                                              Noting with deep
            Deeply concerned      Further recalling
            Deeply conscious      Guided by                   Noting further

Operative Clauses

Operative clauses are amendable and contain the real content and action of a resolution. These
clauses are meant to achieve the main policy goals of the signatories, and are organized by
logical progression. Each clause has only one idea, and sub-clauses are used to further detail the
main action of the operatives. Operative clauses begin with operative phrase which is a verb,
and is underlined, and followed by the remainder of the clause, which is terminated with a
semicolon, except for the last operative, which is terminated with a period. Each operative
clause is numbered and indented, and may include lettered sub-clauses. Keep in mind that only
numbered clauses may be divided in a motion to Divide the Question. The following is a list of
common operative clauses that could be used to construct a resolution, however, it is not

                Accepts               Designates                   Recommends
                Affirms               Draws attention              Regrets
                Approves              Emphasizes                   Reminds
                Authorizes            Encourages                   Requests
                Calls                 Endorses                     Resolves
                Calls upon            Expresses its appreciation   Solemnly
                Condemns              Expresses its hope           Strongly
                Congratulates        Further invites               Supports
                Confirms             Further proclaims             Takes note of
                Considers            Notes                         Trusts
                Declares Accordingly Proclaims                     Urges
                Deplores             Reaffirms
                            Sample Resolution
Committee: The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Topic: Computer Ethics
Sponsors: China, Guyana, Philippines
Signatories: Chad, Iraq, Iran
Code: CCPCJ/1/1

The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice,

Respecting the sovereignty of nations, as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, yet,

Suggesting that there is a common human set of morals that all nations subscribe to,

Deploring the posting of child pornography on the Internet, which is an exploitation of children,

Condemning proliferation of slander on the Internet, including, but not limited to deliberate
falsification of information;

       1. Strongly urges nations to deem the distribution and creation of child pornography a
       crime, if nations have not already done so;

       2. Calls upon governments to recognize the disastrous effects of defamation of character
       and other slanderous actions, including "falsification of information";

       3. Recommends that all interested nations participate in a conference under the auspices
       of the CPCJ on establishing ethical standards on proper computer conduct, to be held
       before December 31, 2002;

       4. Further requests corporations and non-governmental organizations contribute advice
       to the conferences established in the aforementioned clause;

       5. Encourages follow-up conferences to be held at intervals no longer than two years to
       assess technological advancements and recommend revisions to the aforementioned
       standards in line with these advancements.
              Rules of Procedure Guide
    a. In addition to those powers specified elsewhere, the Chair in committee meetings
       shall interpret these rules, rule on points of order, declare the opening and
       closing of all meetings, open and close debate, direct the discussion during the
       meetings, insure the observance of these rules, accord the right to speak, open
       and close the speakers list, put questions to a vote and announce decisions, have
       control of the proceedings at any meeting and insure the observance of
       parliamentary procedure, and limit the number of times and duration delegates
       may speak on any question.
    b. All committee officers shall assist the Rapporteur(s) in processing the proposals
       passed by the committee.
    a. Individual delegations in each committee shall consider the agenda topics
       assigned to them by the MMUN Staff prior to attending the conference.
    b. Each member state shall have only one vote, and only one representative of each
       state may vote at any time within a committee.
    c. Before draft resolutions are submitted to the dais, the committee refers to these
       working documents as “working papers.” Once submitted to the dais and
       approved, these submissions may be referred to as “draft resolutions” in caucus
       and formal debate. Once the documents have been voted on and approved by the
       body, these draft resolutions become “resolutions.”
    a.   The agenda of the combined Plenary session shall include the following, in order:
            i. deletions from the Draft Agenda, requiring a simple majority vote;
            ii. adoption of the Draft Agenda, requiring a simple majority vote.
    b. The Agenda of the first session of each committee shall follow this order:
            i. Chair expectations, introduction of dais, committee announcements;
            ii. Calling the meeting to order, opening the speaker’s list, asking for points
                or motions;
                   1.   Discussion and debate on the agenda order;
                   2. Adoption of the agenda order;
    a. A draft resolution is a substantive document submitted to a committee for
       decision (vote) by the committee. A draft resolution may not be introduced or
       debated until all delegations receive copies. Draft resolutions can be altered by
    b. Motions are used to introduce proposals, draft resolutions, amendments, and
       other procedural items that the committee may need to take action on. Motions
       may be made in a speech or after being recognized by the Chair. A motion to
         Introduce a Resolution requires a second, does not interrupt a speaker, and needs
         a simple majority of the Committee. A motion to Introduce an Amendment
         requires a second, does not interrupt a speaker, and is automatically under
         consideration by the Committee once it has been moved and seconded.
    c. An amendment adds to, deletes from, or changes a proposal or draft resolution.
       An amendment must be germane to the proposal it seeks to alter and cannot
       wholly replace it. The Chair may rule amendments out of order at his or her
       discretion. An amendment itself may not be amended. Preambulatory clauses
       may not be amended. An amendment, which counters a previously adopted
       amendment, shall be ruled dilatory by the Chair. Friendly amendments to draft
       resolutions must be submitted on Amendment Forms signed by the sponsoring
       delegations prior to voting procedures. These amendments are immediately
       adopted once submitted. Unfriendly amendments must also be submitted before
       voting procedures and must be supported by the same number of delegates
       needed to submit a working paper to the dais in that committee. An amendment
       is considered unfriendly when it does not have the support of all sponsors of the
       original draft resolution. Amendments must clearly specify the proposed
       revisions by identifying the clause numbers of the clauses to be changed. After an
       amendment has been approved and assigned an identification letter by the
       committee officers, the any delegate may move that amendment to the floor after
       being recognized by the Chair. After the dais reads each unfriendly amendment,
       it is voted on and needs a simple majority to pass. After all unfriendly
       amendments have been voted on, the entire draft resolution will be voted on.
    d. The following motions can be amended:
             i. Suspend the Meeting
            ii. Divide the Question
            iii. Limit / Extend Debate
            iv. Adopt the Agenda
                    1. All amendments can be debated in all cases except the motion to
                       be amended. An amendment of a draft resolution or resolution
                       requires only a majority vote for its adoption.
    e. A motion or proposed resolution may be altered by means of a friendly
       amendment. A friendly amendment makes a change agreed upon by all the
       sponsors of a motion or draft resolution. Such amendments must be announced
       to the Chair when they are moved to the floor.
    f.    A motion, proposal, or amendment may be withdrawn by all its sponsors at any
         time before it is put to a vote. Once withdrawn, the Chair will ask if any delegate
         wishes to pick up its sponsorship, the motion, draft resolution, or amendment is
         no longer under consideration and cannot be reintroduced.
    a. Once the Chair decides to open discussion on a topic, the Chair will establish a
       speakers list of those delegates wishing to speak. Those wishing to speak will
       raise their placards and will be assigned a position on the list. The Chair will call
       upon delegates to speak in the order in which their names appear on the speakers
       list. Delegates can request to be added to the list any number of times until the
       Chair limits the number of times a delegate may speak, closes the speakers list, or
     debate is closed by a motion. Formal debate will continue until it is suspended or
     closed, the meeting is suspended or adjourned, or the speakers list is exhausted.
     Once the speakers list is exhausted, the Chair will announce closure of debate and
     bring the topic area to an immediate vote.
b. A country may appear on the speakers list only one at a time. Only after the
   completion of that country's speech may that country request to be returned to
   the speakers list.
c.    No one may speak without first being recognized by the Chair. No one may speak
     without first being recognized by the Chair. Delegates wishing to speak on an
     item before the body will signify by raising their placards. The only exception to
     this rule occurs on any point or motion that interrupts a speaker, in which case
     the delegate should raise his or her placard and call out, for example, "Point of
     Order" to the Chair. The Chair will then recognize each delegation based on
     precedence of their points. Following resolutions of any points, the Chair will
     then call upon delegates wishing to speak in the normal manner.
d. At the start of any committee session, the speakers time is without limit, until
   delegates make a motion to set the speaker’s time, and the time is established.
   However, motions requiring speakers in favor and against have an automatic set
   speaker’s time of 30 seconds. The Chair may set an equal time limit for all
   speeches, which will stand unless successfully appealed. The Chair will alert
   speakers their time has expired, or delegates may rise to a point of order if the
   speakers exceed their time or if the speaker's remarks are not relevant or
   germane to the subject under discussion. (If a delegate was supposed to be
   speaking on closure of debate, but instead spoke about limiting debate, that
   delegate's remarks would be dilatory, or not germane to the topic under
e. The Chair can rule out of order any motion repeating or closely approximating a
   previous motion on which the committee or council has already expressed an
   opinion. This ruling is not subject to appeal.
f.   There are two types of speeches : Procedural and Substantive
         i. Procedural speeches deal with procedural motions, such as limiting or
            closing debate. When speaking on procedural issues, a delegate must
            speak only to that procedural issue and its possible effects on the
            Committee. While speaking on a procedural motion, delegates may not
            make a motion or yield time to another delegate.
        ii. Substantive speeches are directly related to amendments, draft
            resolutions, resolutions, or topic areas. During substantive debate, the
            Chair recognizes a delegate to speak of the topic at hand, any motion
            regarding that topic, or any amendments to the motion. At the end of a
            substantive speech, the Chair will ask the speaker if he or she is willing to
            yield to questions. If so, the Chair will accept questions relative to the
            speech. A delegate wishing to ask a speaker about his or her speech should
            rise to a Point of Information. A speaker can make motions after his or
            her speech and questioning, but before yielding the floor. By making a
            motion, the speaker automatically yields the floor.
g. If a delegate has time remaining at the conclusion of his or her substantive
   speech, that delegate may yield the excess time. The only acceptable yields are:
             i. Yielding to the Chair: signifies that the delegate who has the floor wishes
                to yield his or her time neither to another delegate nor to questions from
                fellow delegates;
            ii. Yielding to another delegate: allows a second delegate in the committee to
                use the remainder of the first delegate's time to address the Committee;
           iii. Yielding to questions: the delegate instructs the Chair to take questions
                relevant to the previous speech from the floor. Delegates wishing to ask
                questions must address their questions to the Chair, who will then repeat
                the question to the speaker. The speaker may choose not to answer any
                question; if he or she chooses to answer a question, he or she shall so so as
                time permits. In such matters, the Chair shall call the delegate to order if
                he or she exceeds the allotted time.
    a. Point of Order : used by the delegates to complain of improper procedure
       under these Rules. A Point of Order interrupts the speaker and the delegate rising
       to the point of order explains what breach of rules has occurred. The Chair shall
       immediately rule upon the point and his or her decision is final unless
       successfully appealed. If the Chair is in doubt about a Point of Order, he or she
       may put the issue before the committee for a vote.
    b. Point of Personal Privilege : used to bring the Chair's attention to physical
       distractions that impair the delegate's ability to participate in the proceedings.
       The Point of Personal Privilege does not interrupt a speaker and is normally
       raised in connection with room temperature, noise inside or outside the
       Committee room, the volume of a speaker, or individual bathroom breaks.
    c. Point of Parliamentary Inquiry : addressed by a delegate to the Chair for
       questions concerning the rules or proceeding of the Committee. Point of
       Parliamentary Inquiry does not interrupt the speaker.
    d. Point of Information: used by delegates to question the current speaker when
       he or she finishes his or her speech. It does not interrupt the speaker, and
       delegate wishing to ask the question will rise to a Point of Information. The Chair
       will then ask the speaker if he or she wishes to yield to questions. If the speaker
       wishes to answer the question, he or she will yield; and the questioning delegate
       will address his or her question to the Chair, who will rephrase the question to
       the speaker. If the speaker does not wish to answer the question, the speaker
       must yield his or her time to the Chair. The Chair may choose to limit Points of
       Information. Follow-up questions are not allowed unless the delegate rises to a
       second Point of Information.
    e. Motion to Limit / Extend Debate : changes the amount of time allotted for
       debate. It can be used to limit the time allowed per speaker or per item (draft
       resolution, amendment, resolution, or topic area). The motion does not interrupt
       a speaker, requires a second, is not debatable, is amendable, and requires a
       simple majority vote.
    f.   Motion to Change Order of the Agenda : alters the order of consideration of
         agenda topics or draft resolutions as set by each committee at the beginning of
         the session. It can be used to move from one draft resolution or topic area to
         another and has the same effect as passing a Motion to Suspend Debate. It does
         not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is not debatable or amendable, and
     requires a simple majority vote. Committees will consider draft resolutions by
     topic areas.
         i. When discussing draft resolutions by topic area, the committee will
            consider all draft resolutions one by one and then vote on each when the
            committee passes a Motion to Close Debate on an Agenda Topic (See
            Section VIII. Voting).
g.    Motion to Suspend Debate : a motion that tables the proposal, draft
     resolution, amendment, topic, or resolution being discussed. This motion
     suspends debate on the item currently being discussed, allowing another item to
     be brought to the floor. It does not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is
     debatable with 1 pro and 1 con speaker, is not amendable and is passed with a
     simple majority vote. Speeches must be germane to suspension only. Once debate
     is suspended on an item, it may not be resumed until a motion to resume debate
     is made.
h. Motion to Resume Debate : in order only if the business conducted by the
   Committee after the item in question was suspended has been concluded. It does
   not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is neither debatable nor amendable,
   and requires a simple majority vote. If passed, all draft resolutions accepted
   previously for this topic are back on the table.
i.   Motion to Introduce a Resolution : used to introduce a draft resolution for
     debate. This motion does not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is neither
     debatable nor amendable, and does not require a vote.
j.   Motion to Introduce an Amendment : used to introduce an amendment to a
     draft resolution. Amendments must appear on Amendment Forms. This motion
     does not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is neither debatable nor
     amendable, and does not require a vote.
k. Motion to Suspend the Meeting : a motion used to recess a Committee for
   lunch, caucus, or a break. The Chair may rule excessive use of the Motion to
   Suspend the Meeting dilatory. The Motion to Suspend the Meeting requires a
   second, does not interrupt a speaker, is not debatable, is amendable (For
   example, if a delegate moves to suspend the meeting for 5 minutes to caucus,
   another delegate may amend the motion to suspend the meeting for a 10 minutes
   caucus.), and requires a simple majority vote.
l.   Motion to Appeal the Decision of the Chair : used to reconsider and appeal
     a Chair's decision. This motion will be ruled out of order if the Chair produces
     evidence of his or her adherence to the Rules of Procedure. It does interrupt a
     speaker, requires a second, is debatable with 2 pro and 2 con speakers, and
     requires a 2/3-majority vote.
m. Motion to Object to Consideration : a motion used to avoid considering an
   improper matter in committee. For example, this motion might be raised if a
   security issue was debated in a draft resolution submitted to the Commission on
   Human Rights. This motion requires a second, is not debatable or amendable,
   and requires a 2/3-majority vote.
n. Motion to Adjourn the Meeting : a motion that is only in order at the end of
   the last committee of the Conference. This motion concludes the meeting until
   next year. It requires a second, does not interrupt a speaker, is not debatable,
   cannot be amended, and requires a simple majority vote.
    a. Each member state has one vote.
    b. In Committee sessions and Plenary sessions, measures are decided by a simple
       majority vote, except for those circumstances where a 2/3-majority is required by
       these rules.
    c. Motion to Close Debate : ends debate on an amendment or draft resolution
       and the committee then votes on said items. It can be used to close debate on
       either a draft resolution or amendment, or on a topic area. It is in order at any
       time during discussion or before the speakers list is exhausted. A Motion to Close
       Debate does not interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is debatable with 2 con
       speakers, and is then put to an immediate vote requiring a 2/3-majority.
    d.    Motion to Close Debate on an Amendment : in order at any time the
         amendment is under consideration by the committee. If the Motion to Close
         Debate on an Amendment passes, the committee returns to debate of the draft
         resolution as amended. An amendment that has been introduced and discussed
         by the committee, but not put to a vote, will be subject to a vote once a motion
         passes for closure on its agenda topic or draft resolution. The vote on the
         amendment will occur prior to the vote on the resolution it proposes to amend.
    e. Motion to Close Debate on a Draft Resolution : in order at any time the
       resolution is under consideration by the Committee. If a Motion to Close Debate
       on a Draft Resolution passes, the committee immediately votes on all
       amendments concerning the draft resolution and then votes on the draft
       resolution as amended.
    f.   Motion to Close Debate on an Agenda Topic : in order at any time during
         the discussion of that topic. This motion, if passed, puts all resolutions and
         amendments that have been considered on that agenda topic to a vote. The
         resolutions are voted on in the order in which the committee considered them.
         The committee votes on all amendments concerning the draft resolution and then
         votes on the draft resolution as amended.
             i. Debate may also be closed through the exhaustion of the speakers list
                which automatically brings the committee into voting procedure on the
                agenda topic.
    g. Motion to Divide the Question : in order once debate has been closed, but
       before final voting on the draft resolution under consideration has begun. This
       motion is useful if a delegate wishes to vote on a draft resolution or amendment
       in several parts: the operative clauses of a draft resolution may be divided and
       voted on independently. The intended division must be specified when division of
       the question is moved. It requires a second, is not debatable, is not amendable,
       and requires a simple majority vote for approval of the division of the question.
       The first Motion to Divide the Question that receives a majority vote shall
       determine what operative clauses will be divided out before voting begins on
       amendments and the draft resolution itself.
    h. Unless otherwise specified, all voting will be made by a show of placards.
       Before voting commences, any delegate may request a roll-call vote. The Chair
       will always grant a roll-call vote. Immediately prior to a vote, the Chair shall
       describe to the Committee the proposal to be voted on, and shall explain the
       consequences of a "yes" or a "no" vote. While a Committee is in voting procedure,
         all talking, note passing, and caucusing ceases, or delegates may be remanded to
         order. Voting begins when the Chair announces, "we are in voting procedure" and
         ends when the results of the vote are announced.
             i. When voting by a show of placards, the Chair will ask for "those in favor,"
                "those opposed," and "those abstaining." If any delegate wishes to verify
                the placard vote, he or she may move for a Division of the Assembly ,
                which repeats the vote with members standing to indicate their vote. A
                division of the assembly does not require a second, does not interrupt the
                speaker, and will be automatically granted by the Chair.
            ii. A roll-call vote shall proceed in alphabetical order by country. When
                named in a roll-call vote, a delegate shall answer either "yes," "no,"
                "abstain," or "pass." If a delegate passes, he or she will vote after the other
                delegations have; a delegate who passes during a roll-call vote
                relinquishes his or her right to abstain. After the entire committee has
                voted, the Chair will announce the results of the vote.
    i.   Motion to Reconsider : Once the decision on a draft resolution or amendment
         has been announced, any delegate may move for its reconsideration. Delegates
         may move to reconsider when they feel the committee has taken hasty action. It
         does interrupt a speaker, requires a second, is debatable with 1 pro and 1 con
         speaker, and requires a simple majority vote. If such a majority is forthcoming, a
         re-vote will be taken. The Chair may rule a motion to reconsider dilatory. The
         Chair's decision is subject to appeal. The motion to reconsider is only debatable if
         the issue to be reconsidered was debatable. If a Motion to Reconsider is not
         forthcoming after voting has ended, the Committee moves on to consider the next
         proposal; or if no proposals remain under the topic, the Chair will entertain a
         motion to suspend.
    j.   Once voting has begun on an amendment, draft resolution, or topic area the
         Committee session is closed to non-committee members and will not adjourn
         until voting procedures have been satisfied.
    a. Attacking the personal integrity of any delegate is unacceptable behavior. The
       Chair shall immediately rule a speaker out of order if he or she engages in such
       conduct. Retributive comments by the attacked party are likewise inappropriate.
       The Chair shall take appropriate action to ensure that delegates treat their
       colleagues with civility and respect at all times: all delegates must accord
       diplomatic courtesy to all other delegates, at all times.
             i. Any delegate or visitor who persists in an obvious attempt to divert the
                meeting from its intended purpose (such as acts of terrorism), or who
                otherwise attempts to disrupt the proceeding, shall be subject to
                disciplinary action by the Chair. If a delegate insists on behavior that is
                unacceptable and disruptive to the debate process, the Chair will
                temporarily remove voting and speaking privileges. It must be noted that
                such action will eliminate chances of receiving any awards or
    a. The order of precedence of motions is as follows:
           i. Point of Order
           ii. Point of Personal Privilege
          iii. Point of Parliamentary Inquiry
          iv. Point of Information
           v. Limit/Extend Debate
          vi. Change the Order of the Agenda/Adopt the Agenda as is
          vii. Introduce a Resolution
         viii. Introduce an Amendment
          ix. Suspend the Debate
           x. Resume Debate
          xi. Suspend the Meeting
          xii. Appeal the Ruling of the Chair
         xiii. Close Debate
         xiv. Divide the Question
          xv. Reconsider
         xvi. Object to Consideration
         xvii. Adjourn the Meeting
         Montana Model U.N. Advisor Survey (2005)
           - This is a draft of the survey that will be available at the conference -

To help us make next year’s Montana Model United Nations conference even better, we are
asking for your opinions and comments about this year’s conference. Thank you for your input
on this feedback form!

   1. Did you receive your registration information in a timely manner?

   2. Did you receive your country and committee assignments in a timely manner?

   3. Did you find the committee topics interesting and appropriate for a high school level

   4. Did you find the background materials on the committee topics helpful?

   5. Did you utilize the Montana Model U.N. website? Did you find it helpful? How could it
      be improved?

   6. What online journals does your school have access to?

   7. Did you find the advisor packet helpful? What sections did you find most helpful?
      Should we continue this experiment? How could it be improved in future years?

   8. Was appropriate contact information made available to you? Were your questions
      answered promptly and effectively by Model U.N. staff? How could service be improved
      before, during, and after the conference?
   9. Have you found this year’s conference to be a success? Why or why not?

   10. Do the committee chairs and staff seem to be well prepared? Considerate and helpful?
       Organized? Other?

   11. Is your school (advisor and students) enjoying the conference? What would you suggest
       to improve the conference from an advisor standpoint? From a student standpoint?

   12. Your favorite part of the conference is…

   13. The most important thing(s) that you would like to change about the conference is/are…

   14. How would you like to see the Model U.N. staff assist your school in the future?

   15. How would you rate the “overall conference experience” this year (1-10 scale)? Is this
       rating higher or lower than past conferences?

Thank you for your comments! Any additional comments or suggestions are welcome and

School –
Advisor’s name and number of years as advisor–
Number of Students at conference –

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