Imprisonment Kamau Bernard, Dania Khanifer, Senka Jovicic, Jennifer Silver Power the capacity to influence others, even when they try to resist this influence. this pertains to singular relationships b/t two ppl and that of groups and their leaders Groups are integral in how power is created and do more than create uniformity through subtle social influence; they also compel obedience among members who would otherwise resist. Obedience to Authority A powerful person can control others’ actions to promote his/her own goals “without their consent, against their will, or without their knowledge or understanding” (Buckley, 1967) Sources of Power Examples: Unification Church, Branch Davidians, Heaven's Gate, and People's Temple These groups and their leaders were extraordinarily powerful, but they were not uniquely powerful. 6 Power Bases (French & Raven) Reward Power Coercive Power Legitimate Power Referent Power Expert Power Informational Power Reward Power The capability of controlling the distribution of rewards given or offered to the target. Social Exchange Theory tells us that reward increases power when: the rewards are valued the group depends on the power holder for the resource the power holder's promises seem credible Coercive Power One's capacity to threaten and punish those who do not comply with the requests and demands. Reward Power is preferred over Coercive Power when both tactics are available. Legitimate Power Authority that derives from the powerholder's legitimate right to require and demand obedience. ie: police officers, judges, “representatives of God”, etc…. Legitimate Power is created from the group structure itself: roles, norms, and status, and gives rise to consent. “Naked (coercive) power always seeks to clothe itself in the garments of legitimacy.” (Wrong, 1979) Legitimacy can be obtained by a variety of means: ie: appointment by other legitimizing agents, election from members of group, qualification through possession of specific characteristics, etc…. Legitimacy is a perceptual process. Referent Power Influence based on the target's identification with, attraction to, or respect for the power holder. Therefore Referent Power lies at the interpersonal center of the group. ie: John F. Kennedy Expert Power Influence based on the target's belief that the power holder possesses superior skills and abilities. ie: doctors, plumbers, contractors, etc….. However, person doesn't actually have to be an expert, but just perceived to be one by others. Informational Power Influence based on the potential use of informational resources, including rational argument, persuasion, or factual data. ie: the increased reliance on intelligence in the world geo-political environment. Bush and WMD Countries spying on other countries: KGB, CIA, sleepers, etc…. Power Tactics Supplemental means, to the six power bases, by which we exercise our power. Directness Rationality Bilaterality Directness explicit overt methods of influence. ie: threats, demands, doing what you want despite the objections of others Indirect methods are covert forms of manipulation…. ie: dropping hints, evading the issue, ingratiation Rationality Tactics that emphasize reasoning, logic and good judgment. ie: persuasion, bargaining Nonrational tactics are those that rely on emotionality and misinformation ie: flattery, evasion Bilaterality Interactive tactics, involving give-and-take on the part of both the target and the influencer. ie: persuasion, discussion, negotiation Unilateral tactics, however, is that without the cooperation of the target of influence ie: demands People choose different power tactics, depending on the nature of the group's situation. Those higher in the hierarchical structure of the group will use tactics that are different from those who are lower. *****Not much differences between the sexes except for in intimate relationships***** Dynamics of Authority This reflects the concept that when individuals become part of a hierarchically structured group, they are no longer in control of their actions. Roles deindividuate the group into authority-subordinate dynamics. Mailgram's Agentic State Responsibility and Obedience Those who occupy positions of authority within the group are generally viewed as more accountable than those who occupy low status positions as subordinates. Those who no longer feel morally or legally responsible for their actions are more likely to obey an authority's order. Diffusion of Responsibility Commitment and Obedience Over time, as demands escalate and the target is unable to extract themselves from the situation, obedience increases. Foot-in-the-door Technique Metamorphic Effects of Power Kelman's 3-stage theory of Conversion (1959) Compliance Identification Internalization Compliance The group members do what they are told, but only because the powerholder demands it. Privately they don't agree with the powerholder, but publicly the yield to pressure. In the absence of the authority, the target disobeys. Identification The individual's compliance occurs when the target admires and therefore imitates the power holder. Their self image changes as they take on the behaviours, characteristics, and roles of power holder. Internalization The individual complies to the authority's demands because those demands are congruent with his/her own personal beliefs, goals, and values. The individual will perform the required actions even in the absence of the authority figure. Changes in the Powerholder Many of the leaders of such groups as Heaven's Gate, The People's Temple, and the like envisioned utopian societies but eventually became dictators when they achieved positions of power. Power Corrupts People with power tend to make use of it. The successful use of power as a means of controlling others leads to self-satisfaction, unrealistically positive self-evaluations, and overestimations of inter-personal power. (Erez, Rim, Kipnis, and Raven, 1970) Evidence also suggests that power holders also: 1. inc. the social distance between themselves and the non-powerful 2. believe that the non-powerful are untrustworthy and in need of supervision 3. devaluate the work and ability of the less powerful (Kipnis, 1972; Sampson, 1965) Mandate Phenomenon The reaction to increased power brought on by the overwhelming support from the group. ie: Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to presidency by an overwhelming majority and subsequently went about increasing the powers of the president beyond the parameters of the U.S. Constitution The Iron Law of the Oligarchy The individuals in power tend to remain in power. Some people are power hungry. They seek, not because they can use it to achieve their goals, but because they value it. “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Lord Acton Vulnerable Groups of Prisoners people may be vulnerable in prison either because of their nature or situation vulnerable people are those who, by nature or present situation face an increased risk to their safety, security, or well-being as a result of imprisonment vulnerable prisoners are entitled to all human rights that are accorded to all other prisoner, but also are entitled to a variety of special considerations 6 Vulnerable Group 1. Juveniles formative stage of their lives greater physical and psychological impact than on adult prisoners danger of abuse, including sexual abuse, exploitation and health risks 2. Women and Mothers vulnerable due to abuse and discrimination denied access to support and services emotional distress from being seperated from family and children 3. Mentally Ill and Developmentally Disabled Prisoners problems worsen due to a lack of treatments and programmes hard time controlling behaviour heightened risk of being abused 4. Prisoners Under Sentence of Death receive poor living conditions suffer from great psychological and emotional distress mental and emotional problems are left unaddressed 5. Foreigners and Minorities face discrimination, harassment and abuse feel isolated and experience depression and anxiety if imprisoned in foreign countries little if any contact with family and friends 6. Elderly, Ill and Physically Disabled Prisoners susceptible to abuse, discrimination and exploitation denied access to adequate exercise and activity health and well-being may be compromised by failing to treat medical or psychological problems Women in Prisons Historical Perspective Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women What were their recommendations? Multiple factors can affect a person. Factors such as race, sexuality, gender, age, and culture can affect people. Aboriginal Women Alternates to Imprisonment Purpose of Sentencing s.718 What are some alternatives to imprisonment? "The Past and Future of U.S Prison Policy" p.470- 472 sentencing models derived from assumptions of human behaviour What approach has the U.S taken? What approach could we take instead? Study: Memory, Attention and Executive deficits in POW survivors: Contributing biological and psychological factors. P. Sutker, J. Vasterling, K. Brailey, and A. Allain( 1995). ► Studies of neuropsychological performances among POW survivors provided evidence of impairments hypothesized to be long term outcomes of the stressful experiences. ► It has been shown that the severity of biological harm( operationally defined in terms of 35 % of weight loss) due to malnourishment which characterized WWII and Korean Conflict experiences, was an important factor related to deficits in cognitive performances, particularly in learning and memory tasks( Sutker, Galina, West and Allain, 1990). ► Research has shown that POW imprisonment is stressful enough, apart from Hypothesis: 1. Weight loss is predictive of learning/memory deficits in POW survivors because of the effects of semi-starvation. 2. PTSD would be associated with deficit in attention/ mental tracking and executive functioning. Method: Participants: ► 108 POW survivors of WWII or Korean Conflict POW internment. ► Only veterans included were the ones that experienced no severe head trauma, no neurosurgery, no CNS diseases or other illnesses that affect cognition. ► Majority of participants were white Procedures: 1. Trauma and distress indices: ► scale derived from MMPI to measure PTSD ► Beck Depression Inventory to assess emotional distress 2. Neuropsychological functions: to measure cognitive and problem solving function a) Attention and Mental Tracking Results: ► confirming Hypothesis 1, captivity weight loss was associated with impaired learning and memory performance and not related to attention and mental tracking performance. ► Hypothesis 2 was also confirmed: the association of PTSD with less attention and mental tracking performances as well as impaired executive functioning. ► All participants exhibited symptoms of Prison Population in Canadian Prison Systems Conditional sentences: ► The number of adult offenders sent to jail in Canada have been declining since 92/93 because of increased community supervision, therefore admissions to provincial/territorial jails have been on the decline. ► In the last decade, the number of offenders in the community increased at twice the rate of the prison population. Conditional sentences (cont‟d): ► In 1996, Bill C-41 was passed to reform the sentencing system in Canada and to create a new type of community-based alternative to imprisonment. decline since introduction of conditional ► first sentences was in 1997/1998. Prison population: Peoples have been over ► Aboriginal represented in prisons relative to their population. See graph #3 ► The degree of over representation of Aboriginals differs across Canada where western provinces and Territories are home to the largest population. Refer to graph #4 ► In 1998/1999, 60% of adults admitted were Prison population (cont‟d): ► Women admissions accounted for 9% to provincial/territorial jails and 4% to federal systems while males represented 91% in provincial jails and 96% in federal prisons. ► Prisonpopulation is getting older in provincial/territorial institutions and getting younger in federal jails. ► Cost for supervising offenders continues to rise: see graph # 5 Activist Psychology Research task: 1. description 2. analysis 3. criticism 4. formulation of proposals for institutional reforms Political task: investigator must see to it that his/her research is used to help bring about the recommended institutional Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE) study represented an experimental demonstration of the extraordinary power of institutional environments research proposed intended to determine effects of selected institution on the persons who come into contact with it (activist psychology) Zimbardo became psychologist to “improve quality of human life” (Zimbardo) SPE finding: imprisonment is a cruel, Radical transformation of corrections in U.S. 1. Philosophy of rehabilitation abandoned (from mid 1970s) 2. Determinate Sentencing 3. The imprisoning of America 4. Disproportional imprisonment of minority groups 5. Overincarceration of drug offenders 6. “Supermax” prisons 7. Retreat of Supreme Court Philosophy of rehabilitation abandoned (from mid 1970s) Rehabilitation: belief that incarceration can facilitate productive reentry into free society Just Deserts: emphasizes punishment over rehabilitation - Incapacitation - Containment Determinate Sentencing No discretion by judges etc. Sentencing comes under public influence (public w/o expertise) Rigid sentencing guidelines undermine role of situation and context when allocating punishment The imprisoning of America At the time of the SPE: moratorium on prison building Pressure built up: prison construction boom U.S. has highest incarceration rate (besides Russia) ¼ of persons in state prisons committed violent crimes ¾ of persons in state prisons are charged with property or drug offences Disproportional imprisonment of minority groups Example: - African American men constitute 6% of population however, 48% of the prison population consists of African American men Overincarceration of drug offenders In 1985, In 1995, 8.6% drug offences 59.9% drug offences 31.0% property 8.7% property offences offences 54.5% violent offences 13.1% violent offences 5.1% other 18.3% other “Supermax” prisons feature state of the art, ultra secure, long term segregated confinement “problem prisoners” vs. situational context lack of meaningful work, training, education, treatment and counseling programs for prisoners post-release behaviour? Retreat of the Supreme Court no meaningful analysis of conditions of prisons utility of imprisonment as solution remains questionable Responses to current crisis based on SPE findings Responses (cont‟d) prison environments are powerful and criminogenic prisons should be used sparingly when fighting crime prisons should be designed to limit potentially destructive impact allocate criminal justice resources to explore, create, and evaluate alternatives to imprisonment Responses (cont‟d) pathology inherent in structure is also supported by pathology of some prisoners and guards insights of situationism as well as insights in individual vulnerabilities should be used when developing prisons/policies Responses (cont‟d) situations also matter when people leave prison after imprisonment: transitional or “decompression” programs to aid reintroduction into world outside of prison correctional resources should be employed to transform criminogenic situations in larger society Responses (cont‟d) valid personality tests cannot predict behaviour in extreme situations strategies of crime control should be informed by more situationally sensitive models Responses (cont‟d) meaningful prison and criminal justice reform can only be brought about by people who are not already “captives” of the powerful correctional environment ie. Good people can inflict psychological damage because of harmful structure (prison) “the SPE implicitly argued for a more activist scholarship in which psychologists engage with the important Canadian Correctional Models 1700 - 1830 PUNISHMENT - extensive use of capital and corporal punishment, punishment designed to deter 1830 - 1867 PUNISHMENT AND PENITENCE - crime and criminals viewed as threat to order and stability of Canadian society, decreased use of corporal punishment, increased use of confinement designed to punish and deter 1867 - 1938 PUNISHMENT AND 1939 - 1970 REHABILITATION - task of corrections expanded to include the reformation of the offender 1970 - 1978 REINTEGRATION - concern with effectiveness of correctional treatment programs, imprisonment to be used only as last resort, rehabilitation efforts best pursued outside the prison in the community 1978 - present REPARATION - return to punishment objective of corrections based on concepts of reparation, emphasis on Public opinion on sentencing According to survey (of 1,500 people) by T. Saunders of Statistics Canada and J. Roberts of U. of Ottawa published Oct 2000 in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science: 69% believe that sentencing in Canada is generally too lenient 97% opt jail for a man who repeatedly sexually assaulted his 5 yr old step- daughter 75% opt jail for a man convicted of drunk driving causing grievous bodily harm Costs of imprisonment in Ontario provincial system: $50,000/yr to incarcerate an adult inmate in 2001, Ontario had the highest provincial inmate cost in Canada at $140/day federal system: $185/day for man $316/day for woman Canada spent $2.4 billion operating adult jails in 1999-2000 Central Ontario East Correctional Facility Lindsay, Ontario Cost: $78 M Central Ontario West Correctional Facility Maplehurst, Ontario Cost: $84 M Recidivism A tendency to lapse into a previous condition or pattern of behavior; especially, a falling back or relapse into prior criminal habits. measure of effectiveness no clear data on recidivism rates (ranges from 35% - 80%) CSC sources estimate that 35% - 50% of federal offenders reoffend true recidivism rates must be based on tracking former inmates even after they have completed parole; so far recidivism Legitimacy of Correctional Practices? “There has never been a more critical time at which to begin the intellectual struggle with those who would demean human nature by using prisons exclusively as agencies of social control that punish without attempting to rehabilitate, that isolate and oppress instead of educating and elevating, and that tear down minority communities rather than protecting and strengthening them.” (Zimbardo, 1998) What is situationism and what does the SPE indicated about it? What relationships/connections (theoretical, applied, philosophical, ethical) exist between Milgram‟s research on destructive obedience and Zimbardo‟s prison experiment? What is „reality‟ in a prison setting? This study is one which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? Contrast consensual reality and physical or biological reality, and explain the implications of the following poem: Within the illusion of life, Death is the only reality, but Is Reality the only death? Within the reality of imprisonment, Illusion is the only freedom, but Is Freedom the only illusion? Do you think lower-class, ghetto kids would have broken down in the same way as did our middle-class prisoners? Why? What about women? Knowing what this research says about the power of prison situations to have a corrosive effect on human nature, what recommendations would you make about changing the correctional system in your country?