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Imprisonment

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					      Imprisonment
Kamau Bernard, Dania Khanifer,
       Senka Jovicic,
       Jennifer Silver
                Power
the capacity to influence others, even
when they try to resist this influence.
this pertains to singular relationships b/t
two ppl and that of groups and their
leaders
Groups are integral in how power is
created and do more than create
uniformity through subtle social influence;
they also compel obedience among
members who would otherwise resist.
   Obedience to Authority

A powerful person can control others’
actions to promote his/her own goals
“without their consent, against their will, or
without their knowledge or understanding”
(Buckley, 1967)
       Sources of Power
Examples: Unification Church, Branch
Davidians, Heaven's Gate, and People's
Temple
These groups and their leaders were
extraordinarily powerful, but they were not
uniquely powerful.
6 Power Bases (French & Raven)
Reward Power
Coercive Power
Legitimate Power
Referent Power
Expert Power
Informational Power
           Reward Power
The capability of controlling the distribution
 of rewards given or offered to the target.
Social Exchange Theory tells us that reward
 increases power when:
 the rewards are valued
 the group depends on the power holder for
 the resource
 the power holder's promises seem credible
          Coercive Power
One's capacity to threaten and punish those
 who do not comply with the requests and
 demands.
 Reward Power is preferred over Coercive
 Power when both tactics are available.
          Legitimate Power
Authority that derives from the powerholder's
  legitimate right to require and demand
  obedience.
ie: police officers, judges, “representatives of
  God”, etc….
  Legitimate Power is created from the
  group structure itself: roles, norms, and
  status, and gives rise to consent.
  “Naked (coercive) power always seeks to
  clothe itself in the garments of legitimacy.”
  (Wrong, 1979)
Legitimacy can be obtained by a variety of
means:
ie: appointment by other legitimizing
agents, election from members of group,
qualification through possession of specific
characteristics, etc….
Legitimacy is a perceptual process.
          Referent Power
Influence based on the target's
identification with, attraction to, or respect
for the power holder.
Therefore Referent Power lies at the
interpersonal center of the group.
ie: John F. Kennedy
          Expert Power
Influence based on the target's belief that
the power holder possesses superior skills
and abilities.
ie: doctors, plumbers, contractors, etc…..
However, person doesn't actually have to
be an expert, but just perceived to be one
by others.
     Informational Power
Influence based on the potential use of
informational resources, including rational
argument, persuasion, or factual data.
ie: the increased reliance on intelligence in
the world geo-political environment.
Bush and WMD
Countries spying on other countries: KGB,
CIA, sleepers, etc….
          Power Tactics
Supplemental means, to the six power
bases, by which we exercise our power.
Directness
Rationality
Bilaterality
            Directness
explicit overt methods of influence.
ie: threats, demands, doing what you want
despite the objections of others
Indirect methods are covert forms of
manipulation….
ie: dropping hints, evading the issue,
ingratiation
             Rationality
Tactics that emphasize reasoning, logic
and good judgment.
ie: persuasion, bargaining
Nonrational tactics are those that rely on
emotionality and misinformation
ie: flattery, evasion
             Bilaterality
Interactive tactics, involving give-and-take
on the part of both the target and the
influencer.
ie: persuasion, discussion, negotiation
Unilateral tactics, however, is that without
the cooperation of the target of influence
ie: demands
People choose different power tactics,
depending on the nature of the group's
situation.
Those higher in the hierarchical structure
of the group will use tactics that are
different from those who are lower.
*****Not much differences between the
sexes except for in intimate
relationships*****
   Dynamics of Authority
This reflects the concept that when
individuals become part of a hierarchically
structured group, they are no longer in
control of their actions.
Roles deindividuate the group into
authority-subordinate dynamics.
Mailgram's Agentic State
Responsibility and Obedience
 Those who occupy positions of authority
 within the group are generally viewed as
 more accountable than those who occupy
 low status positions as subordinates.
 Those who no longer feel morally or
 legally responsible for their actions are
 more likely to obey an authority's order.
 Diffusion of Responsibility
Commitment and Obedience
Over time, as demands escalate and the
target is unable to extract themselves from
the situation, obedience increases.
Foot-in-the-door Technique
Metamorphic Effects of Power
 Kelman's 3-stage theory of Conversion
 (1959)
 Compliance
 Identification
 Internalization
           Compliance
The group members do what they are told,
but only because the powerholder
demands it. Privately they don't agree with
the powerholder, but publicly the yield to
pressure.
In the absence of the authority, the target
disobeys.
           Identification
The individual's compliance occurs when
the target admires and therefore imitates
the power holder. Their self image
changes as they take on the behaviours,
characteristics, and roles of power holder.
          Internalization
The individual complies to the authority's
demands because those demands are
congruent with his/her own personal
beliefs, goals, and values.
The individual will perform the required
actions even in the absence of the
authority figure.
Changes in the Powerholder
Many of the leaders of such groups as
Heaven's Gate, The People's Temple, and
the like envisioned utopian societies but
eventually became dictators when they
achieved positions of power.
               Power Corrupts
     People with power tend to make use of it.
     The successful use of power as a means of controlling
     others leads to self-satisfaction, unrealistically positive
     self-evaluations, and overestimations of inter-personal
     power.
     (Erez, Rim, Kipnis, and Raven, 1970)
     Evidence also suggests that power holders also:
1.    inc. the social distance between themselves and the
     non-powerful
2.    believe that the non-powerful are untrustworthy and in
     need of supervision
3.   devaluate the work and ability of the less powerful
     (Kipnis, 1972; Sampson, 1965)
    Mandate Phenomenon
The reaction to increased power brought
on by the overwhelming support from the
group.
ie: Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to
presidency by an overwhelming majority
and subsequently went about increasing
the powers of the president beyond the
parameters of the U.S. Constitution
The Iron Law of the Oligarchy
The individuals in power tend to remain in
power.
Some people are power hungry. They
seek, not because they can use it to
achieve their goals, but because they
value it.
“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power
  corrupts absolutely.”
  Lord Acton
Vulnerable Groups of Prisoners

   people may be vulnerable in prison either because of their
    nature or situation

    vulnerable people are those who, by nature or present situation
    face an increased risk to their safety, security, or well-being as
    a result of imprisonment

   vulnerable prisoners are entitled to all human rights that are
    accorded to all other prisoner, but also are entitled to a variety
    of special considerations
6 Vulnerable Group
1. Juveniles

    formative stage of their lives

   greater physical and psychological impact than on
    adult prisoners

   danger of abuse, including sexual abuse,
    exploitation and health risks
2. Women and Mothers

   vulnerable due to abuse and discrimination

   denied access to support and services

   emotional distress from being seperated from
    family and children
3. Mentally Ill and Developmentally
Disabled Prisoners


   problems worsen due to a lack of treatments and
    programmes

   hard time controlling behaviour

   heightened risk of being abused
4. Prisoners Under Sentence of Death

   receive poor living conditions

   suffer from great psychological and
    emotional distress

    mental and emotional problems are left
    unaddressed
5. Foreigners and Minorities

   face discrimination, harassment and abuse

   feel isolated and experience depression and
    anxiety if imprisoned in foreign countries

   little if any contact with family and friends
6. Elderly, Ill and Physically Disabled
Prisoners

   susceptible to abuse, discrimination and
    exploitation

   denied access to adequate exercise and
    activity

   health and well-being may be compromised
    by failing to treat medical or psychological
    problems
Women in Prisons

   Historical Perspective

   Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women

   What were their recommendations?

   Multiple factors can affect a person. Factors such
    as race, sexuality, gender, age, and culture can
    affect people.

   Aboriginal Women
Alternates to Imprisonment

   Purpose of Sentencing s.718


    What are some alternatives to imprisonment?


   "The Past and Future of U.S Prison Policy" p.470-
    472
   sentencing models derived from assumptions
    of human behaviour

   What approach has the U.S taken?

   What approach could we take instead?
Study: Memory, Attention and Executive
  deficits in POW survivors: Contributing
  biological and psychological factors.

 P. Sutker, J. Vasterling, K. Brailey, and A.
 Allain( 1995).
► Studies  of neuropsychological performances
  among POW survivors provided evidence of
  impairments hypothesized to be long term
  outcomes of the stressful experiences.
► It has been shown that the severity of
  biological harm( operationally defined in
  terms of 35 % of weight loss) due to
  malnourishment which characterized WWII
  and Korean Conflict experiences, was an
  important factor related to deficits in
  cognitive performances, particularly in
  learning and memory tasks( Sutker, Galina,
  West and Allain, 1990).
► Research has shown that POW imprisonment
  is stressful enough, apart from
              Hypothesis:
1. Weight loss is predictive of
   learning/memory deficits in POW survivors
   because of the effects of semi-starvation.
2. PTSD would be associated with deficit in
   attention/ mental tracking and executive
   functioning.
                Method:
Participants:

►   108 POW survivors of WWII or Korean
    Conflict POW internment.
►   Only veterans included were the ones
    that experienced no severe head
    trauma, no neurosurgery, no CNS
    diseases or other illnesses that affect
    cognition.
►   Majority of participants were white
Procedures:

1. Trauma and distress indices:
► scale derived from MMPI to measure
   PTSD
► Beck Depression Inventory to assess
   emotional distress
2. Neuropsychological functions: to
   measure cognitive and problem solving
   function
    a) Attention and Mental Tracking
Results:

► confirming   Hypothesis 1, captivity weight
  loss was associated with impaired
  learning and memory performance and
  not related to attention and mental
  tracking performance.
► Hypothesis 2 was also confirmed: the
  association of PTSD with less attention
  and mental tracking performances as
  well as impaired executive functioning.
► All participants exhibited symptoms of
Prison Population in Canadian Prison
              Systems
Conditional sentences:
► The number of adult offenders sent to jail
  in Canada have been declining since 92/93
  because of increased community
  supervision, therefore admissions to
      provincial/territorial jails have been on
  the decline.
► In the last decade, the number of offenders
  in the community increased at twice the
  rate of the prison population.
Conditional sentences (cont‟d):

► In 1996, Bill C-41 was passed to reform the
  sentencing system in Canada and to create
  a new type of community-based alternative
  to imprisonment.

      decline since introduction of conditional
► first
  sentences was in 1997/1998.
Prison population:

           Peoples have been over
► Aboriginal
 represented in prisons relative to their
 population. See graph #3

► The degree of over representation of
 Aboriginals differs across Canada where
 western provinces and Territories are home
 to the largest population. Refer to graph #4

► In   1998/1999, 60% of adults admitted were
Prison population (cont‟d):

► Women  admissions accounted for 9% to
 provincial/territorial jails and 4% to federal
 systems while males represented 91% in
 provincial jails and 96% in federal prisons.

► Prisonpopulation is getting older in
 provincial/territorial institutions and getting
 younger in federal jails.
► Cost for supervising offenders continues to
 rise: see graph # 5
       Activist Psychology
Research task: 1. description
                    2. analysis
                    3. criticism
                    4. formulation of proposals
  for
                    institutional reforms
Political task: investigator must see to it that
  his/her research is used to help bring
  about the recommended institutional
    Zimbardo's Stanford Prison
        Experiment (SPE)
 study represented an experimental
  demonstration of the extraordinary power
  of institutional environments
 research proposed intended to determine
  effects of selected institution on the
  persons who come into contact with it
  (activist psychology)
 Zimbardo became psychologist to
  “improve quality of human life”
  (Zimbardo)
 SPE finding: imprisonment is a cruel,
    Radical transformation of
       corrections in U.S.
1. Philosophy of rehabilitation abandoned
   (from mid 1970s)
2. Determinate Sentencing
3. The imprisoning of America
4. Disproportional imprisonment of
   minority groups
5. Overincarceration of drug offenders
6. “Supermax” prisons
7. Retreat of Supreme Court
    Philosophy of rehabilitation
         abandoned (from mid
               1970s)
   Rehabilitation: belief that incarceration
    can facilitate productive reentry into free
    society

   Just Deserts: emphasizes punishment over
    rehabilitation
     - Incapacitation
     - Containment
     Determinate Sentencing
   No discretion by judges etc.

   Sentencing comes under public influence
    (public w/o expertise)

   Rigid sentencing guidelines undermine
    role of situation and context when
    allocating punishment
The imprisoning of America
 At the time of the SPE: moratorium on
  prison building
 Pressure built up: prison construction
  boom
 U.S. has highest incarceration rate
  (besides Russia)
 ¼ of persons in state prisons committed
  violent crimes
 ¾ of persons in state prisons are charged
  with property or drug offences
 Disproportional imprisonment
        of minority groups
Example:
  - African American men constitute 6% of
  population
  however, 48% of the prison population
  consists of African American men
    Overincarceration of drug
             offenders

In 1985,                 In 1995,
8.6% drug offences       59.9% drug offences
31.0% property           8.7% property offences
  offences
54.5% violent offences   13.1% violent offences
5.1% other               18.3% other
       “Supermax” prisons
 feature state of the art, ultra secure, long
  term segregated confinement
 “problem prisoners” vs. situational
  context
 lack of meaningful work, training,
  education, treatment and counseling
  programs for prisoners
 post-release behaviour?
    Retreat of the Supreme Court
   no meaningful analysis of conditions of
    prisons

   utility of imprisonment as solution remains
    questionable
Responses to current crisis
  based on SPE findings
                   Responses (cont‟d)
   prison environments are powerful and
    criminogenic
   prisons should be used sparingly when
    fighting crime
   prisons should be designed to limit
    potentially destructive impact
   allocate criminal justice resources to
    explore, create, and evaluate alternatives
    to imprisonment
                    Responses (cont‟d)
   pathology inherent in structure is also
    supported by pathology of some
    prisoners and guards
   insights of situationism as well as
    insights in individual vulnerabilities
    should be used when developing
    prisons/policies
                  Responses (cont‟d)
   situations also matter when people leave
    prison
   after imprisonment: transitional or
    “decompression” programs to aid
    reintroduction into world outside of
    prison
   correctional resources should be
    employed to transform criminogenic
    situations in larger society
                   Responses (cont‟d)
   valid personality tests cannot predict
    behaviour in extreme situations
   strategies of crime control should be
    informed by more situationally sensitive
    models
                   Responses (cont‟d)
   meaningful prison and criminal justice
    reform can only be brought about by
    people who are not already “captives” of
    the powerful correctional environment
     ie. Good people can inflict psychological
    damage because of harmful structure
    (prison)
   “the SPE implicitly argued for a more
    activist scholarship in which
    psychologists engage with the important
 Canadian Correctional Models
 1700 - 1830 PUNISHMENT - extensive use
  of capital and corporal punishment,
  punishment designed to deter
 1830 - 1867 PUNISHMENT AND
  PENITENCE - crime and criminals viewed
  as threat to order and stability of
  Canadian society, decreased use of
  corporal punishment, increased use of
  confinement designed to punish and deter
 1867 - 1938 PUNISHMENT AND
 1939 - 1970 REHABILITATION - task of
  corrections expanded to include the
  reformation of the offender
 1970 - 1978 REINTEGRATION - concern
  with effectiveness of correctional
  treatment programs, imprisonment to be
  used only as last resort, rehabilitation
  efforts best pursued outside the prison in
  the community
 1978 - present REPARATION - return to
  punishment objective of corrections based
  on concepts of reparation, emphasis on
    Public opinion on sentencing
    According to survey (of 1,500 people)                       by T.
    Saunders of Statistics Canada and J. Roberts of U. of Ottawa
    published Oct 2000 in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science:

 69% believe that sentencing in Canada is
  generally too lenient
 97% opt jail for a man who repeatedly
  sexually assaulted his 5 yr old step-
  daughter
 75% opt jail for a man convicted of drunk
  driving causing grievous bodily harm
    Costs of imprisonment
 in Ontario provincial system: $50,000/yr
  to incarcerate an adult inmate
 in 2001, Ontario had the highest provincial
  inmate cost in Canada at $140/day
 federal system: $185/day for man
                   $316/day for woman
 Canada spent $2.4 billion operating adult
  jails in 1999-2000
       Central Ontario East
       Correctional Facility




 Lindsay, Ontario
 Cost: $78 M
    Central Ontario West Correctional
                 Facility




 Maplehurst, Ontario
 Cost: $84 M
              Recidivism
A tendency to lapse into a previous
  condition or pattern of behavior;
  especially, a falling back or relapse into
  prior criminal habits.
 measure of effectiveness
 no clear data on recidivism rates (ranges
  from 35% - 80%)
 CSC sources estimate that 35% - 50% of
  federal offenders reoffend
 true recidivism rates must be based on
  tracking former inmates even after they
  have completed parole; so far recidivism
   Legitimacy of Correctional
          Practices?
“There has never been a more critical time
  at which to begin the intellectual struggle
  with those who would demean human
  nature by using prisons exclusively as
  agencies of social control that punish
  without attempting to rehabilitate, that
  isolate and oppress instead of educating
  and elevating, and that tear down minority
  communities rather than protecting and
  strengthening them.” (Zimbardo, 1998)
What is situationism and what does the
SPE indicated about it?
What relationships/connections
(theoretical, applied, philosophical,
ethical) exist between Milgram‟s research
on destructive obedience and Zimbardo‟s
prison experiment?
 What is „reality‟ in a prison setting? This study is one
which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when
do illusions become real? Contrast consensual reality
and physical or biological reality, and explain the
implications of the following poem:
                Within the illusion of life,
                 Death is the only reality,
                            but
                Is Reality the only death?
           Within the reality of imprisonment,
              Illusion is the only freedom,
                            but
              Is Freedom the only illusion?
Do you think lower-class, ghetto kids
would have broken down in the same way
as did our middle-class prisoners? Why?
What about women?
Knowing what this research says about
the power of prison situations to have a
corrosive effect on human nature, what
recommendations would you make about
changing the correctional system in your
country?

				
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