Developing Through the Life Span

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					Developing Through the Life
          Chapter 4
   Developmental Psychology
• Developmental psychology: a branch of
  psychology, that studies physical,
  cognitive, and social change throughout
  the life span.
    Prenatal Development & the
• Conception: begins when an egg is
  fertilized by sperm
• Zygotes: fertilized eggs
  – Fewer than half of all zygotes survive beyond
    the first two weeks
  – 10 days after conception, the increasingly
    diverse cells attach to the mother‟s uterine
  – The zygote‟s inner cells become the embryo
    Prenatal Development & the
• Embryo: the developing human organism
  from about 2 weeks after fertilization
  through the second month
  – Over the following six weeks organs form and
    function. The heart begins to beat.
    Prenatal Development & the
• Fetus: the developing human organism
  from 9 weeks after conception to birth
  – By 9 weeks the fetus looks like a human
  – During the 6 month organs develop
    sufficiently to allow the fetus to be
    prematurely born and have a chance to
  – Genetic and environmental factors affect our
Prenatal Development & the
Prenatal Development & the
• What are your thoughts on abortion?
  Should women have the right to choose?
  Should there be a timeline? If so what
  should the time line be?
     Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
• FAS: physical and cognitive abnormalities
  in children caused by a pregnant woman‟s
  heavy drinking. In severe cases,
  symptoms include noticeable facial
  – There is no safe amount of alcohol during
    pregnancy. Even light drinking can affect the
    fetal brain.
            Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
•   The effects of FAS include:
     –   low birth weight
     –   small head circumference
     –   failure to thrive
     –   developmental delay
     –   organ dysfunction
     –   facial abnormalities, including smaller eye openings, flattened cheekbones, and
         indistinct philtrum (an underdeveloped groove between the nose and the upper
     –   epilepsy
     –   poor coordination/fine motor skills
     –   poor socialization skills, such as difficulty building and maintaining friendships
         and relating to groups
     –   lack of imagination or curiosity
     –   learning difficulties, including poor memory, inability to understand concepts such
         as time and money, poor language comprehension, poor problem-solving skills
     –   behavioral problems, including hyperactivity, inability to concentrate, social
         withdrawal, stubbornness, impulsiveness, and anxiety
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
     The Competent Newborn
• Babies are equipped for survival through a
  sequence of reflexes
  – Rooting: when something touches the baby‟s cheek
    they turn t ward it and suck
  – If hungry the baby will cry
  – Within days of being born we prefer our mother‟s
     • If a baby is placed between a gauze and a pad with their
       mother‟s smell the baby will turn towards the mother‟s pad
     • Infant‟s will suck more vigorously when they hear their
       mother‟s voice
        Infancy & Childhood
• Physical Development
  – Brain Development: In your mother‟s womb
    your developing body formed nerve cells at
    the explosive rate of nearly one-quarter
    million per minute.
    • Age 3 to 6: the most rapid growth in the frontal
      lobes occurs (enable planning)
      Infancy & Childhood
– Motor Development: the developing brain
  enables physical coordination. With minor
  exceptions, physical and motor coordination is
  universal (babies usually sit before they stand
  and so on). However, there are timing
  • In the US, 25% of babies walk by 11 months, 50%
    walk within a week of their 1st birthday, and 90%
    by 15 months.
  • Genes may play a role in motor development.
    Identical twins usually sit up and walk at nearly the
    same time.
   Maturation & Infant Memory
• We do not remember much before our third
  birthday. This is called infantile amnesia.
• After the age of 4 we start remembering
• When 10 year olds were given pictures of their
  preschool classmates they only recognized 1 in
  5 of their classmates. However, their
  physiological responses increased upon being
  shown the picture of a classmate.
   Maturation & Infant Memory
• Cognitive Development:
  – Cognition: all the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  – Jean Piaget: Began developing questions for
    children‟s intelligence tests in 1920 and was intrigued
    by children‟s wrong answers. He noted that the
    mistakes made at different ages were strikingly
    different. He was convinced that children‟s minds are
    not miniature models of an adult‟s mind. He believed
    the brain build‟s schemas (concepts or mental molds
    into which we pour our experiences).
     • Piaget developed his stage model.
         Maturation & Infant Memory
•   Piaget‟s Stages of Development:
     –   Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 Years):
           •   Infants mainly make use of senses and motor capabilities to experience the environment. For
               instance, if infants cannot see or touch an object, they stop trying to find it. Once infants develop the
               capability to recognize that a hidden object still continues to exist, they start searching for it.
           •   The characteristic limitation of this stage is „thinking only by doing‟. The Sensorimotor infant gains
               physical knowledge.
     –   Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years)
           •   The second stage in Piaget‟s theory of development coincides the preschool years. Children start to
               use symbols such as language to represent objects. For instance, the child understands the word
               “apple” although a real apple is not seen. However, the Preoperational child still learns from concrete
               evidence while adults can learn in abstract way. The Preoperational child is also unaware of another
               person‟s perspective. They exhibit egocentric thought and language.
           •   However, the child lacks the idea of conservation.
           •   Additionally, the Preoperational child is likely to center on only one dimension of an event and ignore
               other important details. Also, children concentrate more on the static features of an event than on the
               transformations from one state to another.
               Last, children in the Preoperational period at times will see some relationships between particular
               cases while in actuality there is none. For instance, a child might say, “If an apple is red, then a green
               fruit is not an apple.”
                  –   Example:
                         » Do you have a brother?
                         » Yes
                         » What‟s his name?
                         » Jim
                         » Does Jim have a brother?
                         » No
    Maturation & Infant Memory
–   Concrete Operational Stages (7-11 Years)
     •   The next stage generally represents the elementary grade years. The concrete operational child
         begins to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience. Operations are in
         concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation.
     •   Concrete operations allow children to classify several classes into a bigger group or to combine a
         number of classes in any order. Although objects are moved or reordered, no change takes place.
     •   In addition, concrete operations allow children to order objects in terms of more than one dimension.
         Children at the concrete operational stage can solve conservation tasks. The operational thought is
         reversible. The concrete operational child can operate an action, and then go back to the original
         condition. For instance, 3 + 2 = 5 and 5 – 2 = 3.
     •   The limitation of the third stage of cognitive development is that operations are only carried out on
         concrete objects, and limited to two characteristics at the same time.
–   Formal Operational Stage (11 Years and Beyond)
     •   After roughly 11 years old, students have the ability to consider many possibilities for a given
         condition. They are able to deal with propositions that explain concrete facts. They have the ability to
         use planning to think ahead.
     •   Most importantly, students at Piaget‟s final stage of cognitive development increase their ability to
         think abstractly. They can solve complex and hypothetical problems involving abstract operations.
     •   Formal operational thinkers can recognize and identify a problem. They can state several alternative
         hypotheses, execute procedures to collect information about the problems to be studied, and test the
   Maturation & Infant Memory
   Maturation & Infant Memory
• After learning about Piaget‟s theory, what
  do you think parents and teachers should
  keep in mind?
            Social Development
• Attachment: an emotional tie with another person;
  showing in young children by seeking closeness to their
  caregiver and showing distress at separation.
   – Body Contact: Harlow and Harlow separated baby monkeys from
     their mothers to avoid disease and placed them in a cage with a
     blanket. When the blanket was taken away to be washed the
     monkeys showed distress. This contradicted the idea that
     attachment is derived from nourishment. To further this idea
     they did the following:
      • Baby monkeys were reared with a wire cloth mother that dispensed
        milk and a soft warm cloth mother that did not provide food. Baby
        monkeys showed preference towards the soft cloth mother and
        even clinged to her when anxious.
        Social Development
• For ducks, chicks, etc the period of
  attachment is much shorter and occurs
  during the first hours of hatching.
  – This idea is called imprinting
  – Lorenz wondered what baby ducks would if
    he was the first moving object they saw.
    Conclusion: they became imprinted to him
    and followed him around as if he was their
             Social Development
• Attachment Types:
   – Secure: Child Protests caregiver's departure and is comforted on
     return, returning to exploration. Mother responds appropriately,
     promptly and consistently to needs.
   – Avoidant: Child shows little or no distress on departure, little or no
     visible response to return. Quality of play often low. Mother shows little
     or no response to distressed child. Discourages crying and encourages
   – Ambivalent: Childs shows sadness on departure but warms to
     stranger. On return, ambivalence, anger, reluctance to warm to
     caregiver and return to play. Preoccupied with caregiver's availability.
     Mother shows inconsistency between appropriate and neglectful
   – Disorganised: Child shows behaviors on return such as freezing or
     rocking. Lack of coherent coping strategy (such as approaching but with
     the back turned). Frightened or frightening behavior, intrusiveness,
     withdrawal, negativity, role confusion, affective communication errors
     and maltreatment.
    Deprivation of Attachment
• Babies that are locked away and neglected are
  often withdrawn, frightened, or speechless.
• In humans, the unloved sometimes become the
• Most abusers were abused, but most abused
  children do not become abusers or criminals.
• Adolescence: the transition period from
  childhood to adulthood
• G. Stanley Hall described adolescence as
  a period of “stress and storm”. Do you
  agree? Is adolescence really as stormy as
  we make it out to be?
• Physical Development:
  – Puberty: the period of sexual maturation
    during which a person becomes capable of
• Cognitive Development:
  – During the early teen years adolescent‟s
    reasoning is self focused. They believe their
    experiences are unique. For example, most
    people have experienced a broken
    relationship, yet when someone breaks up
    with them the teen may think “no one knows
    how I feel”
  – Gradually teens develop abstract thinking and
    the ability to reason hypothetically.
• Developing Morality:
  – Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, most
    children‟s morality focuses on self-interest: they obey
    rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete
  – Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, morality
    usually evolves to a more conventional lead that
    cares for others and upholds laws and social rules
    simply because they are the laws and rules.
  – Prostconventional Morality: Those who develop the
    abstract thinking of formal operational thought may
    reach a third level of morality, affirming people‟s
    agreed upon rights or following self-defined, basic
    ethical principles.
                    Social Development
•   Infant
    Trust vs Mistrust
    Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty
    to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment
    Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    Works to master physical environment while maintaining

•   Preschooler
    Initiative vs Guilt
    Begins to initiate, not imitate, activities; develops
    conscience and sexual identity

•   School-Age Child
    Industry vs Inferiority
    Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills

•   Adolescent
    Identity vs Role Confusion
    Tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete,
    worker) into a self-image under role model and peer pressure
             Social Development
• Young Adult
  Intimacy vs Isolation
  Learns to make personal commitment to another as
  spouse, parent or partner

• Middle-Age Adult
  Generativity vs Stagnation
  Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and
  civic interests

• Older Adult
  Integrity vs Despair
  Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss
  and preparation for death
     Parent & Peer Influence
• In Western culture, by adolescence teens
  begin to pull away from their parents.
  They tend to argue with their parents over
  mundane things such as chores, bedtime,
  homework, etc
• For a minority of adolescents these issues
  lead to estrangement and extreme stress
• At this time parental influences may
  decrease and peer influences increase.
        Emerging Adulthood
• Period between adolescence and
  adulthood. Characterized by people in
  their 20‟s who still rely heavily on their
  – Western Idea
• Physical Development: Physical abilities decline
  with age
• For women, middle adulthood means a decline
  in fertility and eventually menopause
• With time our sensory abilities decline. For
  instance, visual sharpness decreases.
• We remember some things well and others not
  so well, depending on what type of information
  we are trying to remember
• Aging and Intelligence:
  – Crystallized Intelligence: one‟s accumulated
    knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase
    with age
  – Fluid Intelligence: one‟s ability to reason
    speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease
    during late adulthood.
• What are ways which we can help our
  elderly live a better quality of life?
• What are your thoughts regarding nursing