VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 19 POSTED ON: 7/9/2011
1 CRITICAL THINKING FOR CRITICAL TIMES PART I THE ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT, THE STANDARDS, AND THE RUBRICS CETL is the acronym given to The Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. The primary mission of the CETL is to support and promote programs and efforts that enhance teaching and learning experiences, and to facilitate the continued professional development of faculty in their roles as instructors, researchers, scholars and learners. 2 WHY CONCERN OURSELVES WITH CRITICAL THINKING? Our thinking determines: • what we learn • how we learn • what we think is important to learn • what effort we should expend • what we think is true or false • how things should be viewed • whether our learning is of high or low quality • whether our learning is deep or superficial In short, everything we know, believe, want, fear, and hope for is a result of our thinking. There is no way to understand anything except through thinking. TSTC HARLINGEN’S DEFINITION OF CRITICAL THINKING Critical thinking is an ability to engage in the process of • application, • analysis, • evaluation, • interpretation, and • synthesis in order to make an informed decision. BLOOMS’ TAXONOMY OF THE LEVELS OF THINKING Evaluation: Makes decisions, judges, Evaluation selects based on criteria and rationale. Synthesis Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from original one. Analysis Analysis: Separates whole into its parts. Application: Uses information in a situation Application different from original learning. Comprehension: Interprets, translates, Comprehension summarizes, paraphrases given information. Knowledge Knowledge: Recognizes and recalls facts and details. 3 THE ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT Whenever we think, we think for a purpose within a point of view based on assumptions leading to implications and consequences. We use concepts, ideas, and theories to interpret data, facts, and experiences in order to answer questions, solve problems, and resolve issues. Purpose of Points of View The Thinking frame of reference, goal, objective perspective, orientation Implications & Question at Issue Consequences problem, issue Assumptions Information presupposition, data, facts, taking for granted observations, experiences Concepts Inference & theories, models, interpretation definitions, laws, conclusions, principles solutions • As an instructor in the 4 developmental classroom Introduce TSTC Harlingen’s • If implement definition of CT and the framework --Make our work in • As a workshop leader • As a resource for faculty as they we have adopted classroom less frustrating because students will be rethink their courses more engaged, --We’ll be teaching them to do something that is essential if they want to live successfully in the modern How can I best show you world. that implementing critical • If don’t implement thinking is a worthwhile --Nothing will change in the endeavor? classroom, --Our students – who will be in charge of our world before too long – will not be able to think through things, solve complex problems, come up with new ideas that benefit them and us. • The various schemes/ frameworks – Berkeley, Perry’s scheme (Harvard) • That implementing CT • Ideas about how to develop across the curriculum was an individual’s critical going to be an extremely thinking abilities complex task • Input from individuals at • That there would be a other colleges who are great deal of hesitation on attempting to implement CT the part of some faculty • How can we teach CT to students who don’t take a lot of responsibility for their • Take all the frameworks and decide with the own learning and who more committee’s help, which would be the most often than not do not make flexible and best fit the variety of programs on informed decisions about • The 35+ definitions of critical thinking campus things in their lives? from the fields of philosophy and • Take the input from other colleges who are psychology attempting to implement CT • Theories about the cognitive component and learning 5 Students are familiar with the 2D Cartesian system and may not be aware of the issues related to 3D To explain the differences Cartesian systems. The concept of between 2D and 3D a left and right handed system is coordinate space (CS) not obvious to a novice in 3D graphics. Mixing left handed or right handed systems will lead problems. Reference materials need to be How does the 3D reviewed to determine coordinate system differ which system they use and modify accordingly. from the 2D coordinate system? Are there any issues related to 3D coordinate systems that are not issues in 2D? By rotating and flipping, there are eight ways to orient the axes in a standard XY All 3D coordinate coordinate system. There systems are “equal”. are 48 different ways the XYZ axes can be situated in a 3D coordinate system. By flipping and rotating an XYZ system, students will discover 24 different ways to There are actually 2 types of 3D orient the axes. However as coordinate systems, left handed we stated previously and and right handed. The left handed would be shown in a system is customarily used by graphical example, there are mathematicians while right- Not all 3D coordinate actually 48 combination. handed systems are used by systems are “equal”. graphics developers. 6 The Elements Purpose A purpose is a goal, an objective, what is going to be accomplished. We can use the term to include functions, motives, and intentions. We should be clear about our purpose and that purpose should be justifiable. Whenever we reason, we do so with a purpose. People have goals and objectives in all of their activities, in their reading, writing, decision making, in the things they make intentionally (books, theories, equations, cars, advertisements, etc.). All have purposes. Therefore, it is always relevant to ask, “What is the purpose in that?” We can identify the purpose of anything that involves reasoning. Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target purpose: • What is your, my, their purpose in doing ________________? • What is the objective of this assignment (task, job, experiment, policy, strategy, etc.)? • Should we question, refine, modify our purpose (goal, objective, etc)? • Why did you say ____________? • What is your primary purpose in this line of thought? • What is the purpose of this meeting (chapter, relationship, action)? • What is the function of this _________________(bodily system, machine, tool, economic policy, plan, ecosystem)? It is always relevant and central to ask questions like these. With practice, thinking about purpose can become a constant in our reasoning, and it will often bring insight. All of the examples listed above have to do with identifying a purpose in something. But the concept of purpose has other uses as well. We can not only identify purpose, but We can keep it firmly in mind as we plow through a whole host of details. That can be difficult to do—seeing the forest while looking at the trees. We can question our purpose, or a writer’s purpose, asking whether it is worth achieving, and at what cost. We can compare our goals to yours, or one textbook’s goals to another’s. We can have many purposes behind a decision, and we can prioritize them, figuring out which goals are more important. Thus, purpose serves as a center for asking a variety of relevant, reflective questions, as well as for performing a large number of higher-order thinking activities. 7 Question at Issue The question lays out the problem or issue and guides our thinking. When the question is vague, our thinking will lack clarity and distinctness. The question then should be clear and precise enough to productively guide our thinking. Whenever we reason through something, there is some question we are trying to answer, some problem we are addressing. So in any act of reasoning, it always makes good sense to ask, “What is the question at issue?” “What is the problem I am addressing?” If purpose is what we are trying to accomplish, the question at issue is the more specific question we are addressing in order to achieve that purpose. The purpose of this workshop, for example, is to introduce faculty to the framework for critical thinking that we will be implementing across the curriculum. By contrast, the question at issue is: If the framework consists of elements, standards, and rubrics, what are the elements? What are the standards? And what are the rubrics? Since all reasoning is about some question or problem, it is always relevant to ask what is the question being addressed. Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target question at issue: • What is the question we are trying to answer? • What important questions are embedded in the issue (experiment, math problem, marketing strategy)? • Is there a better way to put the question? • Is this question clear? Is it complex? • What would we have to do to settle this question? • I’m not sure exactly what question you are asking. Could you explain it? • The question in my mind is this: ____________. How do you see the question? Questions are vital to all critical thinking. The central questions of a course are vital to critical thinking in a discipline. Notice all the different activities connected to the question at issue. We can identify it in different contexts (as in the previous list). After we identify a question at issue, we might need to go further. We can ask, “What other questions at issue should we be addressing? What major questions have we left out?” When we identify the question at issue in a lecture and we also want to be mindful and stay focused on that question all the way through. We can create a set of guideline questions on a topic or for reading a chapter. A good proactive question to ask is, “If we try to solve this problem this way, what further problems are likely to arise?” We can demonstrate how the same central questions keep recurring in a particular course. All of these are rich ways to explore our thinking and the thinking of others, and all of them revolve around the element question at issue. As with each of the elements, to learn how to answer questions like these is to develop a range of higher-order thinking skills. 8 Information Information includes the facts, data, evidence, or experiences we use to figure things out. It does not necessarily imply accuracy or correctness. However, the information we use should be as accurate as possible and relevant to the question or issue we are addressing. Whenever we reason, we use information. Therefore, it always makes sense to ask, “What information is relevant to this issue?” We might ask, “What information do we have, and what information do we need but don’t have?” Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target information: • What information do we need to answer this question? • What data are relevant to this problem? • Do we need to gather more information? • Is this information relevant to our purpose or goal? • What experience convinced us of this? Could our experience be distorted? • How do we know this information (data, testimony) is accurate? • Have we left out any important information that we need to consider? • On what information are we basing that statement? Notice that people use information even when they reason badly through an issue or problem. People who draw prejudiced conclusions often base their reasoning on incomplete or incorrect information. So, we often have to do more than simply identify the information in a piece of reasoning: We need to be able to evaluate information. We need to distinguish information from our interpretation of that information. We need to decide when we need more information to draw a reasonable conclusion. We can learn how to find other reliable pieces of information on a topic. We can organize information in a coherent way, and present it clearly. Information is an essential element of reasoning. But information by itself is seldom enough to decide important issues. We need the other elements of reasoning just as much. If we know some information, but we don’t know the implications of that information, we can be seriously misled even by the facts. If we know some information, but we don’t know the questions at issue that the information is relevant to, then the information is merely a piece of trivia. 9 Interpretation and Inference Inferences are interpretations or conclusions we come to. Inferring is what the mind does in figuring something out. Inferences should logically follow from the evidence; in other words, infer no more or less than what is implied in the situation. To think about the world we live in is to interpret it, to draw conclusions about it. So it’s always relevant to ask, “How are you interpreting this? What conclusions are being drawn?” Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target interpretation and inference: • What conclusions are we coming to? • Is our inference logical? • Are there other conclusions we should consider? • Does this interpretation make sense? • Does our solution necessarily follow from our data? • How did you reach that conclusion? • What are you basing your reasoning on? • Is there a plausible alternative conclusion? • Given all the facts, what is the best possible conclusion? • How should we interpret these data? It is often vitally important in critical thinking to distinguish information from someone’s interpretation of that information. We see people’s faces (information) and we interpret the look we see there as anger, maybe as anger at us. But we can easily be mistaken in that conclusion. The person may be feeling sad or tired rather than angry, or the person may indeed be angry, but at something that has nothing whatsoever to do with us. People who diagnose patients need to be constantly aware of the information they are receiving about the patient and also their interpretation of that information. They then need to reflect on their interpretation and question whether alternative interpretations are more plausible. That’s true of diagnosing patients, but it’s equally true of office managers trying to diagnose problems, or students “diagnosing” study habits that work well for some courses, but not for others, or technicians sitting at a radar screen interpreting blips. In addition to identifying interpretations and conclusions, to be an effective critical thinker we need to develop other skills centering on this element: We need to compare our interpretations of a situation to the interpretations given by others. We need to decide which interpretation is most reasonable. We need to be able to put the interpretation in context because the distinction between information and interpretation depends heavily on content. We can group a set of interpretations to see how they all follow from an underlying background system. We are constantly drawing conclusions—so is everyone else—based on what we observe (information), on the beliefs we hold (assumptions), on what we think will happen (implications and consequences). Conceptualizing our own thoughts (and those of others) as conclusions gives us insight into what those conclusions are based on. 10 Concepts Concepts are ideas, theories, laws, principles, or hypotheses we use in thinking to make sense of things. It is important to be clear about the concepts we are using and to use them justifiably. All reasoning exists in terms of concepts. If we are reasoning about democracy in America, we have a concept of democracy that is operative in our thinking. It is part of being reflective to ask, “What is our concept of democracy? What is our understanding of the term?” If we are trying to figure out whether an office is running efficiently, it helps to step back from that question and ask, “What is our concept of efficiency here? What criteria do we use to decide whether an office is running efficiently?” It is a considerable skill to learn to identify the main concepts in our reasoning, primarily because we often tend to take our concepts for granted. If we have the inner conviction that we’ve been treated unfairly, it doesn’t often lead us to ask, “What is our concept of fairness? What do we mean when we classify this action as unfair?” For example, we can feel an action to be unfair simply when we’ve been hurt by it. If we don’t then go on to explore the concept of fairness that is at work in our reaction, we may continue to draw the conclusion that we’ve been unfairly treated even when it is just bad luck. Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target concepts: • What idea are we using in our thinking? • Is this idea causing problems for us and for others? • We think this is a good theory, but could you explain it more fully? • What is the main hypothesis we are using in our reasoning? • Are we using this term in keeping with established usage? • What main distinctions should we draw in reasoning through this problem? • What are some of the basic principles of _________ (dental hygiene, building construction, culinary arts, etc.)? In addition to identifying concepts We can refine our concepts. We can compare and contrast different concepts. We can amend our concepts in response to new situations. We can create concepts to cover new cases. Notice again that concepts are always present in everyone’s thinking. Every single thought we have is guided by concepts. The question for the critical thinker then is not whether we are using concepts, but whether we are aware of the concepts we are using. 11 Assumptions Assumptions are beliefs we take for granted. They usually operate at the subconscious or unconscious level of thought. It is important to make sure that we are clear about our assumptions and that these assumptions are justified by sound evidence. Whenever we reason through something, we always have to begin somewhere. We can’t “begin at the beginning,” because there is no beginning. What we begin with are our assumptions. Our assumptions consist of everything we take for granted when we think through something. Sometimes people can state their assumptions up front. More often, though the most crucial assumptions we make are those that are unstated. In fact, it is often a major insight to identify assumptions we may be unaware of even though they underlie our reasoning. Any area where reasoning is taking place is an area where it is important to identify assumptions. If we are having a heated argument with a friend, a good question to ask is, “What are my friend’s main assumptions?” But it is at least as important to ask, “What are my own assumptions?”—and to hold ourselves to the same standards we apply to our friends. The critical thinking question is not whether we make assumptions—we all do that all the time. The critical thinking question is whether we are aware of the assumptions we are making. Only by becoming aware of our assumptions can we then evaluate them so that we can be more in charge of our thinking. Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target assumptions: • What are we taking for granted? • Are we assuming something we shouldn’t? • What assumption is leading us to this conclusion? • What is ____ (this policy, strategy, explanation) assuming? • Why are we assuming _______________? • What is being presupposed in this theory? • What are some important assumptions we make about our students, our college, our administrators? • What exactly do ________ (mathematicians, biologists, etc.) take for granted? So far we have been talking about identifying assumptions, but there are any number of other ways we can reflect critically on assumptions: We can evaluate assumptions in light of evidence. We can compare our assumptions to other people’s assumptions. We can put other people’s assumptions (including our own) in a larger context, asking how they are rooted in their upbringing or their culture background. We can “try on” certain assumptions, tracing out what their implications would be if we really believed them. We can seek out others with different assumptions as a way of becoming more aware of our own. Assumptions, then, like all the elements, serve as a core idea around which to investigate a large number of critical thinking questions. 12 Implications and Consequences Implications are the things that might happen if we decide to do something. Consequences are the things that do happen when we act. We should think through possible and probable implications in a situation before acting. Just as our reasoning has to begin somewhere, it also has to end somewhere. The area beyond where it ends constitutes the implications and consequences of our reasoning. To ask about the implications and conclusions of a piece of reasoning is to ask, “What follows from it?” If we have a certain position on a controversial issue such as capital punishment, we want to ask, “What are the implications of that position?” That is, what further things must we adhere to if we hold that position? What further beliefs does this commit us to? Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target implications and consequences: • If we decide to do “X”, what things might happen? • If we decide not to do “X”, what things might happen? • What are you implying when you say that? • What is likely to happen if we do this versus that? • Are there possible unintended consequences of alternative courses of action? • Are you implying that _________? • How significant are the implications of this decision? • What, if anything, is implied by the fact that ____________? To think critically, we need to become skillful at handling implications and consequences in ways that go beyond simply identifying them: In most real-world situations, consequences are seldom automatic, so we need to do something more subtle: not just identify consequences of an action, but assess the likelihood of various possible consequences, few of which are certain. Since many decisions have both a plus-side and a minus-side, we need to be able to weigh the costs and benefits of decisions. We sometimes have to accept the unwelcome implications of our positions. Focusing on the element of implications and consequences allows us to see aspects of situations and thought processes that, previously, we saw only occasionally, in a hit-or-miss sort of way. This element allows us to focus on something that is one of the keys to reasoning well, to taking charge of our thinking. 13 Point of View Point of view is literally “the place” from which we view something. It includes what we are looking at and the way we are seeing it. Our point of view or perspective can easily distort the way we see situations and issues, so it is important to make sure we understand the limitations of our points of view and that we fully consider other relevant viewpoints. Whenever we reason through something, we do so within some point of view. So it always makes sense to ask, “From what point of view are we addressing this issue?” To call point of view an element of reasoning is to claim that there is no such thing as “point-of-view-less” reasoning. All reasoning occurs within some point of view. Addressing the same question from a different point of view can produce a whole different set of purposes, assumptions, conclusions, and so on. Flexibility: Here is list of questions that target point of view: • How are we looking at this situation? Is there another way to look at it that we should consider? • What exactly are we focused on? And how are we seeing it? • Is our view the only reasonable view? What does out point of view ignore? • Which of the possible viewpoints makes the most sense given the situation? • How often have we studied viewpoints that seriously challenge our personal beliefs? • Are we having difficulty looking at this situation from a viewpoint with which we disagree? • Are we uncritically assuming that the point of view of our government is justified? In addition to identifying points of view, we need to develop other related skills: We can differentiate one point of view from another. We can apply someone’s point of view to a new situation, understanding how he/she would view it. We can contrast the instructor’s point of view with the student’s point of view—also with the administration’s point of view and with the point of view of the potential employer of the student. Some of these are always relevant. Others are relevant in one case but not in another. A major critical thinking skill to develop is the ability to evaluate points of view. Clearly it is not enough just to know what our point of view is. Bigots, for example, will sometimes openly admit that they look at things from a bigoted point of view. Obviously, that is not an example of critical thinking. Once we’ve identified a point of view on an issue, our own or anyone’s, we need to evaluate how plausible it is, how well it fits the evidence, how biased it is. 14 THE STANDARDS OF CRITICAL THINKING Critical thinking is thinking that is done well; it meets high standards of thinking. The standards allow us to evaluate the quality of thinking or reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation. They are what make critical thinking different from thinking. Clarity 15 THE STANDARDS OF CRITICAL THINKING CLARITY Clarity is a gatekeeper standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we do not know what it is saying. Thinking is clear when it is easily understood, when it is free from the likelihood of misunderstanding, when it is readily apparent what follows from it. Example: “What can be done about the education system in America?” In order to address the question, we need a clear understanding of what the problem is. Questions that target clarity include: • Could you elaborate further? • Could you give me an example? • Could you illustrate what you mean? ACCURACY The thinking is accurate when it describes the way things actually are. Example: “Most dogs weigh over 300 pounds.” This is certainly a clear statement but it is untrue. Questions that target accuracy include: • How could we check that? • How could we find out if that is true? • How could we verify or test that? RELEVANCE To say something is relevant is to say that it address the problem or question at issue. Example: Students often think that the amount of effort they put into a course should be used in raising their grade. However, “effort” does not measure the quality of learning and, therefore, is irrelevant to their appropriate grade. Questions that target relevance include: • How does that relate to the problem/issue? • How does that bear on the question? • How does that help us with the issue? PRECISION Thinking is precise when it is as specific and detailed as needed in order to reason through a problem or issue. Example: “Jack is overweight.” This is both clear and accurate, but not sufficiently precise. How much overweight is Jack? One pound or 500 pounds? Questions that target precision include: • Could you be more specific? • Could you give me more details? • Could you be more exact? 16 DEPTH Thinking is deep enough when it looks below the surface of the problem or question at issue and when the complexities that underlie the problem or question are identified and taken into account. Example: “Just say no” has been used to discourage children and teens from using drugs. However, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue at a very superficial level. Questions that target depth include: • What factors make this a difficult problem/issue? • What are some of the complexities of this problem/issue? • What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? BREADTH Thinking is broad enough when other aspects, other perspectives, other parallel problems or questions are identified and taken into account. Example: “Wind power is the only source of energy worth pursuing.” Wind power is a source of energy worth pursuing but certainly not the only one. Questions that target breadth include: • Do we need to look at this from another perspective? • Do we need to consider another point of view? • Do we need to look at this in other ways? THREE DIMENSIONS OF CRITICAL THINKING Critical Thinking Analysis of Evaluation of Improvement thinking by thinking by of thinking focusing on focusing on by using what the elements the standards was learned 17 THE RUBRICS HOLISTIC SCORING RUBRIC Rating Characteristics of the Work Consistently does all or almost all of the following: • Accurately identifies the most important purpose and key question or problem • Accurately interprets facts, data, evidence Superior • Recognizes and demonstrates a clear understanding of related theories, principles, ideas • Draws reasonable and well thought-out conclusions • Justifies results and procedures • Explains assumptions and reasons • Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major alternative points of view Does most or many of the following: • Identifies relevant purpose and key question or problem • Accurately interprets facts, data, evidence • Draws reasonable conclusions Acceptable • Justifies some results or procedures • Explains reasons • Offers analyses and evaluations of obvious alternative points of view Does most or many of the following: • Fails to identify purpose and/or key question or problem • Misinterprets facts, data, evidence • Draws unjustified or illogical conclusions Marginal • Justifies few results or procedures • Seldom explains reasons • Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view • Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on self-interest or preconceptions Consistently does all or almost all of the following: • Fails to identify purpose and key question or problem • Offers biased interpretations of facts, data, evidence • Fails to draw conclusions Unacceptable • Does not justify results or procedures • Does not explain reasons • Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view • Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on self-interest or preconceptions 18 ANALYTICAL RUBRIC FOR THE ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT Superior Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable If applicable, consistently does If applicable, consistently does If applicable, consistently does If applicable, consistently does all or almost all of the following most or many of the following most or many of the following all or almost all of the following Purpose Fully and clearly identifies the Identifies the purpose Misidentifies the purpose Does not consider the purpose purpose Question at Demonstrates a clear and full Demonstrates an Demonstrates a partial Does not demonstrate an Issue understanding of the primary understanding of the primary understanding of the issue/ understanding of the issue/problem, the relevant issue/ problem and the problem issue/problem or identifies a secondary aspects and secondary aspects of the different and inappropriate addresses their relationships to issue/problem issue/ problem each other Information Accurately interprets the Interprets competently some Misinterprets the supporting Merely repeats the supporting supporting data (evidence, primary supporting data data (evidence, statements, data (evidence, statements, statements, facts, questions, (evidence, statements, facts, facts, questions, graphics, facts, questions, graphics, graphics, assertions, questions, graphics, assertions, descriptions, etc.) assertions, descriptions, etc) or descriptions, etc.) assertions, descriptions, etc.) offers a biased interpretation of Inconsistently examines the the supporting data Examines the source of the Examines the source of the source of the supporting data supporting data supporting data Does not examine the source of Does not question of the the supporting data Questions the accuracy, Questions the accuracy of the supporting data relevance, and completeness of supporting data Does not question the the supporting data supporting data Essential Analyzes the issue/problem Analyzes the issue/problem Misinterprets theories, Does not recognize related Concepts with a clear sense of related with a sense of some related principles, and ideas and their theories, principles, and ideas. theories, principles, and ideas theories, principles, and ideas relationship to the issue Assumptions Identifies, clearly explains, and Identifies and explains Identifies and explains few Does not identify, explain, and questions the validity of assumptions assumptions at a superficial question assumptions assumptions level Point of View Identifies, analyzes, and Identifies, analyzes, and Deals only with a single point Does not identify or hastily evaluates relevant major points evaluates obvious points of of view and fails to discuss dismisses relevant points of of view view other possible perspectives view Interpretations Uses inference to reason Uses inference to reason Uses inference to reason Does not use or infrequently and Inferences carefully from stated ideas to competently from stated ideas inconsistently from clearly uses inference to reason from significant implications and to significant implications and stated ideas to implications clearly stated ideas or consequences consequences and consequences recognize implications and consequences Implications and Identifies and discusses Identifies and discusses Identifies and discusses Does not identify conclusions, Consequences conclusions, implications, and obvious conclusions, obvious conclusions, implications, and consequences of the implications, and implications, and consequences issue/problem that are consequences of the consequences of the consistently defensible issue/problem that are issue/problem that are generally defensible sometimes defensible 19 STAGES OF CRITICAL THINKING DEVELOPMENT Master Thinker (Good habits of thought have become second nature.) Advanced Thinker (We advance in keeping with our practice.) Practicing Thinker (We recognize the need for regular practice.) Beginning Thinker (We try to improve but without regular practice.) Challenged Thinker (We are faced with significant problems in our thinking.) Unreflective Thinking (We are unaware of significant problems in our thinking.)
"CRITICAL THINKING FOR CRITICAL TIMES"