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					                           Daily Lesson Plan Template
                 Lesson Plan Assignment #1 (Light & Shadows)
Prepared by: Sarah Laurens            Curriculum material sources:
Collaborating Teacher: N/A                        Title: Physics for Every Kid
School: N/A                                       Author: Janice VanCleave
Date (lesson planned): 10/19/07                   Publisher: Wiley
Date (To be taught): N/A
Grade Level: Second
Unit Title: Light & Shadows
Lesson Title:    Now You See It; Now You Don’t: Playing with Light’s Path
Lesson Objective: The students explore the path of a light by blocking the rays and
observing shadows and light on a surface.


Unit Learning Goals Addressed in this Lesson
Michigan Curriculum            Related main ideas (cite source)
Framework using
benchmarks (include
benchmark codes)
1. Explain how shadows are     1. Light travels in straight lines from the source (in
   made (IV.4.E.4)                all directions) (NSES Content Standard B).
                               2. Opaque objects block light; transparent objects
                                  let light pass through (translucent objects let
                                  some light pass through).
                               3. When an object that blocks light (opaque) is
                                  placed in the path of light from the source, a
                                  shadow will appear on a nearby flat surface.
                               4. A direct light source is needed to make a
                                  shadow.
Michigan Curriculum
Framework reflecting and/or
constructing benchmarks
1. Develop an awareness of     1. Observations are anything that we can learn
   the need for evidence in       about objects and materials in the world by
   making decisions               using our five senses.
   scientifically (II.1.E.1) - 2. Evidence is based on results from experiments
   Reflecting                     and observations.
                               3. Opinion is a personal thought or decision and is
                                  not always supported by evidence.
                               4. Scientists pursue observations based on
                                  previous ideas and from facts based on
                                  evidence.
Habits of mind or classroom learning community goals

1. Make careful observations.
2. Consider all evidence when making decisions or explanations.
3. Listen to each other’s ideas.
Who are my students?
        Commonly held ideas                     Implications for this lesson
            about the topic
1. A shadow is caused by the presence 1. This is the idea that this lesson is
   of something that light allows us to      designed to challenge. However, if
   see (as opposed to being caused by        students hold this idea, it may be
   the absence of light) (Driver et al.,     difficult for them to shift from thinking
   1994.).                                   about a shadow as something to
2. Children may notice a similarity          thinking about a shadow as evidence
   between the shape of an object and        that light is not there.
   its shadow. They may think of         2. Similar to #1, this unit/lesson is
   shadows as dark objects or dark           intended to help students recognize
   reflections rather than as blocked        shadows as blocked light rather than
   light. (MIBIG)                            physical objects.
        Previous experiences
         relevant to the topic
1. Looking at own shadows while          These experiences provide students with
   playing                               many examples of shadows and make
2. Experiences with shadows at night     shadows things they have seen rather
   caused by street lamps, porch         than abstract ideas.
   lights, or the moon
3. Everyday experiences noticing
   shadows
4. Playing with flashlights or making
   flashlight puppets
5. Tracing shadows on the sidewalk
   with chalk
Funds of knowledge
1. Children’s literature books about     Could use these resources as connections
   shadows                               to thinking about shadows. Could also
2. Shadow songs from Pre-school,         use these resources as possible sites of
   Head Start, or church school          application of new understanding.
3. Playsongs and stories that include    However, not all students may have had
   references to shadows or being        these same experiences or have these
   shadowed                              same funds of knowledge, so must be
                                         careful not to assume that everyone is
                                         the same.
Linguistic, social and academic
challenges, resources and supports
1. Group work - This unit requires       1. Teacher should provide reminders for
   students to work in small and large       norms for small group work and large
   groups in order to learn from each        group conversations.
   other. Group norms include: listen    2. Students will be working in small
   when others speak, everyone gets a        groups, which will provide some
   turn, everyone gets to handle all of      students with support in reading and
   the materials.                            writing skills. It may be appropriate
2. Special Education Modifications           for some students to draw
   (reading & writing)                       observations & answers or provide
3. Students may not be used to               oral answers rather than written.
                                                                                         2
   naming parts of things or looking at   3. Provide explicit attention to names of
   properties of things.                     objects or characteristics of objects.

Instructional Approach

Rationale: How does this lesson fit into the unit?

1. Strategic Functions: The activities in this lesson establish the evidence that light moves
in a straight path from its source if not blocked. This lesson connects previous lessons
exploring shadows, patterns of shadows, and why some objects have shadows (objects that
block light & objects that allow light to pass through), and leads up to students modeling
light rays and predicting where their shadows will be.

2. Related Lessons: In previous lessons, students have explored different types of objects
(translucent, opaque, and transparent), observed differences, looked for patterns of their
experiences, and compared their findings and explanations (charted) in group discussions.
This lesson will create opportunities for students to use what they have learned to explain
the shadow of a chair (coach) and then introduce the idea that light travels in a straight
line (explain phenomena). In the following lesson, students will apply what they have
learned about the nature of light traveling in a straight line to predict and explain where
their shadows (and shadows of certain objects) will be.

Lesson Overview: Activity and Transition Labels, Times and Supplies/ Materials
          Activity Label*          Time            Supplies/Materials
Pre-activity: “My Shadow”          10 mn Gather students onto rug area and
poem: Read aloud on rug                  read Robert Lewis Stevenson’s “My
                                         Shadow” poem with overhead lights
                                         off, only light from windows.
Apply: Showing shadow of child 10 mn Whiteboard & marker located at rug
in illustrated book of poems, ask        area (or easel & large pad of paper or
“why” the child has a shadow &           blackboard). Teacher will draw
elicit explanations. Explanations        arrows of light and shade to represent
should include the source of light       what students are explaining. This
(sun) and what is blocking the           will allow for group discussion and
light (child’s body).                    elicit questions, embedded
                                         assessment* of students’
                                         understanding and ideas.
Ask: Where is the shadow             5   Using the book and pointing to the
located? Where is the sun?               responses that the children give. Ask
Repeat with another illustration         if everyone agrees; explore and share
from the book.                           any difference (“How can you tell the
                                         sunlight is coming from that side?”)
Explore: Give each child an          5   Index cards & small ball of modeling
index card with a 1” square              clay for each student. Pre-cut card
notch cut out of the center of           notches on one of the long sides;
one long edge. Coach: Place a            prepare small pieces of clay. One
small ball of modeling clay on a         flashlight for each table/group of
corner bottom edge, so that the          students (not more than 4-5 students
notched hole will touch the              to a group) and one piece of cardboard
table. Model how students will           (approx. 8” x 10”) to use as a screen.
take turns holding a flashlight on
                                                                                              3
the table and holding the
cardboard screen at the opposite
end of the table, then each
person takes turns placing their
card in front of the light source,
about 4” apart with the notches
aligned in a straight line. Ask
students to return to their seats
(one table at a time) as they are
given a small ball of clay.
Darken the room.
Investigate: Observe light            10    Light appears on the screen only
patterns on screen when                     when the notches are aligned. Why?
notches of cards are aligned, not
aligned. What happens?
(collect data; explore
phenomena)
Explain & Compare student                   One small-diameter dowel rod for
ideas: As groups explain their              each group/table (or teacher
findings, test if light is being            circulates with dowel rod).
blocked by passing a small-
diameter dowel rod from the
light source, through the holes
in the index cards, to the
screen.
Return to whole group rug area:       10
Ask when students observed
light on the screen (& what
shape did it have), when did
they not observe light on their
screen. Invite a student to
come to the white board and
draw what s/he has learned
about how light travels. Invite
other student(s) to modify this
conceptual drawing. Probe
students’ knowledge with
directed questions* (How do you
know this? Etc.) in order to
assess their ability to base their
results on the evidence from
their observations and
investigations. (Learning Goal 2)
Compare their explanations of
the child’s shadow (at the
beginning of the lesson) with
their explanations of light
appearing on the screen*
(Learning Goal 1).
Students may be given paper to       Home   Paper/worksheet to go home
take home and draw what they                (extending the activity).
                                                                                 4
have done during this
exploration. Ask them to draw
arrows/lines showing how the
light reached the screen*.
Bring this drawing to class
tomorrow for a “surprise”.
Next lesson: students will apply      Next    Next lesson: licorice string & cookies
what they have learned in                     (1 of each for each child).
modeling light rays with edible
licorice string and cookies with a
hole to show straight lines of
light and blocked light.
    *Indicate with an asterisk (*) the activity(ies) you will use for assessment.

Total time for lesson:     __30-45___ minutes

Summary of Supplies/Materials Required
Supplies/Materials for       Supplies/Materials for           Supplies/Materials for
whole class:                 groups:                          individuals:
Whiteboard & marker OR       1 flashlight (test batteries),    1 index card with notch
Large drawing                1 cardboard “screen” (~8”         pre-cut, 1 small ball of
tablet/chalkboard, 1         x 10”)                            modeling clay, take-home
small-diameter dowel rod                                       sheet with instructions for
                                                               drawing Explanation
                                                               home assignment.




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Lesson Procedures
Activity      Procedures and management                     Students                            Academic, social &
Element                                                                                         linguistic resources
& Time                                                                                          and support
Pre-Activity  Gather students to the rug area for a         Students find a place to sit on     Visuals are important
              literature connection to shadows;             the rug, adjust to lights being     context (connection)
              allows for transition from lunch/recess,      off, window light coming onto rug   for English language
              time to settle down and refresh schema        area. Engage: book illustrations    learners (ELL).
              on shadows & light from previous              of children at play with shadows
              lessons. Read “My Shadow” poem.               cast.
Activity 1:   Showing shadow of child in illustration,      Students will raise their hands     Teacher is recording
Apply past    ask “why” the child has a shadow (child       and offer explanations. Teacher     students’ explanations
lessons/knowl is playing in sunlight source). Elicit        will prompt students if light       to facilitate recording
edge          explanations that include the source of       source is omitted or if source of   chore with majority of
              light (sun) & what is blocking the light      blocked light is omitted. Teacher   students being ELL.
              (child) and causing the shadow (Ask:          will draw simple forms on board
              Where is the shadow located? Where is         and ask student(s) if what s/he
              the sun?) Repeat with another                 has drawn represents what they
              illustration from the book.                   are saying. Revise drawing as
                                                            necessary. Ask “how” students
                                                            can tell that the sunlight is
                                                            coming from there (while
                                                            pointing to referenced source).
Transition to   Give each child an index card (pre-         Students will receive index card,
Activity 2      notched bottom edge) explaining that        watch modeling of activity by
                they will return to their tables (when      Teacher, and then return to their
                called) where they will find a flashlight   tables (by group) as they receive
                and a cardboard screen. Using a card        their small ball of clay.
                & a small ball of modeling clay, coach
                the children in what they will be doing
                once they return to their tables.




                                                                                                                      6
Activity 2:      Students will take turns with various      Students will take turns holding
Explore &        roles & explore creating light and         light source on table, holding
Investigate      blocking light on their screens at their   screen on table, positioning their
                 tables. Teacher will circulate & pose      card and others’ cards in
Explain &        directed inquiries. Teacher will hand      alignment between light source &
Compare          out dowel rod to mark the light’s path,    screen (beginning ~4” from
ideas            after the students have explored           source). Students will discuss
                 various alignments of cards, modeling      various set-ups and predict how
                 the task with a dowel rod.                 movement of the card(s) will
                                                            affect light on the screen.
Transition to    Each group (table) will be asked to        Students will collect/store
Activity 3       collect one item (flashlights, clay,       materials; students will return to
                 screens, dowel rods, cards) and place      rug area.
                 them in storage bins near rug area.
Activity 3:      In whole group: Ask when students          Students will respond to directed
Explain &        observed light on the screen, what         scientific inquiries by drawing
compare          shape did they observe with one card?      their understanding of the path
student ideas;   Invite a student to come to the board      of light. Probes* (How do you
tie ideas to     and draw that shape. Where did the         know this?) will elicit
evidence         light come from? Invite student to         explanations and give insight to
                 come and add light source to drawing.      students’ thoughts &
                 Draw a card between the shape and the      understanding. Students will
                 light source and then ask the students     take turns showing what they
                 how the light reached the screen.          have observed and explaining
                 Invite a student to come and draw the      “why” based upon evidence of
                 path of the light to the screen. What      their observations. Students will
                 about the light that didn’t show up on     compare their group’s findings
                 the screen, but showed up on the card?     and explanations.
                 Ask a student to draw the path of the
                 blocked light.
Transition to    Teacher will summarize observations by     Students will ask questions
home activity:   tracing the rays of light (blocked and     regarding the home assignment




                                                                                                 7
Explain path     not blocked by the card) on the            and understand that they may
of light to      drawing. This acts as coaching in          use any combination of words
prepare for      explaining the home assignment to          and pictures to explain their
Applying         students and handing out the paper         observations of light from today’s
knowledge to     that they will record their findings (in   in-class activity (This will also be
next lesson      the form of a diagram and any captions     used as an assessment tool in
                 they would like to include) and            looking at conceptual change and
                 explaining that this home assignment       will allow Teacher to adjust next
                 will be exchanged in class tomorrow for    lesson’s instructions for building
                 a “surprise” (= their building materials   a model of light’s path).
                 for constructing a model).




Basis for assessment
Task:                                                Diagnostic features:                          Support:
Initial drawing (pre-activity) will serve as prior
knowledge to exploratory activity. This is an
embedded assessment for the Teacher and will
work later (at the end of the lesson) as a way
for students to see any conceptual change they
have experienced.

Students will answer directed inquiries(in large
group), discuss & draw their explanations based
upon evidence from their observations and
investigations (Learning Goal 2). Teacher and
students will compare drawings from beginning
and end of lesson with students’ explanations
and understanding of how light travels
(Learning Goal 1).




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