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Biology Honors Semester 2 Review Questions

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									Biology Honors Semester 2 Review Questions - 2011

Chapter 8 – Cell Division/Mitosis
1. Define the word reproduction. [p.126]
2. Mitosis and meiosis refer to the division of the cell’s __________. [p.128]
3. Distinguish between somatic cells and germ cells as to their location and function. [p.128]
4. The eukaryotic chromosome is composed of __________ and __________. [p.128]
5. The two attached threads of a duplicated chromosome are known as sister __________. [p.128]
6. The __________ is a small region with attachment sites for the microtubules that move the
chromosome during nuclear division. [p.128]
7. Any cell having two of each type of chromosome is a __________ cell; a __________ cell is one
set aside for the formation of gametes. [p.128]
8. Be able to list and describe, in order, the various activities occurring in the eukaryotic cell life
cycle. [p.129]
9. Describe the structure and function of the spindle apparatus. [p.130]
10. Describe the number and movements of centrioles in the cell division of some cells. [p.130]
11. The “__________” is a time of transition when the nuclear envelope breaks up into tiny, flattened
vesicles prior to metaphase. [p.130]
12. Be able to give a detailed description of the cellular events occurring in the prophase, metaphase,
anaphase, and telophase stages of mitosis. [pp.130-131]
13. Compare and contrast cytokinesis as it occurs in plant and animal cell division; use the following
concepts: cleavage furrow, microfilaments at the cell's midsection, and cell plate formation.
[pp.132-133]
14. Describe particular events occurring in G1, S, and G2 of interphase. [p.135]

Chapter 9 – Meiosis
1. Distinguish between germ cells and gametes. [p.139]
2. “One parent alone produces offspring, and each offspring inherits the same number and kinds of
genes as its parent" describes __________ reproduction. [p.140]
3. __________ reproduction involves meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization. [p.140]
4. __________ divides chromosomes into separate parcels not once but twice prior to cell division.
[p.140]
5. Describe the relationship between the following terms: homologous chromosomes, diploid number,
and haploid number. [pp.140-141]
6. If the diploid chromosome number for a particular plant species is 18, the haploid gamete number is
__________. [p.141]
7. During interphase a germ cell duplicates its DNA; a duplicated chromosome consists of two DNA
molecules that remain attached to a constriction called the __________. [p.141]
8. As long as the two DNA molecules remain attached they are referred to as __________
__________ of the chromosome. [p.141]
9. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair; each homologue consists of __________
chromatids. [p.141]
10. During meiosis II, the two sister __________ of each __________ are separated from each other.
[p.141]
11. __________ __________ breaks up old combinations of alleles and puts new ones together during
prophase I of meiosis. [p.145]
12. The __________ attachment and subsequent positioning of each pair of maternal and paternal
chromosomes at metaphase I lead to different __________ of maternal and paternal traits in each
generation of offspring. [p.145]
13. Meiosis in the animal life cycle results in haploid __________.[p.146]
14. Using the special terms for the cells at the various stages, describe spermatogenesis in male
animals and oogenesis in female animals. [p.147]
15. Crossing over, the distribution of random mixes of homologous chromosomes into gametes, and
fertilization contribute to __________ in the traits of offspring. [p.147]


Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                     Page 1 of 8
16. Mitotic cell division produces only __________; meiotic cell division, in conjunction with
subsequent fertilization, promotes __________ in traits among offspring. [p.148]
17. Be able to list three ways that meiosis promotes variation in offspring. [p.148]

Chapter 10 – Inheritance
1. Garden pea plants are naturally __________-fertilizing, but Mendel took steps to __________-
fertilize them for his experiments. [p.155]
2. __________ are units of information about specific traits; they are passed from parents to
offspring. [p.155]
3. What is the general term applied to the location of a gene on a chromosome? [p.155]
4. Define a l l e l e ; how many types of alleles are present in the genotypes Tt? tt? TT? [p.155]
5. When two alleles of a pair are identical, it is a __________ condition; if the two alleles are
different, this is a __________ condition. [p.155]
7. Distinguish a dominant allele from a recessive allele.
8. __________ refers to the genes present in an individual; __________ refers to an individual's
observable traits. [p.155]
9. Offspring of __________ crosses are heterozygous for the one trait being studied. [p.156]
10. Be able to use the Punnett-square method of solving genetics problems. [p.157]
11. Mendel's theory of __________ states that during meiosis, the two genes of each pair separate
from each other and end up in different gametes. [p.157]
12. Describe the testcross. [p.157]
13. Be able to solve dihybrid genetic crosses. [pp.158-159]
14. Mendel's theory of __________ __________ states that gene pairs on homologous chromosomes
tend to be sorted into one gamete or another independently of how gene pairs on other chromosomes
are sorted out. [p.159]
15. Distinguish between complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance. [p.160]
16. Define multiple allele system and cite an example. [p.160]
17. Explain pleiotropy. [p.161]
18. Gene interaction involving two alleles of a gene that mask expression of another gene's alleles is
called __________. [p.162]
19. List two human traits that are explained by continuous variation. [pp.164-165]
20. Be able to provide an example and explain how environmental effects can affect gene expression. [p.166]

Chapter 11 – Chromosmes & Human Genetics
1. The units of information about heritable traits are known as __________. [p.172]
2. Diploid (2n) cells have pairs of __________ chromosomes. [p.172]
3. __________ are different molecular forms of the same gene that arise through mutation; a __________-
type allele is the most common form of a gene. [p.172]
4. State the circumstances required for crossing over and describe the results. [p.172]
5. Name and describe the sex chromosomes in human males and females. [p.172]
6. Human X and Y chromosomes fall in the general category of __________ chromosomes; all other
chromosomes in an individual’s cells are the same in both sexes and are called __________. [p.172]
7. Define karyotype; briefly describe its preparation and value. [pp.172-173]
8. Explain meiotic segregation of sex chromosomes to gametes and the subsequent random fertilization
that determines sex in many organisms. [p.174]
9. A newly identified region of the Y chromosome called __________ appears to be the master gene for
sex determination. [p.174]
10. All the genes on a specific chromosome are called a __________ group. [p.176]
11. Define the terms X-linked and Y-linked genes. [p.176]
12. State the relationship between crossover frequency and the location of genes on a chromosome.
[p.177]
13. A __________ chart or diagram is used to study genetic connections between individuals. [p.178]
14. A genetic __________ is a rare, uncommon version of a trait whereas an inherited genetic __________
causes mild to severe medical problems. [p.179]
15. Describe what is meant by a genetic disease. [p.179]

Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                     Page 2 of 8
16. Carefully characterize patterns of autosomal recessive inheritance, autosomal dominant inheritance,
X-linked recessive inheritance, and X-linked dominant inheritance. [pp.180-181]
17. A(n) __________ is a loss of a chromosome segment; a(n) __________ is a gene sequence separated
from a chromosome but then was inserted at the same place, but in reverse; a(n) __________ is a
repeat of several gene sequences on the same chromosome; a(n) __________ is the transfer of part of
one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome. [pp.182-183]
18. When gametes or cells of an affected individual end up with one extra or one less than the parental
number of chromosomes, it is known as __________; relate this concept to monosomy and trisomy.
[pp.184-185]
19. Having three or more complete sets of chromosomes is called __________. [p.184]
20. __________ is the failure of the chromosomes to separate in either meiosis or mitosis. [p.184]
21. Trisomy 21 is known as __________ syndrome; Turner syndrome has the chromosome constitution,
__________; XXY chromosome constitution is __________ syndrome; taller than average males with
sometimes slightly depressed IQ’s have the __________ condition. [pp.184-185]
22. Explain what is meant by double-blind studies. [p.185]
23. List some benefits of genetic screening and genetic counseling to society. [p.186]

Chapter 12 – DNA Structure & Function
1. Before 1952, __________ molecules and __________ molecules were suspected of housing the genetic
code. [p.190]
2. The two scientists who assembled the clues to DNA structure and produced the first model were
__________ and __________. [p.190]
3. Summarize the specific advances made by scientists in the understanding of genetics. [pp.190,192-193]
4. Viruses called __________ were used in early research efforts to discover the genetic material. [p.192]
5. Draw the basic shape of a deoxyribose molecule and show how a phosphate group is joined to it
when forming a nucleotide. [p.194]
6. Show how each nucleotide base would be joined to the sugar-phosphate combination drawn in
objective 6. [p.194]
7. DNA is composed of double-ring nucleotides known as __________ and single-ring nucleotides
known as _________; the two purines are __________ and __________, while the two pyrimidines are
__________ and __________. [pp.194]
8. Assume that the two parent strands of DNA have been separated and that the base sequence on one
parent strand is A-T-T-C-G-C; the base sequence that will complement that parent strand is
__________. [p.195]
9. Explain what is meant by the pairing of nitrogen-containing bases (base pairing), and explain the
mechanism that causes bases of one DNA strand to join with bases of the other strand. [pp.195-197]
10. Describe how double-stranded DNA replicates from stockpiles of nucleotides. [pp.196-197]
11. Explain what is meant by "each parent strand is conserved in each new DNA molecule." [pp.196-197]
12. During DNA replication, enzymes called DNA __________ assemble new DNA strands. [pp.196-197]
13. Distinguish between continuous strand assembly and discontinuous strand assembly. [p.197]
14. Describe the process of making a genetically identical copy of yourself. [p.198]

Chapter 13 – Protein Synthesis
1. State how RNA differs from DNA in structure and function, and indicate what features RNA has in
common with DNA. [pp.201-202]
2. __________ RNA combines with certain proteins to form the ribosome; __________ RNA carries
genetic information for protein construction from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; __________ RNA
picks up specific amino acids and moves them to the area of mRNA and the ribosome. [p.202]
3. Describe the process of transcription and indicate three ways in which it differs from replication.
[pp.202-203]
4. What RNA code would be formed from the following DNA code: TAC-CTC-GTT-CCC-GAA? [p.202]
5. Transcription starts at a __________, a specific sequence of bases on one of the two DNA strands that
signals the start of a gene. [pp.202-203]
6. The first end of the mRNA to be synthesized is the __________ end; at the opposite end, the most
mature transcripts acquire a __________ tail. [pp.204-205]

Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                    Page 3 of 8
7. Each base triplet in mRNA is called a __________. [p.204]
8. State the relationship between the DNA genetic code and the order of amino acids in a protein chain.
[pp.204-205]
9. Explain how the DNA message TAC-CTC-GTT-CCC-GAA would be used to code for a segment of
protein, and state what its amino acid sequence would be. [p.204]
10. Describe how the three types of RNA participate in the process of translation. [pp.206-207]
11. Cite an example of a change in one DNA base pair that has profound effects on the human
phenotype. [p.208]
12. Briefly describe the spontaneous DNA mutations known as base-pair substitution, frameshift
mutation, and transposable element. [pp.208-209]
13. List some of the environmental agents, or __________, that can cause mutations. [p.209]
14. Using a diagram, summarize the steps involved in the transformation of genetic messages into
proteins (see Figure 13.14 in the text). [p.210]

Chapter 14 – Gene Control
1. The negative control of __________ proteins prevents the enzymes of transcription from binding to
DNA; the positive control of __________ proteins enhances the binding of RNA polymerases to DNA.
[pp.214-215]
2. Use the E. coli lac operon to explain how negative feedback control operates in bacteria. [pp.214-215]
3. Explain how selective gene expression relates to cell differentiation in multicelled eukaryotes. [p.216]
4. Explain how X chromosome inactivation provides evidence for selective gene expression [p.216]
5. Explain how enhancers operate as a signaling mechanism. [p.217]
6. Describe the relationship of proto-oncogenes, environmental irritants, and oncogenes. [pp.218-219]

Chapter 15- Biotechnology
1. Define gene therapy and eugenic engineering. [p.222,233]
2. List the means by which natural genetic recombination occurs. [p.223]
3. Define recombinant DNA technology. [p.223]
4. __________ are small, circular, self-replicating molecules of DNA or RNA within a bacterial cell.
[p.224]
5. Some bacteria produce __________ enzymes that cut apart DNA molecules injected into the cell by
viruses; such DNA fragments or "__________ ends" often have staggered cuts capable of base-pairing
with other DNA molecules cut by the same __________ enzymes. [p.224]
6. Base-pairing between chromosomal fragments and cut plasmids is made permanent by DNA
__________. [p.224]
7. Multiple, identical copies of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes are known as
__________ DNA. [pp.224-225]
8. A special viral enzyme, __________ __________, presides over the process by which mRNA is
transcribed into DNA. [p.225]
9. List and define the two major methods of DNA amplification. [pp.225,226]
10. Polymerase chain reaction is the most commonly used method of DNA __________. [p.226]
11. Explain how gel electrophoresis is used to sequence DNA. [pp.227-228]
12. Explain how DNA is sequenced. [p.228]
13. Explain why you believe that human “tinkering” with genes in different organisms is primarily a
benefit, or a disaster about happen. Use examples from your text of from recent publications.
[pp.222-223,230-234]
14.Tell about the human genome initiative and its implications. [pp.232-233]

Chapter 16 – Microevolution
1. It was the study of __________ that raised the following question: If all species were created at the
same time in the same place, why were certain species found in only some parts of the world and not
others? [p.240]
2. Give examples of the type of evidence found by comparative anatomists that suggested living things
may have changed with time. [pp.240-241]


Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                     Page 4 of 8
3. Be able to state the impact the following had upon Darwin: Lyell, Malthus, Wallace, and Archaeopteryx. [pp.242-
245]
4. What conclusion was Darwin led to when he considered the various species of finches living on the
separate islands of the Galapagos? [pp.244-245]
5. A __________ is a group of individuals occupying a given area and belonging to the same species.
[p.246]
6. Distinguish between morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. [p.246]
7. All of the genes of an entire population belong to a __________ __________. [p.246]
8. Each kind of gene usually exists in one or more molecular forms, called __________. [p.246]
9. Know the five categories through which genetic variation occurs among individuals. [p.246]
10. The abundance of each kind of allele in the whole population is referred to as allele __________
[p.246]
11. Be able to list the five conditions that must exist before conditions for the Hardy-Weinberg “rule” are
met. [p.246]
12. A point at which allele frequencies for a trait remain stable through the generations is called genetic
__________. [p.246]
13. Changes in allele frequencies brought about by mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural
selection are called __________. [p.247]
14. A(n) __________ is a random, heritable change in DNA. [p.247]
15. Distinguish a lethal mutation from a neutral mutation. [p.247]
16. Be able to calculate all allele and genotype frequencies when provided with the genotype frequency
of the recessive allele. [p.248]
17. Be able to define and provide an example of directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive
selection. [pp.250-253]
18. Define balanced polymorphism. [p.254]
19. The occurrence of phenotypic differences between males and females of a species is called __________
__________. [p.254]
20. __________ selection is based on any trait that gives an individual a competitive edge in mating and
producing offspring. [p.254]
21. Allele frequencies change as individuals leave or enter a population; this is gene __________. [p.255]
22. Random fluctuations in allele frequencies over time, due to chance, is called __________ __________.
[p.256]
23. Distinguish the founder effect from a bottleneck. [pp.256-257]
24. Relate bottlenecks to endangered species. [pp.256-257]

Chapter 17 – Speciation
1. The process by which species are formed is known as __________. [p.261]
2. Be able to describe the biological species concept. [p.262]
3. __________ __________ is a buildup of differences in separated pools of alleles. [p.262]
4. The evolution of reproductive __________ __________ pave the way for genetic divergence and
speciation. [p.262]
5. Be able to briefly define the major categories of prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms (see
text, Table 17.1). [p.263]
6. __________ speciation occurs when daughter species form gradually by divergence in the absence of
gene flow between geographically separate populations. [p.264]
7. In __________ speciation, daughter species arise, sometimes rapidly, from a small proportion of
individuals within an existing population. [p.266]
8. When daughter species form from a small proportion of individuals along a common border between
two populations, it is called __________ speciation. [p.267]
9. Explain why sympatric speciation by polyploidy is a rapid method of speciation. [p.266]
10. In some cases of parapatric speciation, gene exchange between two species is confined to a(n)
__________ zone. [p.267]
11. Distinguish cladogenesis from anagenesis. [p.268]
12. Differentiate the importance between branches that have slight angles on an evolutionary tree versus those
branches that have an abrupt 90-degree turn in terms of speciation. [p.268]

Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                   Page 5 of 8
13. An adaptive radiation is a burst of __________ activity within a lineage that results in the formation of
new species in a variety of habitats. [p.268]
14. Cite examples of adaptive zones. [p.269]

Chapter 18 – Macroevolution
1. __________ refers to large-scale patterns, trends, and rates of change among groups of species. [p.273]
2. Give a generalized definition of a "fossil;" cite examples. [p.274]
3. __________ begins with rapid burial in sediments or volcanic ash.[p.274]
4. What is the name given to the layering of sedimentary deposits? [p.275]
5. Explain comparative fossil dating. [p.275]
6. The fossil record is heavily __________ toward certain environments and certain types of
organisms.[p.275]
7. The macroevolutionary pattern of change from a common ancestor is known as morphological
__________. [p.276]
8. Distinguish homologies from analogies as applied to organisms. [pp.276-277]
9. A pattern of long-term change in similar directions among remotely related lineages is called
morphological __________. [p.277]
10. Early in the vertebrate developmental program, __________ of different lineages proceed through
strikingly similar stages. [p.278]
11. Mutation of __________ genes explains the differences in the timing of growth sequences of
chimpanzees and humans (even though they have nearly identical genes). [p.279]
12. Some nucleic acid comparisons are based on __________ hybridization. [p.280]
13. Define neutral mutations and discuss their use as molecular clocks. [pp.280-281]
14. Describe the binomial system as developed by Linnaeus; why is Latin used as the language of
binomials? [p.282]
15. Be able to arrange the classification groupings correctly, from most to least inclusive. [pp.282-283]
16. Modern classification schemes reflect __________, the evolutionary relationships among species,
starting with the most ancestral and including all the branches leading to their descendants. [p.282]
17. List the six kingdoms of life in the new system and cite examples of the organisms in each. [pp.282-
283]
18. Explain why 14C (carbon 14) is of interest to biologists who want to know when an organism lived on
Earth. Explain the theory supporting radioactive dating. [p.286]

Chapter 28 – Intro to Human Anatomy & Physiology
1. Describe the conditions under which cells want to maintain homeostasis despite varying environmental
conditions. [pp.458-459]
2. Cells are the basic units of life; in a multicellular animal, like cells are grouped into a(n) __________.
[p.458]
3. Explain how, if each cell can perform all its basic activities, organ systems contribute to cell survival.
[pp.459,466]
4. __________ tissues cover the body surface of all animals and line internal organs from gut cavities to
vertebrate lungs; this tissue always has one __________ surface; the opposite surface adheres to a(n)
__________ __________. [pp.460-461]
5. Know the characteristics of the various types of tissues. Know the types of cells that compose each
tissue type and be able to cite some examples of organs that contain significant amounts of each
tissue type. [pp.460-465]
6. List the functions carried out by epithelial tissue and state the general location of each type. [p.460]
7. Explain the meaning of the term gland, cite three examples of glands, and state the extracellular
products secreted by each. [p.461]
8. Connective tissue cells and fibers are surrounded by a(n) __________ __________. [p.462]
9. List three functions of blood. [p.463]
10. Distinguish among skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues in terms of location, structure, and
function. [p.464]
11. Muscle tissues contain specialized cells that can __________. [p.464]
12. Neurons are organized as lines of ___________. [p.465]

Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                     Page 6 of 8
13. List each of the eleven principal organ systems in humans and match each to its main task. [pp.466-
467]
14. Describe the ways by which extracellular fluid helps cells survive. [p.468]
15. Draw a diagram that illustrates the mechanism of homeostatic control. [pp.468-469]
16. Describe the relationships among receptors, integrators, and effectors in a negative feedback system.
[pp.468-469]

Chapter 29 – Nervous System
1. Outline some of the ways by which information flow is regulated and integrated in the human body.
[pp.473,478-482]
2. Draw a neuron and label it according to its four general zones, its specific structures, and the specific
function(s) of each structure. [pp.474-475]
3. Define resting membrane potential; explain what establishes it and how it is used by the cell neuron.
[p.474]
4. Describe the distribution large proteins, ions, and other molecules in a neuron, both at rest and as a neuron
experiences a change in potential. [pp.474-475]
5. Define action potential by stating its three main characteristics. [p.474]
6. Define sodium-potassium pump and state how it helps maintain the resting membrane potential. [p.475]
7. Explain the chemical basis of the action potential. [pp.476-477]
8. Explain how graded signals differ from action potentials. [p.476]
9. Understand how a nerve impulse is received by a neuron, conducted along a neuron, and transmitted
across a synapse to a neighboring neuron, muscle, or gland. [pp.478-479]
10. Explain what a reflex is by drawing and labeling a diagram and telling how it functions. [pp.480-481]
11. Contrast the central and peripheral nervous systems. [p.485]
12. Explain how parasympathetic nerve activity balances sympathetic nerve activity. [pp.486-487]
13. Describe the basic structural and functional organization of the spinal cord. In your answer,
distinguish spinal cord from vertebral column. [p.487]

Chapter 32 – Integument, Skeletal, Muscular Systems
1. Name four functions of human skin. [p.525-527]
2. Explain basic bone structure and function. [pp.530-531]
3. Explain the relationships between joints, bones, ligaments and tendons. [p.531-532]
4. Explain the difference between flexor and extensor muscles. [p.532]
5. Describe the fine structure of a muscle fiber; use terms such as myofibril, sarcomere, Z lines, actin, and
myosin. [pp.534-535]

Chapter 33 – Circulation
1. Describe how the circulatory, respiratory, digestive and urinary systems cooperate to help a
multicellular animal survive. [p.541]
2. Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems. [p.542]
3. Describe the composition of human blood, using percentages of total volume. [p.544]
4. State where erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets are produced. [p.545]
5. Describe how blood is typed for the ABO blood group and for the Rh factor. [pp.546-547]
6. Be able to describe the processes involved in blood arriving, passing through and leaving the heart. [pp.548-551]
7. Explain what causes a heart to beat. [p.551]
8. Describe how the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins differ. [pp.552-553]
9. Describe the exchanges that occur in the capillary bed regions and the mechanisms that cause the
exchanges. [p.554]
10. Explain how blood is returned to the heart through the venous system and how blood can flow against the force
of gravity. [pp.554-555]
11. Describe the composition and function of the lymphatic system. [pp.558-559]




Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                      Page 7 of 8
Chapter 34 – Immunity
1. Describe typical external surface barriers that organisms present to invading organisms. [p.564]
2. List and discuss four nonspecific defense responses that serve to exclude microbes from the body.
[p.564]
3. Distinguish between the antibody-mediated response pattern and the cytotoxic cell-mediated response pattern.
[pp.569]
4. Explain what is meant by primary immune pathway as contrasted with secondary immune pathway.
[p.569]
5. Describe the clonal selection theory and tell what it helps to explain. [p.575]
6. Describe two ways that people can be immunized against specific diseases. [p.576]
7. Distinguish allergy from autoimmune disorder. [pp.576-577]
8. Describe how AIDS specifically interferes with the human immune system. [pp.577-579]

Chapter 35 – Respiration
1 Be able to describe the various tissues and organs that air touches as it is inhaled and travels through the
respiratory system. [p.588-89]
2. Describe the structures and physics involved in the respiratory cycle (diaphragm, chest cavity, air pressure).
[p.590]
3. Describe the process of gas exchange at the alveoli. [p.592]

Chapter 36 – Digestion
1. Describe the specific tasks that the digestive system does. State how it interacts with the respiratory, circulatory
and urinary systems to supply cells with raw materials and eliminate wastes. [p.599]
2. Define and distinguish among the five overall digestive system tasks: motility, secretion, digestion, absorption,
and elimination. [p.600]
3. Explain how and where, during digestion, food is mechanically and chemically broken down. [pp.602-604]
4. List all parts (in order) of the human digestive system through which food actually passes. Then list
the auxiliary organs that contribute one or more substances to the digestive process. [pp.602-605]
5. Tell which foods (carbohydrates, proteins, or fats) undergo digestion in each of the following parts of the human
digestive system: oral cavity, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. [pp.602-605]
6. Describe how the digestion and absorption of fats differ from the digestion and absorption of
carbohydrates and proteins. [pp.604-607]
7. List the items that leave the digestive system and enter the circulatory system during the process of
absorption. [pp.604,607]
8. Compare the caloric contributions of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to human nutrition. [pp.610-613]
9. Distinguish vitamins from minerals. [pp.611-613]
10. List the factors that influence us to gain weight and describe precisely how our normal system of
weight control can fail. [pp.614-615]




Bio Honors Semester 2 Review                      Page 8 of 8

								
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