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									  Implementing a Green Campus:
Setting and Achieving Goals at MIT
MIT’s Mission
“Our research and academic emphasis is to
 solve real-world problems that affect
 people’s lives and to prepare students for
 active citizenship.”

 We believe that a focus on sustainability
 today in our institutions will lead to a
 healthier environment tomorrow.
Sustainable Initiatives
Exploring new scientific ground is the very essence of MIT. The present Green
Initiatives emerge from an Institute resolve to set a leadership example for maintaining
the environment in the future. Our initiatives involve faculty, students, facilities, and
EH&S constituencies.
“To be effective, environmentalism must be based on excellent science,
 use effective technological tools and be advanced through sound
 economic and management principles” …MIT President Charles Vest
MIT’s Environmental Priorities
developed by MIT’s Green Building Task Force
1. Conserve energy, seeking reductions in per capita energy
2. Reduce campus air emissions, including those from transportation,
    greenhouse gasses and regulated pollutants
3. Reduce material and resource consumption including office and
    laboratory supplies and water
4. Increase the recycling and conservation of materials
5. Increase the use of recycled-content products
6. Reduce volume and toxicity of our hazardous waste streams
7. Improve our indoor environment, including both the indoor air
    quality, and the comfort and productivity of our work and living spaces
    by considering sustainability in our design, operations and
    maintenance policies
8. Improve the urban environment, including landscape quality, and the
    site and pedestrian environment
9. Educate our students in sustainable concepts so that they can
    apply them in their professions
10. Support community-wide and regional sustainability efforts
Green Campus Environmental Programs
•   Environmental Programs Task Force
     – Recycling/Conservation of materials (i.e. office supplies, laboratory
         supplies, water, food waste)
     – Green procurement
     – Other campus environmental initiatives
•   Environmental Management System Program
     – Integrated approach to regulatory environmental management
     – Lab Waste Management
•   Traffic Reduction Incentives
The EPA’s “University Initiative”
• The EPA is enforcing environmental laws beyond industry to higher education
  institutions because research institutions have many hazardous materials. MIT was
  inspected by the EPA in May 1998
• Needs identified for a management system that provides:
     – A stronger organizational infrastructure for compliance
     – Clearly delineated roles, responsibilities and accountability
     – A systematic approach to environmental management
     – Better knowledge of materials used
     – Better training and record keeping for those who manage hazardous waste and
     other regulated materials
• Requirements create challenges in the university environment
• MIT is creating a management system that is tailored to an academic research
  institution, makes compliance more efficient and easier to achieve, that doesn’t
  interfere with research/operations, achieves a balance of local and central roles, and
  is client- serviced oriented.
• Focus on related sustainability goals and progress measurement.
MIT Traffic Reductions

70%                                          MIT

50%    Commercial
40%                             45%

            Drive Alone    Car Pool, Transit, Bike, Walk
Original MIT Campus - Bosworth
In 1916 MIT built a visionary complex of unprecedented scale, form and quality to be
its home in Cambridge. These original buildings still form the core of the campus.
Main Group Design Principles - 1910
 •   An abundance of window light and a flood of controlled ventilation
     with tempered and filtered air
 •   Maximum economy in energy and time of students and instructors
 •   Maximum economy in cost of efficient service in heating , ventilating,
     janitor service, and general maintenance
 •   Maximum resistance to fire, decay, and wear
 •   Maximum economy in cost of building per square foot of useful floor
 •   Recognition of the visual pleasure
     derived from the architectural
     details and proportions of the
     Greek Classical Style
 •   A simple dominating mass with
     uniform cornice height which shall
     invite attention to the many thousands
     who pass over the Charles River
     basin on the two great bridges.
Looking Forward
Main Group Buildings - Next 100 Years
•   The original Main Group buildings have proven to be flexible and capable of
    extensive renovation while retaining the character of the original Bosworth

•   MIT is undertaking a planning process for the long-term rejuvenation of the
    Main Group Buildings

•   Preserving these historic buildings minimizes the impact on the environment

•   Opportunities exist for incorporating green design into historic buildings:

     –   Historic exterior character with new technology
     –   Utilize existing building materials and configuration to advantage
     –   Minimize intrusion and energy usage of mechanical systems
     –   Minimize renovation needs by following original design intent
Green Facilities Programs
 •   LEED–MIT (Silver Plus)
 •   MIT Building Systems Design Handbook
 •   Current Capital Projects
 •   Central Utilities - Cogeneration Plant
 •   Campuswide Utility Initiatives
•   LEED Silver required for major projects in design
•   LEED Silver ‘Plus’ in development
      – Develop LEED priorities for MIT
      – E&A Credit 1.1 required – savings of 20% over energy code
      – Seek innovation credits
      – Improve design process – life cycle costing, life cycle analysis,
          sustainable design consultants, interactive design process
      – Add areas not covered in LEED such as acoustic control, artificial
          lighting, reduced electromagnetic fields etc.
•   Establish performance targets for resource efficiency, emissions etc.
•   Develop case studies and pilot projects
•   Understand economics – incentives, short/long-term costs/benefits
•   Integrate green design in all aspects of facilities from project conception
    through commissioning through reuse and demolition
•   Utilize student and faculty research teams
MIT Building Systems Design Handbook
• All MIT design consultants expected to meet LEED-MIT standard
• Handbook is being revised and updated in all areas
• Handbook used for setting and enforcing green design standards
• Integrates sustainable opportunities
  throughout the Handbook
• Utilizes design review process at key
  project milestones to enforce
Current/Recent Projects                                                 Brain and
  224 Albany Street                                                     Cognitive
  Graduate Dormitory
                                        Sports & Fitness                Sciences
                                        Center                          Center

          70 Pacific Street                                            Ray & Maria
                                                                       Stata Center

                            Dreyfus                        Media Lab     The East
                            Chemistry                      Extension     Campus
  Simmons Hall              Building                                     Project
  Undergraduate Dormitory
Simmons Hall

 4 Will seek LEED Certification
 4 Innovative ventilation/dehumidification system for peak cooling
   periods to allow year-round usage without air conditioning
 4 Unique structural system integrates ventilation system, 6000 operable
   windows and solar shading.
 4 Use of exposed concrete creates effective thermal barrier
Media Lab Extension

 4 Solar screening to reduce air conditioning loads
 4 Low flow fume hoods in the labs
 4 Donation of fixtures and equipment for reuse
 4 Construction and Demolition Recycling and Reuse specification – achieved a
   recycling rate of 96% (4,519 tons of materials recycled)
Ray and Maria Stata Center
for computer information and intelligence sciences

 4 Anticipating LEED Silver Certification with the possibility of Gold
 4 Design pre-dates establishment of LEED Silver as the MIT standard
 4 Design team initiated the establishment of these LEED goals and the planned
   sustainable design initiatives
Ray and Maria Stata Center
for computer information and intelligence sciences

 4 New parking below the building to replace above-grade parking structure. Site
   of demolished parking structure to be landscaped.
 4 Innovative Stormwater Retention/Management System with Bio Filtration
   system in detention pond (utilizing PV for circulation pump)
 4 Uses stormwater from site and provides the infrastructure to gather water from
   adjacent buildings as gray water for flushing toilets
 4 Landscape design for Northeast Sector that uses native vegetation and water
   efficient design
 4 Rooftop terraces with landscaping for shading and Storm Water retention
 4 Irrigation system uses rain sensors for override
Ray and Maria Stata Center
for computer information and intelligence sciences
Ray and Maria Stata Center
for computer information and intelligence sciences

 4 Extensive use of Displacement Ventilation (via underfloor air system)
 4 Abundant use of daylight in all interior spaces and operable windows for natural
 4 Solar control through motorized blinds
 4 Demand controlled ventilation based on carbon monoxide sensing
 4 Construction IAQ plan
 4 Recycling of timbers from Building 20 for flooring
Ray and Maria Stata Center
for computer information and intelligence sciences

 4 Management plan by contractor to recycle construction waste
 4 Will utilize MIT’s Construction & Demolition Recycling and Reuse specification
   for demolition of the Garage.
 4 Light pollution reduction
 4 White reflective roof and vegetated surfaces to reduce heat island effects
 4 Extensive building commissioning planned
 4 Contractor is ISO 14000 Certified
The East Campus Project

 4 Faculty office and classroom building beginning Schematic Design phase
 4 Establishing processes for design review and life cycle cost analysis to
   implement green building concepts and effectively monitor the design process.
   Design will meet or exceed LEED–MIT Standard (Silver Plus)
 4 Sustainable design services fully integrated into the design process
 4 Exploring a wide range of integrated solutions – green roofs and recycling
   storm water runoff, exterior envelope and low energy mechanical systems,
   daylighting, below grade parking with landscaped roof plaza etc.
Brain and Cognitive Sciences Center
4 Laboratory building currently in Design Development.
4 Team effort to implement green building concepts and effectively monitor the
  design process. Design target is to meet or exceed LEED Silver. Ove Arup is
  sustainable design consultant.
4 HVAC systems concepts include
  heat recovery, VAV systems,
  balanced sizing of equipment,
  and displacement heating and
4 Gray water, low flow, control of lab
  waste, stormwater management
4 Efficient lighting design, controls,
  daylight controls
Vassar Streetscape Revitalization

 4 Transformation from industrial throughway to people-friendly residential
 4 Complete street redesign with reduced automobile parking, traffic
   calming, new bikeways and walkways, and street trees
 4 First significant project supporting the MIT guidelines that provide for the
   enrichment of the physical campus environment and its common spaces
Central Utilities/District Energy
and Cogeneration
4 Cogeneration and district energy are complementary
4 Centralizing equipment provides economy of scale, feasibility of high efficiency
  machines and high environmental performance
4 Central systems allow best control of waste and pollution
4 Cogeneration is much more efficient than separately generating electricity and steam
  (Normal CUP: 35% efficient, Most efficient gas turbine combined cycle plants: 45–
  50% efficient, Our cogeneration plant: 70-90% efficient)
4 Avoids overbuilding of capacity
4 Centralized production facilitates can use alternative fuels
4 Increased reliability
4 MIT received EPA Energy Star Combined Heat and Power Award. The EPA has
  recognized that promoting cogeneration plants as exceptional examples of energy
  conservation is a great way to improve the environment
MIT Green Utility Initiatives
4 Massachusetts Technology Collaborative’s Renewable Energy Trust Fund’s
  Grant: $450K grant to install PV panels at MIT and on homes of members of MIT
    4Raises awareness of PV benefits to MIT community
    4Knowledge will spin off to other areas of research
    4Concentrated installations in communities increases visibility

4 Conduct Energy Audits of existing buildings
    4Increase metering
    4Benchmark energy usage with peer institutions
    4Identify upgrades to improve energy efficiency
    4Modify behavior of building users
    4Use green initiatives to encourage change or improve maintenance
Campuswide Utility Upgrades
Lots of little mundane things make a difference

4 Water capture and reuse system installed in Building 13 - sends 24 million gallons of
  water per year to the CUP for reuse
4 Installation of low-flow bathroom fixtures in academic and residential buildings,
  replacement of a once through cooling system, and centralized computer-based
  irrigation controls – 70 million gallons saved per year
4 Replacement of traps and thermostatic valves on 2700 radiators in the Main Group
  buildings – estimated savings of 18,000 klbs. per year.
4 Extend chilled water lines from CUP to East Campus for greater efficiency
4 Replace refrigerant in E40 chillers from CFC to ozone friendly refrigerant
4 Install energy misers on vending machines – one year payback
4 Planning to transition vehicle fleet to CNG fuel
The Challenge
4 Institutions can set goals and establish criteria for designers.
4 Institutions have the resources of faculty and students to research new areas if the
  right opportunities are identified. MIT’s faculty and students are currently involved
  in many environmental research initiatives worldwide.
4 Sustainable design requires an integrated approach.
4 Success lies in many small initiatives combined with larger, more visible, projects.
4 We need designers who will rise to the challenge of bringing solutions to the
  projects rather than just filling in a checklist.
4 First cost increases are the inhibitor, life cycle cost models may open the door to
  expanded opportunities.
4 Times of limited resources often force energy conservation and other sustainable
  initiatives to take a back seat.
4 Good maintenance is critical for good energy efficiency.
The Evolving MIT Campus
Web: http://web.mit.edu/evolving
Phone: 617-452-2415
E-mail: construction@mit.edu
Campus: Construction Billboards

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